EZ IO Articles by MikeJenny


                         - EZ-IO® Articles: Clinical Trials and Case Studies -
                                          February 2, 2011

                                                                                   EZ-IO       IRB-
                                                                                  Patients   Approved
            Article                                 Description                     (n=)      Study
Myers LA, Russi CS, Arteaga This abstract describes a 93 patient study              62         Yes
GM. The introduction of a       presented at the 2011 National Association of
semiautomated (EZ-IO)           EMS Physicians Annual Conference that
device in pediatric prehospital examined the characteristics of pediatric
care replacing a manual         patients receiving IO infusions and the primary
intraosseous (IO) device        EMS clinical impressions, success rates, and
improves the success rate for   subsequent treatments delivered via manual IO
attempts at vascular access.    vs. the powered EZ-IO device. Investigators
Prehospital Emergency Care      concluded that for the pediatric cohort use of
2011;15(1):110.                 the powered device offered a marginally
                                higher first-attempt success rate compared to
                                the manual device; and that the rate of IO
                                access utilization by EMS more than tripled
                                after adoption of the powered device.
Knuth TE, Paxton JH, Myers This article reports a case in which IO access            1         No
D. Intraosseous injection of    was used to deliver intravenous contrast agent
iodinated computed              in an adult blunt trauma patient. After
tomography contrast agent in placement in the proximal humerus, contrast
an adult blunt trauma patient. agent was administered via the IO route, and
Annals of Emergency             clinicians found the CT scans of the thorax,
Medicine 2010 Nov 24. [Epub abdomen, and pelvis to be adequate for
ahead of print].                diagnostic purposes and subjectively
                                equivalent to those of studies using central
                                venous access. There were no complications
                                and the authors concluded that IO
                                catheterization appeared to be an effective
                                alternative to traditional venous access for
                                administering contrast agents for CT
                                evaluation in adult blunt trauma patients.
Gazin N, Auger H, Jabre P et This article describes an observational study to       39         Yes
al. Efficacy and safety of the  assess the safety and efficacy of the EZ-IO
EZ-IO™ intraosseous device: when using a management algorithm for
Out-of-hospital                 difficult vascular access in an out-of-hospital
implementation of a             setting. Over a one-year period, the device was
management algorithm for        used in 30 cardiac arrest and 9 other cases.
difficult vascular access.      Overall success rate was 97% and first attempt
Resuscitation 2010,             success was 84%.There was one
doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.201 complication—transient local inflammation.
0.09.008                        Investigators concluded that the device is
                                suitable as a first-line option for difficult

                                vascular access in the out-of-hospital setting.
Sunde GA, Heradstveit BE,       This article describes a longitudinal study of     49   Yes
Vikenes BH, Heltne JK.          intraosseous vascular access in pre-hospital
Emergency intraosseous          emergency medicine handled by helicopter
access in a helicopter          emergency medical services. Of the 78 IO
emergency medical service: a    insertion attempts made on 70 patients, overall
retrospective study.            success rates were 50% using manual needles,
Scandinavian Journal of         55% using the Bone Injection Gun, and 96%
Trauma, Resuscitation and       using the EZ-IO. Investigators concluded that
Emergency Medicine              newer IO techniques may enable faster and
2010;18:52:doi10.1186/1757-     more reliable vascular access; and that all
7241-18-52.                     emergency services should be familiar with IO
Ruiz-Hornillos PJ, Marinez-     This article is a case study that presents the     1    No
Camara F, Elizondo M et al.     first documented case of fibrinolytic therapy
Systemic fibrinolysis through   delivery through the IO route. The EZ-IO was
intraosseous vascular access    used to treat a 64-year-old patient in
in ST-segment elevation         ventricular fibrillation for whom peripheral IV
myocardial infarction. Annals   access could not be obtained. Authors
of Emergency Medicine           concluded that the IO route can be safely used
2010;doi:10.1016/j.annemerg     for fibrinolysis in ST-segment elevation
med.2010.09.011.                myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients.
Miller L, Philbeck T, Montez    This abstract, presented at the 2010 ACEP          20   Yes
D, Puga T. A two-phase study    Research Forum, describes a study designed to
of fluid administration         determine infusion flow rates through the
measurement during              proximal humerus and proximal tibia.
intraosseous infusion. Annals   Investigators found that, at all infusion
of Emergency Medicine           pressure levels, the humerus provided
2010;56(3):S151.                substantially greater flow rates than the tibia.
                                They concluded that, for most situations,
                                adequate IO infusion rates can be achieved
                                using the tibial site, but the proximal humerus
                                site should be strongly considered when
                                greater infusion flow rates are required.
Miller L, Philbeck T, Montez    This abstract presented at the 2010 ACEP           20   Yes
D, Puga T. Volunteer studies    Research Forum describes a study designed to
in pain management during       compare Lidocaine’s effect on pain during
intraosseous infusion. Annals   fluid infusion through the tibial and humeral
of Emergency Medicine           IO routes. Authors concluded that, for
2010;56(3):S141.                adequate IO infusion rates with minimal and
                                tolerable pain, 40mg of preservative-free
                                Lidocaine may be needed; followed by a rapid
                                normal saline syringe flush of at least 10mL
                                and another 20mg of Lidocaine. Additional
                                dosing and flushing may be required. For less
                                overall pain due to IO infusion, and greater

