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					        AN OPERATOR’S HANDBOOK FOR


        Safe
        Drinking
        Water
         For Other Than Municipal and
         Nontransient Noncommunity
         Water Systems
MacJG




          Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
                    AN OPERATOR’S HANDBOOK FOR


      Safe Drinking Water
        FOR OTHER THAN MUNICIPAL AND NONTRANSIENT,
               NONCOMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS



                         TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction ....................................................................... 4
What are the requirements for safe drinking water
and where do they come from? ....................................... 5
What types of systems are regulated under
the Safe Drinking Water Act? ............................................ 6
How do I know what kind of system I operate? ............. 7
Who do I contact for more information? ........................ 9
What is the Wisconsin Department of Natural
Resource’s responsibility? ............................................. 10
What are my responsibilities? ....................................... 12
What sampling is required? ........................................... 14
What happens if I don’t monitor correctly? ................. 15
Reference .......................................................................... 17
Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) ........................ 19
How will I know when my water
has exceeded a MCL? ...................................................... 22
What do I do if my water exceeds a MCL? ................... 22
Public Notification ........................................................... 23
Sample Public Notice for MCL Violation
(Non-Acute) ...................................................................... 24
Web sites referenced in handbook ................................ 25
Introduction                                                            What are the requirements
                                                                        for safe drinking water
       Safe Drinking water—we take it for granted, but every-
       one in the state depends on it. Safe water is essential          and where do they come from?
       for health, business prosperity, and community
       growth.
                                                                        The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), enacted in 1974,
       Part of your responsibility, as a public water system
                                                                        is a federal law that sets health and safety standards
       owner, is ensuring that your customers get safe water
                                                                        for public drinking water in the United States. It was
       to use and drink.
                                                                        the nation’s first comprehensive national drinking
       You face many distinct challenges in managing a public           water law. Under the law, the U.S. Environmental
       water supply, among them, providing adequate sup-                Protection Agency sets national standards for drinking
       plies to all users, preventing contamination, and                water, which the States must meet or exceed. If a State
       planning for your system’s future needs.                         fails to meet its responsibilities, the federal govern-
                                                                        ment can step in and enforce the standards.
       Wisconsin’s Department of Natural Resources (DNR)
       oversees construction and operation of public water              In 1996, Congress passed the first amendments to the
       systems to make sure everyone has safe water to drink            SDWA in 10 years. These changes were planned to help
       and use. However, as legal custodian of the water                the EPA, States, and water systems prepare for future
       system, you have primary responsibility to monitor               drinking water safety challenges and assure the
       drinking water quality. This guide was prepared to               availability of safe drinking water. They also strength-
       help you develop, assess, and maintain a quality water           ened public health protection, and allowed for in-
       supply. This guide emphasizes areas which need your              creased public involvement.
       attention to meet legal obligations and to ensure your
       system provides consumers with safe drinking water,
       now and in the future.




4                                         A N O PERATOR ’ S H ANDBOOK   FOR   S AFE D RINKING W ATER                               5
What types of systems are
regulated under the
Safe Drinking Water Act?
                                                                              Noncommunity
       Public water systems are governed by the provisions                    A nontransient noncommunity water system
       of the SDWA. Both EPA and DNR define a public water                    (NTNC) is a water system that serves at least 25
       system as one that provides water for human con-                       of the same people over 6 months of the year.
       sumption through piping to at least 15 service connec-                 Examples of these systems include schools, day
       tions or regularly serves an average of at least 25                    cares, factories, and businesses.
       people daily for at least 60 days per year. There are
       four types of Public Water Systems in Wisconsin.                       A transient noncommunity water system (TN) is
                                                                              a water system that serves at least 25 people at
       The systems covered in this handbook are Other                         least 60 days of the year but does not serve the
       Than Municipals (OTM) and Nontransient Noncom-                         same 25 people over 6 months of the year. Ex-
       munity (NTNC) systems.                                                 amples of these systems include motels, restau-
                                                                              rants, parks, taverns, and gas stations.
         Community
         A municipal water system (MC) is a water system                Note: The word “serve” in these cases means that
         that serves at least 25 year-round residents, or               water is available for serving, not that the people are
         serves 15 service connections used by year-                    known to drink the water.
         round residents. The water system is owned by a                For more specific definitions of public water systems,
         municipality such as a city, town, village, sanitary           you may read Wisconsin Administrative Code NR 809,
         district, or owned by a county, state, or federal              Safe Drinking Water Standards. This is available at
         government.                                                    public libraries, DNR offices, or on the web at http://
         An Other-Than-Municipal water system (OTM) is                  www.legis.state.wi.us/rsb/code/nr/nr800toc.html
         a water system that serves at least 25 year round
         residents, or serves 15 service connections used
                                                                        How do I know what kind of system I operate?
         by year round residents (anything greater than 6
         months is considered year round). OTMs are                     A chart showing how to determine the type of water
         owned by an entity that is not a municipality.                 system you operate is provided on the next page. If
         Examples of these include mobile home parks,                   you are not able to determine the type of water system
         subdivisions, apartment buildings, and condo-                  from the chart, refer to the definitions above or con-
         minium associations.                                           tact the nearest DNR office for assistance.



