Avian Influenza - The Minnesota Experience by xiuliliaofz

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									AVIAN INFLUENZA
AVIAN PNEUMOVIRUS
-THE MINNESOTA EXPERIENCE-


         Dale C. Lauer DVM
      Poultry Program Director
   Minnesota Board of Animal Health
 National Institute for Animal Agriculture
                St. Paul, MN
               April 5, 2005
AVIAN INFLUENZA IN MINNESOTA
 #1 Turkey Production State
 Large turkey population at risk
       Range turkeys
       Waterfowl flyway - waterfowl reservoir
       Annual unpredictable introductions
       Extremely costly disease
 Was known as AI capital of the world!
 Minnesota Avian Influenza (LPAI)
  Cooperative Control Program
                        2005 NIAA                2
AI vs. APV Comparison
 Avian Influenza             Avian Pneumovirus
   Slower onset 2-5 days           100% morbity 1st day
   Snick plus sinusitis            Wet rattle coughing
   E. coli mortality               E. coli mortality
   May be mild in young            More severe in
    flocks                           younger flocks
   Can be silent disease           Can be silent disease
   Condemn high with               Condemn low if flock
    inverclavicular airsac           is recovered



                       2005 NIAA                       4
  AI/APV Biosecurity Comparisons
                               AI          APV
 Waterfowl Reservoir          YES         YES
 Sparrows & Mice              NO          YES
  infected
 70 degree survival           WEEK        2-3 WEEKS
 Air Transmission             LOW         HIGH
 Carrier State                1-2 WEEKS   LONGER
 Industry Biosecurity         YES         NO
  adequate to control?

                         2005 NIAA               5
AI or APV in MINNESOTA?




          2005 NIAA       6
  AVIAN INFLUENZA
  AVIAN PNEUMOVIRUS

PREVENTION
  Strict Biosecurity
  Wild Bird Control
  Load out equipment, trucks, personnel – CLEAN
  All In - All Out turkey operations
  Strict isolation between farms and ages
  NO partial load outs, Traffic restrictions
  Prompt/accurate respiratory disease diagnosis
                     2005 NIAA              7
 AVIAN INFLUENZA
 FACTORS FOR CHANGE
H5/H7 ability to mutate
   Hong Kong – H5N1 – chickens/humans
   Italy – H5N2 & H7N1 – turkeys/chickens
   East Asia – H5N1 - chickens/humans
Persistence of H7N2 in LBM System
USA experience Trade Restrictions
   Occasional introductions of H5 & H7 LPAI
   Involves commercial poultry industry
   Import requirement changes
                     2005 NIAA                 8
         Ecology of Influenza

              Genetic Reservoirs              H3, H7
 H1, H2, H3
       H5N1        Intermixing




Commercial,                                    H10
  LBMs        H1-12         H1-2, 4-7,
  Others      H14-15        H9-13, 15
                 Other Aquatic
                    Birds?               H1, H3, H4, H7,
     H1, H3                                       H13
               Modified from D. Swayne
2005 NIAA   10
MN COOPERATIVE CONTROL
LPAI PROGRAM COMPONENTS

   COOPERATION
   SURVEILLANCE
   RESPONSIBLE RESPONSE
   EDUCATION
   VACCINES



               2005 NIAA   11
 MN LPAI PROGRAM
 - COOPERATION -
 MN TURKEY INDUSTRY/MTGA
   Sample collection
   Disease alerts
 MBAH – MPTL
   Disease surveillance, alerts, investigations
 University of Minnesota
   Research, Education
 USDA
   AGID Reagents, Sub-typing
                     2005 NIAA                12
 MN LPAI PROGRAM
 - SURVEILLANCE -
 Processing plant surveillance program
     MN flocks processed in/out state sampled
     Out state flocks processed in MN sampled
     Voluntary Industry collection & submission
     20 samples/flock collected
 Industry laboratory surveillance
 Grower flock observation