                                 infusion flow rates, the proximal humerus
                                 should be strongly considered, using a longer
                                 IO needleset.
Wampler DA, Shumaker J,          In this abstract, presented at the 2010 ACEP      247   Yes
Manifold C et al. Humeral        Research Forum, investigators describe a study
intraosseous access success      designed to determine IO infusion success
rate in adult out-of-hospital    when using the proximal humerus site in out of
cardiac arrest. Annals of        hospital cardiac arrest patients. Of 247
Emergency Medicine               patients, the first attempt success rate was
2010;56(3):S88.                  91%. Investigators concluded that humeral IO
                                 access is a reliable method of fluid and
                                 medication delivery in the out of hospital
                                 cardiac arrest population.
Miller LJ, Philbeck TE,          Authors describe a 10 subject volunteer study     10    Yes
Montez D, Spadaccini CJ. A       that compared intraosseous (IO) blood samples
new study of intraosseous        to venous blood samples for complete blood
blood for laboratory analysis.   count (CBC) and chemistry profile testing.
Arch Pathol Lab Med              They concluded that IO blood may serve as a
2010;134:1253-60.                reliable alternate for hemoglobin and
                                 hematocrit levels, as well as for most analytes
                                 in a basic blood chemistry profile. Exceptions
                                 are CO2 levels, platelets, and WBC.
Philbeck TE, Miller LJ,          This article describes 2 studies designed to      20    Yes
Montez D, Puga T. Hurt so        compare Lidocaine’s effect on pain during
good; easing IO pain and         fluid infusion through the tibial and humeral
pressure. JEMS                   IO routes and to determine infusion flow rates.
2010;35(9):58-66.                Authors concluded that, for adequate IO
                                 infusion rates with minimal and tolerable pain,
                                 40mg of preservative-free Lidocaine may be
                                 needed; followed by a rapid normal saline
                                 syringe flush of at least 10mL and another
                                 20mg of Lidocaine. Additional dosing and
                                 flushing may be required. For less overall pain
                                 due to IO infusion, and greater infusion flow
                                 rates, the proximal humerus should be strongly
                                 considered, using a longer IO needleset.
Kovar J, Gillum L. Alternate     Authors describe an early observational study     120   Yes
route: the humerus bone—a        (N=120) comparing intraosseous access in the
viable option for IO access.     humerus and the tibia, using the EZ-IO.
JEMS 2010;35(8):52-59.           Investigators concluded that the humerus is an
                                 acceptable IO site, which may be preferable
                                 under certain clinical conditions.
Leidel BA, Kirchoff C,           Authors describe a randomized, controlled trial   20    Yes
Braunstein V, Bogner V et al.    comparing two different IO access devices in
Comparison of two                adults in the hospital setting. Twenty patients
intraosseous access devices in   received the BIG and 20 received the EZ-IO.