6                                         A N O PERATOR ’ S H ANDBOOK   FOR   S AFE D RINKING W ATER                              7
       START
                                                                          PRIVATE
                                                                                             Who do I contact
    Has 15 or more
                                                                           NR 812            for more information?
       service                    NO
                                                              NO
     connections
                                                                                             The DNR has five regional offices available statewide to
                                  Serves 25 or more people                          NO       serve you. Contact one of them to talk to a drinking
           YES                                                                               water specialist who can assist you with your water
                                            YES
                                                                   Serves people             system questions. Regional office addresses and phone
                                                                   for 60 or more            numbers are listed below, or you can access the DNR
                                                                   days per year             Drinking Water staff directory Web page at: http://
    Serves residents                                                                         www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/water/dwg/regionstaff.htm.
    present at least 6
                                                                   YES
    months of the year.                                                                      Northern Region                                       West Central Region                                                                    Northeast Region                                                                            Southeast Region
                                                                                             Department of                                         Department of                                                                          Department of                                                                               Department of

                                       PUBLIC                                                Natural Resources
                                                                                             810 W. Maple Street
                                                                                                                                                   Natural Resources
                                                                                                                                                   P.O.Box 4001
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Natural Resources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1125 N. Military Avenue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Natural Resources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2300 N. Dr. Martin Luther
                                                                                             Spooner, WI 54801                                     Eau Claire, WI                                                                         P.O.Box 10448                                                                               King Jr. Dr.
                 YES                                                                         (715) 635-2101                                        54702-4001                                                                             Green Bay, WI 54307                                                                         P.O.Box 12436
                                                                                                                                                   (715) 839-3700                                                                         (920) 492-5800                                                                              Milwaukee, WI 53212
                                                                                             Department of                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (414) 263-8500
                                            NO                                               Natural Resources
                                                                                             P.O.Box 818                                                                                                                                                                                                                              South Central Region
                                                                                             Rhinelander, WI 54501                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Department of
                                                                                             (715) 365-8900                                                       BAYFIELD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Natural Resources
                                                                                                                                 DOUGLAS
                                                                                                                                                                                       ASHLAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3911 Fish Hatchery Road
                   Owned by                              Serves the same 25                                                                                                                         IRON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Fitchburg, WI 53711
                                                                                                                                           NORTHERN
                 a Municipality                          people for 6 or more                                                                                                                                          VILAS                                                                                                          (608) 275-3266
                                                                                                                                        WASHBURN                SAWYER


                                                           months per year                                                                                                                     PRICE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ONEIDA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    FOREST

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Region Offices
                                                                                                                                         Spooner                                                                                                               FLORENCE
                                                                                                             BURNETT   POLK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Rhinelander
                                                                                                                                  BARRON                         RUSK

     YES                               NO         YES                               NO                                                                                                                            LINCOLN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         LANGLADE                            MARINETTE

                                                                                                                                                                                      TAYLOR



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   OCONTO
                                                                                                                                               CHIPPEWA
                                                                                                        ST. CROIX        DUNN

                                                                                                                                                                                                       MARATHON                                              MENOMINEE
                                                                                                                    WEST CENTRAL                                             CLARK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  NORTHEAST
                                                                                                       PIERCE                              EAU CLAIRE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     SHAWANO
                                                                                                                                              Eau Claire                                                                                                                                                                    DOOR


