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					Arq Bras Cardiol                                                                                                    Original Article
                                                                                                                            Cunha et al
2002; 78: 385-7.                                                                    Heart weight and heart weight/body weight coefficient

       Heart Weight and Heart Weight/Body Weight Coefficient
                      in Malnourished Adults

          Daniel Ferreira da Cunha, Selma Freire de Carvalho da Cunha, Marlene Antônia dos Reis,
                                     Vicente de Paula Antunes Teixeira

                                                                  Uberaba, MG - Brazil

    Objective - To compare the heart weight and the                                    Chronic malnutrition results from the inadequate in-
heart weight/body weight coefficient of adults with and                          take of nutrients, with the predominance of catabolic
without chronic malnutrition.                                                    processes over the anabolic ones, and the progressive
                                                                                 wasting of fat and muscle protein body reserves. In adult
      Methods - In an initial case series of 210 autopsies                       individuals, chronic protein-calorie malnutrition man i-
performed in adults, we recorded body and heart weights                          fests as progressive weight loss with hypofunction and
and calculated the heart weight/body weight coefficients                         hy potrophy of organs, such as the spleen, intestines,
(HW/BW x 100). The exclusion criteria were as follows: po-                       and kidneys 1. Experiments with animals2 and autopsies
sitive serology for Chagas’ disease, edema, obesity, heart                       of malnourished children show that the heart undergoes
diseases, hepatopathies, nephropathies, and systemic ar-                         hy potrophy proportional to the degree of weight loss 3,4.
terial hypertension. Malnutrition was characterized as a                         Even though studies on heart morphometry and function
body mass index <18.5kg/m2. Differences with p<0.05 we-                          of malnourished adults are rare 5, experiments with ani-
re considered significant.                                                       mals suggest that the myocardium undergoes a milder
                                                                                 wasting than striated skeletal muscles do, possibly due
     Results - Individuals in the malnourished (n=15)                            to the relative increase in vascularization and oxygena -
and control (n=21) groups were statistically different,                          tion of the myocardiocytes 6. However, patients quite
respectively, in regard to body mass index (15.9±1.7                             frequen tly develop tachycardia, hydric retention, and
versus 21.3±2.5kg/m2), heart weight (267.3±59.8 versus                           cardiac decompensation during nutritional therapy, and
329.1±50.4g), and the HW/BW coefficient (0.64±0.12 ver-                          this phenomenon has been attributed to myocardial
sus 0.57±0.09%). A positive and significant correlation                          d y sfunction associated with cardiac hypotrophy secon-
was observed between heart weight and body mass index                            dary to malnutrition 7.
(r=0.52), and between heart weight and body weight                                     The heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) coefficient,
(r=0.65).                                                                        whose normal value is around 0.5±0.02, has been used for
                                                                                 characterizing myocardial hypertrophy 8 and could be used
     Conclusion - Malnourished individuals have lighter
                                                                                 for assessing myocardial hypotrophy. A study carried out
hearts and a greater HW/BW coefficient than non-malnouri-
                                                                                 by our group 8, even though with other objectives, showed
shed individuals do. These findings indicate a possible pre-
                                                                                 that individuals dying with cachexia had a HW/BW coeffi-
servation of the myocardium in relation to the intensity of
                                                                                 cient greater than normal. However, the relations between
weight loss associated with the probable relative increase
                                                                                 the HW/BW coefficient and other parameters of nutritional
in cardiac connective tissue and heart blood vessels.
                                                                                 assessment, such as body weight, height, and body mass
                                                                                 index, have not yet been established.
Key words: heart, cardiac hypotrophy, nutrition, protein-
                                                                                       Our hypothesis was that, due to the relative preserva-
           calorie malnutrition
                                                                                 tion of cardiac weight in relation to body mass index,
                                                                                 malnourished adults would have a greater HW/BW coeffi-
Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba
Mailing address: Daniel Ferreira da Cunha - Nutrologia - Faculdade de Medicina   cient than that of non-malnourished control individuals.
do Triângulo Mineiro - Av. Getúlio Guaritá, 130 - 38025-180 - Uberaba, MG,       The objective of our study was to compare heart weight and
Brazil - E-mail:
English version by Stela Maris C. e Gandour
                                                                                 the HW/BW coefficient of adults with and without chronic

                                                   Arq Bras Cardiol, volume 78 (nº 4), 385-7, 2002

Cunha et al                                                                                                                                 Arq Bras Cardiol
Heart weight and heart weight/body weight coefficient                                                                                        2002; 78: 385-7.