                      2005 NIAA               13
 MN LPAI PROGRAM
 - SURVEILLANCE -
 If AGID positive…….
   Suspect Alert Network Flow Chart
     MTGA, growers, processors, hatcheries
     University of Minnesota
     MN USDA/APHIS/VS
   Samples to NVSL for confirmation
 When confirmed/typed
   Confirmation Alert Network Flow Chart
 Work to get ALL AI intro. under control
                     2005 NIAA                14
 MAY 23, 2002
                                                                  NVSL/USDA, Ames, IA                BOARD OF ANIMAL HEALTH
                                                            -Conduct confirmation testing-serology   -Follow Avian Influenza Plan
                                                            -Conduct sub-type identification         -District Veterinarian investigation
                           UM-VDI LABORATORY                -Conduct virus isolation as needed
                        -Report positive flocks to MPTL
                        -Advise proper flock management
                        -Conduct follow-up testing                                                             PROCESSORS
                                                                                                             PROCUREMENT
                                                                                                        -Contact grower
                                                                                                        -Friday schedule for infected
                                                                                                        flocks
                                                              MINNESOTA POULTRY                         -C & D equipment
 GROWER                                                       TESTING LABORATORY (BAH)
-Flock observation                                            -Conduct plant surveillance testing
-Routine on-farm           INDUSTRY LABORATORY                -Center for referred samples              MTGA, BEAM,
sampling                 -Report positive flocks to MPTL      -Start suspect reporting network          MN GAME BIRD ASSO.
-Notify neighbors &      -Advise proper flock management      -Submit samples for confirmation          -Notify membership that
vendors of outbreak      -Conduct follow-up testing           -Start confirmation network               includes producers, processors
-Good biosecurity                                             -Maintain test summaries                  and hatcheries
-MTGA Codes
                                                                                                           UM AVIAN GROUP
                                                                                                          -Research
                                                                                                          -Education

                                                             GROWERS/PRODUCERS
                      PROCESSING PLANTS                      -Notify suppliers
            -Collect and submit market samples to MPTL       -Employee education                        MN USDA/APHIS/VS
                                                             -Self-imposed isolation                    -Provide assistance with
                                                                                                        epidemiology
                                                             -Arrange follow-up testing




 Dotted line=sample flow
 Green solid line=confirmation notice
 Red solid line=information flow
                                    OTHER PRODUCERS        SERVICE PEOPLE              FEEDMILL             HATCHERY
 MN LPAI PROGRAM
 - GROWER RESPONSE -
 Responsible Response
   Increased biosecurity and isolation
       Voluntary isolation of infected flock
       Alert neighbors, servicemen, feed co., hatchery
       Control people & equipment movement
       Control access of free flying birds
       No movement of birds with respiratory disease
       Adjust processing routes and scheduling



                        2005 NIAA                  16
MN LPAI PROGRAM
- INDUSTRY RESPONSE -

   Responsible Response
     Elimination of range turkeys
     Controlled marketing
       Loadout crews & equipment
       Not marketing actively infected flocks
       Positive flocks – marketed end of week
     Rescheduling flocks
     Virus Isolation - Industry or MBAH
     Investigation, advise, and educate.
                  2005 NIAA                 17
MN LPAI PROGRAM
- EDUCATION -
  Research, Epidemiology, Experience
    Discourage range and semi confined flocks
    Control access of free flying birds, waterfowl
    Biosecurity measures to prevent introductions
      People & equipment movement controls
      Isolation of infected farms
      Orderly marketing, no processing of sick birds
      Adjust flock schedules
  Grower education
    prevent & control LPAI introductions
    Industry-wide educational workshops
                   2005 NIAA                     18
MN LPAI PROGRAM
- VACCINES -
 Allow vaccination of breeders
 Allow vaccination of suseptible birds
  before moving onto an infected farm.
 Promote Avian Influenza Clean
  programs of the National Poultry
  Improvement Plan (NPIP)