    MUNICIPAL             OTHER THAN                NON-                 TRANSIENT                                       PEPIN                                                                   WOOD             PORTAGE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      KEWAUNEE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WAUPACA




                                                                                                                                                        TREMPEALEAU
                                                                                                                              BUFFALO                                                                                                                              OUTAGAMIE



                           MUNICIPAL              TRANSIENT                                                                                                                           JACKSON


                                                                                                                                                                                                               ADAMS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     BROWN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Green
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Bay



                             (OTM)
                                                                                                                                                                                                 JUNEAU

        NR 811                                                             NR 812                                                                                                                                                         WAUSHARA             WINNEBAGO                            MANITOWOC
                                                                                                                                                                             MONROE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         CALUMET
                                                                                                                                                    LA CROSSE


        NR 809                                       NR 812                NR 809                                                                                                                                                        MARQUETTE     GREEN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       LAKE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               FOND DU LAC



                              NR 811                 NR 809                                                                                                 VERNON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     SHEBOYGAN


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      SOUTHEAST
                              NR 809                                                                                                                                                                   SAUK                 COLUMBIA                DODGE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            OZAUKEE
                                                                                                                                                                                         RICHLAND                                                                                    WASHING-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     TON
                                                                                                                                                                             CRAWFORD                         SOUTH CENTRAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DANE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                JEFFERSON                       WAUKESHA
                                                                                                                                                                                                  IOWA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MILWAUKEE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Madison
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Milwaukee



           COMMUNITY                              NON-COMMUNITY                                                                                                         GRANT


                                                                                                                                                                                                  LAFAYETTE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       GREEN             ROCK                             WALWORTH                 RACINE


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      KENOSHA



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12/96GP




8                                                              A N O PERATOR ’ S H ANDBOOK   FOR   S AFE D RINKING W ATER                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         9
What is the Wisconsin Department
of Natural Resource’s responsibility?
        The Department of Natural Resources is responsible               Enforcement: DNR staff enforces SDWA regulations
        for implementing the Safe Drinking Water Act in                  with systems not in compliance. This includes notices
        Wisconsin. DNR oversees water supply systems to                  of violation and legal action if required.
        protect the health and welfare of users, and to protect
                                                                         The Department is eager to establish a good working
        our state’s water resources. Enforcement of drinking
                                                                         relationship with you to help you prevent compli-
        water laws is carried out through the Drinking Water
                                                                         ance problems before they occur.
        Program. This program is managed by staff in the
        Bureau of Drinking Water and Groundwater.

        The Federal Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), State
        Statutes and State Natural Resources (NR) Administra-
        tive Rules supply the legal foundation for water system
        regulation. The responsibilities include approvals of
        new systems and improvements to existing systems,
        technical assistance, facility inspections, and enforce-
        ment of drinking water standards and monitoring.

        Approvals: DNR staff approves plans for well construc-
        tion, pump installation, well rehabilitation, chemical
        addition to water, water treatment and new system
        capacity.

        Technical Assistance: DNR staff provides assistance to
        public well operators on compliance issues for the
        SDWA. Staff also works with wellhead protection
        programs across the state.

        Inspections: DNR staff conducts inspections of public
        wells and assesses vulnerability of water systems to
        contamination.




10                                         A N O PERATOR ’ S H ANDBOOK   FOR   S AFE D RINKING W ATER                            11
What are my responsibilities?
       It is your responsibility to provide drinking water that                     To meet construction standards, you are
       meets state and federal drinking water standards,                            responsible for obtaining approvals prior to
       listed on a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) table in                         making modifications to your water system.
       the reference section at the end of this handbook. The
                                                                                    For community water systems, an approval
       basic requirements are to:
                                                                                    would be required for any modifications that
           1.   Assure the water you are providing meets state                      could impact the quantity or quality of the
                and federal drinking water standards. These                         water provided. This includes changing well
                standards are found in Wisconsin                                    pump capacity, installing a water treatment
                Administrative Code NR809, Safe Drinking                            system, installing additional water storage
                Water Act Standards. This is done by sampling                       tanks, deepening your well, or chemically
                water regularly and checking for various                            treating your well.
                contaminants that may be found in drinking
                                                                                    For nontransient noncommunity water
                water. The amount of sampling and number of
                                                                                    systems, an approval would be required for a
                different chemicals is dependent on what type
                                                                                    school, to install a water treatment system to
                of public water system you own or operate.
                                                                                    treat a health related contaminant, or, if the
           2.   Ensure the water system is constructed                              pumping capacity of the wells on the property
                according to state standards.                                       were to be increased to 70 gallons per minute
                                                                                    or more.
                For noncommunity systems, the Wisconsin
                Administrative Code is NR812, Well                            3.    Maintain your water system in good condition
                Construction and Pump Installation.                                 to provide a safe, dependable water supply.

