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                     СТАТУС КОНВЕНЦИИ
О ЛИКВИДАЦИИ ВСЕХ ФОРМ ДИСКРИМИНАЦИИ В ОТНОШЕНИИ ЖЕНЩИН
              (НЬЮ-ЙОРК, 18 ДЕКАБРЯ 1979 ГОДА) <1>

                        (по состоянию на 15 мая 2009 года)

    Вступление в силу: 03.09.1981

┌───────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────┬──────────────────┐
│                  Участник                 │Подписание│   Ратификация,   │
│                                           │          │Присоединение (a),│
│                                           │          │Правопреемство (d)│
├───────────────────────────────────────────┼──────────┼──────────────────┤
│Австралия <2>                              │17.07.1980│28.07.1983        │
│Австрия <3>                                │17.07.1980│31.03.1982        │
│Азербайджан                                │          │10.07.1995 a      │
│Албания                                    │          │11.05.1994 a      │
│Алжир                                      │          │22.05.1996 a      │
│Ангола                                     │          │17.09.1986 a      │
│Андорра                                    │          │15.01.1997 a      │
│Антигуа и Барбуда                          │          │01.08.1989 a      │
│Аргентина <x>                              │17.07.1980│15.07.1985        │
│Армения                                    │          │13.09.1993 a      │
│Афганистан                                 │14.08.1980│05.03.2003        │
│Багамские Острова <x>                      │          │06.10.1993 a      │
│Бангладеш <4>                              │          │06.11.1984 a      │
│Барбадос                                   │24.07.1980│16.10.1980        │
│Бахрейн <x>                                │          │18.06.2002 a      │
│Беларусь                                   │17.07.1980│04.02.1981        │
│Белиз                                      │07.03.1990│16.05.1990        │
│Бельгия <5>                                │17.07.1980│10.07.1985        │
│Бенин                                      │11.11.1981│12.03.1992        │
│Болгария <8>                               │17.07.1980│08.02.1982        │
│Боливия                                    │30.05.1980│08.06.1990        │
│Босния и Герцеговина <6>                   │          │01.09.1993 d      │
│Ботсвана                                   │          │13.08.1996 a      │
│Бразилия <7>                               │31.03.1981│01.02.1984        │
│Бруней-Даруссалам <x>                      │          │24.05.2006 a      │
│Буркина-Фасо                               │          │14.10.1987 a      │
│Бурунди                                    │17.07.1980│08.01.1992        │
│Бутан                                      │17.07.1980│31.08.1981        │
│Бывшая югославская Республика Македония <6>│          │18.01.1994 d      │
│Вануату                                    │          │08.09.1995 a      │
│Венгрия <26>                               │06.06.1980│22.12.1980        │
│Венесуэла (Боливарианская Республика) <x> │17.07.1980│02.05.1983         │
│Вьетнам <x>                                │29.07.1980│17.02.1982        │
│Габон                                      │17.07.1980│21.01.1983        │
│Гаити                                      │17.07.1980│20.07.1981        │
│Гайана                                     │17.07.1980│17.07.1980        │
│Гамбия                                     │29.07.1980│16.04.1993        │
│Гана                                       │17.07.1980│02.01.1986        │
│Гватемала                                  │08.06.1981│12.08.1982        │
│Гвинея <25>                                │17.07.1980│09.08.1982        │
│Гвинея-Бисау                               │17.07.1980│23.08.1985        │
│Германия <22>, <23>, <24>                  │17.07.1980│10.07.1985        │
│Гондурас                                   │11.06.1980│03.03.1983        │
│Гренада                                    │17.07.1980│30.08.1990        │
│Греция <x>                                 │02.03.1982│07.06.1983        │
│Грузия                                     │          │26.10.1994   a   │
│Дания <18>                                 │17.07.1980│21.04.1983       │
│Демократическая Республика Конго           │17.07.1980│17.10.1986       │
│Джибути                                    │          │02.12.1998   a   │
│Доминика                                   │15.09.1980│15.09.1980       │
│Доминиканская Республика                   │17.07.1980│02.09.1982       │
│Египет <19>                                │16.07.1980│18.09.1981       │
│Замбия                                     │17.07.1980│21.06.1985       │
│Зимбабве                                   │          │13.05.1991   a   │
│Израиль <28>                               │17.07.1980│03.10.1991       │
│Индия <x>                                  │30.07.1980│09.07.1993       │
│Индонезия <x>                              │29.07.1980│13.09.1984       │
│Иордания <x>                               │03.12.1980│01.07.1992       │
│Ирак                                       │          │13.08.1986   a   │
│Ирландия <27>                              │          │23.12.1985   a   │
│Исландия                                   │24.07.1980│18.06.1985       │
│Испания <x>                                │17.07.1980│05.01.1984       │
│Италия <x>                                 │17.07.1980│10.06.1985       │
│Йемен <62>                                 │          │30.05.1984   a   │
│Кабо-Верде                                 │          │05.12.1980   a   │
│Казахстан                                  │          │26.08.1998   a   │
│Камбоджа <9>, <10>                         │17.10.1980│15.10.1992   a   │
│Камерун                                    │06.06.1983│23.08.1994       │
│Канада <11>                                │17.07.1980│10.12.1981       │
│Катар <x>                                  │          │29.04.2009   a   │
│Кения                                      │          │09.03.1984   a   │
│Кипр <15>                                  │          │23.07.1985   a   │
│Кирибати                                   │          │17.03.2004   a   │
│Китай <12>, <13>                           │17.07.1980│04.11.1980       │
│Колумбия                                   │17.07.1980│19.01.1982       │
│Коморские Острова                          │          │31.10.1994   a   │
│Конго                                      │29.07.1980│26.07.1982       │
│Корейская Народно-Демократическая          │          │27.02.2001   a   │
│ Республика <17>                           │          │                 │
│Коста-Рика                                 │17.07.1980│04.04.1986       │
│Кот-д'Ивуар                                │17.07.1980│18.12.1995       │
│Куба <x>                                   │06.03.1980│17.07.1980       │
│Кувейт <30>                                │          │02.09.1994   a   │
│Кыргызстан                                 │          │10.02.1997   a   │
│Лаосская Народно-Демократическая Республика│17.07.1980│14.08.1981       │
│Латвия <x>                                 │          │14.04.1992   a   │
│Лесото <31>                                │17.07.1980│22.08.1995       │
│Либерия                                    │          │17.07.1984   a   │
│Ливан                                      │          │16.04.1997   a   │
│Ливийская Арабская Джамахирия <32>         │          │16.05.1989   a   │
│Литва                                      │          │18.01.1994   a   │
│Лихтенштейн <33>                           │          │22.12.1995   a   │
│Люксембург                                 │17.07.1980│02.02.1989       │
│Маврикий <38>                              │          │09.07.1984   a   │
│Мавритания <37>                            │          │10.05.2001   a   │
│Мадагаскар                                 │17.07.1980│17.03.1989       │
│Малави <34>                                │          │12.03.1987   a   │
│Малайзия <35>                              │          │05.07.1995   a   │
│Мали                                       │05.02.1985│10.09.1985       │
│Мальдивы <36>                              │          │01.07.1993   a   │
│Мальта <x>                                 │          │08.03.1991   a   │
│Марокко <x>                                │          │21.06.1993   a   │
│Маршалловы Острова                         │          │02.03.2006   a   │
│Мексика <x>                                │17.07.1980│23.03.1981       │
│Микронезия (Федеративные Штаты)            │          │01.09.2004   a   │
│Мозамбик                                   │          │21.04.1997   a   │
│Монако <x>                                 │          │18.03.2005   a   │
│Монголия <39>                              │17.07.1980│20.07.1981       │
│Мьянма <x>                                 │          │22.07.1997   a   │
│Намибия                                    │          │23.11.1992   a   │
│Непал                                      │05.02.1991│22.04.1991       │
│Нигер <47>                                 │          │08.10.1999   a   │
│Нигерия                                    │23.04.1984│13.06.1985       │
│Нидерланды <41>                            │17.07.1980│23.07.1991       │
│Никарагуа                                  │17.07.1980│27.10.1981       │
│Новая Зеландия <42>, <43>, <44>, <45>, <46>│17.07.1980│10.01.1985       │
│Норвегия                                   │17.07.1980│21.05.1981       │
│Объединенная Республика Танзания           │17.07.1980│20.08.1985       │
│Объединенные Арабские Эмираты <58>         │          │06.10.2004   a   │
│Оман <x>                                   │          │07.02.2006   a   │
│Острова Кука <14>                          │          │11.08.2006   a   │
│Пакистан                                   │          │12.03.1996   a   │
│Панама                                     │26.06.1980│29.10.1981       │
│Папуа-Новая Гвинея                         │          │12.01.1995   a   │
│Парагвай                                   │          │06.04.1987   a   │
│Перу                                       │23.07.1981│13.09.1982       │
│Польша <48>                                │29.05.1980│30.07.1980       │
│Португалия <12>, <49>                      │24.04.1980│30.07.1980       │
│Республика Корея <50>                      │25.05.1983│27.12.1984       │
│Республика Молдова                         │          │01.07.1994   a   │
│Российская Федерация <52>                  │17.07.1980│23.01.1981       │
│Руанда                                     │01.05.1980│02.03.1981       │
│Румыния <51>                               │04.09.1980│07.01.1982       │
│Сальвадор <x>                              │14.11.1980│19.08.1981       │
│Самоа                                      │          │25.09.1992   a   │
│Сан-Марино                                 │26.09.2003│10.12.2003       │
│Сан-Томе и Принсипи                        │31.10.1995│03.06.2003       │
│Саудовская Аравия <x>                      │07.09.2000│07.09.2000       │
│Свазиленд                                  │          │26.03.2004   a   │
│Сейшельские Острова                        │          │05.05.1992   a   │
│Сенегал                                    │29.07.1980│05.02.1985       │
│Сент-Винсент и Гренадины                   │          │04.08.1981   a   │
│Сент-Китс и Невис                          │          │25.04.1985   a   │
│Сент-Люсия                                 │          │08.10.1982   a   │
│Сербия <6>                                 │          │12.03.2001   d   │
│Сингапур <53>                              │          │05.10.1995   a   │
│Сирийская Арабская Республика <x>          │          │28.03.2003   a   │
│Словакия <16>                              │          │28.05.1993   d   │
│Словения <6>                               │          │06.07.1992   d   │
│Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и   │22.07.1981│07.04.1986       │
│ Северной Ирландии <13>, <59>, <60>, <61> │           │                 │
│Соединенные Штаты Америки                  │17.07.1980│                 │
│Соломоновы Острова                         │          │06.05.2002   a   │
│Суринам                                    │          │01.03.1993   a   │
│Сьерра-Леоне                               │21.09.1988│11.11.1988       │
│Таджикистан                                │          │26.10.1993   a   │
│Таиланд <57>                               │          │09.08.1985   a   │
│Тимор-Лешти                                │          │16.04.2003   a   │
│Того                                       │          │26.09.1983   a   │
│Тринидад и Тобаго <x>                      │27.06.1985│12.01.1990       │
│Тувалу                                     │          │06.10.1999   a   │
│Тунис <x>                                  │24.07.1980│20.09.1985       │
│Туркменистан                               │          │01.05.1997   a   │
│Турция                                     │          │20.12.1985   a   │
│Уганда                                     │30.07.1980│22.07.1985       │
│Узбекистан                                 │          │19.07.1995   a   │
│Украина                                    │17.07.1980│12.03.1981       │
│Уругвай                                    │30.03.1981│09.10.1981       │
│Фиджи <20>                                 │          │28.08.1995   a   │
│Филиппины                                  │15.07.1980│05.08.1981       │
│Финляндия <x>                              │17.07.1980│04.09.1986       │
│Франция <21>                               │17.07.1980│14.12.1983       │
│Хорватия <6>                               │          │09.09.1992   d   │
│Центральноафриканская Республика           │          │21.06.1991 a      │
│Чад                                        │          │09.06.1995 a      │
│Черногория <40>                            │          │23.10.2006 d      │
│Чешская Республика <16>                    │          │22.02.1993 d      │
│Чили <x>                                   │17.07.1980│07.12.1989        │
│Швейцария <56>                             │23.01.1987│27.03.1997        │
│Швеция <54>, <55>                          │07.03.1980│02.07.1980        │
│Шри-Ланка                                  │17.07.1980│05.10.1981        │
│Эквадор                                    │17.07.1980│09.11.1981        │
│Экваториальная Гвинея                      │          │23.10.1984 a      │
│Эритрея                                    │          │05.09.1995 a      │
│Эстония <x>                                │          │21.10.1991 a      │
│Эфиопия <x>                                │08.07.1980│10.09.1981        │
│Южная Африка                               │29.01.1993│15.12.1995        │
│Ямайка <29>                                │17.07.1980│19.10.1984        │
│Япония                                     │17.07.1980│25.06.1985        │
└───────────────────────────────────────────┴──────────┴──────────────────┘




                                 CONVENTION
                      ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS
                      OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN
                          New York, 18 December 1979 <1>

                                Status as at: 15-05-2009

    Entry into force: 3 September 1981, in accordance with article 27 (1)
    Registration: 3 September 1981, No. 20378
    Status: Signatories: 98. Parties: 186
    Text: United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1249, p. 13.
    Note: The Convention was opened for signature at the United Nations Headquarters on 1
March 1980.

┌──────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────┬──────────────┐
│                 Participant                  │ Signature │Ratification, │
│                                              │           │Accession (a),│
│                                              │           │Succession (d)│
├──────────────────────────────────────────────┼───────────┼──────────────┤
│Afghanistan                                   │14 Aug 1980│ 5 Mar 2003   │
│Albania                                       │           │11 May 1994 a │
│Algeria                                       │           │22 May 1996 a │
│Andorra                                       │           │15 Jan 1997 a │
│Angola                                        │           │17 Sep 1986 a │
│Antigua and Barbuda                           │           │ 1 Aug 1989 a │
│Argentina <x>                                 │17 Jul 1980│15 Jul 1985   │
│Armenia                                       │           │13 Sep 1993 a │
│Australia <2>                                 │17 Jul 1980│28 Jul 1983   │
│Austria <3>                                   │17 Jul 1980│31 Mar 1982   │
│Azerbaijan                                    │           │10 Jul 1995 a │
│Bahamas <x>                                   │           │ 6 Oct 1993 a │
│Bahrain <x>                                   │           │18 Jun 2002 a │
│Bangladesh <4>                                │           │ 6 Nov 1984 a │
│Barbados                                      │24 Jul 1980│16 Oct 1980   │
│Belarus                                       │17 Jul 1980│ 4 Feb 1981   │
│Belgium <5>                                   │17 Jul 1980│10 Jul 1985   │
│Belize                                        │ 7 Mar 1990│16 May 1990   │
│Benin                                         │11 Nov 1981│12 Mar 1992   │
│Bhutan                                       │17   Jul 1980│31 Aug   1981       │
│Bolivia                                      │30   May 1980│ 8 Jun   1990       │
│Bosnia and Herzegovina <6>                   │             │ 1 Sep   1993   d   │
│Botswana                                     │             │13 Aug   1996   a   │
│Brazil <7>                                   │31   Mar 1981│ 1 Feb   1984       │
│Brunei Darussalam <x>                        │             │24 May   2006   a   │
│Bulgaria <8>                                 │17   Jul 1980│ 8 Feb   1982       │
│Burkina Faso                                 │             │14 Oct   1987   a   │
│Burundi                                      │17   Jul 1980│ 8 Jan   1992       │
│Cambodia <9>, <10>                           │17   Oct 1980│15 Oct   1992   a   │
│Cameroon                                     │ 6   Jun 1983│23 Aug   1994       │
│Canada <11>                                  │17   Jul 1980│10 Dec   1981       │
│Cape Verde                                   │             │ 5 Dec   1980   a   │
│Central African Republic                     │             │21 Jun   1991   a   │
│Chad                                         │             │ 9 Jun   1995   a   │
│Chile <x>                                    │17   Jul 1980│ 7 Dec   1989       │
│China <12>, <13>                             │17   Jul 1980│ 4 Nov   1980       │
│Colombia                                     │17   Jul 1980│19 Jan   1982       │
│Comoros                                      │             │31 Oct   1994   a   │
│Congo                                        │29   Jul 1980│26 Jul   1982       │
│Cook Islands <14>                            │             │11 Aug   2006   a   │
│Costa Rica                                   │17   Jul 1980│ 4 Apr   1986       │
│Cote d'Ivoire                                │17   Jul 1980│18 Dec   1995       │
│Croatia <6>                                  │             │ 9 Sep   1992   d   │
│Cuba <x>                                     │ 6   Mar 1980│17 Jul   1980       │
│Cyprus <15>                                  │             │23 Jul   1985   a   │
│Czech Republic <16>                          │             │22 Feb   1993   d   │
│Democratic People's Republic of Korea <17>   │             │27 Feb   2001   a   │
│Democratic Republic of the Congo             │17   Jul 1980│17 Oct   1986       │
│Denmark <18>                                 │17   Jul 1980│21 Apr   1983       │
│Djibouti                                     │             │ 2 Dec   1998   a   │
│Dominica                                     │15   Sep 1980│15 Sep   1980       │
│Dominican Republic                           │17   Jul 1980│ 2 Sep   1982       │
│Ecuador                                      │17   Jul 1980│ 9 Nov   1981       │
│Egypt <19>                                   │16   Jul 1980│18 Sep   1981       │
│El Salvador <x>                              │14   Nov 1980│19 Aug   1981       │
│Equatorial Guinea                            │             │23 Oct   1984   a   │
│Eritrea                                      │             │ 5 Sep   1995   a   │
│Estonia <x>                                  │             │21 Oct   1991   a   │
│Ethiopia <x>                                 │ 8   Jul 1980│10 Sep   1981       │
│Fiji <20>                                    │             │28 Aug   1995   a   │
│Finland <x>                                  │17   Jul 1980│ 4 Sep   1986       │
│France <21>                                  │17   Jul 1980│14 Dec   1983       │
│Gabon                                        │17   Jul 1980│21 Jan   1983       │
│Gambia                                       │29   Jul 1980│16 Apr   1993       │
│Georgia                                      │             │26 Oct   1994   a   │
│Germany <22>, <23>, <24>                     │17   Jul 1980│10 Jul   1985       │
│Ghana                                        │17   Jul 1980│ 2 Jan   1986       │
│Greece <x>                                   │ 2   Mar 1982│ 7 Jun   1983       │
│Grenada                                      │17   Jul 1980│30 Aug   1990       │
│Guatemala                                    │ 8   Jun 1981│12 Aug   1982       │
│Guinea <25>                                  │17   Jul 1980│ 9 Aug   1982       │
│Guinea-Bissau                                │17   Jul 1980│23 Aug   1985       │
│Guyana                                       │17   Jul 1980│17 Jul   1980       │
│Haiti                                        │17   Jul 1980│20 Jul   1981       │
│Honduras                                     │11   Jun 1980│ 3 Mar   1983       │
│Hungary <26>                                 │ 6   Jun 1980│22 Dec   1980       │
│Iceland                                      │24   Jul 1980│18 Jun   1985       │
│India <x>                                    │30   Jul 1980│ 9 Jul   1993       │
│Indonesia <x>                                │29   Jul 1980│13 Sep   1984       │
│Iraq                                         │             │13 Aug   1986   a   │
│Ireland <27>                                 │             │23 Dec   1985   a   │
│Israel <28>                                  │17   Jul 1980│ 3 Oct   1991       │
│Italy <x>                                    │17   Jul 1980│10 Jun   1985       │
│Jamaica <29>                               │17   Jul 1980│19 Oct 1984       │
│Japan                                      │17   Jul 1980│25 Jun 1985       │
│Jordan <x>                                 │ 3   Dec 1980│ 1 Jul 1992       │
│Kazakhstan                                 │             │26 Aug 1998   a   │
│Kenya                                      │             │ 9 Mar 1984   a   │
│Kiribati                                   │             │17 Mar 2004   a   │
│Kuwait <30>                                │             │ 2 Sep 1994   a   │
│Kyrgyzstan                                 │             │10 Feb 1997   a   │
│Lao People's Democratic Republic           │17   Jul 1980│14 Aug 1981       │
│Latvia <x>                                 │             │14 Apr 1992   a   │
│Lebanon                                    │             │16 Apr 1997   a   │
│Lesotho <31>                               │17   Jul 1980│22 Aug 1995       │
│Liberia                                    │             │17 Jul 1984   a   │
│Libyan Arab Jamahiriya <32>                │             │16 May 1989   a   │
│Liechtenstein <33>                         │             │22 Dec 1995   a   │
│Lithuania                                  │             │18 Jan 1994   a   │
│Luxembourg                                 │17   Jul 1980│ 2 Feb 1989       │
│Madagascar                                 │17   Jul 1980│17 Mar 1989       │
│Malawi <34>                                │             │12 Mar 1987   a   │
│Malaysia <35>                              │             │ 5 Jul 1995   a   │
│Maldives <36>                              │             │ 1 Jul 1993   a   │
│Mali                                       │ 5   Feb 1985│10 Sep 1985       │
│Malta <x>                                  │             │ 8 Mar 1991   a   │
│Marshall Islands                           │             │ 2 Mar 2006   a   │
│Mauritania <37>                            │             │10 May 2001   a   │
│Mauritius <38>                             │             │ 9 Jul 1984   a   │
│Mexico <x>                                 │17   Jul 1980│23 Mar 1981       │
│Micronesia (Federated States of)           │             │ 1 Sep 2004   a   │
│Monaco <x>                                 │             │18 Mar 2005   a   │
│Mongolia <39>                              │17   Jul 1980│20 Jul 1981       │
│Montenegro <40>                            │             │23 Oct 2006   d   │
│Morocco <x>                                │             │21 Jun 1993   a   │
│Mozambique                                 │             │21 Apr 1997   a   │
│Myanmar <x>                                │             │22 Jul 1997   a   │
│Namibia                                    │             │23 Nov 1992   a   │
│Nepal                                      │ 5   Feb 1991│22 Apr 1991       │
│Netherlands <41>                           │17   Jul 1980│23 Jul 1991       │
│New Zealand <42>, <43>, <44>, <45>, <46>   │17   Jul 1980│10 Jan 1985       │
│Nicaragua                                  │17   Jul 1980│27 Oct 1981       │
│Niger <47>                                 │             │ 8 Oct 1999   a   │
│Nigeria                                    │23   Apr 1984│13 Jun 1985       │
│Norway                                     │17   Jul 1980│21 May 1981       │
│Oman <x>                                   │             │ 7 Feb 2006   a   │
│Pakistan                                   │             │12 Mar 1996   a   │
│Panama                                     │26   Jun 1980│29 Oct 1981       │
│Papua New Guinea                           │             │12 Jan 1995   a   │
│Paraguay                                   │             │ 6 Apr 1987   a   │
│Peru                                       │23   Jul 1981│13 Sep 1982       │
│Philippines                                │15   Jul 1980│ 5 Aug 1981       │
│Poland <48>                                │29   May 1980│30 Jul 1980       │
│Portugal <12>, <49>                        │24   Apr 1980│30 Jul 1980       │
│Qatar <x>                                  │             │29 Apr 2009   a   │
│Republic of Korea <50>                     │25   May 1983│27 Dec 1984       │
│Republic of Moldova                        │             │ 1 Jul 1994   a   │
│Romania <51>                               │ 4   Sep 1980│ 7 Jan 1982       │
│Russian Federation <52>                    │17   Jul 1980│23 Jan 1981       │
│Rwanda                                     │ 1   May 1980│ 2 Mar 1981       │
│Samoa                                      │             │25 Sep 1992   a   │
│San Marino                                 │26   Sep 2003│10 Dec 2003       │
│Sao Tome and Principe                      │31   Oct 1995│ 3 Jun 2003       │
│Saudi Arabia <x>                           │ 7   Sep 2000│ 7 Sep 2000       │
│Senegal                                    │29   Jul 1980│ 5 Feb 1985       │
│Serbia <6>                                 │             │12 Mar 2001   d   │
│Seychelles                                 │             │ 5 May 1992   a   │
│Sierra Leone                                  │21 Sep 1988│11 Nov 1988   │
│Singapore <53>                                │           │ 5 Oct 1995 a │
│Slovakia <16>                                 │           │28 May 1993 d │
│Slovenia <6>                                  │           │ 6 Jul 1992 d │
│Solomon Islands                               │           │ 6 May 2002 a │
│South Africa                                  │29 Jan 1993│15 Dec 1995   │
│Spain <x>                                     │17 Jul 1980│ 5 Jan 1984   │
│Sri Lanka                                     │17 Jul 1980│ 5 Oct 1981   │
│St. Kitts and Nevis                           │           │25 Apr 1985 a │
│St. Lucia                                     │           │ 8 Oct 1982 a │
│St. Vincent and the Grenadines                │           │ 4 Aug 1981 a │
│Suriname                                      │           │ 1 Mar 1993 a │
│Swaziland                                     │           │26 Mar 2004 a │
│Sweden <54>, <55>                             │ 7 Mar 1980│ 2 Jul 1980   │
│Switzerland <56>                              │23 Jan 1987│27 Mar 1997   │
│Syrian Arab Republic <x>                      │           │28 Mar 2003 a │
│Tajikistan                                    │           │26 Oct 1993 a │
│Thailand <57>                                 │           │ 9 Aug 1985 a │
│The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia <6> │           │18 Jan 1994 d │
│Timor-Leste                                   │           │16 Apr 2003 a │
│Togo                                          │           │26 Sep 1983 a │
│Trinidad and Tobago <x>                       │27 Jun 1985│12 Jan 1990   │
│Tunisia <x>                                   │24 Jul 1980│20 Sep 1985   │
│Turkey                                        │           │20 Dec 1985 a │
│Turkmenistan                                  │           │ 1 May 1997 a │
│Tuvalu                                        │           │ 6 Oct 1999 a │
│Uganda                                        │30 Jul 1980│22 Jul 1985   │
│Ukraine                                       │17 Jul 1980│12 Mar 1981   │
│United Arab Emirates <58>                     │           │ 6 Oct 2004 a │
│United Kingdom of Great Britain and           │22 Jul 1981│ 7 Apr 1986   │
│ Northern Ireland <13>, <59>, <60>, <61>      │           │              │
│United Republic of Tanzania                   │17 Jul 1980│20 Aug 1985   │
│United States of America                      │17 Jul 1980│              │
│Uruguay                                       │30 Mar 1981│ 9 Oct 1981   │
│Uzbekistan                                    │           │19 Jul 1995 a │
│Vanuatu                                       │           │ 8 Sep 1995 a │
│Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) <x>        │17 Jul 1980│ 2 May 1983   │
│Viet Nam <x>                                  │29 Jul 1980│17 Feb 1982   │
│Yemen <62>                                    │           │30 May 1984 a │
│Zambia                                        │17 Jul 1980│21 Jun 1985   │
│Zimbabwe                                      │           │13 May 1991 a │
└──────────────────────────────────────────────┴───────────┴──────────────┘




                         DECLARATIONS AND RESERVATIONS
                        (Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations
                       and reservations were made upon ratification,
                                  accession or succession.)

     Algeria <63>
     Reservations:
     Article 2:
     The Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria declares that it is
prepared to apply the provisions of this article on condition that they do not conflict with the
provisions of the Algerian Family Code.
     Article 9, paragraph 2:
       The Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria wishes to express its
reservations concerning the provisions of article 9, paragraph 2, which are incompatible with the
provisions of the Algerian Nationality code and the Algerian Family Code.
       The Algerian Nationality code allows a child to take the nationality of the mother only
when:
       - the father is either unknown or stateless;
       - the child is born in Algeria to an Algerian mother and a foreign father who was born in
Algeria;
       - moreover, a child born in Algeria to an Algerian mother and a foreign father who was not
born on Algerian territory may, under article 26 of the Algerian Nationality Code, acquire the
nationality of the mother providing the Ministry of Justice does not object.
       Article 41 of the Algerian Family Code states that a child is affiliated to its father through
legal marriage.
       Article 43 of that Code states that "the child is affiliated to its father if it is born in the 10
months following the date of separation or death".
       Article 15, paragraph 4:
       The Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria declares that the
provisions of article 15, paragraph 4, concerning the right of women to choose their residence
and domicile should not be interpreted in such a manner as to contradict the provisions of
chapter 4 (art. 37) of the Algerian Family Code.
       Article 16:
       The Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria declares that the
provisions of article 16 concerning equal rights for men and women in all matters relating to
marriage, both during marriage and at its dissolution, should not contradict the provisions of the
Algerian Family Code.
       Article 29:
       The Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria does not consider itself
bound by article 29, paragraph 1, which states that any dispute between two or more Parties
concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention which is not settled by negotiation
shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to arbitration or to the International Court of
Justice.
       The Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria holds that no such dispute
can be submitted to arbitration or to the Court of International Justice except with the consent of
all the parties to the dispute.

     Argentina
     Reservation:
     The Government of Argentina declares that it does not consider itself bound by article 29,
paragraph 1, of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women.

      Australia <2>
      Reservations:
      "The Government of Australia states that maternity leave with pay is provided in respect of
most women employed by the Commonwealth Government and the Governments of New South
Wales and Victoria. Unpaid maternity leave is provided in respect of all other women employed
in the State of New South Wales and elsewhere to women employed under Federal and some
State industrial awards. Social Security benefits subject to income tests are available to women
who are sole parents.
      "The Government of Australia advises that it is not at present in a position to take the
measures required by article 11 (2) to introduce maternity leave with pay or with comparable
social benefits throughout Australia.
     .....
     Declaration:
     "Australia has a Federal Constitutional System in which Legislative, Executive and Judicial
Powers are shared or distributed between the Commonwealth and the Constituent States. The
implementation of the Treaty throughout Australia will be effected by the Commonwealth State
and Territory Authorities having regard to their respective constitutional powers and
arrangements concerning their exercise."
     30 August 2000
     Reservation:
     The Government of Australia advises that it does not accept the application of the
Convention in so far as it would require alteration of Defence Force policy which excludes
women from combat duties."

     Austria <3>
     Reservation:
     "Austria reserves its right to apply the provision of Article 11, as far as special protection
of working women is concerned within the limits established by national legislation."

     Bahamas
     Reservations:
     "The Government of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas does not consider itself bound by
the provisions of article 2 (a), ... article 9, paragraph 2, ...article 16 (h), ...[and] article 29,
paragraph 1, of the Convention."

     Bahrain
     Reservations:
     ...the Kingdom of Bahrain makes reservations with respect to the following provisions of
the Convention:
     - Article 2, in order to ensure its implementation within the bounds of the provisions of the
Islamic Shariah;
     - Article 9, paragraph 2;
     - Article 15, paragraph 4;
     - Article 16, in so far as it is incompatible with the provisions of the Islamic Shariah;
     - Article 29, paragraph 1.

     Bangladesh <4>
     "The Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh does not consider as binding
upon itself the provisions of article 2, [... and...] 16 (1) (c) as they conflict with Sharia law based
on Holy Quran and Sunna."

     Belarus <52>

     Belgium <5>

    Brazil <7>
    Reservation made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
    "...Brazil does not consider itself bound by article 29, paragraph 1, of the above-mentioned
Convention."

     Brunei Darussalam
     Reservations:
      "The Government of Brunei Darussalam expresses its reservations regarding those
provisions of the said Convention that may be contrary to the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam
and to the beliefs and principles of Islam, the official religion of Brunei Darussalam and, without
prejudice to the generality of the said reservations, expresses its reservations regarding paragraph
2 of Article 9 and paragraph 1 of Article 29 of the Convention."

     Bulgaria <8>

     Canada <11>

     Chile
     Upon signature:
     Declaration:
     The Government of Chile has signed this Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women, mindful of the important step which this document represents,
not only in terms of the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, but also in
terms of their full and permanent integration into society in conditions of equality.
     The Government is obliged to state, however, that some of the provisions of the
Convention are not entirely compatible with current Chilean legislation.
     At the same time, it reports the establishment of a Commission for the Study and Reform
of the Civil Code, which now has before it various proposals to amend, inter alia, those
provisions which are not fully consistent with the terms of the Convention.

      China
      Declaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
      The People's Republic of China does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of article 29
of the Convention.

     Cook Islands <14>

     Cuba
     Reservation:
     The Government of the Republic of Cuba makes a specific reservation concerning the
provisions of article 29 of the Convention inasmuch as it holds that any disputes that may arise
between States Parties should be resolved through direct negotiations through the diplomatic
channel.

     Cyprus <15>

     Czech Republic <16>

      Democratic People's Republic of Korea <17>
      Reservations:
      "The Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea does not consider itself
bound by the provisions of paragraph (f) of article 2, paragraph 2 of article 9 and paragraph 1 of
article 29 of [the Convention]."