adult patients under                Success rate on first attempt was 80% for the
resuscitation in the emergency      BIG and 90% for the EZ-IO. Mean procedure
department: A prospective,          time was 2.2 minutes for the BIG vs. 1.8
randomized study.                   minutes for the EZ-IO. Differences in success
Resuscitation                       rate and procedure time were not statistically
2010;doi:10.1016/j.resuscitati      significant, and there were no significant
on.2010.03.038.                     complications for any patients. Investigators
                                    concluded that IO access is a reliable and safe
                                    method for rapid vascular access for in-
                                    hospital adult patients under resuscitation.
Neuhaus D, Weiss M,                 Authors report an observational study of 14               8        Yes
Engelhardt T, Henze G et al.        children in whom semi-elective IO infusion was
Semi-elective intraosseous          performed under anesthesia after peripheral IV had
infusion after failed intravenous   failed. IO infusion was successful for all 14
access in pediatric anesthesia.     patients, using the EZ-IO system for 8 patients and
Pediatric Anesthesia                the Cook system for 6 patients.
Ornato JP, Peberdy MA, Kurz         In this 1,598 patient case series, investigators       Unknown   Unknown
MC. Abstract P134: A building       studied the effects of “…serial standard of care
block strategy for optimizing       changes…in the EMS system over time.” They
outcomes from out of hospital       concluded that IO access is an essential component
cardiac arrest. Circulation         for a proven algorithm for the management of
2009;120:S1470-a.                   OOH-CA.
Frascone RJ, Jensen J, Wewerka      Prospective study of 246 EMS providers at 14             19      Unknown
SS, Salzman JG. Use of the          EMS agencies. Reports successful IO placement in
pediatric EZ-IO needle by           95% of cases (18 of 19).
emergency medical services
providers. Pediatric Emergency
Care 2009;25(5):329-32.
Truhlar A, Skulec R, Rozsival P,    This letter to the editor describes the first case        1        n/a
Cerny V. Efficient prehospital      reported in the clinical literature in which
induction of therapeutic            therapeutic hypothermia was administered using
hypothermia via intraosseous        the intraosseous route. The patient, a 2-year-old
infusion. Resuscitation. 2009 Dec   boy who was found submerged in a cesspool and
14.                                 had been asystolic for 5-10 minutes, survived
                                    without neurological complications.
Nutbeam T, Fergusson A.             This article describes a case in which IO access,         1        n/a
Intraosseous access in              using the EZ-IO, was attempted in a patient with
osteogenesis imperfect (IO in       osteogenesis imperfect. In each of 3 attempts, the
OI). Resuscitation 2009,            needle became loose immediately after IO
doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2009.   insertion. The author acknowledged that during
08.016.                             emergencies it is difficult to assess and consider
                                    every possible contraindication for every
                                    intervention; and that IO access using the EZ-IO is
                                    the author’s choice for emergency vascular access
                                    when peripheral access is difficult or has failed.
Leidel B, Kirchhoff C, Bogner V     This article describes a study conducted at an urban     10        Yes
et al. Is the intraosseous access   Level I trauma center in Munich, Germany. Ten
route fast and efficacious          consecutive patients for whom PIV was difficult or
compared to conventional            impossible were simultaneously given a central

central venous catheterization in    line and an EZ-IO. Procedure times were measured
adult patients under                 and defined as the time the device package was
resuscitation in the emergency       taken off the shelf until the first drug or solution
department? A prospective            was administered. First attempt success rate was
observational pilot study. Patient   90% for EZ-IO and 60% for CVC. The mean
Safety in Surgery 2009;3(24):        procedure times were 2.3 minutes for EZ-IO and
                                     9.9 minutes for CVC, a clinically and statistically
                                     significant difference. Investigators concluded,
                                     because CVC was “…slower and less
                                     efficacious…,” IO may improve the safety of
                                     patients requiring resuscitation in the ED.
Burgert JM. Intraosseous             This article describes a case study in which a 79-       1      n/a
infusion of blood products and       year-old woman presented in hemorrhagic shock,
epinephrine in an adult patient      and for whom peripheral access was impossible.
in hemorrhagic shock. AANA           An EZ-IO catheter was placed and used to
Journal 2009;77(5):359-63.           administer crystalloid and colloid fluids, blood
                                     products and drugs, stabilizing the patient during a
                                     central access procedure.
Plancade D, Ruttimann M,             This article (in French) describes an observational      11   Unknown
Boulland P et al. Evaluation         study performed by the French military air surgical
d’un nouveau catheter pour           team in Chad. There were 11 patients with no
perfusion intra-osseuse en           insertion failures. For 7 patients, the insertion site
OPEX. La Revue du CARUM-             was the proximal tibia and for the remainder the
Réanoxyo 2009;25(2):49-50.           site was the proximal humerus. The authors
French                               concluded that the EZ-IO is a device that is simple,
                                     reliable and which gives satisfaction for the
                                     administration of drugs.
Paxton JH, Knuth TE, Klausner        This article describes the first clinical study that     29     Yes
HA. Proximal humerus                 focuses on the proximal humerus as an IO site. It is
intraosseous infusion: a             also the first article describing a comparison
preferred emergency venous           between IO access and peripheral IV (PIV) and
access. The Journal of Trauma        central venous catheters (CVC). They found that
2009;67(3):606-11.                   IO catheter placement was significantly faster than
                                     PIV or CVC placement, and concluded that IO
                                     access is life-saving when PIV or CVC is difficult
                                     or impossible.
Miller L, Philbeck T, Montez D,      This abstract for a presentation at the 2009 ACEP        10     Yes
Spadaccini C. A new study of         Research Forum describes a volunteer study that
intraosseous blood for CBC and       examined the relationships between IO and venous
chemistry profile. Annals of         blood samples when analyzed for complete blood
Emergency Medicine                   count and chemistry profile. Researchers
2009;54(3):S59.                      concluded that the IO space is a reliable source for
                                     blood used for CBC and chemistry profile. Results
                                     may be moderately reliable for carbon dioxide, but
                                     unreliable for WBC counts that appear to be
                                     elevated and platelet counts that appear lower.
Philbeck T, Miller L, Montez D.      This abstract for a presentation at the 2009 ACEP        10     Yes
Pain management during               Research Forum describes a volunteer study to
intraosseous infusion through        determine the optimal Lidocaine dosing and
the proximal humerus. Annals of      sequencing for patients receiving fluids through the