                For community systems, the Wisconsin
                Administrative code is NR811, Requirements
                for the Operation and Design for Community
                Water Systems.




12                                        A N O PERATOR ’ S H ANDBOOK   FOR   S AFE D RINKING W ATER                                 13
What sampling is required?
                         EPA has established pollutant-specific minimum testing                               The contaminants that must be monitored depend on
                         schedules for public water systems. To find your                                     the system type, population served, and the type of
                         system’s specific requirements, contact your regional                                source water. The sampling frequency depends on the
                         DNR representative. (See page 9.)                                                    characteristics of each contaminant and the risk to
                                                                                                              human health. Wisconsin Administrative Code NR 809,
                         The following table shows the major groups of con-
                                                                                                              Safe Drinking Water Act Standards, specifies how often
                         taminants and the minimum frequency that public
                                                                                                              you need to test for each substance. The DNR will
                         water systems must test for them. If a problem is
                                                                                                              contact you when the initial sampling must begin.
                         detected, there are immediate retesting requirements
                         that go into effect and strict instructions for how the                              Water samples must be analyzed at a laboratory
                         system informs the public about the problem. Until the                               certified for Safe Drinking Water analysis. A list is
                         system can reliably demonstrate that it is free of                                   available from the DNR, or on the web at http://
                         problems, the retesting is continued.                                                www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/es/science/lc/search/.


General Sample Monitoring Schedule for OTM and                                                                What happens if I don’t monitor correctly?
Nontransient Non Community systems
                                                                                                              Failure to monitor at the designated frequency or to
Contaminant                 Minimum Monitoring Frequency                                                      submit the results to the DNR, violates the monitoring
                                                                                                              and reporting provisions of the SDWA and Wisconsin
ACUTE CONTAMINANTS          Immediate risk to human health
                                                                                                              Administrative Code NR 809, Safe Drinking Water Act
Bacteria                    Monthly or quarterly, depending on system size and type                           Standards. DNR staff will first work with you to bring
Nitrate                     Annually                                                                          your system into compliance. If this is unsuccessful,
Protozoa and                Future requirements for the Groundwater Rule                                      appropriate legal action will be taken.
Viruses                     may require monitoring and testing.
CHRONIC CONTAMINANTS        Long-term health effects if consumed at certain levels                            Page 16 provides a flow chart of actions you must take
                            for extended periods of time                                                      if your bacterial sample analysis comes back with
Volatile Organics           Ground water systems: quarterly for the first year, annually for years            levels above the standards.
(e.g., benzene)             2 and 3, after that depending on results; surface water systems:
                            annually
Synthetic Organics          Larger systems, twice in 3 years; smaller systems, once in 3 years
(e.g., pesticides)
Inorganics/Metals           Ground water systems, once every 3 years; surface water systems,
                            annually
Lead and Copper             Annually
Radionuclides               Once every 4 years
* General requirements may differ slightly based on the size or type of drinking water system.
Source: EPA OGWDW web site

14                                                                              A N O PERATOR ’ S H ANDBOOK   FOR   S AFE D RINKING W ATER                             15
                                                                                           Reference
                                  BACTI SAMPLE

                                                                                           Standards: There are two types of standards: primary
                     Unsafe                           Safe                                 and secondary. Primary refers to contaminants that
                                                                                           are directly related to health. Secondary refers to
     Take 4 followup samples within 24 hours                                               contaminants that are related to aesthetics (taste,
        (809.31(2)) Check and 3 repeats.                                                   odor, color).
         1–same location (check sample)
               1–upstream = repeat
             1–downstream = repeat                                                         Primary                         Secondary
             1–other locaton = repeat
                                                                                                 „     Coliform bacteria     „   Aluminum,