     Egypt <19>
     Reservations made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
     [.....]
     In respect of article 16
       Reservation to the text of article 16 concerning the equality of men and women in all
matters relating to marriage and family relations during the marriage and upon its dissolution,
without prejudice to the Islamic Sharia's provisions whereby women are accorded rights
equivalent to those of their spouses so as to ensure a just balance between them. This is out of
respect for the sacrosanct nature of the firm religious beliefs which govern marital relations in
Egypt and which may not be called in question and in view of the fact that one of the most
important bases of these relations is an equivalency of rights and duties so as to ensure
complementary which guarantees true equality between the spouses. The provisions of the Sharia
lay down that the husband shall pay bridal money to the wife and maintain her fully and shall
also make a payment to her upon divorce, whereas the wife retains full rights over her property
and is not obliged to spend anything on her keep. The Sharia therefore restricts the wife's rights
to divorce by making it contingent on a judge's ruling, whereas no such restriction is laid down
in the case of the husband.
       In respect of article 29
       The Egyptian delegation also maintains the reservation contained in article 29, paragraph 2,
concerning the right of a State signatory to the Convention to declare that it does not consider
itself bound by paragraph 1 of that article concerning the submission to an arbitral body of any
dispute which may arise between States concerning the interpretation or application of the
Convention. This is in order to avoid being bound by the system of arbitration in this field.
       Reservation made upon ratification:
       General reservation on article 2
       The Arab Republic of Egypt is willing to comply with the content of this article, provided
that such compliance does not run counter to the Islamic Sharia.

      El Salvador
      Upon signature:
      Upon ratification of the Convention, the Government of El Salvador will make the
reservation provided for in article 29.
      Upon ratification:
      Reservation:
      With reservation as to the application of the provision of article 29, paragraph 1.

    Ethiopia
    Reservation:
    Socialist Ethiopia does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of article 29 of the
Convention.

     Fiji <20>

      France <21>
      Upon signature:
      The Government of the French Republic declares that article 9 of the Convention must not
be interpreted as precluding the application of the second paragraph of article 96 of the code of
French nationality.
      [All other declarations and reservations were confirmed in substance upon ratification.]
      Upon ratification:
      Declarations:
      The Government of the French Republic declares that the preamble to the Convention in
particular the eleventh preambular paragraph contains debatable elements which are definitely
out of place in this text.
      The Government of the French Republic declares that the term "family education" in article
5 (b) of the Convention must be interpreted as meaning public education concerning the family
and that, in any event, article 5 will be applied subject to respect for article 17 of the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and article 8 of the European Convention
for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
      The Government of the French Republic declares that no provision of the Convention must
be interpreted as prevailing over provisions of French legislation which are more favourable to
women than to men.
      Reservations:
      .....
      Article 14
      1. The Government of the French Republic declares that article 14, paragraph 2 (c), should
be interpreted as guaranteeing that women who fulfil the conditions relating to family or
employment required by French legislation for personal participation shall acquire their own
rights within the framework of social security.
      2. The Government of the French Republic declares that article 14, paragraph 2 (h), of the
Convention should not be interpreted as implying the actual provision, free of charge, of the
services mentioned in that paragraph.
      Article 16 1 (g)
      The Government of the French Republic enters a reservation concerning the right to choose
a family name mentioned in article 16, paragraph 1 (g), of the Convention.
      Article 29
      The Government of the French Republic declares, in pursuance of article 29, paragraph 2,
of the Convention, that it will not be bound by the provisions of article 29, paragraph 1.

      Germany <22>, <23>
      Declaration:
      The right of peoples to self-determination, as enshrined in the Charter of the United
Nations and in the International Covenants of 19 December 1966, applies to all peoples and not
only to those living "under alien and colonial domination and foreign occupation". All peoples
thus have the inalienable right freely to determine their political status and freely to pursue their
economic, social and cultural development. The Federal Republic of Germany would be unable
to recognize as legally valid an interpretation of the right to self-determination which contradicts
the unequivocal wording of the Charter of the United Nations and of the two International
Covenants of 19 December 1966 on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights. It will interpret the 11th paragraph of the Preamble accordingly.

     Hungary <26>

      India
      Declarations and reservations made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
      Declarations:
      "i) With regard to articles 5 (a) and 16 (1) of the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Government of the Republic of India declares that
it shall abide by and ensure these provisions in conformity with its policy of non-interference in
the personal affairs of any Community without its initiative and consent.
      "ii) With regard to article 16 (2) of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women, the Government of the Republic of India declares that though in
principle it fully supports the principle of compulsory registration of marriages, it is not practical
in a vast country like India with its variety of customs, religions and level of literacy."
      Reservation:
      "With regard to article 29 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women, the Government of the Republic of India declares that it does
not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of this article."
      Indonesia
      "The Government of the Republic of Indonesia does not consider itself bound by the
provisions of article 29, paragraph 1 of this Convention and takes the position that any dispute
relating to the interpretation or application of the Convention may only be submitted to
arbitration or to the International Court of Justice with the agreement of all the parties to the
dispute."

      Iraq <28>
      Reservations:
      1. Approval of and accession to this Convention shall not mean that the Republic of Iraq is
bound by the provisions of article 2, paragraphs (f) and (g), of article 9, paragraphs 1 and 2, nor
of article 16 of the Convention. The reservation to this last-mentioned article shall be without
prejudice to the provisions of the Islamic Shariah according women rights equivalent to the
rights of their spouses so as to ensure a just balance between them. Iraq also enters a reservation
to article 29, paragraph 1, of this Convention with regard to the principle of international
arbitration in connection with the interpretation or application of this Convention.
      2. This approval in no way implies recognition of or entry into any relations with Israel.

      Ireland <27>
      Reservations:
      ....
      Articles 16, 1 (d) and (f)
      Ireland is of the view that the attainment in Ireland of the objectives of the Convention does
not necessitate the extension to men of rights identical to those accorded by law to women in
respect of the guardianship, adoption and custody of children born out of wedlock and reserves
the right to implement the Convention subject to that understanding.
      Articles 11 (1) and 13 (a)
      Ireland reserves the right to regard the Anti-Discrimination (Pay) Act, 1974 and the
Employment Equality Act 1977 and other measures taken in implementation of the European
Economic Community standards concerning employment opportunities and pay as sufficient
implementation of articles 11, 1 (b), (c) and (d).
      Ireland reserves the right for the time being to maintain provisions of Irish legislation in the
area of social security which are more favourable to women than men.

      Israel
      Reservations:
      "1. The State of Israel hereby expresses its reservation with regard to article 7 (b) of the
Convention concerning the appointment of women to serve as judges of religious courts where
this is prohibited by the laws of any of the religious communities in Israel. Otherwise, the said
article is fully implemented in Israel, in view of the fact that women take a prominent part in all
aspect of public life.
      "2. The State of Israel hereby expresses its reservation with regard to article 16 of the
Convention, to the extent that the laws on personal status which are binding on the various
religious communities in Israel do not conform with the provisions of that article."
      Declaration:
      "3. In accordance with paragraph 2 of article 29 of the Convention, the State of Israel
hereby declares that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of that article."

     Italy
     Upon signature:
     Reservation:
     Italy reserves the right to exercise, when depositing the instrument of ratification, the
option provided for in article 19 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 23 May
1969.

     Jamaica <29>
     The Government of Jamaica declares that it does not consider itself bound by the
provisions of article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention."

     Jordan
     Declaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
     Jordan does not consider itself bound by the following provisions:
     1. Article 9, paragraph 2;
     2. Article 15, paragraph 4 (a wife's residence is with her husband);
     3. Article 16, paragraph (1) (c), relating to the rights arising upon the dissolution of
marriage with regard to maintenance and compensation;
     4. Article 16, paragraph (1) (d) and (g).

      Kuwait <30>, <64>
      Reservations:
      ...
      2. Article 9, paragraph 2
      The Government of Kuwait reserves its right not to implement the provision contained in
article 9, paragraph 2, of the Convention, inasmuch as it runs counter to the Kuwaiti Nationality
Act, which stipulates that a child's nationality shall be determined by that of his father.
      3. Article 16 (f)
      The Government of the State of Kuwait declares that it does not consider itself bound by
the provision contained in article 16 (f) inasmuch as it conflicts with the provisions of the
Islamic Shariah, Islam being the official religion of the State.
      4. The Government of Kuwait declares that it is not bound by the provision contained in
article 29, paragraph 1.

      Lebanon <18>
      Reservations:
      The Government of the Lebanese Republic enters reservations regarding article 9 (2), and
article 16 (1) (c) (d) (f) and (g) (regarding the right to choose a family name).
      In accordance with paragraph 2 of article 29, the Government of the Lebanese Republic
declares that it does not consider itself bound by the provisions of paragraph 1 of that article.

      Lesotho <30>, <31>
      Reservation:
      "The Government of the Kingdom of Lesotho declares that it does not consider itself bound
by article 2 to the extent that it conflicts with Lesotho's constitutional stipulations relative to
succession to the throne of the Kingdom of Lesotho and law relating to succession to
chieftainship."

     Libyan Arab Jamahiriya <32>
     Reservation:
     1. Article 2 of the Convention shall be implemented with due regard for the peremptory
norms of the Islamic Shariah relating to determination of the inheritance portions of the estate of
a deceased person, whether female or male.
     2. The implementation of paragraph 16 (c) and (d) of the Convention shall be without
prejudice to any of the rights guaranteed to women by the Islamic Shariah.
      Liechtenstein <33>
      Reservation concerning article 1:
      "In the light of the definition given in article 1 of the Convention, the Principality of
Liechtenstein reserves the right to apply, with respect to all the obligations of the Convention,
article 3 of the Liechtenstein Constitution."

     Luxembourg <65>

     Malawi <34>

      Malaysia <30>, <35>, <54>
      Reservations:
      The Government of Malaysia declares that Malaysia's accession is subject to the
understanding that the provisions of the Convention do not conflict with the provisions of the
Islamic Sharia' law and the Federal Constitution of Malaysia. With regards thereto, further, the
Government of Malaysia does not consider itself bound by the provisions of articles 5 (a) and 7
(b) of the aforesaid Convention.
      In relation to article 11, Malaysia interprets the provisions of this article as a reference to
the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of equality between men and women only.

     Maldives <30>, <36>
     23 June 1999
     Reservations:
     "1. The Government of the Republic of Maldives expresses its reservation to article 7 (a) of
the Convention, to the extent that the provision contained in the said paragraph conflicts with the
provision of article 34 of the Constitution of the Republic of Maldives.
     2. The Government of the Republic of Maldives reserves its right to apply article 16 of the
Convention concerning the equality of men and women in all matters relating to marriage and
family relations without prejudice to the provisions of the Islamic Sharia, which govern all
marital and family relations of the 100 percent Muslim population of the Maldives."

      Malta
      Reservations:
      "A. Article 11
      The Government of Malta interprets paragraph 1 of article II, in the light of provisions of
paragraph 2 of article 4, as not precluding prohibitions, restrictions, or conditions on the
employment of women in certain areas, or the work done by them, where this is considered
necessary or desirable to protect the health and safety of women or the human foetus, including
such prohibitions, restrictions or conditions imposed in consequence of other international
obligations of Malta.
      "B. Article 13
      (i) The Government of Malta reserves the right, notwithstanding anything in the
Convention, to continue to apply its tax legislation which deems, in certain circumstances, the
income of a married woman to be the income of her husband and taxable as such.
      (ii) The Government of Malta reserves the right to continue to apply its social security
legislation which in certain circumstances makes certain benefits payable to the head of the
household which is, by such legislation, presumed to be the husband.
      "C. Articles 13, 15, 16
      While the Government of Malta is committed to remove, in as far as possible, all aspects of
family and property law which may be considered as discriminatory to females, it reserves the
right to continue to apply present legislation in that regard until such time as the law is reformed
and during such transitory period until those laws are completely superseded.
      "D. Article 16
      The Government of Malta does not consider itself bound by sub-paragraph (e) of paragraph
(1) of article 16 in so far as the same may be interpreted as imposing an obligation on Malta to
legalize abortion."

      Mauritania <37>
      Reservation:
      Having seen and examined the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against Women, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 18
December 1979, have approved and do approve it in each and every one of its parts which are
not contrary to Islamic Sharia and are in accordance with our Constitution.

      Mauritius <38>
      Reservation:
      "The Government of Mauritius does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of article 29
of the Convention, in pursuance of paragraph 2 of article 29."

       Mexico
       Upon signature:
       Declaration:
       In signing ad referendum the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women, which the General Assembly opened for signature by States on
18 December 1979, the Government of the United Mexican States wishes to place on record that
it is doing so on the understanding that the provisions of the said Convention, which agree in all
essentials with the provisions of Mexican legislation, will be applied in Mexico in accordance
with the modalities and procedures prescribed by Mexican legislation and that the granting of
material benefits in pursuance of the Convention will be as generous as the resources available to
the Mexican State permit.

       Micronesia (Federated States of) <66>
       Reservations:
       "1. The Government of the Federated States of Micronesia advises that it is not at present
in a position to take the measures either required by Article 11 (1) (d) of the Convention to enact
comparable worth legislation, or by Article 11 (2) (b) to enact maternity leave with pay or with
comparable social benefits throughout the nation;
       2. The Government of the Federated States of Micronesia, in its capacity as trustee of the
heritage of diversity within its States under Article V of its Constitution, reserves the right not to
apply the provisions of Articles 2 (f), 5, and 16 to the succession of certain well-established
traditional titles, and to marital customs that divide tasks or decision-making in purely voluntary
or consensual private conduct; and
       3. The Government of the Federated States of Micronesia does not consider itself bound by
the provisions of Article 29 (1) of the Convention, and takes the position that any dispute relating
to the interpretation or application of the Convention may only be submitted to arbitration or to
the International Court of Justice with the agreement of all parties to the dispute."

     Monaco
     Declarations:
     1. The implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women does not affect the validity of conventions concluded with
France.
       2. The Principality of Monaco deems that the aims of the Convention are to eliminate all
forms of discrimination against women and to guarantee every individual, irrespective of gender,
equality before the law, when the aforementioned aims are in line with the principles stipulated
in the Constitution.
       3. The Principality of Monaco declares that no provision in the Convention can be
interpreted as impeding the provisions of the laws and regulations of Monaco that are more
favourable to women than to men.
       Reservations:
       1. The ratification of the Convention by the Principality of Monaco shall have no effect on
the constitutional provisions governing the succession to the throne.
       2. The Principality of Monaco reserves the right not to apply the provisions of Article 7,
paragraph b, of the Convention regarding recruitment to the police force.
       3. The Principality of Monaco does not consider itself bound by the provisions of Article 9
which are not compatible with its nationality laws.
       4. The Principality of Monaco does not consider itself bound by Article 16, paragraph 1
(g), regarding the right to choose one's surname.
       5. The Principality of Monaco does not consider itself bound by Article 16, paragraph 1 (e),
to the extent that the latter can be interpreted as forcing the legalization of abortion or
sterilization.
       6. The Principality of Monaco reserves the right to continue to apply its social security laws
which, in certain circumstances, envisage the payment of certain benefits to the head of the
household who, according to this legislation, is presumed to be the husband.
       7. The Principality of Monaco declares, in conformity with the provisions of Article 29,
paragraph 2, that it does not consider itself bound by the provisions of the first paragraph of this
article.

     Mongolia <39>

      Morocco
      Declarations:
      1. With regard to article 2:
      The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco express its readiness to apply the provisions
of this article provided that:
      - They are without prejudice to the constitutional requirement that regulate the rules of
succession to the throne of the Kingdom of Morocco;
      - They do not conflict with the provisions of the Islamic Shariah. It should be noted that
certain of the provisions contained in the Moroccan Code of Personal Status according women
rights that differ from the rights conferred on men may not be infringed upon or abrogated
because they derive primarily from the Islamic Shariah, which strives, among its other
objectives, to strike a balance between the spouses in order to preserve the coherence of family
life.
      2. With regard to article 15, paragraph 4:
      The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco declares that it can only be bound by the
provisions of this paragraph, in particular those relating to the right of women to choose their
residence and domicile, to the extent that they are not incompatible with articles 34 and 36 of the
Moroccan Code of Personal Status.
      Reservations:
      1. With regard to article 9, paragraph 2:
      The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco makes a reservation with regard to this
article in view of the fact that the Law of Moroccan Nationality permits a child to bear the
nationality of its mother only in the cases where it is born to an unknown father, regardless of
place of birth, or to a stateless father, when born in Morocco, and it does so in order to guarantee
to each child its right to a nationality. Further, a child born in Morocco of a Moroccan mother
and a foreign father may acquire the nationality of its mother by declaring, within two years of
reaching the age of majority, its desire to acquire that nationality, provided that, on making such
declaration, its customary and regular residence is in Morocco.
      2. With regard to article 16:
      The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco makes a reservation with regard to the
provisions of this article, particularly those relating to the equality of men and women, in respect
of rights and responsibilities on entry into and at dissolution of marriage. Equality of this kind is
considered incompatible with the Islamic Shariah, which guarantees to each of the spouses rights
and responsibilities within a framework of equilibrium and complementary in order to preserve
the sacred bond of matrimony.
      The provisions of the Islamic Shariah oblige the husband to provide a nuptial gift upon
marriage and to support his family, while the wife is not required by law to support the family.
      Further, at dissolution of marriage, the husband is obliged to pay maintenance. In contrast,
the wife enjoys complete freedom of disposition of her property during the marriage and upon its
dissolution without supervision by the husband, the husband having no jurisdiction over his
wife's property.
      For these reasons, the Islamic Shariah confers the right of divorce on a woman only by
decision of a Shariah judge.
      3. With regard to article 29:
      The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco does not consider itself bound by the first
paragraph of this article, which provides that Any dispute between two or more States Parties
concerning the interpretation or application of the present Convention which is not settled by
negotiation shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to arbitration.
      The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco is of the view that any dispute of this kind
can only be referred to arbitration by agreement of all the parties to the dispute.

      Myanmar
      Reservation:
      Article 29
      "[The Government of Myanmar] does not consider itself bound by the provision set forth in
the said article."

      Netherlands
      Declaration:
      "During the preparatory stages of the present Convention and in the course of debates on it
in the General Assembly the position of the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands was
that it was not desirable to introduce political considerations such as those contained in
paragraphs 10 and 11 of the preamble in a legal instrument of this nature. Moreover, the
considerations are not directly related to the achievement of total equality between men and
women. The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that it must recall its
objections to the said paragraphs in the preamble at this occasion."

      New Zealand <42>, <43>, <44>
      Reservation:
      ...
      "The Government of the Cook Islands reserves the right not to apply article 2 (f) and article
5 (a) to the extent that the customs governing the inheritance of certain Cook Islands chief titles
may be inconsistent with those provisions."

     Niger <47>
     Reservations:
      Article 2, paragraphs (d) and (f)
      The Government of the Republic of the Niger expresses reservations with regard to article
2, paragraphs (d) and (f), concerning the taking of all appropriate measures to abolish all customs
and practices which constitute discrimination against women, particularly in respect of
succession.
      Article 5, paragraph (a)
      The Government of the Republic of the Niger expresses reservations with regard to the
modification of social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women.
      Article 15, paragraph 4
      The Government of the Republic of the Niger declares that it can be bound by the
provisions of this paragraph, particularly those concerning the right of women to choose their
residence and domicile, only to the extent that these provisions refer only to unmarried women.
      Article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (e) and (g)
      The Government of the Republic of the Niger expresses reservations concerning the above-
referenced provisions of article 16, particularly those concerning the same rights and
responsibilities during marriage and at its dissolution, the same rights to decide freely and
responsibly on the number and spacing of their children, and the right to choose a family name.
      The Government of the Republic of the Niger declares that the provisions of article 2,
paragraphs (d) and (f), article 5, paragraphs (a) and (b), article 15, paragraph 4, and article 16,
paragraph 1 (c), (e) and (g), concerning family relations, cannot be applied immediately, as they
are contrary to existing customs and practices which, by their nature, can be modified only with
the passage of time and the evolution of society and cannot, therefore, be abolished by an act of
authority.
      Article 29
      The Government of the Republic of the Niger expresses a reservation concerning article 29,
paragraph 1, which provides that any dispute between two or more States concerning the
interpretation or application of the present Convention which is not settled by negotiation shall,
at the request of one of them, be submitted to arbitration.
      In the view of the Government of the Niger, a dispute of this nature can be submitted to
arbitration only with the consent of all the parties to the dispute.
      Declaration
      The Government of the Republic of the Niger declares that the term "family education"
which appears in article 5, paragraph (b), of the Convention should be interpreted as referring to
public education concerning the family, and that in any event, article 5 would be applied in
compliance with article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

       Oman
       Reservations:
       1. All provisions of the Convention not in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic
sharia and legislation in force in the Sultanate of Oman;
       2. Article 9, paragraph 2, which provides that States Parties shall grant women equal rights
with men with respect to the nationality of their children;
       3. Article 15, paragraph 4, which provides that States Parties shall accord to men and
women the same rights with regard to the law relating to the movement of persons and the
freedom to choose their residence and domicile;
       4. Article 16, regarding the equality of men and women, and in particular subparagraphs
(a), (c), and (f) (regarding adoption).
       5. The Sultanate is not bound by article 29, paragraph 1, regarding arbitration and the
referral to the International Court of Justice of any dispute between two or more States which is
not settled by negotiation.

     Pakistan <30>, <49>, <55>
       Declaration:
       "The accession by [the] Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the [said
Convention] is subject to the provisions of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan."
       Reservation:
       "The Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan declares that it does not consider
itself bound by paragraph 1 of article 29 of the Convention."

     Poland <48>

      Qatar
      Reservations:
      1. Article 2 (a) in connection with the rules of the hereditary transmission of authority, as it
is inconsistent with the provisions of article 8 of the Constitution.
      2. Article 9, paragraph 2, as it is inconsistent with Qatar's law on citizenship.
      3. Article 15, paragraph 1, in connection with matters of inheritance and testimony, as it is
inconsistent with the provisions of Islamic law.
      4. Article 15, paragraph 4, as it is inconsistent with the provisions of family law and
established practice.
      5. Article 16, paragraph 1 (a) and (c), as they are inconsistent with the provisions of Islamic
law.
      6. Article 16, paragraph 1 (f), as it is inconsistent with the provisions of Islamic law and
family law. The State of Qatar declares that all of its relevant national legislation is conducive to
the interest of promoting social solidarity.
      ...
      3. In accordance with article 29, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the State of Qatar
declares, under the terms of that text, that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of that
article.
      Declaration:
      1. The Government of the State of Qatar accepts the text of article 1 of the Convention
provided that, in accordance with the provisions of Islamic law and Qatari legislation, the phrase
"irrespective of their marital status" is not intended to encourage family relationships outside
legitimate marriage. It reserves the right to implement the Convention in accordance with this
understanding.
      2. The State of Qatar declares that the question of the modification of "patterns" referred to
in article 5 (a) must not be understood as encouraging women to abandon their role as mothers
and their role in child-rearing, thereby undermining the structure of the family.

      Republic of Korea <50>
      Upon signature:
      Reservation:
      "1. The Government of the Republic of Korea does not consider itself bound by the
provisions of article 9 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women of 1979.
      "2. Bearing in mind the fundamental principles as embodied in the said Convention, the
Government of the Republic of Korea has recently established the Korea Women's welfare and
social activities. A committee under the chairmanship of the prime minister will shortly be set up
to consider and coordinate overall policies on women.
      "3. The Government of the Republic of Korea will make continued efforts to take further
measures in line with the provisions stipulated in the Convention."
      Upon ratification:
      Reservation:
       "The Government of the Republic of Korea, having examined the said Convention, hereby
ratifies the Convention considering itself not bound by the provisions of [...] sub-paragraph [...]
(g) of paragraph 1 of Article 16 of the Convention."

     Romania <51>

     Russian Federation <52>

      Saudi Arabia
      Reservations:
      "1. In case of contradiction between any term of the Convention and the norms of islamic
law, the Kingdom is not under obligation to observe the contradictory terms of the Convention.
      2. The Kingdom does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of article 9 of the
Convention and paragraph 1 of article 29 of the Convention."

      Singapore <30>, <53>, <55>
      Reservations:
      (1) In the context of Singapore's multi-racial and multi-religious society and the need to
respect the freedom of minorities to practise their religious and personal laws, the Republic of
Singapore reserves the right not to apply the provisions of articles 2 and 16 where compliance
with these provisions would be contrary to their religious or personal laws.
      (2) [...]
      (3) Singapore interprets article 11, paragraph 1 in the light of the provisions of article 4,
paragraph 2 as not precluding prohibitions, restrictions or conditions on the employment of
women in certain areas, or on work done by them where this is considered necessary or desirable
to protect the health and safety of women or the human foetus, including such prohibitions,
restrictions or conditions imposed in consequence of other international obligations of Singapore
and considers that legislation in respect of article 11 is unnecessary for the minority of women
who do not fall within the ambit of Singapore's employment legislation.
      (4) The Republic of Singapore declares, in pursuance of article 29, paragraph 2 of the
Convention that it will not be bound by the provisions of article 29, paragraph 1.

     Slovakia <16>

     Spain
     Declaration:
     The ratification of the Convention by Spain shall not affect the constitutional provisions
concerning succession to the Spanish crown.

      Switzerland <56>
      .....
      (b) Reservation concerning article 16, paragraph 1 (g):
      Said provision shall be applied subject to the regulations on family name (Civil Code,
article 160 and article 8 (a), final section);
      (c) Reservation concerning article 15, paragraph 2, and article 16, paragraph 1 (h):
      Said provisions shall be applied subject to several interim provisions of the matrimonial
regime (Civil Code, articles 9 (e) and 10, final section).

    Syrian Arab Republic
    Reservation:
    ..... subject to reservations to article 2; article 9, paragraph 2, concerning the grant of a
woman's nationality to her children; article 15, paragraph 4, concerning freedom of movement
and of residence and domicile; article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g), concerning equal
rights and responsibilities during marriage and at its dissolution with regard to guardianship, the
right to choose a family name, maintenance and adoption; article 16, paragraph 2, concerning the
legal effect of the betrothal and the marriage of a child, inasmuch as this provision is
incompatible with the provisions of the Islamic Shariah; and article 29, paragraph 1, concerning
arbitration between States in the event of a dispute.
      The accession of the Syrian Arab Republic to this Convention shall in no way signify
recognition of Israel or entail entry into any dealings with Israel in the context of the provisions
of the Convention..

      Thailand <57>
      Declaration:
      The Royal Thai Government wishes to express its understanding that the purposes of the
Convention are to eliminate discrimination against women and to accord to every person, men
and women alike, equality before the law, and are in accordance with the principles prescribed
by the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand.
      Reservations:
      .....
      3. The Royal Thai Government does not consider itself bound by the provisions of [...]
article 16 and article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention.

      Trinidad and Tobago
      Reservation made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
      "The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago declares that it does not consider itself bound by
article 29 (1) of the said Convention, relating to the settlement of disputes."

      Tunisia
      1. General declaration:
      The Tunisian Government declares that it shall not take any organizational or legislative
decision in conformity with the requirements of this Convention where such a decision would
conflict with the provisions of chapter I of the Tunisian Constitution.
      2. Reservation concerning article 9, paragraph 2:
      The Tunisian Government expresses its reservation with regard to the provisions in article
9, paragraph 2 of the Convention, which must not conflict with the provisions of chapter VI of
the Tunisian Nationality Code.
      3. Reservation concerning article 16, paragraphs (c), (d), (f), (g) and (h):
      The Tunisian Government considers itself not bound by article 16, paragraphs (c), (d) and
(f) of the Convention and declares that paragraphs (g) and (h) of that article must not conflict
with the provisions of the Personal Status Code concerning the granting of family names to
children and the acquisition of property through inheritance.
      4. Reservation concerning article 29, paragraph 1:
      The Tunisian Government declares, in conformity with the requirements of article 29,
paragraph 2 of the Convention, that it shall not be bound by the provisions of paragraph 1 of that
article which specify that any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the
interpretation or application of the present Convention which is not settled by negotiation shall
be referred to the International Court of Justice at the request of any one of those parties.
      The Tunisian Government considers that such disputes should be submitted for arbitration
or consideration by the International Court of Justice only with the consent of all parties to the
dispute.
      5. Declaration concerning article 15, paragraph 4:
      In accordance with the provisions of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, dated
23 May 1969, the Tunisian Government emphasizes that the requirements of article 15,
paragraph 4, of the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against
Women, and particularly that part relating to the right of women to choose their residence and
domicile, must not be interpreted in a manner which conflicts with the provisions of the Personal
Status Code on this subject, as set forth in chapters 23 and 61 of the Code.

     Turkey <67>
     Reservations:
     "With respect to article 29, paragraph 1
     In pursuance of article 29, paragraph 2 of the Convention, the Government of the Republic
of Turkey declares that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of this article."
     [.....]

     Ukraine <52>

      United Arab Emirates <58>
      Reservations:
      The United Arab Emirates makes reservations to articles 2 (f), 9, 15 (2), 16 and 29 (1) of
the Convention, as follows:
      Article 2 (f)
      The United Arab Emirates, being of the opinion that this paragraph violates the rules of
inheritance established in accordance with the precepts of the Shariah, makes a reservation
thereto and does not consider itself bound by the provisions thereof.
      Article 9
      The United Arab Emirates, considering the acquisition of nationality an internal matter
which is governed, and the conditions and controls of which are established, by national
legislation makes a reservation to this article and does not consider itself bound by the provisions
thereof.
      Article 15 (2)
      The United Arab Emirates, considering this paragraph in conflict with the precepts of the
Shariah regarding legal capacity, testimony and the right to conclude contracts, makes a
reservation to the said paragraph of the said article and does not consider itself bound by the
provisions thereof.
      Article 16
      The United Arab Emirates will abide by the provisions of this article insofar as they are not
in conflict with the principles of the Shariah. The United Arab Emirates considers that the
payment of a dower and of support after divorce is an obligation of the husband, and the husband
has the right to divorce, just as the wife has her independent financial security and her full rights
to her property and is not required to pay her husband's or her own expenses out of her own
property. The Shariah makes a woman's right to divorce conditional on a judicial decision, in a
case in which she has been harmed.
      Article 29 (1)
      The United Arab Emirates appreciates and respects the functions of this article, which
provides:
      "Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation or
application of the present Convention which is not settled by negotiation shall, at the request of
one of them, be submitted to arbitration. If within six months...e parties are unable..." [any one of
those parties] "may refer the dispute to the International Court of Justice..." This article,
however, violates the general principle that matters are submitted to an arbitration panel by
agreement between the parties. In addition, it might provide an opening for certain States to
bring other States to trial in defence of their nationals; the case might then be referred to the
committee charged with discussing the State reports required by the Convention and a decision
might be handed down against the State in question for violating the provisions of the
Convention. For these reasons the United Arab Emirates makes a reservation to this article and
does not consider itself bound by the provisions thereof.

      United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland <59>, <60>
      Upon signature:
      "The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland declare
that it is their intention to make certain reservations and declarations upon ratification of the
Convention.
      Upon ratification:
      "A. On behalf of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland:
      (a) The United Kingdom understands the main purpose of the Convention, in the light of
the definition contained in Article 1, to be the reduction, in accordance with its terms, of
discrimination against women, and does not therefore regard the Convention as imposing any
requirement to repeal or modify any existing laws, regulations, customs or practices which
provide for women to be treated more favourably than men, whether temporarily or in the longer
term; the United Kingdom's undertakings under Article 4, paragraph 1, and other provisions of
the Convention are to be construed accordingly."
      ...
      (c) In the light of the definition contained in Article 1, the United Kingdom's ratification is
subject to the understanding that none of its obligations under the Convention shall be treated as
extending to the succession to, or possession and enjoyment of, the Throne, the peerage, titles of
honour, social precedence or armorial bearings, or as extending to the affairs of religious
denominations or orders or any act done for the purpose of ensuring the combat effectiveness of
the Armed Forces of the Crown."
      ...
      "Article 9
      The British Nationality Act 1981, which was brought into force with effect from January
1983, is based on principles which do not allow of any discrimination against women within the
meaning of Article 1 as regards acquisition, change or retention of their nationality or as regards
the nationality of their children. The United Kingdom's acceptance of Article 9 shall not, how
ever, be taken to invalidate the continuation of certain temporary or transitional provisions which
will ctinue in force beyond that date."
      ...
      "Article 11
      ...
      "The United Kingdom reserves the right to apply all United Kingdom legislation and the
rules of pension schemes affecting retirement pensions, survivors' benefits and other benefits in
relation to death or retirement (including retirement on grounds of redundancy), whether or not
derived from a Social Security scheme."
      "This reservation will apply equally to any future legislation which may modify or replace
such legislation, or the rules of pension schemes, on the understanding that the terms of such
legislation will be compatible with the United Kingdom's obligations under the Convention."
      "The United Kingdom reserves the right to apply the following provisions of United
Kingdom legislation concerning the benefits specified:
      ...
      b) increases of benefits for adult dependants under sections 44 to 47, 49 and 66 of the
Social Security Act 1975 and under sections 44 to 47, 49 and 66 of the Social Security (Northern
Ireland) Act 1975;
      ...
      The United Kingdom reserves the right to apply any non-discriminatory requirement for a
qualifying period of employment or insurance for the application of the provisions contained in
Article 11 (2)."
       "Article 15
       ...
       "In relation to Article 15, paragraph 3, the United Kingdom understands the intention of
this provision to be that only those terms or elements of a contract or other private instrument
which are discriminatory in the sense described are to be deemed null and void, but not
necessarily the contract or instrument as a whole."
       "Article 16
       As regards sub-paragraph 1 (f) of Article 16, the United Kingdom does not regard the
reference to the paramountcy of the interests of the children as being directly relevant to the
elimination of discrimination against women, and declares in this connection that the legislation
of the United Kingdom regulating adoption, while giving a principal position to the promotion of
the children's welfare, does not give to the child's interests the same paramount place as in issues
concerning custody over children."
       ...
       "B. On behalf of the Isle of Man, the British Virgin Islands, the Falkland Islands, South
Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and the Turks and Caicos Islands:
       [Same reservations as the one made on behalf of the United Kingdom under paragraphs A
(a), (c), and (d) except that in the of case d) it applies to the territories and their laws).]
       Article 1
       [Same reservation as the one made in respect of the United Kingdom except with regard to
the absence of a reference to United Kingdom legislation.]
       Article 2
       [Same reservation as the one made in respect of the United Kingdom except that reference
is made to the laws of the territories, and not the laws of the United Kingdom.]
       Article 9
       [Same reservation as the one made in respect of the United Kingdom.]
       Article 11
       [Same reservation as those made in respect of the United Kingdom except that a reference
is made to the laws of the territories, and not to the laws of the United Kingdom.]
       "Also, as far as the territories are concerned, the specific benefits listed and which may be
applied under the provisions of these territories' legislation are as follows:
       a) social security benefits for persons engaged in caring for a severely disabled person;
       b) increases of benefit for adult dependants;
       c) retirement pensions and survivors' benefits;
       d) family income supplements.
       "This reservation will apply equally to any future legislation which may modify or replace
any of the provisions specified in sub-paragraphs (a) to (d) above, on the understanding that the
terms of such legislation will be compatible with the United Kingdom's obligations under the
Convention."
       "The United Kingdom reserves the right to apply any non-discriminatory requirement for a
qualifying period of employment or insurance for the application of the provisions contained in
Article 11 (2)."
       Article 13, 15 and 16
       [Same reservations as those made on behalf the United Kingdom.]

      Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
      Reservation made upon ratification confirming in substance the reservation made upon
signature:
      Venezuela makes a formal reservation with regard to article 29, paragraph 1, of the
Convention, since it does not accept arbitration or the jurisdiction of the International Court of
Justice for the settlement of disputes concerning the interpretation or application of this
Convention.
      Viet Nam
      Reservation:
      In implementing this Convention, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam will not be bound by
the provisions of paragraph 1 article 29.

      Yemen <62>
      The Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen declares that it does not
consider itself bound by article 29, paragraph 1, of the said Convention, relating to the settlement
of disputes which may arise concerning the application or interpretation of the Convention.

     Objections (Unless otherwise indicated, the objections were made upon ratification,
accession or succession.)

      Austria
      26 October 1994
      With regard to the reservations made by Maldives upon accession:
      "The reservation made by the Maldives is incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention and is therefore inadmissible under article 19 (c) of the Vienna Convention on the
Law of Treaties and shall not be permitted, in accordance with article 28 (2) of the Convention
on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Austria therefore states that
this reservation cannot alter or modify in any respect the obligations arising from the Convention
for any State Party thereto."
      5 June 1997
      With regard to the declaration made by Pakistan upon accession:
      "Austria is of the view that a reservation by which a State limits its responsibilities under
the Convention in a general and unspecified manner by invoking internal law creates doubts as to
the commitment of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan with its obligations under the Convention,
essential for the fulfillment of its object and purpose.
      It is in the common interests of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
Parties are respected, as to their object and purpose, by all Parties and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      Austria is further of the view that a general reservation of the kind made by the
Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, which does not clearly specify the provisions of
the Convention to which it applies and the extent of the derogation therefrom, contributes to
undermining the basis of international treaty law.
      Given the general character of this reservation a final assessment as to its admissibility
under international law cannot be made without further clarification.
      According to international law a reservation is inadmissible to the extent as its application
negatively affects the compliance by a State with its obligations under the Convention essential
for the fulfillment of its object and purpose.
      Therefore, Austria cannot consider the reservation made by the Government of the Islamic
Republic of Pakistan as admissible unless the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan,
by providing additional information or through subsequent practice, ensures that the reservation
is compatible with the provisions essential for the implementation of the object and purpose of
the Convention.
      This view by Austria would not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the
Convention between Pakistan and Austria."
      20 February 1998
      With regard to reservations made by Lebanon upon accession:
      [Same objection, mutatis mutandis, as the one made for Pakistan.]
      21 August 2001
      With regard to reservations made by Saudi Arabia upon ratification:
      "Austria has examined the reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against Women made by the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in
its note to the Secretary-General of 7 September 2000.
      The fact that the reservation concerning any interpretation of the provisions of the
Convention that is incompatible with the norms of Islamic law does not clearly specify the
provisions of the Convention to which it applies and the extent of the derogation therefrom raises
doubts as to the commitment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the Convention.
      Given the general character of this reservation a final assessment as to its admissibility
under international law cannot be made without further clarification. Until the scope of the legal
effects of this reservation is sufficiently specified by the Government of Saudi Arabia, Austria
considers the reservation as not affecting any provision the implementation of which is essential
to fulfilling the object and purpose of the Convention. In Austria's view, however, the reservation
in question is inadmissible to the extent that its application negatively affects the compliance by
Saudi Arabia with its obligations under the Convention essential for the fulfilment of its object
and purpose. Austria does not consider the reservation made by the Government of Saudi Arabia
as admissible unless the Government of Saudi Arabia, by providing additional information or
through subsequent practice, ensures that the reservation is compatible with the provisions
essential for the implementation of the object and purpose of the Convention.
      As to the reservation to Paragraph 2 of Article 9 of the Convention Austria is of the view
that the exclusion of such an important provision of non-discrimination is not compatible with
object and purpose of the Convention. Austria therefore objects to this reservation.
      This position, however, does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the
Convention between Saudi Arabia and Austria."
      With regard to reservations made by the Democratic Republic of Korea upon accession:
      "Austria has examined the reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against Women made by the Government of the Democratic People's Republic
of Korea in its note to the Secretary General of 27 February 2001.
      Taking into consideration that according to Paragraph 2 of Article 28 of the Convention,
reservations which are incompatible with the objective and purpose of the Convention are not
acceptable, Austria objects to the reservations in respect of Paragraph f of Article 2 and
Paragraph 2 of Article 9.
      Both Paragraphs refer to basic aspects of the Convention, that are legislation to abolish
existing discrimination against women and a specific form of discrimination, such as the
nationality of children.
      This position, however, does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the
Convention between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and Austria."
      13 February 2002
      With regard to the reservation made by Mauritania upon accession:
      "The Government of Austria has examined the reservation to the Convention on the
Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women made by the Government of the
Islamic Republic of Mauritania in its note to the Secretary-General of 5 June 2001.
      The Government of Austria considers that, in the absence of further clarification, this
reservation raises doubts as to the degree of commitment assumed by Mauritania in becoming a
party to the Convention since it refers to the contents of Islamic Sharia and to existing national
legislation in Mauritania. The Government of Austria would like to recall that, according to art.
28 (2) of the Convention as well as customary international law as codified in the Vienna
Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a
treaty shall not be permitted.
      It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      For these reasons, the Government of Austria objects to this reservation made by the
Government of Mauritania.
      This position, however, does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the
Convention between Mauritania and Austria."
      31 March 2003
      With regard to the reservation made by Bahrain upon accession:
      "The Government of Austria has examined the reservation to the Convention on the
Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women made by the Government of the
Kingdom of Bahrain in its note to the Secretary-General of 18 June 2002, regarding articles 2, 9
(2), 15 (4) and 16.
      The reservation to articles 9 (2) and 15 (4), if put into practice, would inevitably result in
discrimination against women on the basis of sex. This is contrary to the object and purpose of
the Convention.
      The Government of Austria further considers that, in the absence of further clarification,
the reservation to articles 2 and 16 which does not clearly specify the extent of Bahrain's
derogation from the provisions in question raises doubts as to the degree of commitment
assumed by Bahrain in becoming a party to the Convention since it refers to the contents of
Islamic Sharia.
      The Government of Austria would like to recall that, according to art. 28 (2) of the
Convention as well as customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the
Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be
permitted.
      It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      For these reasons, the Government of Austria objects to this reservation made by the
Government of Bahrain.
      This position, however, does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the
Convention between Bahrain and Austria."
      14 August 2003
      With regard to the reservations made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:
      "The Government of Austria has examined the reservation made by the Government of the
Syrian Arab Republic upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women regarding article 2, article 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4,
article 16, paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g) and article 16, paragraph 2.
      The Government of Austria finds that the reservations to article 2, article 9, paragraph 2,
article 15, paragraph 4, article 16, paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g), if put into practice, would
inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex. This is contrary to the
object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of Austria further considers that, in the absence of further clarification,
the reservation to article 16, paragraph 2, which refers to the contents of Islamic Sharia, does not
clearly specify the extent of the reservation and therefore raises doubts as to the degree of
commitment assumed by the Syrian Arab Republic in becoming a party to the Convention.
      The Government of Austria would like to recall that, according to article 28 (2) of the
Convention as well as customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the
Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be
permitted.
      It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      For these reasons, the Government of Austria objects to the aforementioned reservations
made by the Syrian Arab Republic to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      This position, however, does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the
Convention between the Syrian Arab Republic and Austria."
      5 October 2005
      With regard to the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession:
      "The Government of Austria has examined the reservation made by the Government of the
United Arab Emirates upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women regarding articles 2 (f), 9, 15 (2), 16 and 29 (1).
      The Government of Austria finds that the reservations to article 2 (f), article 9, article 15
(2) and article 16, if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against women
on the basis of sex. This is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of Austria would like to recall that, according to article 28 (2) of the
Convention as well as customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the
Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be
permitted.
      It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      For these reasons, the Government of Austria objects to the aforementioned reservations
made by the United Arab Emirates to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      This position, however, does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the
Convention between the United Arab Emirates and Austria."
      18 December 2006
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "The Government of Austria has examined the reservations made by the Government of
Brunei Darussalam upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      The Government of Austria finds that the reservation to article 9, paragraph 2 would
inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex. This is contrary to the
object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of Austria further considers that, in the absence of further clarification,
the reservation "regarding those provisions of the said Convention that may be contrary to the
Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam" does not clearly
specify its extent and therefore raises doubts as to the degree of commitment assumed by Brunei
Darussalam in becoming a party to the Convention.
      The Government of Austria would like to recall that, according to article 28, paragraph 2 of
the Convention as well as customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on
the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not
be permitted.
      It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      For these reasons, the Government of Austria objects to the aforementioned reservations
made by Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      This position however does not preclude the entry into force in its enirety of the
Convention between Brunei Darussalam and Austria."
      5 January 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
      "The Government of Austria has examined the reservations made by the Government of the
Sultanate of Oman upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      The Government of Austria finds that the reservations to article 9, paragraph 2, article 15,
paragraph 4, and article 16 would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis
of sex. This is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of Austria further considers that, in the absence of further clarification,
the reservation to "all provisions of the Convention not in accordance with the provisions of the
Islamic sharia and legislation in force in the Sultanate of Oman" does not clearly specify its
extent and therefore raises doubts as to the degree of commitment assumed by the Sultanate of
Oman in becoming a party to the Convention.
      The Government of Austria would like to recall that, according to article 28, paragraph 2 of
the Convention as well as customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on
the Law of Treaties (Art. 19 sub-paragraph c), a reservation incompatible with the object and
purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
      It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
parties are requested as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      For these reasons, the Government of Austria objects to the aforementioned reservations
made by the Sultanate of Oman to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      This position however does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the
Convention between the Sultanate of Oman and Austria."

      Belgium
      30 April 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      Belgium has carefully examined the reservation formulated by Brunei Darussalam when it
acceded, on 24 May 2006, to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women, adopted in New York on 18 December 1979. Belgium notes that the reservation
formulated with respect to article 9, paragraph 2, concerns a fundamental provision of the
Convention and is therefore incompatible with the object and purpose of that instrument.
      In addition, the reservation makes the implementation of the Convention's provisions
contingent upon their compatibility with the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and the beliefs
and principles of Islam, the official religion of Brunei Darussalam. This creates uncertainty as to
which of its obligations under the Convention Brunei Darussalam intends to observe and raises
doubts as to Brunei Darussalam's respect for the object and purpose of the Convention.
      Belgium recalls that, under article 28, paragraph 2, of the Convention, reservations
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not permitted. It is in the
common interest for all parties to respect the treaties to which they have acceded and for States
to be willing to enact such legislative amendments as may be necessary in order to fulfil their
treaty obligations. Under customary international law, as codified in the Vienna Convention on
the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty is not
permitted (article 19 (c)).
      In consequence, Belgium objects to the reservation formulated by Brunei Darussalam with
respect to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Kingdom of
Belgium and Brunei Darussalam. The Convention shall enter into force in its entirety, without
Brunei Darussalam benefiting from its reservation.
      30 April 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
      Belgium has carefully examined the reservation formulated by the Sultanate of Oman when
it acceded, on 7 February 2006, to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women, adopted in New York on 18 December 1979. Belgium notes that
the reservation formulated with respect to article 9, paragraph 2; article 15, paragraph 4; and
article 16 concerns fundamental provisions of the Convention and is therefore incompatible with
the object and purpose of that instrument.
      In addition, the first paragraph of the reservation makes the implementation of the
Convention's provisions contingent upon their compatibility with the Islamic sharia and
legislation in force in the Sultanate of Oman. This creates uncertainty as to which of its
obligations under the Convention the Sultanate of Oman intends to observe and raises doubts as
to Oman's respect for the object and purpose of the Convention.
      Belgium recalls that, under article 28, paragraph 2, of the Convention, reservations
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not permitted. It is in the
common interest for all parties to respect the treaties to which they have acceded and for States
to be willing to enact such legislative amendments as may be necessary in order to fulfil their
treaty obligations. Under customary international law, as codified in the Vienna Convention on
the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty is not
permitted (article 19 (c)).
      In consequence, Belgium objects to the reservation formulated by the Sultanate of Oman
with respect to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Kingdom of Belgium and the Sultanate of Oman. The Convention shall enter into force in its
entirety, without Oman benefiting from its reservation.

      Canada
      25 October 1994
      With regard to the reservations made by Maldives upon accession:
      "In the view of the Government of Canada, this reservation is incompatible with the object
and purpose of the Convention (article 28, paragraph 2). The Government of Canada therefore
enters its formal objection to this reservation. This objection shall not preclude the entry into
force of the Convention as between Canada and the Republic of Maldives."
      14 June 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "Canada has carefully examined the reservation formulated by Brunei Darussalam when it
acceded, on 24 May 2006, to the Convention on the Elimination of Al Forms of Discrimination
against Women, adopted in New York on 18 December 1979.
      Canada notes that the reservation formulated with respect to article 9, paragraph 2,
concerns a fundamental provision of the Convention and is therefore incompatible with the
object and purpose of that instrument.
      In addition, the reservation makes the implementation of the Convention's provisions
contingent upon their compatibility with the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and the beliefs
and principles of Islam, the official religion of Brunei Darussalam. The Government of Canada
notes that such general reservation of unlimited scope and undefined character does not clearly
define for the other States Parties to the Convention the extent to which Brunei Darussalam has
accepted the obligations of the Convention and creates serious doubts as to the commitment of
the State to fulfil its obligations under the Convention. Accordingly, the Government of Canada
considers this reservation to be incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
party are respected, as to their object and purpose by all parties and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      Canada recalls that, under article 28, paragraph 2, of the Convention, reservations
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not permitted.
      Under customary international law, as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of
Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty is not permitted.
      In consequence, Canada objects to the reservation formulated by Brunei Darussalam with
respect to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Canada and
Brunei Darussalam. The Convention shall enter into force in its entirety, without Brunei
Darussalam benefiting from its reservation."

      Czech Republic
      12 January 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
      "The Government of the Czech Republic has examined the reservations made by the
Sultanate of Oman upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      The Government of the Czech Republic is of the view that the reservations made to Article
9 paragraph 2, Article 15, paragraph 4 and Article 16, if put into practice, would inevitably result
in discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose
of the Convention. Furthermore, the Government of the Czech Republic notes that the
reservation regarding all provisions of the Convention not in accordance with the provisions of
the Islamic sharia and legislation in force in the Sultanate of Oman does not clearly define for the
other States Parties to the Convention the extent to which the Sultanate of Oman has accepted
the obligations of the Convention and therefore raises concerns as to its commitment to the
object and purpose of the Convention.
      It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
According to Article 28, paragraph 2 of the Convention and according to customary international
law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation that is
incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
      The Government of the Czech Republic therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations
made by the Government of the Sultanate of Oman to the Convention. This objection shall not
preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Czech Republic and the Sultanate of
Oman. The Convention enters into force in its entirety between the Czech Republic and the
Sultanate of Oman, without the Sultanate of Oman benefiting from its reservation."
      11 April 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "The Government of the Czech Republic has examined the reservations made by the
Government of Brunei Darussalam upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women regarding Article 9 paragraph 2 and those provisions of
the Convention that may be contrary to the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs
and principles of Islam.
      The Government of the Czech Republic notes that a reservation to a Convention which
consists of a general reference to national law without specifying its contents does not clearly
define for the other States Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State has
accepted the obligations of the Convention. Furthermore, the reservation made to Article 9
paragraph 2, if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the
basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
      It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
According to Article 28 paragraph 2 of the Convention and according to customary international
law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation that is
incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
      The Government of the Czech Republic therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations
made by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the Convention. This objection shall not
preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Czech Republic and Brunei
Darussalam. The Convention enters into force in its entirety between the Czech Republic and
Brunei Darussalam, without Brunei Darussalam benefiting from its reservation."

      Denmark
      3 July 1990
      With regard to the reservation made by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya upon accession:
      "The Government of Denmark has taken note of the reservation made by the Libyan Arab
Jamahiriya when acceding [to the said Convention]. In the view of the Government of Denmark
this reservation is subject to the general principle of treaty interpretation according to which a
party may not invoke the provisions of its internal law as justification for failure to perform a
treaty."
      2 November 2000
      With regard to the reservations to article 2, paragraphs (d) and (f), article 5, paragraph (a),
article 15, paragraph (4) and article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (e) and (g) made by Niger upon
accession:
      "The Government of Denmark finds that the reservations made by the Government of
Niger are not in conformity with the object and purpose of the Convention. The provisions in
respect of which Niger has made reservations cover fundamental rights of women and establish
key elements for the elimination of discrimination against women. For this reason, the
Government of Denmark objects to the said reservations made by the Government of Niger.
      The Convention remains in force in its entirety between Niger and Denmark.
      It is the opinion of the Government of Denmark, that no time limit applies to objections
against reservations, which are inadmissible under international law.
      The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of Niger to reconsider its
reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women."
      10 August 2001
      With regard to the reservations made by Saudi Arabia upon ratification:
      "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Government of
Saudi Arabia upon ratification on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women as to any interpretation of the provisions of the Convention that
is incompatible with the norms of Islamic law.
      The Government of Denmark finds that the general reservation with reference to the
provisions of Islamic law are of unlimited scope and undefined character. Consequently, the
Government of Denmark considers the said reservations as being incompatible with the object
and purpose of the Convention and accordingly inadmissible and without effect under
international law.
      The Government of Denmark furthermore notes that the reservation to paragraph 2 of
article 9 of the Convention aims to exclude one obligation of non-discrimination which is the
aim of the Convention and therefore renders this reservation contrary to the essence of the
Convention.
      The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the
Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      These objections shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention in its entirety
between Saudi Arabia and Denmark.
      The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of Saudi Arabia to reconsider
its reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women."
      21 February 2002
      With regard to the reservation made by Mauritania upon accession:
      "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Government of
Mauritania upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women as to any interpretation of the provisions of the Convention that is incompatible
with the norms of Islamic law and the Constitution in Mauritania.
      The Government of Denmark finds that the general reservation with reference to the
provisions of Islamic law and the Constitution are of unlimited scope and undefined character.
Consequently, the Government of Denmark considers the said reservation as being incompatible
with the object and purpose of the Convention and accordingly inadmissible and without effect
under international law.
      The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the aforesaid reservation made by the
Government of Mauritania to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination
against Women.
      This shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention in its entirety between
Mauritania and Denmark.
      The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of Mauritania to reconsider its
reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women."
      With regard to the reservations made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon
accession:
      "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Democratic
People's Republic of Korea upon accession to the Convention on [the] Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination Against Women in respect of paragraph (f) of article 2 and paragraph 2 of
article 9.
      The Government of Denmark finds that the reservation to paragraph (f) of article 2 aims at
excluding the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from the obligation to adopt necessary
measures, including those of a legislative character, to eliminate any form of discrimination
against women. This provision touches upon a key element for effective elimination of
discrimination against women.
      The Government of Denmark furthermore notes that the reservation to paragraph 2 of
article 9 of the Convention aims to exclude an obligation of non-discrimination, which is the aim
of the Convention.
      The Government of Denmark finds that the reservations made by the Democratic People's
Republic of Korea are not in conformity with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the said reservation made by the
Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
      The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of [the] Democratic People's
Republic of Korea to reconsider its reservations to the Convention.
      The Convention on [the] Elimination of All Forms Discrimination Against Women remains
in force in its entirety between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and Denmark."
      28 February 2003
      With regard to the reservation made by Bahrain upon accession:
      "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Government of
Bahrain upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women regarding article 2, paragraph 2 of article 9, paragraph 4 of article 15 and article
16.
      The Government of Denmark finds that the reservation to articles 2 and 16 with reference
to the provisions of Islamic Sharia is of unlimited scope and undefined character. Consequently,
the Government of Denmark considers the said reservations as being incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention and accordingly inadmissible and without effect under
international law.
       The Government of Denmark furthermore notes that the reservations to paragraph 2 of
article 9 and to paragraph 4 of article 15 of the Convention seek to exclude an obligation of non-
discrimination, which is the aim of the Convention. The Government of Denmark finds that
these reservations made by the Government of Bahrain are not in conformity with the object and
purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the aforementioned reservations made by
the Government of Bahrain to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination
Against Women. This shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention in its entirety
between Bahrain and Denmark.
       The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of Bahrain to reconsider its
reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women."
       27 May 2003
       With regard to the reservation made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:
       "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Government of
the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women regarding article 2, article 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph
4, article 16, paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g) and article 16, paragraph 2 in its note of 7 April
2003, to the Secretary-General of the United Nations distributed under reference No.
C.N.267.2003.TREATIES-6.
       The Government of Denmark finds that the reservation to article 2 seeks to evade the
obligation of non-discrimination, which is the aim of the Convention. The Government of
Denmark is of the view that a general reservation to one of the core articles of the Convention
raises doubts as to the commitment of the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to fulfil its
obligations under the Convention.
       The Government of Denmark furthermore notes that the reservations to article 9, paragraph
2, article 15, paragraph 4, article 16, paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g) and article 16, paragraph 2,
would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to
the object and purpose of the Convention. It should be borne in mind that the principles of equal
rights of men and women and of non-discrimination on the basis of sex are set forth in the
Charter of the United Nations as one of the purposes of the organization, as well as in the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
       The Government of Denmark finds that these reservations made by the Government of the
Syrian Arab Republic are not in conformity with the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Denmark recalls that according to article 28, paragraph 2 of the
Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not
be permitted.
       The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the aforementioned reservations made by
the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination Against Women.
       This shall not prelude the entry into force of the Convention in its entirety between the
Syrian Arab Republic and Denmark.
       The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to
reconsider its reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women."
       6 October 2006
       With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
       "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Sultanate of
Oman upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination
Against Women regarding article 9 (2), 15 (4), 16 (a, c, f), and all provisions of the Convention
not in accordance with the principles of the Islamic Sharia.
      The Government of Denmark finds that the general reservation with reference to the
provisions of the Islamic Sharia is of unlimited scope and undefined character. The Government
of Denmark furthermore notes that the reservations made by the Sultanate of Oman to article 9
(2), 15 (4), and 16 (a, c, f) would inevitable result in the discrimination against women on the
basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention. Consequently, the
Government of Denmark considers the said reservations to be incompatible with the object and
purpose of the Convention and accordingly inadmissible and without effect under international
law.
      The Government of Denmark wishes to recall that, according to article 28 (2) of the
Convention, reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not
be permitted.
      The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the aforementioned reservations made by
the Sultanate of Oman to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination
Against Women. This shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention in its entirety
between Oman and Denmark.
      The Government of Denmark recommends the Sultanate of Oman to reconsider its
reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against
Women."
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Government of
Brunei Darussalam upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Discrimination Against Women regarding article 9 (2) and all provisions of the Convention not
in accordance with the principles of Islam.
      The Government of Denmark finds that the general reservation made by the Government of
Brunei Darussalam with reference to the principles of Islam is of unlimited scope and undefined
character. The Government of Denmark furthermore notes that the reservation to article 9 (2)
would inevitably result in the discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is
contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention. Consequently, the Government of
Denmark considers the said reservations to be incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention and accordingly inadmissible and without effect under international law.
      The Government of Denmark wishes to recall that, according to article 28 (2) of the
Convention, reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not
be permitted.
      The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the aforementioned reservations made by
the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Discrimination Against Women. This shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention in
its entirety between Brunei Darussalam and Denmark.
      The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of Brunei Darussalam to
reconsider its reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination
Against Women."

      Estonia
      1 April 2004
      With regard to the reservation made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:
      "The Government of Estonia has carefully examined the reservations made by the
Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to Article 2, paragraph 2 of Article 9, paragraph 4 of
Article 15 and to paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g) of Article 16 of the Convention on the
Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
      Article 2 of the Convention is one of the core articles of the Convention. By making a
reservation to this article, the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic is making a reservation
of general scope that renders the provisions of the Convention completely ineffective. The
Government of Estonia considers the reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention.
       The reservations to article 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4 and article 16, paragraphs
1 (c), (d), (f) and (g), if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against
women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention. It
should be borne in mind that the principles of equal rights of men and women and of non-
discrimination on the basis of sex are set forth in the Charter of the United Nations as one of the
purposes of the organization, as well as in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
       The reservation to article 16, paragraph 2, makes a general reference to the Islamic Shariah.
The Government of Estonia is of the view that in the absence of further clarification, this
reservation which does not clearly specify the extent of the Syrian Arab Republic's derogation
from the provision in question raises serious doubts as to the commitment of the Syrian Arab
Republic to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Estonia recalls that according to article 28, paragraph 2 of the
Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not
be permitted.
       The Government of Estonia therefore objects to the afore-mentioned reservation made by
the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to the Convention.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Syrian
Arab Republic and Estonia. The Convention will thus become operative between the two States
without the Syrian Arab Republic benefiting from its reservations.
       The Government of Estonia recommends the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to
reconsider its reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women."
       4 December 2006
       With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
       "The Government of the Republic of Estonia has carefully examined the reservations made
by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to Article 9, paragraph 2 of the Convention on the
Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       The reservation to Article 9, paragraph 2, if put into practice, would inevitably result in
discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of
the Convention.
       Furthermore, the reservation made by Brunei Darussalam makes a general reference to the
Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam. The Government of
Estonia is of the view that in the absence of further clarification, the reservation makes it unclear
to what extent the State of Brunei Darussalam considers itself bound by the obligations of the
Convention and therefore raises concerns as to the commitment of the State of Brunei
Darussalam to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       According to Article 28, paragraph 2 of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with
the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
       The Government of Estonia therefore objects to the reservation to Article 9, paragraph 2,
and to the general reservation regarding the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs
and principles of Islam, made by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on
the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention on the Elimination
of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women as between the Republic of Estonia and the State
of Brunei Darussalam."
       With regard to the reservation made by Oman upon accession:
       "The Government of the Republic of Estonia has carefully examined the reservations made
by the Government of Sultanate of Oman to paragraph 2 of Article 9, paragraph 4 of Article 15,
and subparagraphs (a), (c) and (f) of Article 16 of the Convention on the Elimination of all
Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       The reservations to paragraph 2 of Article 9, paragraph 4 of Article 15, and subparagraphs
(a), (c) and (f) of Article 16, if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against
women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention. In
particular, Article 16 is one of the core provisions of the Convention to which reservations are
incompatible with the Convention and therefore impermissible.
       Furthermore, section one of the reservation makes a general reference to the provisions of
the Islamic sharia and legislation in force in the Sultanate of Oman. The Government of Estonia
is of the view that in the absence of further clarification, this reservation makes it unclear to what
extent the Sultanate of Oman considers itself bound by the obligations of the Convention and
therefore raises concerns as to the commitment of the Sultanate of Oman to the object and
purpose of the Convention.
       According to Article 28, paragraph 2 of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with
the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
       The Government of Estonia therefore objects to the general reservation made in section
one, and reservations to paragraph 2 of Article 9, paragraph 4 of Article 15, and subparagraphs
(a), (c) and (f) of Article 16, made by the Government of the Sultanate of Oman to the
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention on the Elimination
of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women as between the Republic of Estonia and the
Sultanate of Oman".