                          Methods                                   (13.3 versus 19). No gross or microscopic cardiac alterations
                                                                    compatible with the diagnoses of degeneration, necrosis,
      The study was carried out in the departments of nutri-        inflammatory infiltrate, or presence of parasites were
tion and general pathology of the Medical School of Triân-          observed.
gulo Mineiro (FMTM), in the city of Uberaba, State of Mi-                  The patients in the malnourished and control groups
nas Gerais, after approval by the Committee on Medical              had similar heights, 1.62±0.12 meters versus 1.65±0.08 me-
Ethics of the university-affiliated hospital. In the first phase,   ters, respectively. Malnourished patients, however, had lo-
of a total of 315 autopsies performed at the university-affilia-    wer body weight and body mass index than those of the
ted hospital from December 1986 to January 1998, we selec-          control group (p<0.05) (tab. I). Heart weight was lower in the
ted 210 reports of complete autopsies performed in adults ol-       malnourished patients (267.3±59.8g) as compared with tho-
der than 21 years.                                                  se in the control patients (329.1±50.4g), but the HW/BW re-
      The major diagnoses established on autopsy and the            lation was greater in the malnourished group (0.64±0.12%)
general data of the patients, such as sex, color, age, height,      than in the control group (0.57±0.09%). The correlations
body and cardiac weights, were stored in an electronic da-          between body weight and heart weight (fig. 1) and between
tabase. Later, patients with chagasic, hypertensive, ische-         body mass index and heart weight (fig. 2) were positive and
mic, rheumatic, and pulmonary heart disease were exclu-             significant (p<0.05).
ded from the study. Due to the influence of edema on
body weight, patients with anasarca or localized nonin -                                                         Discussion
flammatory edema were excluded, as were patients with
signs of chronic hepatopathy (viral hepatitis, alcoholic                  In our study, we observed that the heart is proportio-
hepatitis, or cirrhosis), glomerulopathy, and with obesity          nally heavier in malnourished adults than in non-malnouri-
de fined as a body mass index greater than 27kg/m2 .                shed control individuals. This phenomenon may be inter-
Positive serological reactions for Chagas’ disease and the          preted as a manifestation of relative heart preservation in
presence of intracardiac thrombosis or pericarditis were            regard to the intensity of body weight loss. This interpreta-
also considered exclusion criteria, as was the presence of          tion is in accordance with the report of greater HW/BW coef-
morphological renal signs suggestive of chronic renal               ficients in thinner individuals as compared with those in in-
insufficiency, which is a condition frequently associated           dividuals with a greater body weight 11 and also with the
with cardiomegaly 9.                                                observance of HW/BW coefficients of 0.60±0.13% in indivi-
      The nutritional status was characterized by body              duals dying due to diseases accompanied by cachexia 8.
mass index, which was calculated by dividing body weight in               The exclusion of obese individuals, individuals with
kilos by height in square meters (kg/m2); individuals with bo-      heart diseases and with systemic diseases, such as syste-
dy mass index <18.5kg/m2 were considered malnourished 10.
The HW/BW coefficient [heart weight (g)/body weight (g)
x 100] was calculated in all cases 8. After verifying the sta-                             Table I - Age, anthropometric parameters, and cardiac weight in
tistical normality of the numerical continuous data obtai-                                                 malnourished and control adults.
ned, the malnourished and control groups were compared
                                                                                                 Parameters                    Controls        Malnourished
using the Student t test. The chi-square test and Fisher
                                                                                                                               (n = 21)            (n = 15)
exact test were used for comparing proportions. Pearson
correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlations                               Age (years)                         44.7 ± 21.8        42.3 ± 18.3
                                                                                          Body mass index (kg/m2 )            21.3 ± 2.46       15.9 ± 1.69*
between body weight and heart weight, and between body                                    Body weight (kg)                    58.2 ± 7.2         41.9 ± 6.7*
mass index and heart weight. Differences with p<0.05 were                                 Cardiac weight (g)                 329.1 ± 50.4      267.3 ± 59.8*
considered significant.                                                                   Cardiac weight/body weight (%)      0.57 ± 0.09       0.64 ± 0.12*