                                                                                                 „     Inorganic             „   Chloride,
                              1 or more                                                                chemicals (IOC)
     All 4 safe                                   MCL violations require                                                     „   Copper,
                               unsafe
                                                public notification (809.81)                     „     Synthetic Organic
                                                      within 72 hours                                                        „   Fluoride,
                                                                                                       chemicals (SOC)
                                                                                                                             „   Foaming Agents,
                                                                                                            Includes
     Possible Site                                Take corrective action
                                                                                                            pesticides       „   Iron,
     Visit Problem                              (disinfection, problem ID)
        may be                                                                                   „     Volatile Organic      „   Manganese,
     corrected and                                                                                     Chemicals (VOC)
      documented                                                                                                             „   Silver,
     890.31(2)(e)2                              Take 2 sets of 2 follow-up                       „     Radioactivity
                                                samples, 24 hours apart                                                      „   Sulfate,
                                                                                                 „     Lead & Copper
                                                                                                                             „   Total Dissolved
                                                                                                                                 Solids
                                       Safe                         Unsafe                                                   „   Zinc
                                   (Discontinue
                                   Notification)


                                             Next service month take 5
                                               samples any location
                                                   809.31(2)(e)


                                      Safe                        Unsafe



16                                                           A N O PERATOR ’ S H ANDBOOK   FOR   S AFE D RINKING W ATER                            17
Am I affected by the 1996 amendments to the SDWA?                                      Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

         CAPITAL         OPERATOR’S      CCRS        GROUNDWATER       DISINFECTION/   The DNR has adopted numerical drinking water
       DEVELOPMENT       CERTIFICATE                    RULE           DISINFECTANT    standards called maximum contaminant levels (MCLs)
                                                                        BYPRODUCT      that your water supply must meet. The MCL is the
                                                                            RULE       maximum allowable level of a substance that you can
OTM        Yes              Yes           Yes            Yes                Yes        deliver to the customer in your water. The following
NTNC       Yes              Yes            No            Yes                Yes        table has the most recent levels available as of printing
                                                                                       in 1999. MCLs can change with regulation changes. If
                   A water system capacity development program is                      you have a question, contact your regional DNR
                   required for both new and existing systems. The goal is             representative. (See page 9.)
                   to ensure that drinking water systems have the mana-
                   gerial, technical and financial ability to properly                 Maximum Contaminant Levels for Drinking
                   protect and operate water supplies.                                 Water Contaminants—Inorganic Contaminants
                   Managerial ability refers to the management structure
                   of a system, including ownership accountability,                          Inorganic Compound           MCL (mg/L)
                   staffing and organization.                                           REGULATED INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
                   Technical ability refers to the physical infrastructure of                Asbestos                     7XlO’ fibers/L
                   the water system and ability of system personnel to                       Arsenic                      0.05
                   adequately operate and maintain the system.                               Barium                       2
                                                                                             Cadmium                      0.005
                   Financial ability looks at the financial resources of the
                                                                                             Antimony                     0.006
                   water system, including revenue sufficiency, credit
                                                                                             Beryllium                    0.004
                   worthiness and fiscal controls.
                                                                                             Chromium                     0.1
                   Starting October 1, 1999, all new Other-Than-Municipal                    Fluoride                     4.0
                   and Nontransient Noncommunity Water systems will                          Mercury                      0.002
                   be required to demonstrate adequate capacity in the                       Nickel                       0.1
                   plan approval process. In addition, by August, 2000 the                   Nitrate                      10
                   DNR will have a new strategy for evaluating existing
                                                                                             Nitrite                      1
                   systems.
                                                                                             Total Nitrate & Nitrite      10
                   The 1996 amendments require states to certify opera-                      Selenium                     0.05
                   tors of Other-Than-Municipal systems and                                  Cyanide                      0.2
                   nontransient, noncommunity systems.                                       Thallium                     0.002

                   More information on these programs will be provided                  UNREGULATED INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
                   as it becomes available.                                                  Sulfate




18                                                      A N O PERATOR ’ S H ANDBOOK    FOR   S AFE D RINKING W ATER                                19
Volatile Organic Contaminants                                                              Synthetic Organic Contaminants

     Regulated VOCs               MCL (ug/L)   Unregulated VOCs                                    Regulated SOCs               MCL (ug/L)          Unregulated SOC