       Finland
       8 June 1990
       With regard to the reservation made by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya upon accession (see
also objection made on 16 October 1996, hereinafter, with regard to the reservation made by the
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya upon accession, as modified on 5 July 1995):
       "The Government of Finland has examined the contents of the reservation made by the
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and considers the said reservation as being incompatible with the object
and purpose of the Convention. The Government of Finland therefore enters its formal objection
to this reservation.
       "This objection is not an obstacle to the entry into force of the said Convention between
Finland and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya."
       5 May 1994
       With regard to the reservations made by Maldives upon accession:
       In the view of the Government of Finland, the unlimited and undefined character of the
said reservations create serious doubts about the commitment of the reserving State to fulfil its
obligations under the Convention. In their extensive formulation, they are clearly contrary to the
object and purpose of the Convention. Therefore, the Government of Finland objects to such
reservations.
       The Government of Finland also recalls that the said reservations are subject to the general
principle of treaty interpretation according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its
domestic law as a justification for failure to perform its treaty obligations.
       The Government of Finland does not, however, consider that this objection constitutes an
obstacle to the entry into force of the Convention between Finland and Maldives."
       17 January 1996
       With regard to the reservations made by Kuwait upon accession:
       "The Government of Finland recalls that by acceding to the Convention, a State commits
itself to adopt the measures required for the elimination of discrimination, in all its forms and
manifestations, against women. In particular, article 7 requires States Parties to undertake actions
to eliminate discrimination against women in the political and public life of the country. This is a
fundamental provision of the Convention the implementation of which is essential to fulfilling its
object and purpose.
       Reservations to article 7 (a) and article 9 paragraph 2 are both subject to the general
principle of the observance of treaties according to which a party may not invoke the provisions
of its internal law as justification for its failure to perform its treaty obligations. It is in the
common interest of States that contracting parties to international treaties are prepared to
undertake the necessary legislative changes in order to fulfill the object and purpose of the treaty.
       Furthermore, in the view of the Government of Finland, the unlimited and undefined
character of the reservation to article 16 (f) leaves open to what extent the reserving State
commits itself to the Convention and therefore creates serious doubts about the commitment of
the reserving State to fulfil its obligations under the Convention. Reservations of such
unspecified nature may contribute to undermining the basis of international human rights
treaties.
       In their present formulation the reservations are clearly incompatible with the object and
purpose of the Convention and therefore inadmissible under article 28 paragraph 2, of the said
Convention. Therefore, the Government of Finland objects to these reservations. The
Government of Finland further notes that the reservations made by the Government of Kuwait
are devoid of legal effect.
       The Government of Finland recommends the Government of Kuwait to reconsider its
reservations to the [said] Convention."
       16 October 1996
       With regard to the reservation made by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya upon accession, as
modified (see objection under 8 June 1990 and note 28):
       "A reservation which consists of a general reference to religious law without specifying i
contents does not clearly define to the other Parties of the Convention the extent to which the
reserving State commits itself to the Convention and therefore may cast doubts about the
commitment of the reserving State to fulfil its obligations under the Convention. Such a
reservation is also, in the view of the Government of Finland, subject to the general principle of
the observance of treaties according to which a Party may not invoke the provisions of its
internal law as justification for failure to perform a treaty."
       With regard to the reservations made by Malaysia upon accession:
       "The reservations made by Malaysia, consisting of a general reference to religious and
national law without specifying the contents thereof and without stating unequivocally the
provisions the legal effect of which may be excluded or modified, do not clearly define to the
other Parties of the Convention the extent to which the reserving State commits itself to the
Convention and therefore creates serious doubts about the commitment of the reserving State to
fulfill its obligations under the Convention. Reservations of such unspecified nature may
contribute to undermining the basis of international human rights treaties.
       The Government of Finland also recalls that the reservations of Malaysia are subject to the
general principles of observance of treaties according to which a party may not invoke the
provisions of its internal law as justification for failure to perform its treaty obligations. It is in
the common interest of States that Parties to international treaties are prepared to take the
necessary legislative changes in order to fulfil the object and purpose of the treaty.
       Furthermore, the reservations made by Malaysia, in particular to articles 2 (f) and 5 (a), are
two fundamental provisions of the Convention the implementation of which is essential to
fulfilling its object and purpose.
       The Government of Finland considers that in their present formulation the reservations
made by Malaysia are clearly incompatible with the object and purpose of the said Convention
and therefore inadmissible under article 28, paragraph 2, of the said Convention. In view of the
above, the Government of Finland objects to these reservations and notes that they are devoid of
legal effect."
       1 November 1996
       With regard to the reservations made by Lesotho upon ratification:
       [Same objection, mutatis mutandis, as the one made for Malaysia.]
       21 November 1996
       With regard to the reservations made by Singapore upon accession:
       [Same objection, mutatis mutandis, as the one made for Malaysia.]
       6 June 1997
       With regard to the declaration made by Pakistan upon accession:
       [Same objection, mutatis mutandis, as the one made for Malaysia.]
       24 October 2000
       With regard to the reservations made by Niger upon accession:
       "The Government of Finland notes that the reservations [..] are not in conformity with the
object and purpose of the Convention. By acceding to the Convention, a State commits itself to
adopt the measures required for the elimination of discrimination against women, in all its forms
and manifestations. This includes taking appropriate measures, including legislation, to modify
or abolish i.e. customs and practices which constitute discrimination against women.
       As it appears evident that the Government of the Republic of Niger will not apply the
Convention with a view to fulfilling its treaty obligations to eliminate all forms of discrimination
against women and submits reservations to some of the most essential provisions of the
Convention, the above-mentioned reservations are in contradiction with the object and purpose
of the Convention.
       The Government of Finland recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention according to
which reservations incompible with object and purpose of the Convention are not permitted.
       The Government of Finland therefore objects to the above-mentioned reservations made by
the Government of Niger to the Convention.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Niger and
Finland. The Convention will thus become operative between the two states without benefitting
from the reservations."
       8 October 2002
       With regard to the reservations made by Saudi Arabia upon ratification:
       "The Government of Finland has examined the contents of the reservations made by the
Government of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Discrimination Against Women.
       The Government of Finland recalls that by acceding to the Convention, a State commits
itself to adopt the measures required for the elimination of discrimination, in all its forms and
manifestations, against women.
       A reservation which consists of a general reference to religious law and national law
without specifying its contents, as the first part of the reservation made by Saudi Arabia, does
not clearly define to other Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State
commits itself to the Convention and therefore creates serious doubts as to the commitment of
the reserving State to fulfil its obligations under the Convention.
       Furthermore, reservations are subject to the general principle of treaty interpretation
according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its domestic law as justification for
a failure to perform its treaty obligations.
       As the reservation to Paragraph 2 of Article 9 aims to exclude one of the fundamental
obligations under the Convention, it is the view of the Government of Finland that the
reservation is not compatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Finland also recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention according to
which reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not
permitted.
       The Government of Finland therefore objects to the above-mentioned reservations made by
the Government of Saudi Arabia to the Convention.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Saudi
Arabia and Finland. The Convention will thus become operative between the two States without
Saudi Arabia benefiting from the reservations."
       5 March 2002
       With regard to the reservations made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon
accession:
       "The Government of Finland has carefully examined the contents of the reservations made
by the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the Convention on the
Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       The Government of Finland recalls that by acceding to the Convention, a State commit
itself to adopt the measures required for the elimination of discrimination, in all its forms and
manifestations, against women.
       The Government of Finland notes that the reservation to paragraph (f) of Article 2 aims at
excluding the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from the obligations to adopt necessary
measures, including those of a legislative character, to eliminate any form of discrimination
against women. This provision touches upon a key element for effective elimination of
discrimination against women.
       The Government of Finland further notes that the reservation to paragraph 2 of Article 9 of
the Convention aims to exclude an obligation of non-discrimination, which is the aim of the
Convention.
       The Government of Finland also recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention according to
which reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not
permitted.
       The Government of Finland finds that the reservations made by the Democratic People's
Republic of Korea are not in conformity with the object and purpose of the Convention and
therefore objects to the said reservations.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
People's Democratic Republic of Korea and Finland. The Convention will thus become operative
between the two States with the People's Democratic Republic of Korea benefiting from the
reservations."
       20 May 2002
       With regard to the reservation made by Mauritania upon accession:
       "The Government of Finland has carefully examined the contents of the reservation made
by the Government of Mauritania to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Discrimination Against Women.
       The Government of Finland notes that a reservation which consists of a general reference
to religious or other national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define to other
Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State commits itself to the
Convention and therefore creates serious doubts as to the commitment of the reserving State to
fulfil its obligations under the Convention.
       Furthermore, reservations are subject to the general principle of treaty interpretation
according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its domestic law as justification for
a failure to perform its treaty obligations.
       The Government of Finland recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention according to
which reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not
permitted.
       The Government of Finland therefore objects to the above-mentioned reservation made by
the Government of Mauritania to the Convention.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Mauritania
and Finland. The Convention will thus become operative between the two states without
Mauritania benefiting from the reservations."
       10 March 2003
       With regard to the reservations made by Bahrain upon accession:
       "The Government of Finland has carefully examined the contents of the reservations made
by the Government of Bahrain to Article 2, paragraph 2 of Article 9, paragraph 4 of Article 15
and to Article 16 of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against
Women.
       The Government of Finland notes that a reservation which consists of a general reference
to religious or other national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define to other
Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State commits itself to the
Convention and therefore creates serious doubts as to the commitment of the receiving State to
fulfil its obligations under the Convention. Such reservations are subject to the general principle
of treaty interpretation according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its domestic
law as justification for a failure to perform its treaty obligations.
       The Government of Finland further notes that the reservations made by Bahrain, addressing
some of the most essential provisions of the Convention, and aiming to exclude some of the
fundamental obligations under it, are in contradiction with the object and purpose of the
Convention.
       The Government of Finland also recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention according to
which reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not
permitted.
       The Government of Finland therefore objects to the above-mentioned reservations made by
the Government of Bahrain to the Convention.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Bahrain
and Finland. The Convention will thus become operative between the two states without Bahrain
benefiting from its reservations."
       17 June 2003
       With regard to the reservations made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:
       "The Government of Finland has carefully examined the contents of the reservations made
by the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to Article 2, paragraph 2 of Article 9, paragraph
4 of Article 15 and to paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g) of Article 16 of the Convention on the
Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       The Government of Finland notes that a reservation which consists of a general reference
to religious or other national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define for other
Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State commits itself to the
Convention and therefore creates serious doubts as to the commitment of the reserving State to
fulfil its obligations under the Convention. Such reservations are subject to the general principle
of treaty interpretation according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its domestic
law as justification for a failure to perform its treaty obligations.
       The Government of Finland further notes that the reservations made by the Syrian Arab
Republic, addressing some of the most essential provisions of the Convention, and aiming to
exclude some of the fundamental obligations under it, are incompatible with the object and
purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Finland also recalls Part VI, Article 28, of the Convention, according
to which reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not
permitted.
       The Government of Finland therefore objects to the afore-mentioned reservations made by
the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to the Convention.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Syrian
Arab Republic and Finland. The Convention will thus become operative between the two states
without the Syrian Arab Republic benefiting from its reservations."
       7 September 2005
       With regard to the reservations made by Micronesia (Federated States of) upon accession:
       "The Government of Finland has carefully examined the contents of the reservations made
by the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia to paragraph (f) of Article 2, Article 5,
paragraphs 1 (d) and 2 (b) of Article 11 and Article 16 of the Convention on the Elimination of
all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       The Government of Finland recalls that by acceding to the Convention, a State commit
itself to adopt the measures required for the elimination of discrimination, in all its forms and
manifestations, against women.
       The Government of Finland notes that the reservations made by Micronesia, addressing
some of the most essential provisions of the Convention, and aiming to exclude the obligations
under those provisions, are in contradiction with the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Finland also recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention according to
which reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not
permitted.
       The Government of Finland therefore objects to the above-mentioned reservations made by
the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia to the Convention. This objection does not
preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Micronesia and Finland. The
Convention will thus become operative between the two states without Micronesia benefiting
from its reservations".
       15 November 2005
       With regard to the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession:
       "The Government of Finland has carefully examined the contents of the reservations made
by the Government of the United Arab Emirates to paragraph (f) of Article 2, Article 9,
paragraph (2) of Article 15 and Article 16 of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Discrimination Against Women,
       The Government of Finland recalls that by acceding to the Convention, a State commits
itself to adopt the measures required for the elimination of discrimination, in all its forms and
manifestations, against women.
       The Government of Finland notes that a reservation which consists of a general reference
to religious or other national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define to other
Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State commits itself to the
Convention and creates serious doubts as to the commitment of the receiving State to fulfil its
obligations under the Convention. Such reservations are, furthermore, subject to the general
principle of treaty interpretation according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its
domestic law as justification for a failure to perform its treaty obligations.
       The Government of Finland notes that the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates,
addressing some of the most essential provisions of the Convention, and aiming to exclude the
obligations under those provisions, are in contradiction with the object and purpose of the
Convention.
       The Government of Finland also recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention according to
which reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not
permitted.
       The Government of Finland therefore objects to the above-mentioned reservations made by
the Government of the United Arab Emirates to the Convention. This objection does not
preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the United Arab Emirates and Finland.
The Convention will thus become operative between the two states without the United Arab
Emirates benefiting from its reservations."
       27 February 2007
       With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
       The Government of Finland has carefully examined the contents of the general reservation
made by the Government of Oman to all provisions of the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women and the specific reservations concerning paragraph 2 of
Article 9, paragraph 4 of Article 15 and paragraphs 1 (a), 1 (c) and 1 (f) of Article 16 of the
Convention.
       The Government of Finland recalls that by acceding to the Convention, a State commits
itself to adopt the measures required for the elimination of discrimination, in all its forms and
manifestations, against women.
       The Government of Finland notes that a reservation which consists of a general reference
to religious or other national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define to other
Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State commits itself to the
Convention and creates serious doubts as to the commitment of the receiving State to fulfil its
obligations under the Convention. Such reservations are, furthermore, subject to the general
principle of treaty interpretation according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its
domestic law as justification for a failure to perform its treaty obligations.
       The Government of Finland also notes that the specific reservations made by Oman,
addressing some of the most essential provisions of the Convention, and aiming to exclude the
obligations under those provisions, are in contradiction with the object and purpose of the
Convention.
       The Government of Finland also recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention, according to
which reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not
permitted.
       The Government of Finland therefore objects to the above-mentioned reservations made by
the Government of Oman to the Convention. This objection does not preclude the entry into
force of the Convention between Oman and Finland. The Convention will thus become operative
between the two States without Oman benefiting from its reservations.
       With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
       The Government of Finland has carefully examined the contents of the general reservation
made by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women and the specific reservation concerning paragraph 2 of
Article 9 of the Convention.
       The Government of Finland recalls that by acceding to the Convention, a State commits
itself to adopt the measures required for the elimination of discrimination, in all its forms and
manifestations, against women.
       The Government of Finland notes that a reservation which consists of a general reference
to religious or other national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define to other
Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State commits itself to the
Convention and creates serious doubts as to the commitment of the receiving State to fulfil its
obligations under the Convention. Such reservations are, furthermore, subject to the general
principle of treaty interpretation according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its
domestic law as justification for a failure to perform its treaty obligations.
       The Government of Finland also notes that the specific reservation made by Brunei
Darussalam concerning paragraph 2 of Article 9 aims to exclude one of the fundamental
obligations under the Convention and is therefore in contradiction with the object and purpose of
the Convention.
       The Government of Finland also recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention, according to
which reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not
permitted.
       The Government of Finland therefore objects to the above-mentioned reservations made by
the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the Convention. This objection does not preclude the
entry into force of the Convention between Brunei Darussalam and Finland. The Convention will
thus become operative between the two States without Brunei Darussalam benefiting from its
reservations.

     France
      26 June 2001
      With regard to reservations made by Saudi Arabia upon ratification:
      The Government of the French Republic has examined the reservations made by the
Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against Women, adopted in New York on 18 December 1979. By stating that
in case of contradiction between any term of the Convention and the norms of Islamic law, it is
not under obligation to observe the terms of the Convention, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
formulates a reservation of general, indeterminate scope that gives the other States parties
absolutely no idea which provisions of the Convention are affected or might be affected in
future. The Government of the French Republic believes that the reservation could make the
provisions of the Convention completely ineffective and therefore objects to it. The second
reservation, concerning article 9, paragraph 2, rules out equality of rights between men and
women with respect to the nationality of their children and the Government of the French
Republic therefore objects to it.
      These objections do not preclude the Convention's entry into force between Saudi Arabia
and France. The reservation rejecting the means of dispute settlement provided for in article 29,
paragraph 1, of the Convention is in conformity with the provisions of article 29, paragraph 2.
      4 March 2002
      With regard to reservations made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon
accession:
      Having considered the reservations and declarations made on 27 February 2001 by the
Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women of 18 December 1979, the Government of the French Republic
objects to the said reservations and declarations relating to article 2, paragraph (f) and article 9,
paragraph 2.
      25 April 2003
      With regard to reservas made by Bahrain upon accession:
      The Government of the Republic of France has examined the reservations made by the
Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women of 18 December 1979. The Government of the
Republic of France considers that, by making the implementation of articles 2 and 16 of the
Convention subject to respect for the Islamic Shariah, the Government of the Kingdom of
Bahrain is making two reservations of such a general and indeterminate scope that it is not
possible to ascertain which changes to obligations under the Convention they are intended to
introduce. Consequently, the Government of France considers that the reservations as formulated
could make the provisions of the Convention completely ineffective. For these reasons, the
Government objects to the reservations made in respect of articles 2 and 16 of the Convention,
which it considers to be reservations likely to be incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention.
      The Government of France objects to the reservations made in respect of article 9,
paragraph 2, and article 15, paragraph 4, of the Convention.
      The Government of France notes that these objections shall not preclude the entry into
force of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
between Bahrain and France.
      21 July 2003
      With regard to reservations made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:
      [The Government of the French Republic has examined the reservations made by the
Syrian Arab Republic upon its accession to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women.
      The Government of the French Republic considers that, by making a reservation to article 2
of the Convention, the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic is making a reservation of
general scope that renders the provisions of the Convention completely ineffective. For this
reason, the French Government objects to the reservation, which it considers to be incompatible
with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The French Government objects to the reservations made to article 9, paragraph 2, article
15, paragraph 4, and article 16, paragraphs 1 and 2, of the Convention. The French Government
notes that these objections do not preclude the entry into force of the 1979 Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women between Syria and France.
      18 November 2005
      With regard to the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession:
      The Government of the French Republic has examined the reservations formulated by the
United Arab Emirates upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women, of 18 December 1979, according to which the United Arab
Emirates, on the one hand, does not consider itself bound by the provisions of article 2 (f) and
article 15, paragraph 2, because they are contrary to the sharia and, on the other, states that it will
abide by the provisions of article 16 insofar as they are not in conflict with the principles of the
sharia. The Government of the French Republic considers that, by precluding the application of
these provisions, or by making it subject to the principles of the sharia, the United Arab Emirates
is formulating reservations with a general scope depriving the provisions of the Convention of
any effect. The Government of the French Republic considers that these reservations are contrary
to the object and purpose of the Convention and enters an objection thereto. The Government of
the French Republic also objects to the reservation formulated to article 9. These objections shall
not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between France and the United Arab
Emirates.
      13 February 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
      The Government of the French Republic has considered the reservations made by the
Sultanate of Oman upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women of 18 December 1979, according to which the Sultanate of Oman
does not consider itself bound by "any provisions of the Convention which are incompatible with
Islamic Sharia or with the laws in force in the Sultanate of Oman", or by the provisions of article
9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4 and article 16, in particular paragraph 1 (a), (c) and (f).
The Government of the French Republic considers that, by ruling out the application of the
Convention or subordinating it to Sharia principles and the laws in force, the Sultanate of Oman
is making a reservation of a general and indeterminate nature, thereby depriving the provisions
of the Convention of any effect. The Government of the French Republic considers this
reservation to be contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention and therefore wishes to
register an objection thereto. The Government of the French Republic also objects to the
reservations made to article 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4 and article 16, in particular
paragraph 1 (a), (c) and (f). These objections shall not prevent the entry into force of the
Convention between France and the Sultanate of Oman.
      13 June 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      The Government of the French Republic has examined the reservations made by Brunei
Darussalam upon acceding to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women, of 18 December 1979. The Government of the French Republic believes that in
"expressing" reservations regarding provisions of the Convention "that may be contrary to the
Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam", Brunei
Darussalam is making a reservation of broad and indeterminate scope which does not allow the
other States Parties to ascertain which provisions of the Convention are envisaged and which
may render the provisions of the Convention null and void. The Government of the French
Republic believes that this reservation is incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention and objects to it. The Government of the French Republic also objects to the
reservation made specifically to article 9, paragraph 2 of the Convention. These objections shall
not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between France and Brunei Darussalam.

      Germany <22>
      The Federal Republic of Germany considers that the reservations made by Egypt regarding
article 2, article 9, paragraph 2, and article 16, by Bangladesh regarding article 2, article 13 (a)
and article 16, paragraph 1 (c), and (f), by Brazil regarding article 15, paragraph 4, and article 16,
paragraph 1 (a), (c), (g) and (h), by Jamaica regarding article 9, paragraph 2, by the Republic of
Korea regarding article 9 and article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g), and by Mauritius
regarding article 11, paragraph 1 (b) and (d), and article 16, paragraph 1 (g), are incompatible
with the object and purpose of the Convention (article 28, paragraph 2) and therefore objects to
them. In relation to the Federal Republic of Germany, they may not be invoked in support of a
legal practice which does not pay due regard to the legal status afforded to women and children
in the Federal Republic of Germany in conformity with the above-mentioned articles of the
Convention. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention as between
Egypt, Bangladesh, Brazil, Jamaica, the Republic of Korea, Mauritius and the Federal Republic
of Germany.
      Objections of the same nature were also formulated by the Government of the Federal
Republic of Germany in regard to reservations made by various states, as follows:
      i) 15 October 1986: In respect of reservations formulated by the Government of Thailand
concerning article 9, paragraph 2, article 10, article 11, paragraph 1 (b), article 15, paragraph 3
and article 16; (The Federal Republic of Germany also holds the view that the reservation made
by Thailand regarding article 7 of the Convention is likewise incompatible with the object and
purpose of the Convention because for all matters which concern national security it reserves in a
general and thus unspecific manner the right of the Royal Thai Government to apply the
provisions only within the limits established by national laws, regulations and practices).
      ii) 15 October 1986: In respect of reservations and some declarations formulated by the
Government of Tunisia concerning article 9, paragraph 2 and article 16, as well as the
declaration concerning article 15, paragraph 4.
      iii) 3 March 1987: In respect of reservations made by the Government of Turkey to article
15, paragraphs 2 and 4, and article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g); in respect of reservations
made by the Government of Iraq with regard to article 2, paragraphs (f) and (g), article 9 and
article 16.
      iv) 7 April 1988: In respect of the first reservation made by Malawi.
      v) 20 June 1990: In respect of the reservation made by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
      vi) 24 October 1994: In respect of the reservations made by Maldives.
      vii) 8 October 1996: In respect of the reservations made by Malaysia.
      viii) 28 May 1997: In respect of the declaration made by Pakistan.
      ix) 19 June 1997: In respect of the reservation made by Algeria.
      19 January 2001
      With regard to the reservations made by Saudi Arabia upon ratification:
      "The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany is of the view that the reservation,
with regard to compatibility of CEDAW rules with Islamic law, raises doubts as to the
commitment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to CEDAW. The Government of the Federal
Republic of Germany considers this reservation to be incompatible with the object and purpose
of the Convention.
      The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany notes furthermore that the
reservation to Paragraph 2 of article 9 of CEDAW aims to exclude one obligation of non-
discrimination which is so important in the context of CEDAW as to render this reservation
contrary to the essence of the Convention.
       The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany therefore objects to the aforesaid
reservations made by the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on
Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Federal
Republic of Germany and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia."
       2 October 2001
       With regard to the reservations made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon
accession:
       "The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has examined the reservations to the
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) made
by the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon its accession to the
Convention. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany is of the view that the
reservations to article 2 paragraph (f) and article 9 paragraph 2 of CEDAW are incompatible
with the object and purpose of the Convention, for they aim at excluding the Democratic
People's Republic of Korea's obligations in respect of two basic aspects of the Convention.
       The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany therefore objects to the aforesaid
reservations made by the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the
Convention on all Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Federal
Republic of Germany and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea."
       14 March 2002
       With regard to the reservation made by Mauritania upon accession:
       "The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has examined the reservation to the
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women made by the
Government of Mauritania at the time of its accession to the Convention. The Government of the
Federal Republic of Germany is of the view that the reservation with regard to the compatibility
of the rules of the Convention with the precepts of Islamic Sharia and the Constitution of
Mauritania raises doubts as to the commitment of Mauritania to fulfil its obligations under the
Convention. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany consers this reservation to be
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention. Therefore the Government of the
Federal Republic of Germany objects to the aforesaid reservation made by the Government of
Mauritania to the Convention.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Federal
Republic of Germany and Mauritania."
       18 February 2003
       With regard to the reservations made by Bahrain upon accession:
       "The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has examined the reservations to the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women made by the
Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain at the time of accession to the Convention.
       The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany is of the view that the reservations
with regard to the compatibility of the rules of articles 2 and 16 of the Convention with the
precepts of Islamic Shariah raises doubts as to the commitment of the Kingdom of Bahrain to
fulfil its obligations under the Convention. These reservations are therefore incompatible with
the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The reservations to article 9 paragraph 2 and article 15 paragraph 4, if put into practice,
would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
       According to article 28 paragraph 2 of the Convention reservations incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
       Therefore, the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany objects to the aforesaid
reservations made by the Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain to the Convention.
      This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Federal
Republic of Germany and the Kingdom of Bahrain."
      25 August 2003
      With regard to the reservations made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:
      "The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has examined the reservations made
by the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women in respect of Article 2; Article 9, paragraph 2; Article
15, paragraph 4; Article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g); and Article 16, paragraph 2.
      The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany finds that the aforesaid reservations
would allow to limit the responsibilities of the reserving State with regard to essential provisions
of the Convention and therefore raise doubts as to the commitment assumed by this State in
acceding to the Convention.
      Consequently, the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany considers that these
reservations are incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      According to Article 28, paragraph 2 of the Convention reservations incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
      The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany therefore objects to the
aforementioned reservations made by the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
      This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Federal
Republic of Germany and the Syrian Arab Republic."
      9 November 2005
      With regard to the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession:
      The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has carefully examined the
reservations made by the Government of the United Arab Emirates upon accession to the
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. It
is of the opinion that from the reservations to Article 2 (f), Article 15 (2) and Article 16, which
give a specific legal system, the Islamic Sharia, precedence as a rule over the provisions of the
Convention, it is unclear to what extent the UAE feels bound by the obligations of the
Convention.
      Moreover, the reservations to Article 9 (2) and Article 15 (2) would in practice result in a
legal situation that discriminated against women, which would not be compatible with the object
and purpose of the Convention.
      Pursuant to Article 28 (2) of the Convention, reservations that are incompatible with the
object and purpose of the present Convention shall not be permitted.
      The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany therefore objects to the above-
mentioned reservations made by the Government of the United Arab Emirates to the Convention
on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. This objection shall not
preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Federal Republic of Germany and
the United Arab Emirates.
      28 August 2006
      With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
      "The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has carefully examined the
reservations made by the Sultanate of Oman on 7 February 2006 upon accession to the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women of 18 December
1979. The reservations state the Sultanate of Oman does not consider itself bound by provisions
of the Convention that are not in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic Sharia and
legislation in force in the Sultanate of Oman, and also state that it is not bound by Article 9 (2),
Article 15 (4) and Article 16, subparagraphs (a), (c) and (f) of the Convention.
      The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany is of the opinion that by giving
precedence to the principles of the Sharia and its own national law over the application of the
provisions of the Convention, the Sultanate of Oman has made a reservation which leaves it
unclear to what extent it feels bound by the obligations of the Convention and which is
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention. Furthermore, the reservations to
Article 9 (2), Article 15 (4) and Article 16 will unavoidably result in a legal situation that
discriminates against women, which is incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention.
      Pursuant to Article 28 (2) of the Convention, reservations that are incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
      The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany therefore objects to the above-
mentioned reservations. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention
between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Sultanate of Oman."
      19 December 2006
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has carefully examined the
reservations made by Brunei Darussalam on 24 May 2006 upon accession to the Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women of 18 December 1979. The
reservations state that Brunei Darussalam does not consider itself bound by provisions of the
Convention that are contrary to the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and
principles of Islam, in particular Article 9 (2) of the Convention.
      The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany is of the opinion that by giving
precedence to the beliefs and principles of Islam and its own constitutional law over the
application of the provisions of the Convention, Brunei Darussalam has made a reservation
which leaves it unclear to what extent it feels bound by the obligations of the Convention and
which incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention. Furthermore, the reservation
to Article 9 (2) will unavoidably result in a legal situation that discriminates against women,
which is incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention,
      Pursuant to Article 28 (2) of the Convention, reservations that are incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
      The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany therefore objects to the above-
mentioned reservations. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention
between the Federal Republic of Germany and Brunei Darussalam."

      Greece
      13 June 2003
      With regard to reservations made by Bahrain upon accession:
      "The Government of the Hellenic Republic has examined the reservations made by the
Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of
all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
      The Government of the Hellenic Republic considers that the reservations with respect to
articles 2 and 16, which contain a reference to the provisions of the Islamic Sharia are of
unlimited scope and, therefore, incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of the Hellenic Republic recalls that, according to article 28 (para 2) of
the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall
not be permitted.
      The Government of the Hellenic Republic therefore objects to the aforementioned
reservations made by the Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain to the Convention on the
Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women. This shall not preclude the entry
into force of the Convention in its entirety between Bahrain and Greece."
      4 March 2004
      With regard to the reservations made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:
      "The Government of the Hellenic Republic has examined the reservations made by the
Government of the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination
of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
      The Government of the Hellenic Republic is of the view that the reservation with respect to
article 2, which is a core provision of the Convention, is of a general character and is, therefore,
contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
      It also considers that the reservation regarding article 16, paragraph 2 which contains a
reference to the provisions of the Islamic Shariah is of unlimited scope and is, similarly,
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of the Hellenic Republic recalls that according to article 28 paragraph 2
of the Convention, a reservation which is incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention shall not be permitted.
      Consequently, the Government of the Hellenic Republic objects to the aforementioned
reservations made by the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This shall not preclude the entry
into force of the Convention between Syria and Greece."
      4 October 2005
      With regard to the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession:
      "The Government of the Hellenic Republic have examined the reservations made by the
Government of the United Arab Emirates upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination
of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (New York, 18 December 1979).
      The Government of the Hellenic Republic consider that the reservations in respect of
Articles 2 (f), which is a core provision of the above Convention, 15 paragraph 2 and 16, all
containing a reference to the provisions of the Islamic Shariah, are of unlimited scope and,
therefore, incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of the Hellenic Republic recall that, according to Article 28 paragraph 2
of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention
shall not be permitted.
      Consequently, the Government of the Hellenic Republic object to the aforementioned
reservations made by the Government of the United Arab Emirates. This objection shall not
preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Greece and the United Arab Emirates."
      29 January 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
      "The Government of the Hellenic Republic have examined the reservations formulated by
the Sultanate of Oman upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women of 18 December 1979.
      The Government of the Hellenic Republic consider that the reservation to "all provisions of
the Convention not in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic sharia and legislation in
force in the Sultanate of Oman" is of unlimited scope and undefined character, while,
furthermore, subjects the application of the Convention to the domestic law of the Sultanate of
Oman. It is, therefore, incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      Moreover, the Government of the Hellenic Republic consider that the reservations to
articles 9 par. 2, 15 par. 4 and 16 do not specify the extent of the derogation therefrom and,
therefore, are incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of the Hellenic Republic recall that, according to Article 28 paragraph 2
of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention
shall not be permitted.
      For these reasons, the Government of the Hellenic Republic object to the abovementioned
reservations formulated by the Sultanate of Oman.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Greece
and the Sultanate of Oman."
      15 June 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "The Government of the Hellenic Republic consider that the reservation "regarding those
provisions of the said Convention that may be contrary to the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam
and to the beliefs and principles of Islam, the official religion of Brunei Darussalam" is of
unlimited scope and undefined character, while furthermore, subjects the application of the
Convention to the constitutional law of Brunei Darussalam and the beliefs and principles of
Islam. It is, therefore, incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      Moreover, the Government of the Hellenic Republic consider that the reservation to article
9 par. 2 does not specify the extent of the derogation therefrom and, therefore, are incompatible
with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of the Hellenic Republic recall that, according to Article 28 paragraph 2
of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention
shall not be permitted.
      For these reasons, the Government of the Hellenic Republic object to the abovementioned
reservations formulated by Brunei Darussalam.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Greece
and Brunei Darussalam."

      Hungary
      7 February 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
      "The Government of the Republic of Hungary has examined the reservations made by the
Sultanate of Oman on 7 February 2006 upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women of 18 December 1979. The reservations state the
Sultanate of Oman does not consider itself bound by the provisions of the Convention that are
not in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic Sharia and legislation in force in the
Sultanate of Oman, and also state that it is not bound by Article 9 (2), Article 15 (4) and Article
16, subparagraphs (a), (c) and (f) of the Convention.
      The Government of the Republic of Hungary is of the opinion that by giving precedence to
the principles of the Sharia and its own national law over the application of the provisions of the
Convention, the Sultanate of Oman has made a reservation which leaves it unclear to what extent
it feels bound by the obligations of the Convention and which is incompatible with the object
and purpose of the Convention. Furthermore, the reservations to Article 9 (2), Article 15 (4) and
Article 16 will unavoidably result in a legal situation that discriminates against women, which is
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      Pursuant to Article 28 (2) of the Convention, reservations that are incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
      The Government of the Republic of Hungary therefore objects to the above-mentioned
reservations. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Republic of Hungary and the Sultanate of Oman."
      24 April 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "The Government of the Republic of Hungary has examined the reservation made by the
Brunei Darussalam on 24 May 2006 upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women of 18 December 1979. The reservation states that the
Brunei Darussalam does not consider itself bound by Article 9 (2) of the Convention.
      The Government of the Republic of Hungary is of the opinion that the reservation to
Article 9 (2) will unavoidably result in a legal situation that discriminates against women, which
is incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      Pursuant to Article 28 (2) of the Convention, reservations that are incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
      The Government of the Republic of Hungary therefore objects to the above-mentioned
reservation. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Republic of Hungary and the Brunei Darussalam."
      Ireland
      2 October 2001
      With regard to the reservations made by Saudi Arabia upon ratification:
      "The Government of Ireland has examined the reservation made, on 7 September 2000, by
the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination Against Women, in respect of any divergence between the terms of the
Convention and the norms of Islamic law. It has also examined the reservation made on the same
date by the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to Article 9, paragraph 2 of the
Convention concerning the granting to women of equal rights with men with respect to the
nationality of their children.
      As to the former of the aforesaid reservations, the Government of Ireland is of the view that
a reservation which consists of a general reference to religious law without specifying the
content thereof and which does not clearly specify the provisions of the Convention to which it
applies and the extent of the derogation therefrom, may cast doubts on the commitment of the
reserving State to fulfil its obligations under the Convention. The Government of Ireland is
furthermore of the view that such a general reservation may undermine the basis of international
treaty law.
      As to the reservation to Article 9, paragraph 2 of the Convention, the Government of
Ireland considers that such a reservation aims to exclude one obligation of non-discrimination
which is so important in the context of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women as to render this reservation contrary to the essence of the
Convention. The Government of Ireland notes in this connection that Article 28, paragraph 2 of
the Convention provides that a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention shall not be permitted.
      The Government of Ireland moreover recalls that by ratifying the Convention, a State
commits itself to adopt the measures required for the elimination of discrimination, in all its
forms and manifestations, against women.
      The Government of Ireland therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the
Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination Against Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Ireland
and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia."
      19 December 2006
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "The Government of Ireland has examined the reservation made on 24 May 2006 by
Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against
Women at the time of its accession thereto.
      The Government of Ireland notes that Brunei Darussalam subjects application of the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women to the
Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam. The Government of
Ireland is of the view that a reservation which consists of a general reference to religious law and
to the Constitution of the reserving State and which does not clearly specify the provisions of the
Convention to which it applies and the extent of the derogation therefrom, may cast doubts on
the commitment of the reserving State to fulfil its obligations under the Convention. The
Government of Ireland is furthermore of the view that such a general reservation may undermine
the basis of international treaty law and is incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention. The Government of Ireland recalls that according to Article 28, paragraph 2 of the
Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not
be permitted.
      The Government of Ireland further considers that the reservation made with respect to
Article 9, paragraph 2 is incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of Ireland therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the
Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against
Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Ireland
and Brunei Darussalam."
      With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
      "The Government of Ireland has examined the reservation made on 7 February 2006 by the
Sultanate of Oman to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women at the time of its accession thereto.
      The Government of Ireland notes that the Sultanate of Oman subjects application of the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women to the provisions
of Islamic sharia and legislation in force in the Sultanate. The Government of Ireland is of the
view that a reservation which consists of a general reference to religious law and to the
Constitution of the reserving State and which does not clearly specify the provisions of the
Convention to which it applies and the extent of the derogation therefrom, may cast doubts on
the commitment of the reserving state to fulfil its obligations under the Convention. The
Government of Ireland is furthermore of the view that such a general reservation may undermine
the basis of international treaty law and is incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention. The Government of Ireland recalls that according to Article 28, paragraph 2 of the
Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not
be permitted.
      The Government of Ireland further considers that the reservations made with respect to
Article 9, paragraph 2, Article 15, paragraph 4 and Article 16 of the Convention are incompatible
with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of Ireland therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the
Sultanate of Oman to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Ireland
and the Sultanate of Oman."