                                                                                          *p < 0.01

      We analyzed 36 patients, 15 of whom had protein-ca-
lorie malnutrition and 21 were control individuals. Malnou-
rished patients and control patients did not statistically
                                                                       Heart weight (g)

differ in regard to, respectively, age (42.3±18.3 versus
44.7±21.8 years), sex proportion (male:female = 11:4 versus
18:5), and color (white:nonwhite = 10:5 versus 16:5). Likewi-                                                                                    r = 0.65
                                                                                                                                                 p < 0.01
se, the percentages of the most common diagnoses on auto-
psy for malnourished and control patients were similar and
as follows, respectively: bronchopneumonia (40 versus
38.1), gastritis (40 versus 28.6), acquired immunodeficiency                                                      Body weight (kg)
syndrome (26.7 versus 19.9), malignant neoplasias (13.3             Fig. 1 – Correlation between body weight (kg) and cardiac weight (g) in malnouri-
versus19), chronic pancreatitis (13.3 versus 33.3), and sepsis      shed and control adults.

Arq Bras Cardiol                                                                                                                                          Cunha et al
2002; 78: 385-7.                                                                                                  Heart weight and heart weight/body weight coefficient

                                                                                                            ports the finding of a greater heart weight/body weight
     Hea rt wei g (g )
                                                                                                            coefficient observed in the present study.
                                                                                                                  However, we also observed a positive and significant
                                                                                                            correlation between body weight and heart weight (r=0.65),
                                                                                           r = 0.52
                                                                                           p < 0.01         and also between heart weight and body mass index
                                                                                                            (r=0.52), which indicates that the thinner the individual, the
                                                                                                            lower his heart weight is. Likewise, according to morpho-
                                                                                                            metric studies on myocardiocytes 5, individuals with ad-
                                                               BMI (kg/m2 )
                                                                                                            vanced malnutrition have greater degrees of heart hypotro-
Fig. 2 - Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and heart weight in malnouri-
shed and control adults.
                                                                                                            phy 13. This fact may have clinical repercussions, such as a
                                                                                                            prolonged QTc interval on the electrocardiogram 14, a lower
                                                                                                            cardiac output 2, and a higher risk of developing the
                                                                                                            refeeding syndrome, a condition in which cardiac decom-
mic arterial hypertension or chronic renal insufficiency, re-
                                                                                                            pensation would result from myocardial dysfunction
duced the possibility of the concomitance of conditions
                                                                                                            associated with cardiac hypotrophy secondary to malnutri-
causing myocardial hypertrophy or cardiac dilation 12. Li-                                                  tion 7. These data indicate that if myocardium undergoes
kewise, the exclusion of patients with edema or cavitary ef-                                                hypotrophy, the same seems not to happen to the connecti-
fusions also increased the reliability of the anthropometry                                                 ve tissue in the heart 3,5, a fact supported by the greater tor-
in assessing nutritional status 10.                                                                         tuosity of the coronary vessels and the disproportion bet-
      According to the criteria used in this study, which did                                               ween the size of the hypotrophic heart and the great ves-
not include individuals with protein malnutrition of the                                                    sels, which are not affected by malnutrition.
kwashiorkor type 1, we can state that a predominance of                                                           In conclusion, even though a relative preservation of
individuals with malnutrition of the marasmus type occur-                                                   cardiac weight in adults with marasmus has been reported,
red. This malnutrition results from prolonged negative calo-                                                the results of our study also show cardiac hypotrophy
rie balance, characterized by a marked wasting of body fat                                                  associated with severe chronic malnutrition. Further studies
reserves and a relative preservation of muscle mass. Even                                                   may clarify whether at least part of the maintenance of the
though the type of malnutrition is rarely detailed in studies                                               cardiac weight results from the relative increase in the con-
performed with adults 1, the heart has been reported to be                                                  nective tissue, which would be more preserved than the
relatively spared in prolonged malnutrition 1,3,4, which sup-                                               muscular one during prolonged starvation.


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