     Benzene1                            5     1,1-Dichloroethane                                  Alachlor                                   2     Aldrin
     Vinyl Chloride1                     0.2   1,1-Dichloropropene                                 Atrazine                                   3     Aldicarb
                             1                                                                     Carbofuran                                 40    Aldicarb Sulfoxide
     Carbon Tetrachloride                5     1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane
                                                                                                   Chlordane’                                 2     Aldicarb Sulfone
     1,2-Dichloroethane1                 5     1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
                         1                                                                         Dalapon                                   200    Butachlor
     Trichloroethylene                   5     1,2,3-Trichloropropane
                                                                                                   Dibromochloropropane                       0.2   Carbatyl
     1,1-Dichloroethlyene                7     1,3-Dichloropropane
                                                                                                   Dinoseb                                    7     Dicamba
     1,1,1-Trichloroethane             200     1,3-Dichloropropene
                                                                                                   Endrin                                      2    Dieldrin
     p-Dichlorobenzene                  75     2,2-Dichloropropane
                                                                                                   Ethylene Dibromide’                       0.05   3-Hydroxycarbofuran
     o-Dichlorobenzene                 600     Bromobenzene
                                                                                                   Heptachlor                                 0.4   Methomyl
     1,2-Dichloroethylene,cis           70     Bromodichloromethane
                                                                                                   Heptachlor Epoxide’                        0.2   Metolachlor
     1,2-Dichloroethylene,trans        100     Bromoform
                                                                                                   Hexachlorobenzene                           1    Metribuzin
     1,2-Dichloropropane1              100     Bromomethane
                                                                                                   Lindane                                    0.2   Propachlor
     Ethylbenzene                      700     Chlorodibromomethane
                                                                                                   Methoxychlor                               40
     Monochlorobenzene                 100     Chloromethane
                                                                                                   PCBs’                                     0.5
     Styrene                           100     Chloroform                                          Pentachlorophenot                          1
     Tetrachloroethylene1                5     Chloromethane                                       Picloram                                  500
     Toluene                         1,000     Dibromomethane                                      Simazine                                   4
     Xylenes (Total)                10,000     m-Dichlorobenzene                                   Toxaphene’                                 3
     Dichloromethane                     5     o-Chlorotoluene                                     2,4-D                                      70
     1,2,4 Trichlorobenzene             70     p-Chlorotoluene                                     2,4,5-TP                                   50
     1,1,2 Trichloroethane               5                                                         Oxamyl                                    200
                                                                                                   Diquat                                     20
                                                                                                   Endothall’                                100
                                                                                                   Glyphosate                                700
                                                                                                   Benzo(a)pyrene’                           0.2
                                                                                                   Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate                   400
                                                                                                   Di(2-ethylhexyl)phtalate                   6
                                                                                                   Hexachlorocyclopentadiene                  50
                                                                                                   Dioxin’ (2,3,7,8TCDD)              0.00003
                                                                                           1
                                                                                               These compounds have a MCLG < MCL
                                                                                           2
                                                                                            Systems with < 500 people will monitor these
                                                                                           contaminants in the 1996-1998 compliance period
                                                                                           unless waived.



20                                                           A N O PERATOR ’ S H ANDBOOK   FOR    S AFE D RINKING W ATER                                                  21
     How will I know when my water                                    Public Notification
     has exceeded a MCL?
                                                                      When a MCL is exceeded, you must notify the public of
     All of the analyses required by the state drinking water         the condition. The notification must contain at a
     regulations must be performed by a state certified               minimum, the contaminant found and its level, health
     laboratory. Certified laboratories will know if any of           effects of exposure, measures being taken to alleviate
     your analysis results exceeded a MCL, and they will              the problem, and the name and telephone number of
     notify you of the results. In addition, results of all           someone who can provide the consumer with more
     analyses must be submitted to the DNR within 10 days             information. This notice must be posted at all drinking
     of receipt from the laboratory. The DNR reviews your             water outlets, or if it is an Other-Than-Municipal
     results and informs you of any violations.                       system the notification must be hand delivered or
                                                                      mailed to each residence. The type of notification
                                                                      required will depend on the severity of the contamina-
     What do I do if my water exceeds a MCL?                          tion, the type of population being served, and the
     If your water system doesn’t meet the standards, you             urgency of the situation. The DNR will assist you in
     must issue a public notice and take immediate action             preparing the notification if requested.
     to return the drinking water to a safe condition in
                                                                      Contact your regional DNR representative for public
     compliance with the standards. The degree of follow-
                                                                      notification instructions. Whenever you carry out
     up action depends on the type and amount of contami-
                                                                      public notification, make sure that a copy of notifica-
     nation. The Department of Natural Resources will work
                                                                      tion is forwarded to your regional DNR representative.
     closely with you in determining the degree of follow-up
                                                                      The regional office handling your water system must
     that will be necessary for your particular water system.
                                                                      be able to verify that notification was conducted in
                                                                      order for your system to be considered in compliance
                                                                      with this requirement.