      Italy
      2 September 2003
      With regard to the reservations made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:
      "The Government of Italy has examined the reservations made by the Government of the
Syrian Arab Republic at the time of its accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women, regarding article 2, article 9, paragraph 2, article 15,
paragraph 4, article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g), and article 16, paragraph 2.
      The Government of Italy considers that the reservations to article 2, article 9, paragraph 2,
article 15, paragraph 4, article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g) are incompatible with the
object and purpose of the above-mentioned Convention, as they contrast with the commitment of
all parties to an effective implementation of the basic principles established in the Convention.
      Furthermore, the Government of Italy underlines that the reservation with respect to article
16, paragraph 2, of the Convention, concerning the Islamic Sharia of the Syrian Arab Republic,
may limit the responsibilities and obligations of the reserving State under the Convention, and
therefore raises serious doubts about the real extent of the commitment undertaken by the Syrian
Arab Republic at the time of its accession to the Convention.
      The Government of Italy recalls that, according to article 28, paragraph 2 of the
Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not
be permitted.
      As a consequence, the Government of Italy objects to the above-mentioned reservations
made by the Syrian Arab Republic the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      This objection, however, shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between
the Government of Italy and the Syrian Arab Republic."
      15 June 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by the Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "... the Government of Italy has carefully examined the reservations made by Brunei
Darussalam on 24 May 2006 upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination Against Women of 18 December 1979. The reservations state that Brunei
Darussalam does not consider itself bound by provisions of the Convention that are contrary to
the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam, in particular
Article 9 (2) of the Convention.
      The Government of Italy is of the opinion that by giving precedence to the beliefs and
principles of Islam and its own constitutional law over the application of the provisions of the
Convention, Brunei Darussalam has made a reservation which leaves it unclear to what extent it
feels bound by the obligations of the Convention and which is incompatible with the object and
purpose of the Convention. Furthermore, the reservation to Article 9 (2) will unavoidably result
in a legal situation that discriminates against women, which is incompatible with the object and
purpose of the Convention. Pursuant to Article 28 (2) of the Convention, reservations that are
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
      The Government of Italy therefore objects to the above-mentioned reservations. This
objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Italy and Brunei
Darussalam."
      9 July 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
      "..., the Government of Italy has carefully examined the reservations made by the Sultanate
of Oman on 7 February 2006 upon accession to the above mentioned Convention. The
reservations state that the Sultanate of Oman does not consider itself bound by provisions of the
Convention that are not in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic Sharia and legislation in
force in the Sultanate of Oman, and also state that it is not bound by Article 9 (2), Article 15 (4)
and Article 16, subparagraphs (a), (c) and (f) of the Convention.
      The Government of Italy is of the opinion that by giving precedence to the principles of the
Sharia and its own national law over the application of the provisions of the Convention, the
Sultanate of Oman has made a reservation which leaves it unclear to what extent it feels bound
by the obligations of the Convention and which is incompatible with the object and purpose of
the Convention. Pursuant to Article 28 (2) of the Convention, reservations that are incompatible
with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
      The Government of Italy therefore objects to the above-mentioned reservations. This
objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Italy and the
Sultanate of Oman."

      Latvia
      4 October 2005
      With regard to the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession:
      "The Government of the Republic of Latvia has carefully examined the reservations made
by the United Arab Emirates to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women upon accession to the Convention regarding Article 2 (f), Article
15 (2), and Article 16 thereof.
      The Government of the Republic of Latvia considers that the reservations made by the
United Arab Emirates contain general reference to national law without making specific
reference to the extent of the obligations the United Arab Emirates are accepting.
      Moreover, the Government of the Republic of Latvia is of the opinion that these
reservations contradict to the object and purpose of the Convention and in particular to
obligation all States Parties to pursue by all appropriate means and without delay a policy of
eliminating discrimination against women.
      The Government of the Republic of Latvia recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention
setting out that reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not
permitted.
      The Government of the Republic of Latvia therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations
made by the United Arab Emirates to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      However, this objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between
the Republic of Latvia and the United Arab Emirates."
      6 December 2006
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "The Government of the Republic of Latvia has carefully examined the reservations made
by the Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women upon accession to the Convention regrading paragraph 2 of Article 9, paragraph
1 of Article 29.
      The Government of the Republic of Latvia considers that the ai of the said Convention is to
grant the equality between men and women and therefore the distinction between genders
regarding the rights to determinate the nationality of children is not in accordance with the aim
of the said convention.
      Moreover, the reservation made by the Brunei Darussalam regarding paragraph 1 of Article
29 is in accordance with the Convention and general principles of international law, because any
state may declare that it is not bound by some mechanism of settlement of disputes.
      The Government of the Republic of Latvia recalls Article 28 of the Convention setting out
that reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not permitted.
      The Government of the Republic of Latvia, therefore, objects to the aforesaid reservation
made by the Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      However, this objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between
the Republic of Latvia and the Brunei Darussalam. Thus, the Convention will become operative
without the Brunei Darussalam benefiting from its reservation."
      With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
      "The Government of the Republic of Latvia has carefully examined the reservations made
by the Sultanate of Oman to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women upon accession to the Convention regarding Article 9 paragraph 2, article 15
paragraph 4 and article 16.
      The Government of the Republic of Latvia considers that the aim of the said Convention is
to grant the equality between men and women and therefore the distinction between genders
regarding the rights to determinate the nationality of children is not in accordance with the aim
of the said convention.
      Moreover, the rights to determine its own domicile, is a part of the free movement of
person, is very important part of human rights and, thus no limitations may be permitted to the
said right.
      The Government of the Republic of Latvia is of the opinion that the equality between
spouses is a very important issue and, therefore, no exemption regarding the said rights is
acceptable.
      Moreover, the Government of the Republic of Latvia is of the opinion that these
reservations made by the Sultanate of Oman contradict to the object and purpose of the
Convention and in particular to the obligation of all States Parties to pursue by all appropriate
means and without delay a policy of eliminating the discrimination against women.
      The Government of the Republic of Latvia recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention
setting out that reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not
permitted.
      The Government of the Republic of Latvia, therefore, objects to the aforesaid reservations
made by the Sultanate of Oman to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      However, this objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between
the Republic of Latvia and the Sultanate of Oman. Thus, the Convention will become operative
without the Sultanate of Oman benefiting from its reservation."

      Mexico
      11 January 1985
      The Government of the United Mexican States has studied the content of the reservations
made by Mauritius to article 11, paragraph 1 (b) and (d), and article 16, paragraph 1 (g), of the
Convention and has concluded that they should be considered invalid in the light of article 28,
paragraph 2, of the Convention, because they are incompatible with its object and purpose.
      Indeed, these reservations, if implemented, would inevitably result in discrimination
against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to all the articles of the Convention. The
principles of equal rights of men and women and non-discrimination on the basis of sex, which
are embodied in the second preambular paragraph and Article 1, paragraph 3, of the Charter of
the United Nations, to which Mauritius is a signatory, and in articles 2 and 16 of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights of 1948, were previously accepted by the Government of
Mauritius when it acceded, on 12 December 1973, to the International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The
above principles were stated in article 2, paragraph 1, and article 3 of the former Covenant and in
article 2, paragraph 2, and article 3 of the latter. Consequently, it is inconsistent with these
contractual obligations previously assumed by Mauritius for its Government now to claim that it
has reservations, on the same subject, about the 1979 Convention.
      The objection of the Government of the United Mexican States to the reservations in
question should not be interpreted as an impediment to the entry into force of the 1979
Convention between the United Mexican States and Mauritius.
      Objections, identical in essence, mutatis mutandis, were also formulated by the
Government of Mexico in regard to reservations made by various States, as follows [for the
States which were not Parties to the Covenants (marked below with an asterisk*), the
participation in the Covenants was not invoked by Mexico in its objection with regard to
reservations]:
      i) 21 February 1985: In respect of reservations by Bangladesh* concerning article 2, article
13 (a) and article 16 paragraph 1 (c) and (f).
      ii) 21 February 1985: In respect of the reservation by Jamaica concerning article 9 (2).
      iii) 22 May 1985: In respect of reservations by New Zealand (applicable to the Cook
Islands) concerning article 2 (f) and article 5 (a).
      iv) 6 June 1985: In respect of reservations by the Republic of Korea concerning article 9
and article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (e), (f) and (g). In this case, the Government of Mexico stated
that the principles of the equal rights of men and women and of non-discrimination on the basis
of sex, which are set forth in the Charter of the United Nations as one of its purposes in the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and in various multilateral instruments, have
already become general principles of international law which apply to the international
community, to which the Republic of Korea belongs.
      v) 29 January 1986: In respect of the reservation made by Cyprus to article 9, paragraph 2.
      vi) 7 May 1986: In respect of the reservations made by Turkey* to paragraphs 2 and 4 of
article 15 and paragraphs 1 (c), 1 (d), 1 (f) and 1 (g) of article 16.
      vii) 16 July 1986: In respect of reservations made by Egypt to articles 9 and 16.
     viii) 16 October 1986: In respect of reservations by Thailand* concerning article 9,
paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 3 and article 16.
     ix) 4 December 1986: In respect of reservations by Iraq concerning article 2, paragraphs (f)
and (g), article 9, paragraphs 1 and 2 and article 16.
     x) 23 July 1990: In respect of the reservation made by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.

      Netherlands
      "The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the reservations made
by Bangladesh regarding article 2, article 13 (a) and article 16, paragraph 1 (c) and (f), by Egypt
regarding article 2, article 9 and article 16, by Brazil regarding article 15, paragraph 4, and
article 16, paragraph 1 (a), (c), (g), and (h), by Iraq regarding article 2, sub-paragraphs (f) and
(g), article 9 and article 16, by Mauritius regarding article 11, paragraph 1 (b) and (d), and article
16, paragraph 1 (g), by Jamaica regarding article 9, paragraph 2, by the Republic of Korea
regarding article 9 and article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g), by Thailand regarding article
9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 3, and article 16, by Tunisia regarding article 9, paragraph
2, article 15, paragraph 4, and article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (f), (g) and (h), by Turkey
regarding article 15, paragraphs 2 and 4, and article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g), by the
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya upon accession, and the first paragraph of the reservations made by
Malawi upon accession, are incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention (article
28, paragraph 2).
      "These objections shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention as between
Bangladesh, Egypt, Brazil, Iraq, Mauritius, Jamaica, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Tunisia,
Turkey, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Malawi and the Kingdom of the Netherlands."
      14 July 1994
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the declarations made
by India regarding article 5 (a) and article 16, paragraph 1. of the Convention are reservations
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention (article 28, paragraph 2).
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the declaration made by
India regarding article 16, paragraph 2, of the Convention is a reservation incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention (article 28, para. 2).
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the declaration made by
Morocco expressing the readiness of Morocco to apply the provisions of article 2 provided that
they do not conflict with the provisions of the Islamic Shariah, is a reservation incompatible with
the object and purpose of the Convention (article 28, paragraph 2).
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the declaration made by
Morocco regarding article 15, paragraph 4, of the Convention is a reservation incompatible with
the object and purpose of the Convention (article 28, paragraph 2).
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the reservations made
by Morocco regarding article 9, paragraph 2, and article 16 of the Convention are reservations
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention (article 28, paragraph 2).
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands has examined the reservations made
by the Maldives [...]. The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers the said
reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands objects to the above-mentioned
declarations and reservations.
      These objections shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention as between India,
Morocco, the Maldives and the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
      16 January 1996
      With regard to the reservations made by Kuwait upon accession:
      "The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers the reservations made by
Kuwait incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention (article 28, paragraph 2).
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to the [said]
reservations. These objections shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between
Kuwait and the Kingdom of the Netherlands."
      15 October 1996
      With regard to the reservations made by Malaysia upon accession:
      "The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers... that such reservations,
which seeks to limit the responsibilities of the reserving State under the Convention by invoking
the general principles of national law and the Constitution, may raise doubts as to the
commitment of this State to the object and purpose of the Convention and, moreover contribute
to undermining the basis of international treaty law. It is in the common interest of States that
treaties to which they have chosen to become parties should be respected, as to object and
purpose, by all parties.
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands further considers that the reservations
made by Malaysia regarding article 2 (f), article 5 (a), article 9 and article 16 of the Convention
are incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to the above-
mentioned reservations. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention
between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Malaysia."
      1 November 1996
      With regard to the reservations made by Fiji upon accession and Lesotho upon ratification:
      [Same objection, mutatis mutandis, as the one made for Malaysia.]
      20 November 1996
      With regard to the reservations made by Singapore upon accession:
      "The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands... considers:
      - that the reservation under (1) is incompatible with the purpose of the Convention;
      - that the reservation under (2) suggests a distinction between migrating men and migrating
women, and by that is an implicit reservation regarding article 9 of the Convention, which is
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention;
      - that the reservation under (3), particularly the last part "...and considers that legislation in
respect of article 11 is unnecessary for the minority of women who do not fall within the ambit
of Singapore's employment legislation" is a reservation, which seeks to limit the responsibilities
of the reserving State under the Convention by invoking the general principles of its national
law, and in this particular case to exclude the application of the said article for a specific
category of women, and therefore may raise doubts as to the commitment of this State to the
object and purpose of the Convention and, moreover, contribute to undermining the basis of
international treaty law. It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have
chosen to become parties should be respected, as to object and purpose, by all parties;
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to the above-
mentioned reservations.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Singapore
and the Kingdom of the Netherlands."
      30 May 1997
      With regard to the declaration made by Pakistan upon accession:
      [Same objection, mutatis mutandis, as the one made for Malaysia.]
      1 July 1997
      With regard to the reservations made by Algeria upon accession:
      [Same objection, mutatis mutandis, as the one made for Malaysia.]
      15 May 1998
      With regard to the reservations regarding article 9, paragraph 2, and article 16 first
paragraph (c), (d), (f) and (g) made by Lebanon upon accession:
      [Same objection, mutatis mutandis, as the one made for Kuwait.]
      18 September 2001
      With regard to the reservations made by Saudi Arabia upon ratification:
      "The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands has examined the reservations made
by the Government of Saudi Arabia at the time of its [ratification of] the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the reservation
concning the national law of Saudi Arabia, which seeks to limit the responsibilities of the
reserving State under the Convention by invoking national law, may raise doubts as to the
commitment of this State to the object and purpose of the Convention and, moreover, contribute
to undermining the basis of international treaty law.
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands furthermore considers that the
reservation made by Saudi Arabia regarding article 9, paragraph 2, of the Convention is
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention. The Government of the Kingdom of
the Netherlands recalls that according to paragraph 2 of Article 28 of the Convention, a
reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
      It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
party should be respected, as to object and purpose, by all parties. The Government of the
Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the
Government of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Kingdom of the Netherlands and Saudi Arabia."
      With regard to the reservations made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon
accession:
      "The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands has examined the reservations made
by the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea regarding article 2, paragraph
(f), and article 9, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women made at the time of its accession to the said Convention.
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the reservations made
by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea regarding article 2, paragraph (f), and article 9,
paragraph 2, of the Convention are reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention. The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands recalls that, according to
paragraph 2 of Article 28 of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and
purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
      It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
party are respected, as to their object and purpose, by all parties and that States are prepared to
take all appropriate measures, including legislation to comply with their obligations.
      The Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to the afore-said reservations made by
the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea."
      8 February 2002
      With regard to the reservation made by Mauritania upon accession:
      "The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands has examined the reservation made
by the Government of Mauritania at the time of its accession to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and considers that the reservation
concerning the Islamic Sharia and the national law of Mauritania, which seeks to limit the
responsibilities of the reserving State under the Convention by invoking the Sharia and national
law, may raise doubts as to the commitment of this State to the object and purpose of the
Convention and, moreover, contribute to undermining the basis of international treaty law. The
Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands recalls that, according to paragraph 2 of Article
28 of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention
shall not be permitted.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
party are respected, as to their object and purpose, by all parties and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to the aforesaid
reservation made by the Government of Mauritania to the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Kingdom of the Netherlands and Mauritania."
       22 November 2002
       With regard to the reservations made by Bahrain upon accession:
       The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands has examined the reservations made
by the Government of Bahrain at the time of its accession to the Convention on the Elimination
of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the reservations with
respect to article 9, paragraph 2, and article 15, paragraph 4, of the Convention are reservations
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
       Furthermore, the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the
reservations with respect to articles 2 and 16 of the Convention, concerning the Islamic Shariah
of Bahrain, reservations which seek to limit the responsibilities of the reserving State under the
Convention by invoking the Islamic Shariah, may raise doubts as to the commitment of this State
to the object and purpose of the Convention and, moreover, contribute to undermining the basis
of international treaty law.
       The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands recalls that, according to paragraph 2
of Article 28 of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention shall not be permitted.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
party are respected, as to their object and purpose, by all parties and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
       The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to the aforesaid
reservations made by the Government of Bahrain to the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Kingdom of the Netherlands and Bahrain.
       27 May 2003
       With regard to the reservations made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:
       "The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands has examined the reservations made
by the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic at the time of its accession to the Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the reservations with
respect to article 2, article 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4, and article 16, paragraph 1 (c),
(d), (f) and (g), of the Convention are reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of
the Convention.
       Furthermore, the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the
reservation with respect to article 16, paragraph 2, of the Convention, concerning the Islamic
Shariah of the Syrian Arab Republic, a reservation which seeks to limit the responsibilities of the
reserving State under the Convention by invoking the Islamic Shariah, may raise doubts as to the
commitment of this State to the object and purpose of the Convention and, moreover, contribute
to undermining the basis of international treaty law. The Government of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands recalls that, according to paragraph 2 of article 28 of the Convention, a reservation
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
party are respected, as to their object and purpose, by all Pares and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
       The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to the aforesaid
reservations made by the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Syrian Arab Republic."
       31 May 2005
       With regard to the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession:
       "The Government of the Netherlands has examined the reservation made by the United
Arab Emirates to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women.
       The application of the Articles 2 (f), 15 (2) and 16 of the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women has been made subject to religious considerations.
This makes it unclear to what extent the United Arab Emirates considers itself bound by the
obligations of the treaty and therefore raises concerns as to the commitment of the United Arab
Emirates to the object and purpose of the Covenant.
       It is of the common interest of States that all parties respect treaties to which they have
chosen to become parties and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes
necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties. According to customary
international law, as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation
which is incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted (Art. 19 c).
       The Government of the Netherlands therefore objects to the reservation made by the United
Arab Emirates to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women.
       This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the United
Arab Emirates and the Kingdom of the Netherlands, without the United Arab Emirates
benefiting from its reservation."
       19 July 2006
       With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
       "The Government of the Netherlands has examined the reservation made by Oman to the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The Government
of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the reservations with respect to article 9,
paragraph 2; article 15, paragraph 4; and article 16, of the Convention are reservations
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
       Furthermore, the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that with the
first part of the reservation the application of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women is made subject to the provisions of the Islamic sharia and
legislation in force in the Sultanate of Oman. This makes it unclear to what extent Oman
considers itself bound by the obligations of the treaty and therefore raises concerns as to the
commitment of Oman to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands recalls that, according to paragraph 2
of article 28 of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention shall not be permitted.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
party are respected, as to their object and purpose, by all parties and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
       The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to the aforesaid
reservations made by the Government of Oman to the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Kingdom of the Netherlands and Oman."
      11 April 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands has examined the reservations made
by Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women. The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the
reservation with respect to article 9, paragraph 2, of the Convention is a reservation incompatible
with the object and purpose of the Convention.
      Furthermore, the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that with the
first reservation the application of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women is made subject to the beliefs and principles of Islam and the
provisions of constitutional law in force in Brunei Darussalam. This makes it unclear to what
extent Brunei Darussalam considers itself bound by the obligations of the Convention and
therefore raises concerns as to the commitment of Brunei Darussalam to the object and purpose
of the Convention.
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands recalls that, according to paragraph 2
of article 28 of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention shall not be permitted.
      It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
party are respected, as to their object and purpose, by all parties and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to the aforesaid
reservations made by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Kingdom of the Netherlands and Brunei."

       Poland
       28 November 2005
       With regard to the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession:
       "The Government of the Republic of Poland has examined the reservations made by the
United Arab Emirates upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on
December 18, 1979, hereinafter called the Convention, regarding articles 2 (f), 9, 15 (2) and 16.
       The Government of the Republic of Poland considers that the reservations made by the
United Arab Emirates are incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention which
guarantees equal rights of women and men to exercise their economic, social, cultural, civil and
political rights. The Government of the Republic of Poland therefore considers that, according to
the customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
(article 19 (c)), done at Vienna on 23 May 1969, as well as article 28 (2) of the Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, reservations incompatible with
the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
       The Government of the Republic of Poland therefore objects to the aforementioned
reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, adopted by the General Assembly
of the United Nations on 18 December 1979, regarding articles 2 (f), 9, 15 (2) and 16.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Republic of Poland and the United Arab Emirates."
       1 March 2007
       With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
       The Government of the Republic of Poland has examined the reservations made by the
Sultanate of Oman upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women, adopted by General Assembly of the United Nations on
December 18, 1979, regarding articles 9 paragraph 2, 15 paragraph 4, 16 (a), (c) and (f) and all
provisions of the Convention not in accordance with the principles of the Islamic Sharia.
       The Government of the Republic of Poland considers that the reservations made by the
Sultanate of Oman are incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention which
guarantees equal rights of women and men to exercise their economic, social, cultural, civil, and
political rights. The Government of the Republic of Poland therefore considers that, according to
article 19 (c) of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, done at Vienna on 23 May 1969,
as well as article 28 (2) of the Convention on the Elimination of All Form of Discrimination
against Women, reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be
permitted.
       Moreover, the Government of the Republic of Poland considers that by making a general
reference to the Islamic Sharia without indicating the provisions of the Convention to which the
Islamic Sharia applies, the Sultanate of Oman does not specify the exact extent of the introduced
limitations and thus does not define precisely enough the extent to which the Sultanate of Oman
has accepted the obligations under the Convention.
       The Government of the Republic of Poland therefore objects to the aforementioned
reservations made by the Sultanate of Oman upon accession to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, adopted by General Assembly of
the United Nations on 18 December 1979, regarding articles 9 paragraph 2, 15 paragraph 4, 16
(a), (c) and (f) and all provisions of the Convention not in accordance with the principles of the
Islamic Sharia.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Republic of Poland and Sultanate of Oman.
       7 June 2007
       With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
       "The Government of the Republic of Poland has examined the reservations made by Brunei
Darussalam upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women, adopted by General Assembly of the United Nations on December 18, 1979,
regarding article 9 paragraph 2 and those provisions of the Convention that may be contrary to
the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam.
       The Government of the Republic of Poland considers that the reservations made by the
Brunei Darussalam are incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention which
guarantees equal rights of women and men to exercise their economic, social, cultural, civil, and
political rights. The Government of the Republic of Poland therefore considers that, according to
article 19 (c) of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, done at Vienna on 23 May 1969,
as well as article 28 (2) of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women, reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be
permitted.
       Moreover, the Government of the Republic of Poland considers that by making a general
reference to the "beliefs and principles of Islam" without indicating the provisions of the
Convention to which they apply, Brunei Darussalam does not specify the exact extent of the
introduced limitations and thus does not define precisely enough the extent to which Brunei
Darussalam has accepted the obligations under the Convention.
       The Government of the Republic of Poland therefore objects to the aforementioned
reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women, adopted by General Assembly of the United
Nations on 18 December 1979, regarding article 9 paragraph 2 and those provisions of the
Convention that may be contrary to the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam anto the beliefs and
principles of Islam.
    This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Republic of Poland and Brunei Darussalam."

      Portugal
      26 October 1994
      With regard to the reservations made by Maldives upon accession:
      "The Government of Portugal considers that the reservations formulated by the Maldives
are incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention and they are inadmissible under
article 19 (c) of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties.
      Furthermore, the Government of Portugal considers that these reservations cannot alter or
modify in any respect the obligations arising from the Convention for any State party thereto."
      18 July 2001
      With regard to the reservations made by Saudi Arabia upon ratification:
      "The Government of the Portuguese Republic has examined the reservation made on 7
September by the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (New York, 18 December 1979),
regarding any interpretation of the provisions of the Convention that is incompatible with the
precept of Islamic law and the Islamic religion. It has also examined the reservation to article 9.2
of the Convention.
      The Government of the Portuguese Republic is of the view that the first reservation refers
in general terms to the Islamic law, failing to specify clearly its content and, therefore, leaving
the other State parties with doubts as to the real extent of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's
commitment to the Convention.
      Furthermore, it also considers the reservation made by the Government of the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia incompatible with the objective and purpose of the aforesaid Convention, for it
refers to the whole of the Convention, and it seriously limits or even excludes its application on a
vaguely defined basis, such as the global reference to the Islamic law.
      Regarding the reservation to article 9.2, the Government of the Portuguese Republic is of
the view that the said reservation intends to exclude one of the obligations of non-discrimination,
which is the essence of the Convention.
      Therefore, the Government of the Portuguese Republic objects to the aforementioned
reservations made by the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Portuguese Republic and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia."
      4 March 2002
      With regard to the reservations made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon
accession:
      "The Government of the Portuguese Republic has examined the reservation made by the
Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the Convention on the Elimination
of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (New York, 18 December 1979) on 27 February
2001 in respect of articles 2 (f) and 9.2 of the Convention.
      Recalling that, according to paragraph 2 of Article 28 of the Convention a reservation
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted, the
Government of the Portuguese Republic objects to the said reservations.
      In fact, the reservation relating to article 2 (f) refers to a basic aspect of the Convention,
namely the compromise to enact legislation to abolish all existing legal practices discriminating
against women.
      Regarding the reservation to article 9.2, the Government of the Portuguese Republic is of
the view that the said reservation intends to exclude one of the specific obligations of non-
discrimination, which is the essence of the Convention.
      It is in the common interests of States that Treaties to which they have chosen to become
party are respected by all parties and that the States are prepared to take all appropriate measures,
including legislation to comply with their obligations.
      Therefore, the Government of the Portuguese Republic objects to the afore mentioned
reservations made by the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Portuguese Republic and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea."
      With regard to the reservation made by Mauritania upon accession:
      "The Government of the Portuguese Republic has examined the reservation made by the
Government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania to the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women (New York, 18 December 1979) on 10 May 2001 in
respect of any interpretation of the provisions of the Convention that it is incompatible with the
precept of Islamic law and its Constitution.
      The Government of the Portuguese Republic is of the view that the said reservation refers
in a general manner to national law, failing to specify clearly its content and, therefore, leaving
the other State parties with doubts as to the real extent of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania's
commitment to the Convention.
      Furthermore it also considers the reservation made by the Government of the Islamic
Republic of Mauritania incompatible with the objective and purpose of the aforesaid Convention,
and it seriously limits or even excludes its application on a vaguely defined basis, such as the
global reference to the Islamic law.
      The Government of the Portuguese Republic therefore objects to the reservation made by
the Government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania to the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Portuguese Republic and the Islamic Republic of Mauritania."
      28 November 2005
      With regard to the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession:
      "The Portuguese Government has carefully examined the reservations made by the United
Arab Emirates upon its accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW).
      Most of these reservations concern fundamental provisions of the Convention, such as
articles 2 (f), 9, 15 (2) and 16, since they outline the measures which a State Party is required to
take in order to implement the Convention, cover the fundamental rights of women and deal with
the key elements for the elimination of discrimination against women.
      Portugal considers that such reservations, consisting of references to the precepts of the
Shariah and to national legislation, create serious doubts as to the commitment of the reserving
State to the object and purpose of the Convention and to the extent it has accepted the obligations
imposed by it and, moreover, contribute to undermining the basis of international law.
      It is in the common interest of all States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
parties are respected as to their object and purpose by all parties and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under these treaties.
      The Government of the Portuguese Republic, therefore, objects to the above reservations
made by the United Arab Emirates to the CEDAW.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Portugal
and the United Arab Emirates."
      30 January 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
      "The first reservation concerns "all provisions of the Convention not in accordance with the
provisions of the Islamic sharia and legislation in force in the Sultanate of Oman". Portugal
considers that this reservation is too general and vague and seeks to limit the scope of the
Convention on an unilateral basis that is not authorised by it. Moreover, this reservation creates
doubts as to the commitment of the reserving State to the object and purpose of the Convention
and, moreover, contributes to undermining the basis of international law. It is in the common
interest of all States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to
their object and purpose by all parties and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative
changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      The second, third and fourth reservations concern fundamental provisions of the
Convention, such as articles 9 (2), 15 (4) and 16, that cover the fundamental rights of women and
deal with the key elements for the elimination of discrimination against women on the basis of
sex. These reservations are thus incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention and
are not permitted under article 28 (2) of the CEDAW.
      The Government of the Portuguese Republic, therefore, objects to the above mentioned
reservations made by the Sultanate of Oman to the CEDAW.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Portugal
and Oman."
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "The reservation concerning the "provisions of the said Convention that may be contrary to
the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam, the official
religion of Brunei Darussalam" is too general and vague and seeks to limit the scope of the
Convention on a unilateral basis that is not authorised by it. Moreover, this reservation creates
doubts as to the commitment of the reserving State to the object and purpose of the Convention
and, moreover, contributes to undermining the basis of international law. It is in the common
interest of all States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to
their object and purpose by all parties and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative
changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      The reservation concerning article 9 (2) undermines a key provision of the Convention
concerning the elimination of discrimination against women on the basis of sex. This reservation
is thus incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention and is not permitted under
article 28 (2) of the CEDAW.
      The Government of the Portuguese Republic, therefore, objects to the above mentioned
reservations made by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the CEDAW.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Portugal
and Brunei Darussalam."

      Romania
      3 December 2003
      With regard to the reservations made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:
      "The Government of Romania has examined the reservations made by the Government of
the Syrian Arab Republic at the time of its accession to the Convention on the Elimination of all
Forms of Discrimination against Women, regarding article 2, article 9, paragraph 2, article 15,
paragraph 4, article 16 paragraph 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g), and article 16 paragraph 2.
      The Government of Romania considers that the reservations to article 2, article 9,
paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4, article 16 paragraph 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g), article 16
paragraph 2, of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against
Women are incompatible with the object and purpose of the above-mentioned Convention,
taking into account the provisions of article 19 (c) of the Vienna Convention on the Law of
Treaties (1969).
      As a consequence, the Government of Romania objects to the above-mentioned
reservations made by the Syrian Arab Republic to the Convention on the Elimination of all
Forms of Discrimination against Women.
      This objection, however, shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between
the Government of Romania and the Syrian Arab Republic."
       8 February 2007
       With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
       "The Government of Romania has carefully considered the reservations made by Brunei
Darussalam on 24 May 2006 upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms
of Discrimination against Women (New York), 18 December 1979) and regards the reservation
made to Article 9 para. 2 as incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention, as, by
its formulation, a certain form of discrimination against women is maintained and, implicitly, the
inequality of rights between men and women is perpetuated.
       Furthermore, the Government of Romania is of the opinion that the general reservation
made by Brunei Darussalam subjects the application of the provisions of the Convention to their
compatibility with the Islamic law and the fundamental law of this State. This reservation is,
thus, problematic as it raises questions with regard to the actual obligations Brunei Darussalam
understood to undertake by acceding to the Convention, and with regard to its commitment to the
object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Romania recalls that, pursuant to Article 28 para. 2 of the Convention,
a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
       Consequently, the Government of Romania objects to the aforementioned reservations
made by Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination
against Women. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention, in its
entirety, between Romania and Brunei Darussalam.
       The Government of Romania recommends to Brunei Darussalam to reconsider the
reservations made to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against
Women."
       With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
       "The Government of Romania has carefully considered the reservations made by the
Sultanate of Oman on 7 February 2006 upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of
all Forms of Discrimination against Women (New York, 18 December 1979) and regards the
reservations made to Article 9 para. 2, Article 15 para. 4 and Article 16, sub-paragraphs a), c)
and f) (concerning adoptions), as incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention,
as, by their formulation, various forms of discrimination against women are maintained and,
implicitly, the inequality of rights between men and women is perpetuated.
       Furthermore, the Government of Romania is of the opinion that the general reservation
made by the Sultanate of Oman subjects the application of the provisions of the Convention to
their compatibility with the Islamic law and the national legislation in force in the Sultanate of
Oman. This reservation is, thus, problematic as it raises questions with regard to the actual
obligations the Sultanate of Oman understood to undertake by acceding to the Convention, and
with regard to its commitment to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Romania recalls that, pursuant to Article 28 para. 2 of the Convention,
a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
       Consequently, the Government of Romania objects to the aforementioned reservations
made by the Sultanate of Oman to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Discrimination against Women. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the
Convention, in its entirety, between Romania and the Sultanate of Oman.
       The Government of Romania recommends to the Sultanate of Oman to reconsider the
reservations made to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against
Women."