Emergency Medicine                   IO route and to determine if adequate fluid flow
2009;54(3):S128.                     rates can be delivered through the proximal
                                     humerus IO site. Researchers concluded that for
                                     adequate IO infusion rates with minimal and
                                     tolerable pain, 40mg of preservative-free Lidocaine
                                     may be needed, followed by a rapid normal saline
                                     flush of 10ml. Additional dosing and flushing may
                                     be required. For humeral insertion, a longer IO
                                     needleset should be considered.
Sarkar D, Philbeck T. The use of     This case study describes injuries sustained in Iraq     1      No
multiple intraosseous catheters      by an American soldier, and the concurrent use of
in combat casualty resuscitation.    4 IO devices to resuscitate and stabilize him.
Military Medicine
Menegazzi JJ, LaCovery AC,           This abstract describes a retrospective study to         16
Negron KI et al. Potential           determine the time from EMS dispatch to IV or IO
reduction in time to drug            drug delivery, time savings to drug delivery if
administration if vascular access    vascular access preceded intubation, the internal
preceded intubation during out-      validity of that point estimate using matched cases
of-hospital cardiac arrest.          in which IV/IO was performed first, and the
Prehospital Emergency Care           theoretical increase in rate of return to spontaneous
2009;13(1):133.                      circulation. Investigators concluded that time from
                                     dispatch to IV/IO delivery could be reduced by 4
                                     minutes if vascular access preceded intubation and
                                     could, potentially double ROSC.
Schutt RC, Bowman B, Cevik C         This abstract describes a small study designed to        24   Unknown
et al. Intraosseous line placement   determine if IO line placement improves outcome
does not improve outcome in          in adult patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
adults with out-of-hospital          This 165 patient study did not demonstrate
cardiac arrest. Prehospital          improved survival.
Emergency Care 2009;13(1):102.
Ong MEH, Ngo ASY, Wijaya R.          This article describes a prospective, observational      24     Yes
An observational, prospective        study involving a convenience sample of 25
study to determine the ease of       medical students, physicians and nursing staff
vascular access in adults using a    recruited evaluate the EZIO powered drill device
novel intraosseous access device.    on a bone model. Twenty-three (92%) of the 25
Annals Academy of Medicine           study subjects required only one attempt at placing
2009;38(2):121-4.                    the EZ-IO. Investigators concluded that the device
                                     was easy to use with high success rates of insertion
                                     with inexperienced participants. (Note: This study
                                     was also described in an earlier article published in
                                     American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Ong MEH, Chan YH, Oh JJ,             This non-randomized prospective observational            24     Yes
Ngo AS-Y. An observational,          study was conducted to compare flow rates and
prospective study comparing          insertion success with tibial and humeral IO access
tibial and humeral intraosseous      in adults using the Vidacare EZ-IO. All 24 patients
access using the EZ-IO.              received a tibial insertion and 11 of those patients
American Journal of Emergency        also received a humeral insertion. All insertions
Medicine 2009;27:8-15.               were successful on the first attempt except one
                                     tibial insertion that required two attempts. All