22                                      A N O PERATOR ’ S H ANDBOOK   FOR   S AFE D RINKING W ATER                              23
Sample Public Notice for MCL Violation (Non-Acute)                                   Web sites referenced in handbook
                                                                                     Department of Natural Resources Web site
     Public Notice:
                                                                                                         http://www.dnr.state.wi.us
     Dear User/Customer etc.,
                                                                                     Department of Natural Resources
        The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that we [send              Bureau of Drinking Water and Groundwater Web site
     you/publish] this notice to inform you of a violation of the maxi-
     mum contaminant level (MCL) for [compound] in the [water                                 http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/water/dwg/
     system name]. The State and Federal MCL for [compound] is set at                When public notification is required, there is approved
     [level] to reduce risks associated with [cancer or other health                 health affects language created by the Environmental
     effect]. Analyses results indicate that the [water system name]                 Protection Agency. This language is available in print in
     drinking water cointains [concentration level in the system].                   Wisconsin Administrative Code NR809, Safe Drinking
        Health Effects: [This paragraph should contain a description of              Water Act Standards. You can also get health effects
                                                                                     language for regulated contaminants at the EPA
     the health effect and risk associated with the contaminant that
     exceeds the MCL. For Bacteria and VOCs, must use the wording                    website:
     specificied in Wisconsin Administrative Code NR 809.81 (5), Safe                          http://www.epa.gov/OGWDW/hfacts.html
     Drinking Water Act Standards. For other contaminants, system
     owner will have to get specific information regarding health                    For more specific definitions of public water systems,
     effects and risks from DNR or Department of Health and Family                   read Wisconsin Administrative Code NR 809, Safe
     Services (DHSS).]                                                               Drinking Water Standards. This is available at public
                                                                                     libraries, DNR offices, or on the web at:
        Necessity for Alternate Water Supplies/Preventative Measures by
     Consumers: [This paragraph will depend on the level of contami-                           http://www.legis.state.wi.us/rsb/code/nr/
     nation and increase in risk. In the majority of cases, alternate                                       nr800toc.html
     water supplies would not be recommended. Consumers may be                       There is a listing of regional offices on page 9 in this
     advised to take some preventative measure if they are simple                    handbook. For names of DNR personnel, contact or
     (such as boiling drinking water to neutralize bacteria].                        visit the nearest regional office, or access the DNR Web
       Population at Risk: [This paragraph will depend on the con-                   site, at:
     taminant and concentration, also. For most cases, the entire                             http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/water/dwg/
     populatin served will be at risk, however, for some substances                                       regionstaff.htm
     such as lead, a certain segment of the population (children) may
     be at a greater risk of injury.]                                                Water samples must be analyzed at a laboratory
                                                                                     certified for Safe Drinking Water analysis. A list is
       If you wish to receive additional information regarding this                  available from the DNR, or on the Web at:
     notice, you may contact [name and telephone number].
                                                                                     http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/es/science/lc/search/
     Sincerely,
     [Water system spokesperson]


24                                                     A N O PERATOR ’ S H ANDBOOK   FOR   S AFE D RINKING W ATER                                25
Notes
       This publication is available upon request in alternate formats for visually impaired persons.
               Please contact Carol Bentzler at 267-2451 to request an alternate format.
The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources provides equal opportunity in its employment, programs,
   services and functions under an Affirmative Action Plan. If you have any questions, please write to:
           Equal Opportunity Office, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 20240
             PRINTED ON
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            PAPER                          PUB-DG-056 11/99                           DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

				
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