     Slovakia
     27 February 2007
     With regard to the reservation made by Oman upon accession:
      "The Government of Slovakia has carefully examined the reservation made by the
Sultanate of Oman upon its accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW).
      The Government of Slovakia is of the view that the general reservation made by the
Sultanate of Oman that "all provisions of the Convention not in accordance with the provisions
of the Islamic sharia and legislation in force in the Sultanate of Oman" is too general and does
not clearly specify the extent of the obligation (mentioned in the Convention) for the Sultanate of
Oman.
      The Government of Slovakia finds the reservation to article 9 (2), article 15 (4) and article
16 incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention and is therefore inadmissible
under article 19 (c) of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Therefore it shall not be
permitted, in accordance with article 2[8], paragraph 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
      For these reasons, the Government of Slovakia objects to the above mentioned reservation
made by the Sultanate of Oman upon its accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention on the Elimination
of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women between Slovakia and the Sultanate of Oman.
The Convention enters into force in its entirety between Slovakia and the Sultanate of Oman,
without the Sultanate of Oman benefitting from its reservation."
      11 May 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "The Government of Slovakia has carefully examined the content of the reservations made
by the Brunei Darussalam upon its accession to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms
of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW).
      The Government of Slovakia is of the opinion that the reservation containing the reference
to the beliefs and principles of Islam is too general and raises serious doubt as to the commitment
of Brunei Darussalam to the object and the purpose of the Convention.
      Moreover, the Government of Slovakia considers that one of the aims of the Convention is
to grant the equality between men and women with respect to determine the nationality of their
children. Therefore it finds the reservation of Brunei Darussalam to paragraph 2 of article 9 of
the Convention as undermining one of key provisions of the Convention and is incompatible
with its object and purpose. It is therefore inadmissible and shall be permitted, in accordance
with paragraph 2 of article 28 of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      For these reasons, the Government of Slovakia objects to the above mentioned reservations
made by the Brunei Darussalam upon its accession to the Convention on the Elimination of all
Forms of Discrimination against Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Slovakia
and the Brunei Darussalam. The Convention enters into force in its entirety between Slovakia
and the Brunei Darussalam without the Brunei Darussalam benefiting from its reservations."

     Spain
     22 February 2001
     With regard to the reservations made by Saudi Arabia upon ratification:
     The Government of the Kingdom of Spain has examined the reservation made by the
Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against Women on [7] September 2000, regarding any interpretation of the
Convention that may be incompatible with the norms of Islamic law and regarding article 9,
paragraph 2.
     The Government of the Kingdom of Spain considers that the general reference to Islamic
law, without specifying its content, creates doubts among the other States parties about the extent
to which the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia commits itself to fulfil its obligations under the
Convention.
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain is of the view that such a reservation by the
Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention, since it refers to the Convention as a whole and seriously restricts or even excludes
its application on a basis as ill-defined as the general reference to Islamic law.
      Furthermore, the reservation to article 9, paragraph 2, aims at excluding one of the
obligations concerning non-discrimination, which is the ultimate goal of the Convention.
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain recalls that according to article 28, paragraph 2,
of the Convention, reservations that are incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention shall not be permitted.
      Therefore, the Government of the Kingdom of Spain objects to the said reservations by the
Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
      5 July 2001
      With regard to the reservations made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon
accession:
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain has examined the reservations made by the
Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to articles 2 (f) and 9 (2) of the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, on 27 February
2001 in acceding to the Convention.
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain considers those reservations to be incompatible
with the object and purpose of the Convention, since their intent is to exempt the Democratic
People's Republic of Korea from committing itself to two essential elements of the Convention,
one being the general requirement to take measures, including legislation, to eliminate all forms
of discrimination against women (article 2 (f)) and the other being the requirement to address a
specific form of discrimination with respect to the nationality of children (article 9 (2)).
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain recalls that, under article 28 (2) of the
Convention, reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not
permitted.
      Accordingly, the Government of the Kingdom of Spain objects to the above-mentioned
reservations made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
      This objection does not prevent the Convention's entry into force between the Kingdom of
Spain and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
      31 July 2003
      With regard to the reservations made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain has examined the reservations made by the
Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to article 2; article 9, paragraph 2; article 15, paragraph
4; and article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g) and paragraph 2 of the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, upon acceding to the Convention.
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain deems the above-mentioned reservations be
contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention, since they affect fundamental obligations
of States parties thereunder. Moreover, the reservation to article 16, paragraph 2, of the
Convention refers to the Islamic Shariah, without specifying its content, which raises doubts as
to the degree of commitment of the Syrian Arab Republic in acceding to the Convention.
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain recalls that, under article 28, paragraph 2, of the
Convention, reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not
permitted.
      Accordingly, the Government of the Kingdom of Spain objects to the reservations made by
the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against Women.
      This objection does not prevent the entry into force of the Convention between the
Kingdom of Spain and the Syrian Arab Republic.
      6 October 2005
      With regard to the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession:
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain has examined the reservations entered by the
Government of the United Arab Emirates to article 2, subparagraph (f); article 9; article 15,
paragraph 2; and article 16 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women upon its accession to that instrument on 6 October 2004.
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain considers that these reservations are
incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention, since they are intended to exempt
the United Arab Emirates from obligations relating to essential aspects of the Convention: one of
a general nature, namely the adoption of measures, including legislation, to eliminate all forms of
discrimination against women (article 2, subparagraph (f)), and others concerning specific forms
of discrimination in relation to nationality (article 9), legal capacity in civil matters (article 15,
paragraph 2) and marriage and family relations (article 16).
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain recalls that, under article 28, paragraph 2, of the
Convention, reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not
permitted.
      Moreover, the reservation to article 16 of the Convention makes a general reference to the
principles of Islamic law without specifying their content, with the result that the other States
parties cannot precisely determine the extent to which the Government of the United Arab
Emirates accepts the obligations set out in article 16 of the Convention.
      Accordingly, the Government of the Kingdom of Spain objects to the reservations entered
by the Government of the United Arab Emirates to article 2, subparagraph (f); article 9; article
15, paragraph 2; and article 16 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Kingdom of Spain and the United Arab Emirates.
      23 February 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain has examined the reservations made by the
Sultanate of Oman upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women regarding all the provisions of the Convention which are
incompatible with Islamic law and with the legislation in force in Oman and to articles 9 (2), 15
(4) and 16 of the Convention.
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain considers that the first part of the reservation
which subordinates all the provisions of the Convention to conform to Islamic law and the
legislation in force in Oman, to which it makes general reference, without specifying its content,
does not permit clear determination as to the extent to which Oman has accepted the obligations
derived under the Convention and, consequently, such reservation sheds doubt as to the extent to
which the Sultanate of Oman is committed to the object and purpose of the Convention.
      Furthermore, the reservations to articles 9 (2), 15 (4) and 16 are incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention, which aim at exempting Oman from its commitment
essential obligations of the Convention.
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain recalls that according to article 28 (2) of the
Convention, reservations that are incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention
shall not be permitted.
      Therefore, the Government of the Kingdom of Spain objects to the reservations made by
the Sultanate of Oman to all the provisions of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women which are incompatible with Islamic law and with the legislation
in force in Oman and to articles 9 (2), 15 (4) and 16 of the Convention.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Kingdom of Spain and the Sultana of Oman.
      13 June 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain has examined the reservations made by Brunei
Darussalam upon acceding to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women regarding all the provisions of the Convention that may be contrary to the
Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam, and regarding
article 9.2 of the Convention.
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain believes that, by making the implementation of
the provisions of the Convention subject to their compatibility with the Constitution of Brunei
Darussalam and with the beliefs and principles of Islam, Brunei Darussalam has made a
reservation which does not permit a clear determination of the extent to which it has accepted the
obligations deriving from the Convention and that, consequently, the reservation raises doubts
about the commitment of Brunei Darussalam to the object and purpose of the Convention.
Moreover, the reservation regarding article 9.2 would exempt Brunei Darussalam from its
commitment in relation to an essential element of the Convention and allow the continuation of a
situation of de jure discrimination against women on grounds of sex which is incompatible with
the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of the Kingdom of Spain recalls that, under article 28.2 of the
Convention, reservations that are incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are
not permitted.
      Accordingly, the Government of the Kingdom of Spain objects to the reservations made by
Brunei Darussalam regarding those provisions of the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women that may be contrary to the Constitution of Brunei
Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam and regarding article 9.2 of the
Convention. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Kingdom of Spain and Brunei Darussalam.

       Sweden
       17 March 1986
       "The Government of Sweden considers that [the following reservations] are incompatible
with the object and purpose of the Convention (article 28, paragraph 2) and therefore objects to
them:
       - Thailand regarding article 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 3 and article 16;
       - Tunisia regarding article 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4, and article 16, paragraph
1 (c), (d), (f), (g) and (h).
       - Bangladesh regarding article 2, article 13 (a) and article 16, paragraph 1 (c) and (f);
       - Brazil regarding article 15, paragraph 4 and article 16, paragraph 1 (a), (c), (g) and (h);
       "Indeed the reservations in question, if put into practice, would inevitably result in
discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to everything the
Convention stands for. It should also be borne in mind that the principles of the equal rights of
men and women and of non-discrimination on the basis of sex are set forth in the Charter of the
United Nations as one of its purposes, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and
in various multilateral instruments, to which Thailand, Tunisia and Bangladesh are parties.
       "The Government of Sweden furthermore notes that, as a matter of principle, the same
objection could be made to the reservations made by:
       - Egypt regarding article 2, article 9, paragraph 2, and article 16,
       - Mauritius regarding article 11, paragraph 1 (b) and (d), and article 16, paragraph 1 (g),
       - Jamaica regarding article 9, paragraph 2,
      - Republic of Korea regarding article 9 and article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g),
      - New Zealand in respect of the Cook Islands regarding article 2, paragraph (f) and article
5, paragraph (a).
      "In this context the Government of Sweden wishes to take this opportunity to make the
observation that the reason why reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty
are not acceptable is precisely that otherwise they would render a basic international obligation
of a contractual nature meaningless. Incompatible reservations, made in respect of the
Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, do not only cast
doubts on the commitments of the reserving states to the objects and purpose of this Convention,
but moreover, contribute to undermine the basis of international contractual law. It is in the
common interest of states that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties also are
respected, as to object and purpose, by other parties."
      Subsequently, the Secretary-General received, from the Government of Sweden, objections
of the same nature as the one above with regard to reservations made by the following States on
the dates indicated hereinafter:
      - 12 March 1987 with regard to the reservation made by Iraq in respect of article 2,
paragraph (f) and (g), article 9, paragraph 1, and article 16;
      - 15 April 1988 with regard to the first reservations made by Malawi;
      - 25 May 1990 with regard to the reservation made by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya;
      - 5 February 1993 with regard to the reservations made by Jordan in respect of article 9,
paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4, the wording of article 16 (c), and article 16 (d) and (g);
      - 26 October 1994 with regard to the reservations made by Maldives upon accession.
      The Government of Sweden also stated that:
      "The Government of Sweden therefore objects to these reservations and considers that they
constitute an obstacle to the entry into force of the Convention between Sweden and the
Republic of Maldives";
      - 17 January 1996 with regard to the reservations made by Kuwait upon accession;
      - 27 January 1998 with regard to the reservations made by Lebanon upon accession;
      - 27 April 2000 with regard to the reservations to articles 2, 5, 15 and 16 made by Niger
upon accession.
      30 March 2001
      With regard to the reservations made by Saudi Arabia upon ratification:
      "The Government of Sweden has examined the reservation made by the Government of the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at the time of its ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women, as to any interpretation of the provisions of the
Convention that is incompatible with the norms of Islamic law.
      The Government of Sweden is of the view that this general reservation, which does not
clearly specify the provisions of the convention to which it applies and the extent of the
derogation therefrom, raises doubts as to the commitment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the
object and purpose of the Convention.
      It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have been chosen to
become parties are respected as to their object and purpose, and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
According to customary law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a
reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the aforesaid general reservation made by the
Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against Women.
      This shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia and the Kingdom of Sweden, without the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia benefiting
from the said reservation".
      25 July 2001
      With regard to the reservations made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon
accession:
      "The Government of Sweden has examined the reservation made by the Democratic
People's Republic of Korea at the time of its accession to the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women, regarding articles 2 (f) and 9 (2) of the Convention.
      The reservation in question, if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination
against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the
Convention. It should be borne in mind that the principles of the equal rights of men and women
and of non-discrimination on the basis of sex are set forth in the Charter of the United Nations as
one of the purposes of the organisation, as well as in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
of 1948.
      According to Article 28 (2) of the Convention, reservations incompatible with the object
and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted. It is in the common interest of States that
treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose,
by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to
comply with their obligations under the treaties. According to customary international law as
codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
      The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the aforesaid reservation made by the
Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the Convention on the Elimination
of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and considers the reservation null and void. The
Convention enters into force in its entirety between the two States, without the Democratic
People's Republic of Korea benefiting from its reservation".
      21 January 2002
      With regard to the reservation made by Mauritania upon accession:
      "The Government of Sweden has examined the reservation made by Mauritania upon
acceding to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
      The Government of Sweden notes that the Convention is being made subject to a general
reservation of unlimited scope referring to the contents of Islamic Sharia and to existing
legislation in Mauritania.
      The Government of Sweden is of the view that this reservation which does not clearly
specify the provisions of the Convention to which it applies, and the extent of the derogation
therefrom, raises serious doubts as to the commitment of Mauritania to the object and purpose of
the Convention. The Government of Sweden would like to recall that, according to customary
international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation
incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
      It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the aforesaid reservation made by the
Government of Mauritania to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women.
      The objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Mauritania
and Sweden. The Convention enters into force in its entirety between the two States, without
Mauritania benefiting from its reservation."
      27 November 2002
      With regard to the reservation made by Bahrain upon accession:
      "The Government of Sweden has examined the reservation made by Bahrain upon acceding
to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, regarding
articles 2, 9 (2), 15 (4) and 16.
      The reservation to articles 9 (2) and 15 (4), if put into practice, would inevitably result in
discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of
the Convention. It should be borne in mind that the principles of the equal rights of men and
women and of non-discrimination on the basis of sex are set forth in the Charter of the United
Nations as one of the purposes of the organisation, as well as in the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights of 1948.
      The reservation to articles 2 and 16 make general references to Islamic sharia. The
Government of Sweden is of the view that, in absence of further clarification, this reservation
which does not clearly specify the extent of Bahrain's derogation from the provisions in question
raises serious doubts as to the commitment of Bahrain to the object and purpose of the
Convention.
      According to article 28 (2) of the Convention, reservations incompatible with the object
and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted. It is in the common interest of States that
treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose,
by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to
comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      The Government of Sweden objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the Government
of Bahrain to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
and considers the reservation null and void.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Bahrain
and Sweden. The Convention enters into force in its entirety between the two States, without
Bahrain benefiting from its reservation."
      11 July 2003
      With regard to the reservations made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:
      "The Government of Sweden has examined the reservations made by the Syrian Arab
Republic upon acceding to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women regarding article 2, article 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4 and article 16,
paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f), (g) and 2 of the Convention.
      Article 2 of the Convention is one of the core articles of the Convention. A general
reservation to this article seriously raises doubts as to the commitment of the Syrian Arab
Republic to the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The reservations to articles 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4 and article 16,
paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g), if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination
against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the
Convention. It should be borne in mind that the principles of the equal rights of men and women
and of non-discrimination on the basis of sex are set forth in the Charter of the United Nations as
one of the purposes of the organisation, as well as in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
of 1948.
      The reservation to article 16, paragraph 2, makes a general reference to islamic sharia. The
Government of Sweden is of the view that in the absence of further clarification, this reservation
which does not clearly specify the extent of the Syrian Arab Republic's derogation from the
provision in question raises serious doubts as to the commitment of the Syrian Arab Republic to
the object and purpose of the Convention.
      According to article 28, paragraph 2, of the Convention, reservations incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted. It is in the common interest of all
States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object
and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes
necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the
Syrian Arab Republic to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Syrian
Arab Republic and Sweden. The Convention enters into force in its entirety between the two
States, without the Syrian Arab Republic benefiting from its reservations."
      25 August 2005
      With regard to the reservations made by Micronesia (Federated States of) upon accession:
      "The Government of Sweden is of the view that this reservation raises serious doubts as to
the commitment of the Government of Micronesia to the object and purpose of the Convention.
The reservation would, if put into practice, result in discrimination against women on the basis of
sex. It should be borne in mind that the principles of the equal right of men and women and of
non-discrimination on the basis of sex are set forth in the Charter of the United Nations as one of
the purposes of the organisation, as well as in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of
1948.
      According to article 28 (2) of the Convention, and to customary law as codified in the
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, reservations incompatible with the object and
purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted. It is in the common interest of States that
treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose,
by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to
comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the aforesaid reservation made by the
Government of the Federated States of Micronesia to the Convention to the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women and considers the reservation null and void. The
Convention enters into force in its entirety between the two States, without the Federated States
of Micronesia benefiting from its reservations."
      5 October 2005
      With regard to the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession:
      "The Government of Sweden has examined the reservations made by United Arab Emirates
upon acceding to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against
Women, regarding Article 2 (f), 9, 15 (2) and 16.
      The Government of Sweden notes that the said articles are being made subject to
reservations referring to national legislation and Sharia principles.
      The Government of Sweden is of the view that these reservations which do not clearly
specify the extent of the United Arab Emirates' derogation from the provisions in question raises
serious doubts as to the commitment of the United Arab Emirates to the object and purpose of
the Convention. The reservations in question, if put into practice, would inevitably result in
discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of
the Convention. It should be borne in mind that the principles of the equal rights of women and
men and of non-discrimination on the basis of sex are set forth in the Charter of the United
Nations as one of the purposes of the organization, as well as in the declaration of Human Rights
of 1948.
      According to article 28 (2) of the Convention, and to international customary law as
codified in the Vienna convention on the Law of the Treaties, reservations incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted. It is in the common interest of
States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object
and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes
necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the
Government of the United Arab Emirates to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women and considers them null and void.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the United
Arab Emirates and Sweden. The convention enters into force in its entirety between the two
States, without the United Arab Emirates benefiting from its reservations."
      6 February 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
      "The Government of Sweden has examined the reservations made by the Sultanate of
Oman on 7 February 2006 to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women.
      The Government of Sweden notes that the Sultanate of Oman gives precedence to the
provisions of Islamic Sharia and national legislation over the application of the provisions of the
Convention. The Government of Sweden is of the view that this reservation which does not
clearly specify the extent of the Sultanate of Oman's derogation from the provisions in question
raises serious doubt as to the commitment of the Sultanate of Oman to the object and purpose of
the Convention.
      Furthermore, the Government of Sweden considers that, regarding the reservations made
with respect to articles 9 (2), 15 (4), 16 (a, c, f), if put into practice, would inevitably result in
discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of
the Convention. It should be borne in mind that the principles of the equal rights of women and
men and of non-discrimination on the basis of sex are set forth in the Charter of the United
Nations as one of the purposes of the organization, as well as the declaration of Human Rights of
1948.
      According to article 28 (2) of the Convention and to international customary law, as
codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, reservations incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted. It is in the common interest of
States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties, are respected as to their object
and purpose by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes
necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
      The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the
Sultanate of Oman to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women and considers them null and void.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
Sultanate of Oman and Sweden. The Convention enters into force in its entirety between the two
States, without the Sultanate of Oman benefiting from its reservations."
      12 February 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "The Government of Sweden has examined the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam
on 24 May 2006 to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women.
      The Government of Sweden notes that Brunei Darussalam gives precedence to the beliefs
and principles of Islam and national legislation over the application of the provisions of the
Convention. The Government of Sweden is of the view that this reservation which does not
clearly specify the extent of Brunei Darussalam's derogation from the provisions in questions
raises serious doubt as to the commitment of Brunei Darussalam to the object and purpose of the
Convention.
      Furthermore, the Government of Sweden considers that, regarding the reservation made
with respect to article 9 (2), if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against
women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention. It
should be borne in mind that the principles of the equal rights of women and men and of non-
discrimination on the basis of sex are set forth in the Charter of the United Nations as one of the
purposes of the organization, as well as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
      According to article 28 (2) of the Convention and to international customary law, as
codified in the Vienna convention on the Law of Treaties, reservations incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted. It is in the common interest of
States that treaties, to which they have chosen to become parties, are respected as to their object
and purpose by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes
necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
     The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by Brunei
Darussalam to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women and considers them null and void.
     This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Brunei
Darussalam and Sweden. The convention enters into force in its entirety between the two States
without Brunei Darussalam benefiting from its reservations."

      United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
      6 September 2001
      With regard to the reservation made by Saudi Arabia upon ratification:
      "The Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to
the United Nations presents its compliments to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and
has the honour to refer to the reservation made on 7 September 2000 by the Government of the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women, done at New York on 18 December 1979, which reads as follows:
      "In case of contradiction between any term of the Convention and the norms of Islamic
Law, the Kingdom is not under obligation to observe the contradictory terms of the Convention."
      The Government of the United Kingdom note that a reservation which consists of a general
reference to national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define for other States
Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State has accepted the obligations of
the Convention. The Government of the United Kingdom therefore object to the aforesaid
reservation made by the Government [of] the Kingdom of the Saudi Arabia.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia."
      28 November 2001
      With regard to the reservation made by Mauritania upon accession:
      "The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland have
examined the reservation made by the Government of Mauritania in respect of the Convention,
which reads as follows:
      "Having seen and examined the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination Against Women, adopted by the UN General Assembly on 18
December 1979, have approved and do approve it in each and every one of its parts which are
not contrary to Islamic Sharia and are in accordance with our Constitution.
      The Government of the United Kingdom note that a reservation to a Convention which
consists of a general reference to national law without specifying its contents does not clearly
define for the other States Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State has
accepted the obligations of the Convention. The Government of the United Kingdom therefore
object to the reservation made by the Government of Mauritania.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Mauritania."
      5 March 2002
      With regard to the reservations made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon
accession:
      "The Government of the United Kingdom has examined the reservation made by the
Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea on 27 February in respect of the
Convention, which reads as follows:
      "The Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea does not consider itself
bound by the provisions of paragraph (f) of Article 2 ...of the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination Against Women."
      Paragraph (f) of Article 2 requires States Parties to take all appropriate measures, including
legislation, to modify or abolish existing laws, regulations, customs and practices which
constitute discrimination against women. The Government of the United Kingdom notes that a
reservation which excludes obligations of such a general nature does not clearly define for the
other States Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State has accepted the
obligations of the Convention. The Government of the United Kingdom therefore objects to the
reservation made by the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea."
      26 June 2003
      With regard to the reservations made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:
      "The Government of the United Kingdom have examined the reservations made by the
Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women (New York, 18 December 1979) on 28 March 2003 in respect of
Article 2; and Article 16, paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g), concerning equal rights and
responsibilities during marriage and at its dissolution with regard to guardianship, the right to
choose a family name, maintenance and adoption; and article 16, paragraph 2, concerning the
legal effect of the betrothal and the marriage of a child, inasmuch as this provision is
incompatible with the provisions of the Islamic Shariah.
      The Government of the United Kingdom note that the Syrian reservation specifies
particular provisions of the Convention Articles to which the reservation is addressed.
Nevertheless this reservation does not clearly define for the other States Parties to the
Convention the extent to which the reserving State has accepted the obligations of the
Convention. The Government of the United Kingdom therefore object to the aforesaid
reservations made by the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Syrian Arab Republic."
      With regard to the reservations made by Bahrain upon accession:
      "The Government of the United Kingdom have examined the reservations made by the
Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women (New York, 18 December 1979) on 18 June 2002 in respect of
Article 2, in order to ensure its implementation within the bounds of the provisions of the Islamic
Shariah; and Article 16, in so far as it is incompatible with the provisions of the Islamic Shariah.
      The Government of the United Kingdom note that a reservation which consists of a general
reference to national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define for the other
States Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State has accepted the
obligations of the Convention. The Government of the United Kingdom therefore object to the
aforesaid reservations made by the Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Kingdom of Bahrain."
      17 August 2005
      With regard to the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession:
      "The Government of the United Kingdom have examined the reservations made by the
Government of the United Arab Emirates to [the] Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Discrimination against Women (New York, 18 December 1979) on 6 October 2004 in respect of
Articles 2 (f), 15 (2), and 16 on the applicability of Sharia law.
      The Government of the United Kingdom note that a reservation which consists of a general
reference to a system of law without specifying its contents does not clearly define for the other
States Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State has accepted the
obligations of the Convention. The Government of the United Kingdom therefore object to the
aforesaid reservations made by the Government of the United Arab Emirates.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United Arab Emirates."
      With regard to the reservations made by the Micronesia (Federated States of) upon
accession:
      "The Government of the United Kingdom have examined the reservations made by the
Government of Micronesia to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination
against Women (New York, 18 December 1979) on 9 September 2004 in respect of Article 11
(1) (d) on the enactment of comparable worth legislation.
      The Government of the United Kingdom object to the aforesaid reservation made by the
Government of Micronesia.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Micronesia."
      28 February 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:
      "The Government of the United Kingdom have examined the reservations made by the
Government of the Sultanate of Oman to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Discrimination Against Women (New York, 18 December 1979).
      In the view of the Government of the United Kingdom a reservation should clearly define
for the other States Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State has accepted
the obligations of the Convention. A reservation which consists of a general reference to a
system of law without specifying its contents does not do so. The Government of the United
Kingdom therefore object to the Sultanate of Oman's reservation from "all provisions of the
Convention not in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic Sharia and legislation in force in
the Sultanate of Oman".
      The Government of the United Kingdom further object to the Sultanate of Oman's
reservations from Article 15, paragraph 4 and Article 16 of the Convention.
      These objections shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Oman."
      14 June 2007
      With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:
      "The Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to
the United Nations.....has the honour to refer to the reservations made by the Government of
Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against
Women (New York, 18 December 1979), which read:
      "The Government of Brunei Darussalam expresses its reservations regarding those
provisions of the said Convention that may be contrary to the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam
and to the beliefs and principles of Islam, the official religion of Brunei Darussalam and, without
prejudice to the generality of the said reservations, expresses its reservations regarding paragraph
2 of Article 9 and paragraph 1 of Article 29 of the Convention."
      In the view of the United Kingdom a reservation should clearly define for the other States
Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State has accepted the obligations of
the Convention. A reservation which consists of a general reference to a system of law without
specifying its contents does not do so. The Government of the United Kingdom therefore object
to the reservations made by the Government of Brunei Darussalam.
      This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Brunei Darussalam."

      End Note
      1. Resolution 34/180, Official Records of the General Assembly of the United Nations,
Thirty-fourth Session, Supplement No. 46 (A/34/46), p. 193.
      2. Upon ratification, the Government of Australia made the following reservations:
      "The Government of Australia states that maternity leave with pay is provided in respect of
most women employed by the Commonwealth Government and the Governments of New South
Wales and Victoria. Unpaid maternity leave is provided in respect of all other women employed
in the State of New South Wales and elsewhere to women employed under Federal and some
State industrial awards. Social Security benefits subject to income tests are available to women
who are sole parents.
      "The Government of Australia advises that it is not at present in a position to take the
measures required by article 11 (2) to introduce maternity leave with pay or with comparable
social benefits throughout Australia.
      The Government of Australia advises that it does not accept the application of the
Convention is so far as it would require alteration of Defence Force policy which excludes
women for combat and combat-related duties. The Government of Australia is reviewing this
policy do as to more closely define "combat" and "combat-related dutes."
      On 30 August 2000, the Government of Australia notified the Secretary-General of the
following:
      "The Government of Australia having considered the reservations [made upon ratification],
hereby withdraws that part of the reservations which states:
      The Government of Australia advises that it does not accept the application of the
Convention in so far as it would require alteration of Defence Force policy which excludes
women from combat and combat-related duties. The Government of Australia is reviewing this
policy so as to more closely define "combat" and "combat-related duties"."
      The complete text of the reservations is published in United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.
1325, p. 378.
      3. Upon ratification, the Government of Austria made the following reservation:
      "Austria reserves its right to apply the provision of article 7 (b), as far as service in the
armed forces is concerned, and the provision of article 11, as far as night work of women and
special protection of working women is concerned, within the limits established by national
legislation."
      On 11 September 2000, the Government of Austria informed the Secretary-General that it
had decided to withraw the reservation to article 7 (b) of the Convention made upon ratification.
      Further on 14 September 2006, the Government of Austria informed the Secretary-General
of the following:
      "The reservation formulated by the Republic of Austria to Article 11 of the Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women on the occasion of ratification is
withdrawn with regard to the night work of women. The Republic of Austria maintains the
reservation with regard to the special protection of working women."
      The complete text of the reservation is published in United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.
1272, p. 456.
      4. Upon accession, the Government of Bangladesh made the following reservation:
      "The Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh does not consider as binding
upon itself the provisions of articles 2, 13 (a) and 16 (1) (c) and (f) as they conflict with Sharia
law based on Holy Quran and Sunna."
      On 23 July 1997, the Government of Bangladesh notified the Secretary-General that it had
decided to withdraw the reservation relating to articles 13 (a) and 16 (1) (f) made upon
accession.
      The complete text of the reservation is published in United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.
1379, p. 336.
      5. In communications received on 14 September 1998 and 8 July 2002, the Government of
Belgium informed the Secretary-General that it had decided to wihdraw its reservations made
upon ratification with respect to articles 7 and 15, paragraphs 2 and 3, respectively. For the text
of the reservations, see United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1402, p. 376.
      6. The former Yugoslavia had signed and ratified the Convention on 17 July 1980 and 26
February 1982, respectively. See also note 1 under "Bosnia and Herzegovina", "Croatia",
"former Yugoslavia", "Slovenia", "The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" and
"Yugoslavia" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.
       7. Upon signature and ratification, the Government of Brazil made, and confirmed,
respectively, the following reservation:
       "The Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil hereby expresses its reservations to
article 15, paragraph 4 and to article 16, paragraphs 1 (a), (c), (g) and (h) of the Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       "Furthermore, Brazil does not consider itself bound by article 29, paragraph 1, of the
above-mentioned Convention."
       On 20 December 1994, the Government of Brazil notified the Secretary-General that it had
decided to withdraw the following reservation made upon signature and confirmed upon
ratification:
       "The Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil hereby expresses its reservations to
article 15, paragraph 4 and to article 16, paragraphs 1 (a), (c), (g) and (h) of the Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       The complete text of the reservation is published in United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.
1249, p. 121.
       8. On 24 June 1992, the Government of Bulgaria notified the Secretary-General its decision
to withdraw the reservation to article 29 (1) of the Convention, made upon signature and
confirmed upon ratification. For the text of the said reservation, see United Nations, Treaty
Series, vol. 1249, p. 121.
       9. The Secretary-General received several objections to the signature of the above
Convention by Democratic Kampuchea. These objections are identical in matter, mutatis
mutandis, as those reproduced in note 3 in chapter IV.3 regarding Democratic Kampuchea.
Following is the list of States who have notified their objection with the date of receipt of the
notifications:

Participant                            Date of receipt
German Democratic Republic             11 Dec 1980
Hungary                                19 Jan 1981
Bulgaria                               29 Jan 1981
Russian Federation                     13 Feb 1981
Belarus                                18 Feb 1981
Czechoslovakia                         10 Mar 1981