                                     insertions were made within 20 seconds. Mean
                                     tibial flow rate was 165mL/min using a pressure
                                     bag and 73mL/min without the bag. Mean humeral
                                     flow rate was 153mL/in using a pressure bag and
                                     84mL/min without the bag.
Fowler RL, Pierce A, Nazeer S et     Large retrospective study of patients for whom          1,128   Yes
al. 1,199 case series: Powered       emergency vascular access was obtained using the
intraosseous insertion provides      Vidacare EZ-IO intraosseous system. Insertion
safe and effective vascular access   success was 92% and within 10 seconds for 84% of
for emergency patients. Annals       the one-attempt successful cases. Complication rate
of Emergency Medicine                was low (4.8%), none were serious, and
2008;52(4):S152.                     extravasation was the most frequent (0.8%). The
                                     device was rated easy to use 72% of the time, and
                                     researchers concluded that the powered IO device
                                     is safe and effective for achieving vascular access
                                     in the resuscitation and stabilization of emergency
Paxton JH, Knuth TE, Klausner        Interim report for quasi-controlled prospective          30     Yes
HA. Humeral head intraosseous        study of emergency department patients for whom
insertion: The preferred             emergency vascular access using the Vidacare EZ-
emergency venous access. Annals      IO intraosseous (IO) system (n=6) inserted in the
of Emergency Medicine                proximal humerus was compared to access using
2008;52(4):S58.                      central or peripheral intravenous (IV) lines (n=60).
                                     Researchers concluded that proximal humerus IO
                                     insertion is significantly faster than central or
                                     peripheral intravenous (IV) line insertion.
                                     Complications and pain profiles were similar for
                                     IO and IV techniques.
Horton MA, Beamer C. Powered         A retrospective clinical study was conducted to          95     Yes
intraosseous insertion provides      demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the EZ-
safe and effective vascular access   IO intraosseous access device for pediatric patients.
for pediatric emergency patients.    For the 95 eligible patients in the study, successful
Pediatric Emergency Care             insertion and infusion was achieved in 94% of the
2008;24(6):347-50.                   patients. Insertion time was 10 seconds or less in
                                     77% of the one-attempt successful cases reporting
                                     time to insertion. There were 4 minor
                                     complications (4%), but none significant. The
                                     results of this study support the use of the EZ-IO
                                     for children in emergency situations. The
                                     complication rate suggests that the powered IO
                                     device is safe and effective for the resuscitation
                                     and stabilization of pediatric patients.
Von Hoff DD, Kuhn JG, Burris         This article describes a 25-patient clinical study       25     Yes
HA, Miller LJ. Does                  that compared the pharmacokinetics of
intraosseous equal intravenous?      intraosseous using the Vidaport (a predecessor of
A pharmacokinetic study.             the Vidacare EZ-IO) vs. intravenous administration
American Journal of Emergency        of morphine sulfate in adults. Results showed no
Medicine 2008;26:31-8.               differences between IO and IV administration of
                                     morphine for nearly all pharmacokinetic
                                     parameters, including maximum plasma

                                     concentration, time to maximum plasma
                                     concentration, and area under plasma
                                     concentration-time curve. There was a significant
                                     difference in the volume of distribution in the
                                     central compartment, which investigators attributed
                                     to a minor deposition effect near the IO port or in
                                     the bone marrow. Investigators concluded that the
                                     results support the bioequivalence of IO and IV
                                     administration of morphine in adults.
Schutt RC, Bowman B, Cevik C         This abstract describes a small study designed to        24   Unknown
et al. Intraosseous line placement   determine if IO line placement improves outcome
does not improve outcome in          in adult patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
adults with out-of-hospital          This 165 patient study did not demonstrate
cardiac arrest. Prehospital          improved survival.
Emergency Care 2009;13(1):102.
Cooper BR, Mahoney PF,               This article describes the experience of the UK          26   Unknown
Hodgetts TJ, Mellor A. Intra-        Defence Medical Service using the EZ-IO for
osseous access (EZIO®) for           emergency vascular access in Afghanistan. They
resuscitation: UK military           used the device for 26 patients, including 10
combat experience. JR Army           children. Of the 26 EZ-IO placements, 23 were
Med Corps 2008;153(4):314-6.         made in the emergency department. There was a
                                     97% insertion success rate with no infection.
                                     Significant infusion pain was felt by three patients.
Pointer JE, Vultaggio D,             This article describes an observational study in         71   Unknown
Schnepp R, Kleveno A.Fast or         which two intraosseous devices were compared:
easy? Comparing two adult IO         the Pyng Medical F.A.S.T.1 and the Vidacare EZ-
infusion devices. JEMS.com           IO. For the 117 patients on which the F.A.S.T.1
2008; Available at                   was used, there was an 84% success; compared to a
http://www.jems.com/news_and_        97% success rate for the EZ-IO (n=71).
ml. Accessed 01/24/2008.
Frascone RJ, Jensen JP, Kaye K,      This article describes authors’ evaluation of            89     Yes
Salzman JG. Consecutive field        provider performance using two IO devices; the
trials using two different           Pyng Medical F.A.S.T.1™ and the Vidacare EZ-
intraosseous devices. Prehospital    IO®. Of 89 insertions with each device, success rate
Emergency Care 2007;11:164-71.       for 72% for the F.A.S.T.1 and 87% for the EZ-IO,
                                     a significant difference (p=0.009). The time to fluid
                                     insertion for the EZ-IO was also faster (p=0.02).
                                     Authors noted that the EZ-IO is unique and much
                                     more useful than the F.A.S.T.1.
Harrington LL, Rehbolz C,            This abstract for a presentation at the 2007             50   Unknown
Mitchell PM, et al. Out-of-          American College of Emergency Physicians
hospital placement of adult          Research Forum describes an observational study
intraosseous access using the        done at Boston Medical Center in which the
EZ-IO device. Annals of              Vidacare EZ-IO was used to provide emergency
Emergency Medicine                   vascular access for 50 critically-ill adult patients.
2007;50(3):s81.                      Successful insertion was achieved in 92% of the
                                     patients; with 90% success on the first attempt.
                                     There was one immediate complication—a
                                     dislodgement during transport. Investigators

                                     concluded that the device is a safe and feasible
                                     device for adult patients requiring out-of-hospital
                                     vascular care.
Myers BJ, Lewis R. Induced           This article describes the experience of the Wake        414   Unknown
cooling by EMS (ICE): year one       County (NC) EMS System in inducing
in Raleigh/Wake County. JEMS         hypothermia for patients with return of
2007;32:s13-5.                       spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest.
                                     Authors describe their use of the Vidacare EZ-IO
                                     for the administration of chilled saline; with 414
                                     placements and an overall success rate of 94%.
Stouffer JA, Jui J, Acebo J et al.   The article describes a prospective observational        280   Unknown
The Portland IO experience:          study conducted by several EMS agencies in
results of an adult intraosseous     Portland, OR to determine the safety, efficacy and
infusion protocol. JEMS              benefits of using the Vidacare EZ-IO in the
2007;32:s27-8.                       prehospital environment. The IO device was
                                     successfully placed in 95% of the 280 cases. In
                                     98% of the cases, placement was made within six
Mathew N, McGinnis-                  In this study, presented at the NAEMSP 2007              193   Unknown
Hainsworth D, Megargel R, et         annual meeting, authors compared the success rate
al.Trends in the usage of            of conventional IO access with the EZ-IO during
intraosseous access in the           245 cases in the prehospital setting. They
prehospital setting. Prehospital     concluded that using EZ-IO® results in a
Emergency Care 2007;11(1):130.       statistically significant increase in IO success rate,
(Abstract)                           compared to conventional IO methods.
Davidoff J, Fowler R, Gordon D,      Observational study evaluating use of the EZ-IO®.        250     Yes
et al. Clinical evaluation of a      Found 97% success rate for insertion and infusion
novel intraosseous device for        into the IO space by paramedics, nurses, physicians
adults: prospective, 250-patient,    and other EMS personnel in using the device for
multi-center trial. JEMS             emergency vascular access. No serious
2005;30(10):s20-23.                  complications reported.
Gillum L, Kovar J. Powered           Observational study of initial use of the EZ-IO® in      125   Unknown
intraosseous access in the           125 patients by EMS providers. Found 94%
prehospital setting: MCHD EMS        success rate for insertion and infusion into the IO
puts the EZ-IO to the test. JEMS     space. No complications reported.


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