       10. Although Democratic Kampuchea had signed both [the International Covenant on
Economic, Social and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political
Rights] on 17 October 1980 (see note 3 in this chapter), the Government of Cambodia deposited
an instrument of accession to the said Covenants.
       11. On 28 May 1992, the Government of Canada notified the Secretary-General its
decision to withdraw the declaration to article 11 (1) (d) of the Convention, made upon
ratification. For the text of the said declaration, see United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1257, p.
496.
       12. On 27 April 1999, the Government of Portugal informed the Secretary-General that the
Convention would apply to Macao.
       Subsequently, the Secretary-General the Secretary-General received communications
concerning the status of Macao from Portugal and China (see note 1 under Portugal and note 3
under China regarding Macao in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this
volume.) Upon resuming the exercise of sovereignty over Macao, China notified the Secretary-
General that the Convention with the reservation made by China will also apply to the Macao
Special Administrative Region.
       13. On 10 June 1997, the Secretary-General received communications concerning the
status of Hong Kong from the Governments of China and the United Kingdom (see also note 2
under "China" and note 2 under "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland"
regarding Hong Kong in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume).
Upon resuming the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, China notified the Secretary-
General that the Convention with the reservation made by China will also apply to the Hong
Kong special Administrative Region.
       In addition, the notification made by the Government of China contained the following
declarations:
       1. ...
       2. The Government of the People's Republic of China understands, on behalf of the Hong
Kong Special Administrative Region, the main purpose of the Convention, in the light of the
definition contained in article 1, to be the reduction, in accordance with its terms, of
discrimination against women, and does not therefore regard the Convention as imposing any
requirement upon the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to repeal or modify any of its
existing laws, regulations, customs or practices which provide for women to be treated more
favourably than men, whether temporarily or in the longer term. Undertakings by the
Government of the People's Republic of China on behalf of the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region under article 4, paragraph 1, and other provisions of the Convention are
to be construed accordingly.
       3. The Government of the People's Republic of China reserves, for the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region, the right to continue to apply relevant immigration legislation governing
the entry into, stay in and departure from the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region as may
be deemed necessary from time to time. Accordingly, acceptance of article 15, paragraph 4, and
of the other provisions of the Convention is subject to the provisions of any such legislation ass
not at the time having the right under the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
to enter and remain in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
       4. The Government of the People's Republic of China understands, in the light of the
definition contained in article 1, that none of its obligations under the Convention shall be treated
as extending to the affairs of religious denominations or orders in the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region.
       5. Laws applicable in the New Territories of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
which enable male indigenous villagers to exercise certain rights in respect of property and
which provide for rent concessions in respect of land or property held by indigenous persons or
their lawful successors through the male line will continue to [be] applied.
       6. The Government of the People's Republic of China reserves, for the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region, the right to apply all its legislation and the rules of pension schemes
affecting retirement pensions, survivors' benefits in relation to death or retirement (including
retirement on ground of redundancy), whether or not derived from a social security scheme.
       This reservation will apply to any future legislation which may modify or replace such
aforesaid legislation, or the rules of pension schemes, on the understanding that the terms of such
legislation will be compatible with the Government of the People's Republic of China's
obligations under the Convention in respect of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
       The Government of the People's Republic of China reserves the right for the Hong Kong
Special Administrative Region to apply any non-discriminatory requirement for a qualifying
period of employment for the application of the provisions contained in article 11, paragraph 2 of
the Convention.
       7. The Government of the People's Republic of China understands, on behalf of the Hong
Kong Special Administrative Region, the intention of article 15, paragraph 3, of the Convention
to be that only those terms or elements of the contract or other private instrument which are
discriminatory in the sense described are to be deemed null and void, but not necessarily the
contract or instrument as a whole.
       14. On 30 July 2007, the Government of Cook Islands notified the Secretary-General of its
decision to withdraw the reservations made upon accession to the Convention. The text of the
reservations reads as follows: "The Government of the Cook Islands reserves the right not to
apply the provisions of Article 11 (2) (b). The Government of the Cook Islands reserves the right
not to apply the provisions of the Convention in so far as they are inconsistent with policies
relating to recruitment into or service in: (a) The armed forces which reflect either directly or
indirectly the fact that members of such forces are required to serve on armed forces aircraft or
vessels and in situations involving armed combat; or (b) The law enforcement forces which
reflect either directly or indirectly the fact that members of such forces are required to serve in
situations involving violence or threat of violence. The Government of the Cook Islands reserves
the right not to apply Article 2 (f) and Article 5 (a) to the extent that the customs governing the
inheritance of certain Cook Islands chiefly titles may be inconsistent with those provisions."
       15. On 28 June 2000, the Government of Cyprus informed the Secretary-General that it had
decided to withdraw its reservation to article 9 (2) made upon accession. The text of the
reservation reads as follows:
       "The Government of the Republic of Cyprus wishes to enter a reservation concerning the
granting to women of equal rights with men with respect to the nationality of their children,
mentioned in article 9, paragraph 2 of the Convention. This reservation is to be withdrawn upon
amendment of the relevant law."
       16. Czechoslovakia had signed and ratified the Convention on 17 July 1980 and 16
February 1982, respectively, with a reservation. Subsequently, on 26 April 1991, the
Government of Czechoslovakia notified the Secretary-General of its decision to withdraw the
reservation made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification. For the text of the reservation,
see United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1249, p 123. See also note 1 under "Czech Republic" and
note 1 under "Slovakia" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.
       17. With regard to the reservations made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
upon accession, the Secretary-General received the following communication from the State
indicated hereinafter:
       Ireland (2 April 2002):
       "The Government of Ireland has examined the reservations made by the Government of the
Democratic People's Republic of Korea to paragraph (f) of article 2 of article 9 of the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, at the time of its
accession thereto.
       The Government of Ireland recalls that by acceding to the Convention, a State commits
itself to adopt the measures required for the elimination of discrimination, in all its forms and
manifestations, against women.
       The Government of Ireland notes that the reservation to paragraph (f) of article 2 aims at
excluding the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from the obligation to adopt necessary
measures, including those of a legislative character, to eliminate any form of discrimination
against women. This provision touches upon a key element for the effective elimination of
discrimination against women.
       The Government of Ireland further notes that the reservation to paragraph 2 of article 9 of
the Convention aims to exclude an obligation of non-discrimination, which is the object of the
Convention.
       The Government of Ireland considers that the obligations contained in paragraph (f) of
article 2 and paragraph 2 of article 9 are so central to the aims of the Convention as to render the
aforesaid reservations contrary to its object and purpose.
       The Government of Ireland recalls that. In accordance with paragraph 2 of article 28 of the
Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not
be permitted.
       The Government of Ireland therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the
Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the Convention on the Elimination
of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This objection does not preclude the entry into
force of the Convention between Ireland and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea."
       18. On 26 June 1998, the Secretary-General received from the Government of Denmark the
following communication with regard to the reservation made by Lebanon upon accession in
respect of article 9, paragraph 2, and article 16, paragraph 1 c), d), f) and g). in as much as the
last paragraph deals with the right to choose a family name:
       The Government of Denmark is of the view that the reservations made by the Government
of Lebanon raise doubts as to the commitment of Lebanon to the object and purpose of the
Convention and would recall that, according to article 28, paragraph 2 of the Convention, a
reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the present Convention shall not be
permitted. For this reason, the Government of Denmark objects to the said reservations made by
the Government of Lebanon.
       The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of Lebanon to reconsider their
reservations to [the Covenant].
       19. On 4 January 2008, the Government of Egypt notified the Secretary-General that it had
decided to withdraw the reservation to article 9 (2) made upon ratification. The reservation reads
as follows:
       ..., concerning the granting to women of equal rights with men with respect to the
nationality of their children, without prejudice to the acquisition by a child born of a marriage of
the nationality of his father. This is in order to prevent a child's acquisition of two nationalities
where his parents are of different nationalities, since this may be prejudicial to his future. It is
clear that the child's acquisition of his father's nationality is the procedure most suitable for the
child and that this does not infringe upon the principle of equality between men and women,
since it is customary for a woman to agree, upon marrying an alien, that her children shall be of
the father's nationality.
       20. On 24 January 2000, the Government of Fiji notified the Secretary-General that it had
decided to withdraw its "reservations on articles 5 (a) and 9 of the Convention." made upon
accession.
       21. Upon ratification, the Government of France had also made the following reservations:
       Articles 5 (b) and 16 (1) (d)
       1. The Government of the French Republic declares that article 5 (b) and article 16,
paragraph 1 (d), must not be interpreted as implying joint exercise of parental authority in
situations in which French legislation allows of such exercise by only one parent.
       2. The Government of the French Republic declares that article 16, paragraph 1 (d), of the
Convention must not preclude the application of article 383 of the Civil Code.
       Article 7
       The Government of the French Republic declares that article 7 must not preclude the
application of the second paragraph of article LO 128 of the electoral code.
       Articles 15 (2) and (3) and 16, 1 (c) and (h)
       The Government of the French Republic declares that article 15, paragraphs 2 and 3, and
article 16, paragraphs 1 (c) and 1 (h), of the Convention must not preclude the application of the
provisions of Book Three, part V, chapter II, of the Civil Code.
       In a notification received on 26 March 1984, the Government of France informed the
Secretary-General of its decision to withdraw the reservation to article 7 of the Convention made
upon ratification. The notification specified that the withdrawal was effected because Organic
Law No. 83-1096 of 20 December 1983 has abrogated article LO 128 of the electoral code
relating to temporary disqualifications of persons who have obtained French nationality.
       Subsequently, in a notification received on 21 July 1986, the Government of France
informed the Secretary-General that it decided to withdraw its reservation relating to article 15,
paragraphs 2 and 3, and article 16, paragraphs 1 (c), (d) and (h) of the Convention, made upon
ratification. The notification specified that the withdrawal was effected because the existing
discriminatory provisions, against women, in the rules governing property rights arising out of
matrimonial relationship and in those concerning the legal administration of the property of
children were abrogated by Act No. 85-1372 of 23 December 1985 concerning equality of
spouses in respect of property rights arising out of a matrimonial relationship and equality of
parents in respect of the property of minor children, which entered into force on 1 July 1986.
       Further, on 22 December 2003, the Government of France informed the Secretary-General
that it had decided to lift its reservation relating to articles 5 (b) and 16 1 (d) made upon
ratification.
       The complete text of the reservations is published in United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.
1343, p. 370.
       22. The German Democratic Republic had signed and ratified the Convention on 25 June
1980 and 9 July 1980, respectively. For the text of the reservation, see United Nations, Treaty
Series, vol. 1249, p. 128. See also note 2 under "Germany" in the "Historical Information"
section in the front matter of this volume.
       23. Upon ratification, the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany made the
following declaration and reservation in respect of article 7 (b):
       The Federal Republic of Germany declares in respect of the paragraph of the Preamble to
the Convention starting with the words "affirming that the strengthening of international peace
and security":
       The right of peoples to self-determination, as enshrined in the Charter of the United
Nations and in the International Covenants of 16 December 1966, applies to all peoples and not
only to those living "under alien and colonial domination and foreign occupation". All peoples
thus have the inalienable right freely to determine their political status and freely to pursue their
economic, social and cultural development. The Federal Republic of Germany would be unable
to recognize as legally valid an interpretation of the right to self-determination which contradicts
the unequivocal wording of the Charter of the United Nations and of the two International
Covenants of 16 December 1966 on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic, Social and
Cultural rights. It will interpret the 11th paragraph of the Preamble accordingly.
       Reservation
       Article 7 (b) will not be applied to the extent that it contradicts the second sentence of
Article 12 a (4) of the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany. Pursuant to this provision
of the Constitution, women may on no account render service involving the use of arms.
       On 10 December 2001, the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany informed the
Secretary-General that it had decided to withdraw its reservation to article 7 (b) made upon
ratification.
       The complete text of the reservation is published in United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.
1402, p. 378.
       24. See note 1 under "Germany" regarding Berlin (West) in the "Historical Information"
section in the front matter of this volume.
       25. An instrument of accession had been deposited on 14 March 1980 with the Secretary-
General. The signature was affixed on 17 July 1980 and was accompanied by the following
declaration:
       The People's Revolutionary Republic of Guinea wishes to sign the Convention... with the
understanding that this procedure annuls the procedure of accession previously followed by
Guinea with respect to the Convention.
       26. In a communication received on 8 December 1989, the Government of Hungary
notified the Secretary-General that it had decided to withdraw the reservation in respect of article
29 (1) made upon ratification. For the text of the reservation see United Nations, Treaty Series,
vol. 1249, p. 129.
       27. Upon accession, the Government of Ireland also made the following reservations:
       "Article 9 (1)
       Pending the proposed amendment to the law relating to citizenship, which is at an advance
stage, Ireland reserves the right to retain the provisions in its existing law concerning the
acquisition of citizenship on marriage.
       Articles 13 (b) and (c)
      The question of supplementing the guarantee of equality contained in the Irish Constitution
which special legislation governing access to financial credit and other services and recreational
activities, where these are provided by private persons, organisations or enterprises is under
consideration. For the time being Ireland reserves the right to regard its existing law and
measures in this area as appropriate for the attainment in Ireland of the objectives of the
Convention.
      Article 15
      With regard to paragraph 3 of this article, Ireland reserves the right not to supplement the
existing provisions in Irish law which accord women a legal capacity identical to that of men
with further legislation governing the validity of any contract or other private instrument freely
entered into by a woman.
      With regard to paragraph 4 of this article, Ireland observes the equal rights of women
relating to the movement of persons and the freedom to choose their residence; pending the
proposed amendment of the law of domicile, which is at an advance stage, it reserves the right to
retain its existing law.
      Articles 11 (1) and 13 (a)
      Ireland reserves the right to regard the Anti-Discrimination (Pay) Act, 1974 and the
Employment Equality Act 1977 and other measures taken in implementation of the European
Economic Community standards concerning employment opportunities and pay as sufficient
implementation of articles 11, 1 (b), (c) and (d).
      Ireland reserves the right for the time being to maintain provisions of Irish legislation in the
area of social security which are more favourable to women than men and, pending the coming
into force of the Social Welfare (Amendment) (No. 2) Act, 1985, to apply special conditions to
the entitlement of married women to certain social security schemes."
      On 19 December 1986, the Government of Ireland notified the Secretary-General that
"following the enactment of the Irish Nationality and Citizenship Act 1986, and the Domicile
and Recognition of Foreign Divorces Act 1986, it has been decided to withdraw certain
reservations which had been made upon accession and relating to articles 9 (1) and 15 (4) of the
Convention. Following the coming into force of the Social Welfare (Amendment) (No. 2) Act
1985, it has also been decided to withdraw the reservation contained in the concluding words in
the text of Ireland's reservation to Article (11) (1) and 13 (a), that is: "and pending the coming
into force of the Social Welfare (No. 2) Act 1985, to apply special conditions to the entitlement
of married women to certain social security schemes".
      Further, on 24 March 2000, the Government of Ireland notified the Secretary-General that
it had decided to withdraw its reservation made to article 15 (3) made upon accession.
      Subsequently, on 11 June 2004, the Government of Ireland notified the Secretary-General
that it had decided to withdraw its reservation to articles 13 (b) and (c) made upon accession
which reads as follows:
      "The question of supplementing the guarantee of equality contained in the Irish
Constitution which special legislation governing access to financial credit and other services and
recreational activities, where these are provided by private persons, organisations or enterprises
is under consideration. For the time being Ireland reserves the right to regard its existing law and
measures in this area as appropriate for the attainment in Ireland of the objectives of the
Convention."
      The complete text of the reservations is published in United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.
1413, p. 415.
      28. On 12 December 1986, the Secretary General received from the Government of Israel
the following objection:
      ...In the view of the Government of the State of Israel, such declaration which is explicitly
of a political character is incompatible with the purposes and objectives of the Convention and
cannot in any way affect whatever obligations are binding upon Iraq under general international
law or under particular conventions.
       The Government of the State of Israel will, in so far as concerns the substance of the
matter, adopt towards Iraq an attitude of complete reciprocity.
       29. Upon ratification, the Government of Jamaica made the following reservations:
       "The Government of Jamaica does not consider itself bound by the provisions of Article 9,
paragraph 2, of the Convention."
       "The Government of Jamaica declares that it does not consider itself bound by the
provisions of Article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention."
       On 8 September 1995, the Government of Jamaica notified the Secretary-General of its
decision to withdraw its reservation with respect to article 9 (2) which it had made upon
ratification.
       The complete text of the reservations is published in United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.
1374, p. 439.
       30. The Government of Kuwait informed the Secretary-General, by a notification received
on 9 December 2005, of its decision to withdraw the following reservation in respect of article 7
(a), made upon accession to the Convention, which read as follows:
       The Government of Kuwait enters a reservation regarding article 7 (a), inasmuch as the
provision contained in that paragraph conflicts with the Kuwaiti Electoral Act, under which the
right to be eligible for election and to vote is restricted to males.
       It is recalled that, on 12 February 1997, the Secretary-General received from the
Government of Denmark the following communication with regard to reservations made by
Kuwait upon ratification:
       "The Government of Denmark finds that the said reservations are covering central
provisions of the Convention. Furthermore it is a general principle of international law that
internal law may not be invoked as justification for failure to perform treaty obligations. The
Government of Denmark finds that the reservations are incompatible with the object and purpose
of the Convention and accordingly inadmissible and without effect under international law.
Consequently, the Government of Denmark objects to these reservations.
       It is the opinion of the Government of Denmark that no time limit applies to objections
against reservations, which are inadmissible under international law.
       The Convention remains in force in its entirety between Kuwait and Denmark.
       The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of Kuwait to reconsider its
reservations to the [said] Convention."
       On that same date, the Secretary-General also received from the Government of Denmark,
communications, identical in essence, mutatis mutandis, as the one made for Kuwait, with regard
to reservations made by Lesotho and Malaysia, Maldives, and Singapore made upon accession,
as well as on 23 March 1998, in regard to the reservations made by Pakistan upon ratification.
       31. On 25 August 2004, the Government of Lesotho informed the Secretary-General that it
had decided to modify its reservation. The original reservation made upon ratification reads as
follows:
       "The Government of the Kingdom of Lesotho declares that it does not consider itself bound
by article 2 to the extent that it conflicts with Lesotho's constitutional stipulations relative to
succession to the throne of the Kingdom of Lesotho and law relating to succession to
chieftainship. The Lesotho Government's ratification is subject to the understanding that none of
its obligations under the Convention especially in article 2 (e), shall be treated as extending to
the affairs of religious denominations. Furthermore, the Lesotho Government declares it shall not
take any legislative measures under the Convention where those measures would be
incompatible with the Constitution of Lesotho."
       32. On 5 July 1995, the Government of the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Republic
notified the Secretary-General of the "new formulation of its reservation to the Convention,
which replaces the formulation contained in the instrument of accession" which read as follows:
       [Accession] is subject to the general reservation that such accession cannot conflict with
the laws on personal status derived from the Islamic Shariah.
       33. Upon accession, the Government of Liechtenstein made the following reservations:
       Reservation concerning article 1
       "In the light of the definition given in article 1 of the Convention, the Principality of
Liechtenstein reserves the right to apply, with respect to all the obligations of the Convention,
article 3 of the Liechtenstein Constitution."
       Reservation concerning article 9 (2)
       The Principality of Liechtenstein reserves the right to apply the Liechtenstein legislation
according to which Liechtenstein nationality is granted under certain conditions."
       On 3 October 1996, the Government of Liechtenstein notified the Secretary-General that it
had decided to withdraw its reservation to article 9 (2) made upon accession which reads as
follows:
       The Principality of Liechtenstein reserves the right to apply the Liechtenstein legislation
according to which Liechtenstein nationality is granted under certain conditions."
       The complete text of the reservation is published in United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.
1936, p. 407.
       34. On 24 October 1991, the Government of Malawi notified the Secretary-General of its
decision to withdraw the following reservations made upon accession:
       "Owing to the deep-rooted nature of some traditional customs and practices of Malawians,
the Government of the Republic of Malawi shall not, for the time being, consider itself bound by
such of the provisions of the Convention as require immediate eradication of such traditional
customs and practices.
       "While the Government of the Republic of Malawi accepts the principles of article 29,
paragraph 2 of the Convention this acceptance should nonetheless be read in conjunction with
[its] declaration of 12th December 1966, concerning the recognition, by the Government of the
Republic of Malawi, as compulsory the jurisdiction of the International Justice under article 36,
paragraph 2 of the Statute of the Court."
       In respect of the first reservation, the Secretary-General had received, on 5 August 1987,
from the Government of Mexico the following communication:
       The Government of the United Mexican States hopes that the process of eradication of
traditional customs and practices referred to in the first reservation of the Republic of Malawi
will not be so protracted as to impair fulfillment of the purpose and intent of the Convention.
       35. On 6 February 1998, the Government of Malaysia notified the Secretary-General of a
partial withdrawal as follows:
       "The Government of Malaysia withdraws its reservation in respect of article 2 (f), 9 (1), 16
(b), 16 (d), 16 (e) and 16 (h).
       The same date, the Government of Malaysia notified the Secretary-General that it had
decided to modify its reservation made upon accession as follows:
       With respect to article 5 (a) of the Convention, the Government of Malaysia declares that
the provision is subject to the Syariah law on the division of inherited property.
       With respect to article 7 (b) of the Convention, the Government of Malaysia declares that
the application of said article 7 (b) shall not affect appointment to certain public offices like the
Mufti Syariah Court Judges, and the Imam which is in accordance with the provisions of the
Islamic Shariah law.
       With respect to article 9, paragraph 2 of the Convention, the Government of Malaysia
declares that its reservation will be reviewed if the Government amends the relevant law.
       With respect to article 16.1 (a) and paragraph 2, the Government of Malaysia declares that
under the Syariah law and the laws of Malaysia the age limit for marriage for women is sixteen
and men is eighteen."
       In keeping with the depositary practice followed in similar cases, the Secretary-General
proposed to receive the modification in question for deposit in the absence of any objection on
the part of any of the Contracting States, either to the deposit itself or to the procedure envisaged,
within a period of 90 days from the date of its notification (21 April 1998), that is to say, on 20
July 1998.
      In this regard, on the dates indicated below, the Secretary-General received from the
Governments of France and the Netherlands the following communications relating to the said
partial withdrawal.
      France (20 July 1998:)
      France considers that the reservation made by Malaysia, as expressed in the partial
withdrawal and modifications made by Malaysia on 6 February 1998, is incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention. France therefore objects to the [reservation].
      This objection shall not otherwise affect the entry into force of the Convention between
France and Malaysia.
      Netherlands (21 July 1998):
      "The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands has examined the modification of the
reservations made by Malaysia to article 5 (a) and 16.1. (a) and paragraph 2 of the [Convention].
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands acknowledges that Malaysia has
specified these reservations, made at the time of its accession to the Convention. Nevertheless
the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands wishes to declare that it assumes that
Malaysia will ensure implementation of the rights enshrined in the above articles and will strive
to bring its relevant national legislation into conformity with the obligations imposed by the
Convention. This declaration shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between
the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Malaysia."
      Consequently, the modification in question is not accepted, the Government of France
having objected thereto.
      36. On 29 January 1999, the Government of Maldives notified the Secretary-General of a
modification of its reservation made upon accession. In keeping with the depositary practice
followed in similar cases, the Secretary-General proposed to receive the modification in question
for deposit in the absence of any objection on the part of any of the contracting States, either to
the deposit itself or to the procedure envisaged, within a period of 90 days from the date of its
notification (i.e. 25 March 1999). No objection having been received, the modification was
accepted for deposit upon the expiration of the 90 day period, that is to say on 23 June 1999. The
text of the reservations made upon accession read as follows:
      Reservations:
      "The Government of the Republic of Maldives will comply with the provisions of the
Convention, except those which the Government may consider contradictory to the principles of
the Islamic Sharia upon which the laws and traditions of the Maldives is founded.
      Furthermore, the Republic of Maldives does not see itself bound by any provisions of the
Convention which obliges to change its Constitution and laws in any manner."
      In this regard, the Secretary-General received communications from various States on the
dates indicated hereinafter:
      Finland (17 August 1999):
      "The Government of Finland objected in 1994 to the reservations made by the Government
of Maldives upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women. The Government of Finland has now examined the contents of
the modified reservation made by the Government of the Republic of Maldives to the said
Convention.
      The Government of Finland welcomes with satisfaction that the Government of the
Republic of Maldives has specified the reservations made at the time of its accession to the
Convention. However, the reservations to Article 7 (a) and Article 16 still include elements
which are objectionable. The Government of Finland therefore wishes to declare that it assumes
that the Government of the Republic of Maldives will ensure the implementation of the rights
recognised in the Convention and will do its utmost to bring its national legislation into
compliance with obligations under the Convention with a view to withdrawing the reservation.
This declaration does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Maldives
and Finland".
       Germany (16 August 1999):
       The modification does not constitute a withdrawal or a partial withdrawal of the original
reservations to the Convention by the Republic of the Maldives. Instead the modification
constitutes a new reservation to articles 7 a (right of women to vote in all elections and public
referenda and be eligible for elections to all publicly elected bodies) and 16 (elimination of
discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations) of the
Convention extending and reinforcing the original reservations.
       The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany notes that reservations to treaties can
only be made by a State when signing, ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to a treaty
(article 19 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties). After a State has bound itself to a
treaty under international law it can no longer submit new reservations or extend or add to old
reservations. It is only possible to totally or partially withdraw original reservations, something
unfortunately not done by the Government of the Republic of the Maldives with its modification.
       The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany objects to the modification of the
reservations".
       37. With regard to the reservation made by Mauritania upon accession, the Secretary-
General received communications from the following States on the dates indicated hereinafter:
       Ireland (13 June 2002):
       "The Government of Ireland [has] examined the reservation made by Mauritania upon its
accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination against
Women.
       The Government of Ireland [is] of the view that a reservation which consists of a general
reference to religious law and to the Constitution of the reserving State and which does not
clearly specify the provisions of the Convention to which it applies and the extent of the
derogation therefrom, may cast doubts on the commitment of the reserving State to fulfil its
obligations under the Convention. The Government of Ireland [is] furthermore of the view that
such a general reservation may undermine the basis of international treaty law.
       The Government of Ireland [recalls] that article 28, paragraph 2 of the Convention provides
that a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be
permitted.
       The Government of Ireland therefore [objects] to the reservation made by Mauritania to the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Ireland
and Mauritania."
       France (17 June 2002):
       The Government of the French Republic has examined the reservation made by the
Government of Mauritania upon accession to the Convention of 18 December 1979 on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. By stating that it approves the
Convention in each and every one of its parts which are not contrary to Islamic Sharia and to its
Constitution, the Government of Mauritania formulates a reservation of general, indeterminate
scope that gives the other States parties no idea which provisions of the Convention are currently
affected by the reservation or might be affected in future. The Government of the French
Republic considers that the reservation could make the provisions of the Convention ineffective
and objects to it.
       38. In a communication received on 5 May 1998, the Government of Mauritius informed
the Secretary-General that it had decided to withdraw its reservations with regard to
subparagraphs (b) and (d) of paragraph 1 of article 11 and subparagraph (g) of paragraph 1 of
article 16 made upon accession. For the text of the reservations, see United Nations, Treaty
Series, vol. 1361, p. 356.
       39. In a communication received on 19 July 1990, the Government of Mongolia notified
the Secretary-General of its decision to withdraw the reservation, made upon ratification with
respect to article 29 (1). For the text of the reservation, see United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.
1249, p. 131.
       40. See note 1 under "Montenegro" in the "Historical Information" section in the front
matter of this volume.
       41. For the Kingdom in Europe, the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba.
       42. On 13 January 1989, the Secretary-General received from the Government of New
Zealand, a communication notifying him that, after consultation with the Government of the
Cook Islands and the Government of Niue, it denounced the Convention concerning the
employment of women on underground work in mines of all kinds (ILO Convention No. 45) on
23 June 1987 and that in accordance with article 28 (3) of the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women, it withdraws the reservation made upon ratification
which reads as follows:
       "The Government of New Zealand, the Government of the Cook Islands and the
Government of Niue reserve the right, to the extent the Convention is inconsistent with the
provisions of the Convention concerning the Employment of Women on Underground Work in
Mines of all Kinds (ILO Convention No. 45) which was ratified by the Government of New
Zealand on 29 March 1938, to apply the provisions of the latter."
       See also note 1 under "Cook Islands" and note 1 under "Niue" in the "Historical
Information" section in the front matter of this volume.
       43. On 5 July 2007, the Government of New Zealand informed the Secretary-General that
it had decided to withdraw the reservation made upon ratification in accordance with article 28
(1) of the Convention which read as follows: ...the Government of New Zealand, the
Government of the Cook Islands and the Government of Niue reserved the right not to apply the
provisions of CEDAW in so far as they are inconsistent with policies relating to recruitment into
for service in: (a) the Armed Forces which reflect either directly or indirectly the fact that
members of such forces are required to serve on armed forces aircraft or vessels and in situations
involving armed combat; or (b) the law enforcement forces which reflect either directly or
indirectly the fact that members of such forces are required to serve in situations involving
violence or threat of violence, in their territories; ...NOW THEREFORE the Government of New
Zealand, having considered the said reservation, HEREBY WITHDRAWS the said reservation
in respect of the metropolitan territory of New Zealand pursuant to paragraph 3 of article 28 of
CEDAW; ...AND DECLARES that, consistent with the constitutional status of Tokelau and
taking into account the commitment of the Government of New Zealand to the development of
self-government for Tokelau, ther having been consultations regarding CEDAW between the
Government of New Zealand and the Government of Tokelau; the withdrawal of the said
reservation shall also apply to Tokelau..."
       44. On 5 September 2003, the Government of New Zealand informed the Secretary-
General that it had decided to withdraw its reservation in respect only of the metropolitan
territory of New Zealand. The reservation reads as follows:
       "The Government of New Zealand, the Government of the Cook Islands and the
Government of Niue reserve the right not to apply the provisions of article 11 (2) (b)."
       Moreover, the Government of New Zealand notified the Secretary-General of the following
territorial exclusion:
       "Declares that, consistent with the constitutional status of Tokelau and taking into account
the commitment of the Government of New Zealand to the development of self-government for
Tokelau through an act of self-determination under the Charter of the United Nations, the
withdrawal of this reservation shall not extend to Tokelau unless and until a Declaration to this
effect is lodged by the Government of New Zealand with the Depositary on the basis of
appropriate consultation with that territory."
      See also note 1 under "Cook Islands" and note 1 under "Niue" in the "Historical
Information" section in the front matter of this volume.
      45. The instrument of ratification indicates that in accordance with the special relationships
which exist between New Zealand and the Cook Islands and between New Zealand and Niue,
there have been consultations regarding the Convention between the Government of New
Zealand and the Government of the Cook Islands and between the Government of New Zealand
and the Government of Niue; that the Government of the Cook Islands, which has exclusive
competence to implement treaties in the Cook Islands, has requested that the Convention should
extend to the Cook Islands; that the Government of Niue which has exclusive competence to
implement treaties in Niue, has requested that the Convention should extend to Niue. The said
instrument specifies that accordingly the Convention shall apply also to the Cook Islands and
Niue.
      See also note 1 under "Cook Islands" and "Niue" in the Historical Information section in
the front matter of this volume.
      46. See also note 1 under "New Zealand" regarding Tokelau in the "Historical Information"
section in the front matter of this volume.
      47. With regard to the reservations made by the Government of Niger upon accession, the
Secretary-General received from the Governments of the following States, communications on
the dates indicated hereinafter:
      France (14 November 2000):
      By indicating that it "expresses reservations" to article 2, paragraphs (d) and (f), article 5,
paragraph (a), and article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (e) and (g), the Government of the Republic of the
Niger is aiming completely to preclude the application of the provisions concerned. The
reservation to article 15, paragraph 4, which seeks to deprive married women of the right to
choose their residence and domicile, is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The general reservation relating to the provisions of article 2, paragraphs (d) and (f), article
5, paragraphs (a) and (b), article 15, paragraph 4, and article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (e) and (g),
seeks to ensure that domestic law, and even domestic practice and the current values of society,
prevail in general over the provisions of the Convention. The provisions in question concern not
only family relations but also social relations as a whole; in particular, article 2, paragraph (d),
imposes an obligation on public authorities and institutions to comply with the ban on any act or
practice of discrimination, and article 2, paragraph (f), establishes the obligation to take the
appropriate measures, notably legislative measures, to prevent discrimination against women,
including in relations between individuals. Because it ignores these obligations, the reservation is
manifestly contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
      The Government of the French Republic considers that the reservations to articles 2, 5, 15
and 16 completely vitiate the undertaking of the Republic of the Niger and are manifestly not
authorized by the Convention; in consequence, it enters its objection to them.
      [The Permanent Mission further adds] that the reservations of the Republic of the Niger,
made on 8 October 1999, were notified by the Secretary-General of the United Nations on 2
November 1999 and received by the French Republic on 16 November 1999. In these
circumstances, the French Republic is still able, as at this date and until 15 November 2000, to
lodge an objection and the Secretary-General of the United Nations cannot treat this act as a
simple communication.
      Netherlands (6 December 2000):
      "The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is of the view that these reservations
which seek to limit the obligations of the reserving State by invoking its national law, may raise
doubts as to the commitment of Niger to the object and purpose of the Convention and,
moreover, contribute to undermining the basis of international treaty law.
      The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands recalls that according to paragraph 2
of Article 28 of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the
Convention shall not be permitted.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become
party are respected, as to their object and purpose, by all parties and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
       The Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to the afore-said reservations made by
the Government of Niger to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between
the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Niger."
       48. On 16 October 1997, the Government of Poland notified the Secretary-General that it
had decided to withdraw its reservation with regard to article 29, paragraph 1 of the Convention
made upon ratification. For the text of the reservation see United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.
1249, p. 13.
       49. In this regard, on 23 July 1997, the Secretary-General received from the Government of
Portugal, the following communication:
       "Portugal is of the view that a general declaration of the kind made by Pakistan,
constituting in fact in legal terms a general reservation, and not clearly specifying the provisions
of the Convention to which it applies and the extent of the derogation therefrom, contributes to
undermining the basis of international law.
       Furthermore, according to paragraph 2 of article 28 of the Convention, a general
reservation of such a kind is incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention and
shall not be permitted.
       Portugal therefore objects to the aforesaid general reservation which will not preclude the
entry into force of the Convention in its entirety between Pakistan and Portugal."
       50. Upon ratification, the Government of the Republic of Korea made the following
reservations:
       "The Government of the Republic of Korea, having examined the said Convention, hereby
ratifies the Convention considering itself not bound by the provisions of Article 9 and sub-
paragraphs (c), (d), (f) and (g) of paragraph 1 of Article 16 of the Convention."
       On 15 March 1991, the Government of the Republic of Korea notified the Secretary-
General of its decision to withdraw, with effect as from that date, the reservation made upon
ratification to the extent that they apply to sub-paragraphs (c), (d) and (f) of paragraph 1 of
article 16.
       Subsequently, on 24 August 1999, the Government of the Republic of Korea notified the
Secretary-General of its decision to withdraw, with effect as from that date, its reservation made
upon ratification to article 9.
       51. On 2 April 1997, the Government of Romania notified the Secretary-General that it had
decided to withdraw its reservation made with regard to article 29 of the Convention. For the text
of the Convention, see United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1259, p. 437.
       52. In communications received on 8 March 1989, 19 and 20 April 1989, respectively, the
Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist
Republic and the Ukraini- an Soviet Socialist Republic notified the Secretary-General that they
had decided to withdraw the reservations made upon ratification relating to article 29 (1). The
reservations were identical in essence, mutatis mutandis, to the reservation made by the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics. For the text of the reservations, see United Nations, Treaty Series,
vol. 1249, pp. 117, 121 and 133.
       53. On 24 July 2007, the Government of Singapore notified the Secretary-General that it
had decided to withdraw the following reservation made upon accession to the Convention: "(2)
Singapore is geographically one of the smallest independent countries in the world and one of
the most densely populated. The Republic of Singapore accordingly reserves the right to apply
such laws and conditions governing the entry into, stay in, employment of and departure from its
territory of those who do not have the right under the laws of Singapore to enter and remain
indefinitely in Singapore and to the conferment, acquisitions and loss of citizenship of women
who have acquired such citizenship by marriage and of children born outside Singapore."
       54. On 25 October 1996, the Secretary-General received from the Government of Sweden,
the following communication regarding reservations made by Malaysia upon accession:
       [Same text, mutatis mutandis, as the one made under "Objections".]
       55. On 13 August 1997, the Secretary-General received from the Government of Sweden
the following communication with regard to the reservation made by Singapore:
       "The Government of Sweden is of the view that these general reservations raise doubts as
to the commitment of Singapore to the object and purpose of the Convention and would recall
that, according to article 28, paragraph 2, of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the
object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
       It is in the common interest of states that treaties to which they have chosen to become
parties are respected, as to their object and purpose, by all parties and that states are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
       The Government of Sweden is further of the view that general reservations of the kind
made by the Government of Singapore, which do not clearly specify the provisions of the
Convention to which they apply and the extent of the derogation therefrom, contribute to
undermining the basis of international treaty law.
       The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the aforesaid general reservations made by
the Government of Singapore to the [said Convention].
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Singapore
and Sweden. The Convention will thus become operative between the two states without
Singapore benefiting from these reservations.
       It is the opinion of the Government of Sweden, that no time limit applies to objections
against reservations, which are inadmissible under international law."
       On that same date, the Secretary-General received from the Government of Sweden, a
communication with regard to the declaration made by Pakistan, identical in essence, mutatis
mutandis, as the one made for Singapore.
       56. On 29 April 2004, the Government of Switzerland notified the Secretary-General that it
had decided to withdraw its reservation in respect of article 7 (b) made upon ratification. The text
of the reservation reads as follows:
       (a) Reservation concerning article 7 (b):
       Said provisions shall be without prejudice to Swiss military legislation prohibiting women
from performing functions involving armed conflict, except in self-defence;...
       57. Upon accession, the Government of Thailand made the following declaration and
reservations:
       "Declaration:
       The Royal Thai Government wishes to express its understanding that the purposes of the
Convention are to eliminate discrimination against women and to accord to every person, men
and women alike, equality before the law, and are in accordance with the principles prescribed
by the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand.
       Reservations:
       1. In all matters which concern national security, maintenance of public order and service
or employment in the military or paramilitary forces, the Royal Thai Government reserves its
right to apply the provisions of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination
against Women, in particular articles 7 and 10, only within the limits established by national
laws regulations and practices.
       2. With regard to article 9, paragraph 2, [...] the Royal Thai Government considers that the
application of the said provisions shall be subject to the limits and criteria established by national
law, regulations and practices."
       3. The Royal Thai Government does not consider itself bound by the provisions of [...]
article 16 and article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention.
       On 25 January 1991, the Government of Thailand notified the Secretary-General of its
decision to withdraw the reservations made upon accession to the extent that they apply to article
11, paragraph 1 (b), and article 15, paragraph 3.
       Subsequently, on 26 October 1992, the Government of Thailand notified the Secretary-
General its decision to withdraw one of the reservations made upon accession to the Convention,
i.e., that relating to article 9 (2), which reservation reads as follows:
       "2. With regard to article 9, paragraph 2, [...] the Royal Thai Government considers that the
application of the said provisions shall be subject to the limits and criteria established by national
law, regulations and practices."
       Subsequently, on 1 August 1996, the Government of Thailand notified the Secretary-
General of its decision to withdraw, as from that same date, the following reservation, made
upon accession:
       "1. In all matters which concern national security, maintenance of public order and service
or employment in the military or para military forces, the Royal Thai Government reserves its
right to apply the provisions of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination
against Women, in particular articles 7 and 10, only within the limits established by national
laws, regulations and practices."
       The complete text of the declaration and reservations are published in United Nations,
Treaty Series, vol. 1404, p. 419.
       58. With regard to the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession, the
Secretary-General received a communication from the following State on the date indicated
hereinafter:
       Denmark (14 December 2005):
       "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Government of
the United Arab Emirates upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women regarding article 2 (f), 15 (2) and 16 pertaining to Shariah
principles.
       The Government of Denmark considers that the reservations made by the United Arab
Emirates to article 2 (f), 15 (2) and 16 referring to the contents of the Shariah Law do not clearly
specify the extent to which the United Arab Emirates feel committed to the object and purpose of
the Convention. Consequently, the Government of Denmark considers the said reservations as
being incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention. Consequently, the
Government of Denmark considers the said reservations as being incompatible with the object
and purpose of the Convention and accordingly inadmissible and without effect under
international law.
       The Government of Denmark wishes to recall that, according to article 28 (2) of the
Convention reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be
permitted.
       The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the aforementioned reservations made by
the Government of the United Arab Emirates to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against Women. This shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention
in its entirety between the United Arab Emirates and Denmark.
       The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of the United Arab Emirates to
reconsider its reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women."
       59. Upon ratification the Government of the United Kingdom made the following
declarations and reservations:
       "A. On behalf of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland:
       "(a) The United Kingdom understands the main purpose of the Convention, in the light of
the definition contained in Article 1, to be the reduction, in accordance with its terms, of
discrimination against women, and does not therefore regard the Convention as imposing any
requirement to repeal or modify any existing laws, regulations, customs or practices which
provide for women to be treated more favourably than men, whether temporarily or in the longer
term; the United Kingdom's undertakings under Article 4, paragraph 1, and other provisions of
the Convention are to be construed accordingly.
      "(b) The United Kingdom reserves the right to regard the provisions of the Sex
Discrimination Act 1975, the Employment Protection (Consolidation) Act 1978, the
Employment Act 1980, the Sex Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order 1976, the Industrial
Relations (No. 2) (Northern Ireland) Order 1976, the Industrial Relations (Northern Ireland)
Order 1982, the Equal Pay Act 1970 (as amended) and the Equal Pay Act (Northern Ireland)
1970 (as amended), including the exceptions and exemptions contained in any of these Acts and
Orders, as constituting appropriate measures for the practical realisation of the objectives of the
Convention in the social and economic circumstances of the United Kingdom, and to continue to
apply these provisions accordingly; this reservation will apply equally to any future legislation
which may modify or replace the above Acts and Orders on the understanding that the terms of
such legislation will be compatible with the United Kingdom's obligations under the Convention.
      "(c) In the light of the definition contained in Article 1, the United Kingdom's ratification is
subject to the understanding that none of its obligations under the Convention shall be treated as
extending to the succession to, or possession and enjoyment of, the Throne, the peerage, titles of
honour, social precedence or armorial bearings, or as extending to the affairs of religious
denominations or orders or to the admission into or service in the Armed Forces of the Crown.
      "(d) The United Kingdom reserves the right to continue to apply such immigration
legislation governing entry into, stay in, and departure from, the United Kingdom as it may deem
necessary from time to time and, accordingly, its acceptance of Article 15 (4) and of the other
provisions of the Convention is subject to the provisions of any such legislation as regards
persons not at the time having the right under the law of the United Kingdom to enter and remain
in the United Kingdom.
      "Article 1
      With reference to the provisions of the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 and other applicable
legislation, the United Kingdom's acceptance of Article 1 is subject to the reservation that the
phrase "irrespective of their marital status" shall not be taken to render discriminatory any
difference of treatment accorded to single persons as against married persons, so long as there is
equality of treatment as between married men and married women and as between single men
and single women.
      "Article 2
      In the light of the substantial progress already achieved in the United Kingdom in
promoting the progressive elimination of discrimination against women, the United Kingdom
reserves the right, without prejudice to the other reservations made by the United Kingdom, to
give effect to paragraphs (f) and (g) by keeping under review such of its laws and regulations as
may still embody significant differences in treatment between men and women with a view to
making changes to those laws and regulations when to do so would be compatible with essential
and overriding considerations of economic policy. In relation to forms of discrimination more
precisely prohibited by other provisions of the Convention, the obligations under this Article
must (in the case of the United Kingdom) be read in conjunction with the other reservations and
declarations made in respect of those provisions including the declarations and reservations of
the United Kingdom contained in paragraphs (a) - (d) above.
      "With regard to paragraphs (f) and (g) of this Article the United Kingdom reserves the right
to continue to apply its law relating to sexual offences and prostitution; this reservation will
apply equally to any future law which may modify or replace it.
      "Article 9
      The British Nationality Act 1981, which was brought into force with effect from January
1983, is based on principles which do not allow of any discrimination against women within the
meaning of Article 1 as regards acquisition, change or retention of their nationality or as regards
the nationality of their children. The United Kingdom's acceptance of Article 9 shall not,
however, be taken to invalidate the continuation of certain temporary or transitional provisions
which will continue in force beyond that date.
      "The United Kingdom reserves the right to take such steps as may be necessary to comply
with its obligations under Article 2 of the First Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of
Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms signed at Paris on 20 March 1952 and its obligations
under paragraph 3 of Article 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights opened for signature at New York on 19 December 1966, to the extent that the said
provisions preserve the freedom of parental choice in respect of the education of children; and
reserves also the right not to take any measures which may conflict with its obligation under
paragraph 4 of Article 13 of the said Covenant not to interfere with the liberty of individuals and
bodies to establish and direct educational institutions, subject to the observation of certain
principles and standards.
      Moreover, the United Kingdom can only accept the obligations under paragraph (c) of
Article 10 within the limits of the statutory powers of central Government, in the light of the fact
that the teaching curriculum, the provision of textbooks and teaching methods are reserved for
local control and are not subject to central Government direction; moreover, the acceptance of
the objective of encouraging coeducation is without prejudice to the right of the United Kingdom
also to encourage other types of education.
      "Article 11
      The United Kingdom interprets the "right to work" referred to in paragraph 1 (a) as a
reference to the "right to work" as defined in other human rights instruments to which the United
Kingdom is a party, notably Article 6 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights of 19 December 1966.
      "The United Kingdom interprets paragraph 1 of Article 11, in the light of the provisions of
paragraph 2 of Article 4, as not precluding prohibitions, restrictions or conditions on the
employment of women in certain areas, or on the work done by them, where this is considered
necessary or desirable to protect the health and safety of women or the human foetus, including
such prohibitions, restrictions or conditions imposed in consequence of other international
obligations of the United Kingdom; The United Kingdom declare that, in the event of a conflict
between obligations under the prsent Convention and its obligations under the Convention
concerning the employment of women on underground work in mines of all kinds (ILO
Convention No. 45), the provisions of the last mentioned Convention shall prevail.
      "The United Kingdom reserves the right to apply all United Kingdom legislation and the
rules of pension schemes affecting retirement pensions, survivors' benefits and other benefits in
relation to death or retirement (including retirement on grounds of redundancy), whether or not
derived from a Social Security scheme.
      "This reservation will apply equally to any future legislation which may modify or replace
such legislation, or the rules of pension schemes, on the understanding that the terms of such
legislation will be compatible with the United Kingdom's obligations under the Convention.
      "The United Kingdom reserves the right to apply the following provisions of United
Kingdom legislation concerning the benefits specified:
      a) social security benefits for persons engaged in caring for a severely disabled person
under section 37 of the Social Security Act 1975 and section 37 of the Social Security (Northern
Ireland) Act 1975;
      b) increases of benefits for adult dependants under sections 44 to 47, 49 and 66 of the
Social Security Act 1975 and under sections 44 to 47, 49 and 66 of the Social Security (Northern
Ireland) Act 1975;
      c) retirement pensions and survivors' benefits under the Social Security Acts 1975 to 1982
and the Social Security (Northern Ireland) Acts 1975 to 1982;
      d) family income supplements under the Family Income Supplements Act 1970 and the
Family Income Supplements Act (Northern Ireland) 1971.
       "This reservation will apply equally to any future legislation which may modify or replace
any of the provisions specified in sub-paragraphs (a) to (d) above, on the understanding that the
terms of such legislation will be compatible with the United Kingdom's obligations under the
Convention.
       The United Kingdom reserves the right to apply any non-discriminatory requirement for a
qualifying period of employment or insurance for the application of the provisions contained in
Article 11 (2).
       "Article 13
       The United Kingdom reserves the right, notwithstanding the obligations undertaken in
Article 13, or any other relevant article of the Convention, to continue to apply the income tax
and capital gains tax legislation which:
       i) Deems for income tax purposes the income of a married woman living with her husband
in a year, or part of a year, of assessment to be her husband's income and not to be her income
(subject to the right ofe husband and the wife to elect jointly that the wife's earned income shall
be charged to income tax as if she were a single woman with no other income); and
       ii) Requires tax in respect of such income and of chargeable gains accruing to such a
married woman to be assessed on her husband (subject to the right of either of them to apply for
separate assessment) and consequently (if no such application is made) restricts to her husband
the right to appeal against any such assessment and to be heard or to be represented at the
hearing of any such appeal; and
       iii) Entitles a man who has his wife living with him, or whose wife is wholly maintained by
him, during the year of assessment to a deduction from his total income of an amount larger than
that to which an individual in any other case is entitled and entitles an individual whose total
income includes any earned income of his wife to have that deduction increased by the amount
of that earned income or by an amount specified in the legislation whichever is the less.
       "Article 15
       "In relation to Article 15, paragraph 2, the United Kingdom understands the term "legal
capacity" as referring merely to the existence of a separate and distinct legal personality.
       "In relation to Article 15, paragraph 3, the United Kingdom understands the intention of
this provision to be that only those terms or elements of a contract or other private instrument
which are discriminatory in the sense described are to be deemed null and void, but not
necessarily the contract or instrument as a whole.
       "Article 16
       As regards sub-paragraph 1 (f) of Article 16, the United Kingdom does not regard the
reference to the paramountcy of the interests of the children as being directly relevant to the
elimination of discrimination against women, and declares in this connection that the legislation
of the United Kingdom regulating adoption, while giving a principal position to the promotion of
the children's welfare, does not give to the child's interests the same paramount place as in issues
concerning custody over children.
       "The United Kingdom's acceptance of paragraph 1 of Article 16 shall not be treated as
either limiting the freedom of a person to dispose of his property as he wishes or as giving a
person a right to property the subject of such limitation.
       "B. On behalf of the Isle of Man, the British Virgin Islands, the Falkland Islands, South
Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and the Turks and Caicos Islands:
       [Same reservations as the one made on behalf of the United Kingdom under paragraphs A
(a), (c), and (d) except that in the of case d) it applies to the territories and their laws).]
       Article 1
       [Same reservation as the one made in respect of the United Kingdom except with regard to
the absence of a reference to United Kingdom legislation.]
       Article 2
       [Same reservation as the one made in respect of the United Kingdom except that reference
is made to the laws of the territories, and not the laws of the United Kingdom.]
      Article 9
      [Same reservation as the one made in respect of the United Kingdom.]
      Article 11
      [Same reservation as those made in respect of the United Kingdom except that a reference
is made to the laws of the territories, and not to the laws of the United Kingdom.]
      "Also, as far as the territories are concerned, the specific benefits listed and which may be
applied under the provisions of these territories' legislation are as follows:
      a) social security benefits for persons engaged in caring for a severely disabled person;
      b) increases of benefit for adult dependants;
      c) retirement pensions and survivors' benefits;
      d) family income supplements.
      "This reservation will apply equally to any future legislation which may modify or replace
any of the provisions specified in sub-paragraphs (a) to (d) above, on the understanding that the
terms of such legislation will be compatible with the United Kingdom's obligations under the
Convention.
      "The United Kingdom reserves the right to apply any non-discriminatory requirement for a
qualifying period of employment or insurance for the application of the provisions contained in
Article 11 (2).
      Article 13, 15 and 16
      [Same reservations as those made on behalf the United Kingdom.]
      On 4 January 1995, the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland notified the Secretary-General that it had decided to withdraw the following declaration
and reservation made upon ratification:
      Declaration:
      "...the United Kingdom declares that, in the event of a conflict between obligations under
the present Convention and its obligations under the Convention concerning the employment of
women on underground work in mines of all kinds (ILO Convention No. 45), the provisions of
the last mentioned Convention shall prevail."
      Reservation:
      "Article 13
      The United Kingdom reserves the right, notwithstanding the obligations undertaken in
Article 13, or any other relevant article of the Convention, to continue to apply the income tax
and capital gains tax legislation which:
      i) deems for income tax purposes the income of a married woman living with her husband
in a year, or part of a year, of assessment to be her husband's income and not to be her income
(subject to the right of the husband and the wife to elect jointly that the wife's earned income
shall be charged to income tax as if she were a single woman with no other income); and
      ii) requires tax in respect of such income and of chargeable gains accruing to such a
married woman to be assessed on her husband (subject to the right of either of them to apply for
separate assessment) and consequently (if no such application is made) restricts to her husband
the right to appeal against any such assessment and to be heard or to be represented at the
hearing of any such appeal; and
      iii) entitles a man who has his wife living with himor whose wife is wholly maintained by
him, during the year of assessment to a deduction from his total income of an amount larger than
that to which an individual in any other case is entitled and entitles an individual whose total
income includes any earned income of his wife to have that deduction increased by the amount
of that earned income or by an amount specified in the legislation whichever is the less.
      Further, on 22 March 1996, the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland notified the Secretary-General that it had decided to withdraw the following
reservations and declarations made upon ratification:
      "(b) The United Kingdom reserves the right to regard the provisions of the Sex
Discrimination Act 1975, the Employment Protection (Consolidation) Act 1978, the
Employment Act 1980, the Sex Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order 1976, the Industrial
Relations (No. 2) (Northern Ireland) Order 1976, the Industrial Relations (Northern Ireland)
Order 1982, the Equal Pay Act 1970 (as amended) and the Equal Pay Act (Northern Ireland)
1970 (as amended), including the exceptions and exemptions contained in any of these Acts and
Orders, as constituting appropriate measures for the practical realisation of the objectives of the
Convention in the social and economic circumstances of the United Kingdom, and to continue to
apply these provisions accordingly; this reservation will apply equally to any future legislation
which may modify or replace the above Acts and Orders on the understanding that the terms of
such legislation will be compatible with the United Kingdom's obligations under the
Convention."
      "Article 1
      With reference to the provisions of the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 and other applicable
legislation, the United Kingdom's acceptance of Article 1 is subject to the reservation that the
phrase "irrespective of their marital status" shall not be taken to render discriminatory any
difference of treatment accorded to single persons as against married persons, so long as there is
equality of treatment as between married men and married women and as between single men
and single women."
      "Article 2
      In the light of the substantial progress already achieved in the United Kingdom in
promoting the progressive elimination of discrimination against women, the United Kingdom
reserves the right, without prejudice to the other reservations made by the United Kingdom, to
give effect to paragraphs (f) and (g) by keeping under review such of its laws and regulations as
may still embody significant differences in treatment between men and women with a view to
making changes to those laws and regulations when to do so would be compatible with essential
and overriding considerations of economic policy. In relation to forms of discrimination more
precisely prohibited by other provisions of the Convention, the obligations under this Article
must (in the case of the United Kingdom) be read in conjunction with the other reservations and
declarations made in respect of those provisions including the declarations and reservations of
the United Kingdom contained in paragraphs (a) - (d) above.
      "With regard to paragraphs (f) and (g) of this Article the United Kingdom reserves the right
to continue to apply its law relating to sexual offences and prostitution; this reservation will
apply equally to any future law which may modify or replace it."
      "Article 9
      .....
      "The United Kingdom reserves the right to take such steps as may be necessary to comply
with its obligations under Article 2 of the First Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of
Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms signed at Paris on 20 March 1952 and its obligations
under paragraph 3 of Article 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights opened for signature at New York on 19 December 1966, to the extent that the said
provisions preserve the freedom of parental choice in respect of the education of children; and
reserves also the right not to take any measures which may conflict with its obligation under
paragraph 4 of Article 13 of the said Covenant not to interfere with the liberty of individuals and
bodies to establish and direct educational institutions, subject to the observation of certain
principles and standards."
      "Moreover, the United Kingdom can only accept the obligations under paragraph (c) of
Article 10 within the limits of the statutory powers of central Government, in the light of the fact
that the teaching curriculum, the provision of textbooks and teaching methods are reserved for
local control and are not subject to central Government direction; moreover, the acceptance of
the objective of encouraging coeducation is without prejudice to the right of the United Kingdom
also to encourage other types of education."
      "Article 11
      The United Kingdom interprets the "right to work" referred to in paragraph 1 (a) as a
reference to the "right to work" as defined in other human rights instruments to which the United
Kingdom is a party, notably Article 6 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights of 19 December 1966.
      "The United Kingdom interprets paragraph 1 of Article 11, in the light of the provisions of
paragraph 2 of Article 4, as not precluding prohibitions, restrictions or conditions on the
employment of women in certain areas, or on the work done by them, where this is considered
necessary or desirable to protect the health and safety of women or the human foetus, including
such prohibitions, restrictions or conditions imposed in consequence of other international
obligations of the United Kingdom;
      "The United Kingdom reserves the right to apply the following provisions of United
Kingdom legislation concerning the benefits specified:
      a) social security benefits for persons engaged in caring for a severely disabled person
under section 37 of the Social Security Act 1975 and section 37 of the Social Security (Northern
Ireland) Act 1975;
      .....
      c) retirement pensions and survivors' benefits under the Social Security Acts 1975 to 1982
and the Social Security (Northern Ireland) Acts 1975 to 1982;
      d) family income supplements under the Family Income Supplements Act 1970 and the
Family Income Supplements Act (Northern Ireland) 1971.
      "This reservation will apply equally to any future legislation which may modify or replace
any of the provisions specified in sub-paragraphs (a) to (d) above, on the understanding that the
terms of such legislation will be compatible with the United Kingdom's obligations under the
Convention."
      "Article 15
      In relation to Article 15, paragraph 2, the United Kingdom understands the term "legal
capacity" as referring merely to the existence of a separate and distinct legal personality."
      .....
      "Article 16
      .....
      The United Kingdom's acceptance of paragraph 1 of Article 16 shall not be treated as either
limiting the freedom of a person to dispose of his property as he wishes or as giving a person a
right to property the subject of such a limitation."
      By the same communication, the Government of the United Kingdom also informed the
Secretary-General "for the avoidance of doubt, that the declarations and reservations entered in
respect of the dependent territories on behalf of which the Convention was also ratified on 7
April 1986 continue to apply, but are under active review".
      The complete text of the declarations and reservations are published in United Nations,
Treaty Series, vol. 1423, p. 412.
      Subsequently, on 6 June 2005, the Government of the United Kingdom notified the
Secretary-General of the following:
      "..... The Government of the United Kingdom wish to withdraw from paragraph A c) of
that reservation the words:
      "To the admission into or service in the Armed Forces of the Crown"
      and to substitute the words:
      "Any act done for the purpose of ensuring the combat effectiveness of the Armed Forces of
the Crown."
      So that Paragraph A c) of the United Kingdom's reservation will then read
      "In the light of the definition contained in Article 1, the United Kingdom's ratification is
subject to the understanding that none of its obligations under the Convention shall be treated as
extending to the succession to, or possession and enjoyment of, the Throne, the peerage, titles of
honour, social precedence or armorial bearings, or as extending to the affairs of religious
denominations or orders or any act done for the purpose of ensuring the combat effectiveness of
the Armed Forces of the Crown."
      60. On 24 July 2007, the Government of the United Kingdom notified the Secretary-
General that it had decided to withdraw the following reservation made upon ratification to the
Convention: "(d) The United Kingdom reserves the right to continue to apply such immigration
legislation governing entry into, stay in, and departure from, the United Kingdom as it may deem
necessary from time to time and, accordingly, its acceptance of Article 15 (4) and of the other
provisions of the Convention is subject to the provisions of any such legislation as regards
persons not at the time having the right under the law of the United Kingdom to enter and remain
in the United Kingdom."
      61. The instrument of ratification specifies that the said Convention is ratified in respect of
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, British Virgin
Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and Turks
and Caicos Islands.
      In this connection, on 4 April 1989, the Government of Argentina made the following
objection:
      The Argentine Republic rejects the extension of the territorial application of the
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, adopted by the
United Nations General Assembly on 18 December 1979, to the Malvinas (Falkland) Islands,
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, notified by the Government of the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland upon its ratification of that instrument on 7 April
1986.
      The Argentine Republic reaffirms its sovereignty over the aforementioned archipelagos,
which are integral part of its national territory, and recalls that the United Nations General
Assembly has adopted resolutions 2065 (XX), 3160 (XXVIII), 31/49, 37/9, 38/12 and 39/6, in
which a sovereignty dispute is recognized and the Governments of Argentina and the United
Kingdom are urged to resume negotiations in order to find as soon as possible a peaceful and
lasting solution to the dispute and their remaining differences relating to this question, through
the good offices of the Secretary-General. The General Assembly has also adopted resolutions
40/21, 41/40, 42/19 and 43/25, which reiterate its request to the parties to resume such
negotiations.
      Subsequently, on 27 November 1989, the Secretary-General received from the Government
of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland the following communication:
      "The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland reject the
statement made by the Government of Argentina on 4 April 1989 regarding the Falkland Islands
and South Georgia and the South Sandwichlands. The Government of the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Northern Ireland have no doubt as to the British sovereignty of the Falkland
Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and their consequent right to extend
treaties to those Territories."
      Further, on 14 October 1996, the Secretary-General received from the Government of the
United Kingdom a communication stating that it had decided to apply the Convention to Hong
Kong, subject to the following reservations and declarations:
      "General
      (a) The United Kingdom on behalf of Hong Kong understands the main purpose of the
Convention, in the light of the definition contained in article 1, to the reduction, in accordance
with its terms, of discrimination against women, and does not therefore regard the Convention as
imposing any requirement to repeal or modify any existing laws, regulations, customs or
practices which provide for women to be treated more favourably than men, whether temporarily
or in the longer term. Undertakings by the United Kingdom on behalf of Hong Kong under
article 4, paragraph 1, and other provisions of the Convention are to be construed accordingly.
      (b) The right to continue to apply such immigration legislation governing entry into, stay in
and departure from Hong Kong as may be deemed necessary from time to time is reserved by the
United Kingdom on behalf of Hong Kong. Accordingly, acceptance of article 15 (4), and of the
other provisions of the Convention, is subject to the provisions of any such legislation as regards
persons not at the time having the right under the law of Hong Kong to enter and remain in Hong
Kong.
       (c) In the light of the definition contained in article 1, the United Kingdom's extension of
its ratification to Hong Kong is subject to the understanding that none of its obligations under the
Convention in Hong Kong shall be treated as extending to the affairs of religious denominations
or orders.
       (d) Laws apcable in the New Territories which enable male indigenous villagers to exercise
certain rights in respect of property and which provide for rent concessions in respect of land or
property held by indigenous persons or their lawful successors through the male line will
continue to be applied.
       Specific articles
       Article 9
       The British Nationality Act 1981, which was brought into force with effect from January
1983, is based on principles which do not allow of any discrimination against women within the
meaning of article 1 as regards acquisition, change, or retention of their nationality or as regards
the nationality of their children. The United Kingdom's acceptance of article 9 on behalf of Hong
Kong shall not, however, be taken to invalidate the continuation of certain temporary or
transitional provisions which will continue in force beyond that date.
       Article 11
       The United Kingdom on behalf of Hong Kong reserves the right to apply all Hong Kong
legislation and the rules of pension schemes affecting retirement pensions, survivors' benefits
and other benefits in relation to death or retirement (including retirement on grounds of
redundancy) whether or not derived from a social security scheme.
       This reservation will apply equally to any further legislation which may modify or replace
such legislation, or the rules of pension schemes, on the understanding that the terms of such
legislation will be compatible with the United Kingdom's obligations under the Convention in
respect of Hong Kong.
       The United Kingdom on behalf of Hong Kong reserves the right to apply any non-
discriminatory requirement for a qualifying period of employment for the application of the
provisions contained in article 11 (2).
       Article 15
       In relation to article 15, paragraph 3, the United Kingdom on behalf of Hong Kong
understands the intention of this provisions to be that only those terms or elements of a contract
or other private instrument which are discriminatory in the sense described are to be deemed null
and void, but not necessarily the contract or instrument as a whole."
       62. The formality was effected by Democratic Yemen. See also note 1 under "Yemen" in
the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.
       63. Several Governments notified the Secretary-General that they consider the reservations
made by the Government of Algeria upon accession as incompatible with the object and purpose
of the said Convention and, therefore, prohibited by virtue of its article 28 (2), on the dates
indicated hereinafter:

Participant:       Date of notification:
Sweden             4 Aug 1997
Portugal           14 Aug 1997
Denmark            24 Mar 1998

    64. Several Governments notified the Secretary-General that they consider the reservations
made by the Government of Kuwait concerning article 7 (a) and article 16 (f) as "incompatible
with the object and purpose of the said Convention and, therefore, as prohibited by virtue of its
article 28 paragraph 2" on the dates indicated hereinafter:

Participant:        Date of notification:
Belgium             19 Jan 1996
Austria             22 Feb 1996
Portugal            15 May 1996

       65. On 9 January 2008, the Government of Luxembourg notified the Secretary-General that
it had decided to withdraw the reservations made upon ratification. The text of the reservations
reads as follows:
       a) The application of article 7 shall not affect the validity of the article of our Constitution
concerning the hereditary transmission of the crown of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in
accordance with the family compact of the house of Nassau of 30 June 1783, maintained by
article 71 of the Treaty of Vienna of 9 June 1815 and expressly maintained by article 1 of the
Treaty of London of 11 May 1867.
       (b) The application of paragraph 1 (g) of article 16 of the Convention shall not affect the
right to choose the family name of children.
       66. In regard to the reservations made by the Government of Micronesia (Federated States
of) upon accession, the Secretary-General received a communication from the following State on
the date indicated hereinafter:
       Portugal (15 December 2005):
       The Government of Portugal has carefully examined the reservations made by the
Federated States of Micronesia upon its accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All
forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW).
       The first and second reservations concern fundamental provisions of the Convention and
are not in conformity with its object and purpose. Articles 2, 5, 11 and 16 outline the measures
which a State party is required to take in order to implement the Convention, cover the
fundamental rights of women and deal with key elements for the elimination and discrimination
against women.
       Portugal considers that such reservations may create doubts as to the commitment of the
reserving State to the objection and purpose of the Convention and, moreover, contribute to
undermining the basis of international law.
       It is in the common interest of all states that treaties to which have chosen tt become parties
are respected as to their object and purpose by all parties and that States are prepared to
undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
       The Government of the Portuguese Republic, therefore, objects to the above reservations
made by the Federated States of Micronesia to CEDAW.
       This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Portugal
and Micronesia.
       67. On 20 September 1999, the Government of Turkey notified the Secretary-General of a
partial withdrawal as follows:
       "[...] the Government of the Republic of Turkey has decided to withdraw its reservations
made upon [accession to] the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women with regard to article 15, paragraphs 2 and 4, and article 16, paragraphs 1 (c),
(d), (f) and (g).
       [...] the reservation and declaration made upon [accession] by the Government of Turkey
with respect to article 29, paragraph 1, and article 9, paragraph 1 of the Convention, respectively,
continue to apply."
       On 29 January 2008, the Government of the Republic of Turkey notified the Secretary-
General that it had decided to withdraw the following declaration in respect to article 9 (1) made
upon accession:
      "Article 9, paragraph 1 of the Convention is not in conflict with the provisions of article 5,
paragraph 1, and article 15 and 17 of the Turkish Law on Nationality, relating to the acquisition
of citizenship, since the intent of those provisions regulating acquisition of citizenship through
marriage is to prevent statelessness."

				
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