                 2005 NIAA            19
                                      Avian Influenza Surveillance - MPTL
             300

             275

             250

             225

             200

             175

             150

             125

             100

              75

              50

              25

                0
                     1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

AI Positive farms    10   12    13   26   194   10   11   60    11   7   7    96    2   0   1    18   2    3    5    3    13
AI positive flocks   17   73    22   40   258   16   16   100   15   8   10   179   4   0   1    24   3    5    7    3    16
      MN LPAI PROGRAM
         - RESULTS -
 LPAI introductions the past 25 years
  have been eradicated within 6 months
 HPAI - has never emerged from 20
  introductions of H5 or H7
 Never spread to neighboring state
 Destruction/stamping out - never used
 No indemnity paid or requested
 Losses have been borne by the growers
                  2005 NIAA          21
 AVIAN PNEUMOVIRUS (APV)
 WHAT DO WE KNOW??
Acute, contagious, upper respiratory tract
Etiologic Viral Agent
   Paramyxoviridae family, Pneumovirinae
    subfamily, Metapneumovirus genus
Subgroups
   Europe - A, B & D, United States – C
Immunosuppressive - Secondary diseases
Wide host range
   turkeys, chickens, ducks, pheasants, guinea
    fowl, sparrows, starlings, geese
1996 - Is APV in Minnesota?
Minnesota recovering from AI
 outbreak
Swollen head syndrome reported
Reported in Colorado turkeys




                2005 NIAA         23
  1997 – APV has arrived in MN!
 Severe respiratory disease in turkeys
   Diagnosed in March
     Depression, cough, sinusitis, airsacculitis,
       mortality
   25% premises positive, 45% flocks positive
   Testing at NVSL
 Avian Pneumovirus taskforce created
   Disease being under reported
   Area control – “creating geographic opportunities”
   Contagious nature of the disease

                          2005 NIAA                      24
1998 - APV begins to spread!
APV identified in MN, SD, ND
   30% MN flocks positive
Processing Plant Surveillance begins
Disease distribution maps/alerts begin
UM Research initiatives funding
   UM ELISA & PCR developed
Permitted of autogenous APV vaccines


                    2005 NIAA         25
  1999 – Spread of APV continues!

33% MN flocks positive
UM/BAH risk factor study conducted
   Neonatal transmission issues
   Wild bird reservoir
Eradication strategies discussed
   Biosecurity levels not high enough
   Limited effectiveness of killed vaccines
   Loss/Control measures for endemic disease

                      2005 NIAA                 26
                                                                                            APV PREVALENCE REPORT
K ittson                  R oseau
                                                                                            AUGUST 1998 - JULY 1999
                                  0/48


Marshall                                                                 Lake of the       K oochiching
                                                                         W oods
                         0/5
                                                 B eltrami
                                                                                                                                         St. Louis

 Polk                   Pennington                                                                                                                                                                      C ook
                                                                                                                                                                                            Lake
                        R ed Lake

                                                                                           Itasca




                                              Clearwater
        N orman                Mahno-
                               men
           3/19                                                        H ubbard     C ass
            16%
                               B ecker
                                                                         0/5         0/6
        C lay
                                       6/73
         0/17                            8%                                                                 A itkin

                                                                  W adena
                                                                                            C row
                                                                                                                                          C arlton
                                Otter Tail
                                                                        0/48                W ing                        1/20
         W ilkin
                                 20/155                                                                                   5%
         0/2                     13%                                                                                                         Pine
                                                                        Todd

                                                               105/146
                          Grant                                                    Morrison
                                         D ouglas               72%




                                                                                                                            Kanabec
                                         1/3                                       107/173


                                                                                                            Mille Lacs
                                         33%                                       62%
                                                                                              B enton
                                         Pope                          Stearns




                                                                                                                                        Chisago
  Traverse               Stevens                                                                                          Isanti
   B ig Stone
                                        2/7                                    137/226
           0/9                          29%                                      61%                Sherburne 0/9
                               Swift   38/91                           181/ Meeker                                        A noka0/14
                                                           Kandiyohi




                                       42%                             280 109/142
                                                                                   W right                                  0/18
                               C hippewa
                                                                                   0/26                                                           Washington
                       0/6                                             65% 77%
                               11/15                                                                     H ennepinR am
           Lac Qui Parle       73% R enville                                         Mc Leod
                 Yellow Medicine                                                                    C arver
                                        7/38
                        1/15 7%                                                                                                       D akota
                                        18%                                                                Scott
           Lincoln              Lyon                                              Sibley    0/11                                      0/13
                               0/36          R edwood                                                Le Sueur R ice                                 Goodhue
                                           9/48 19% 2/52                                N icollet
                                                                                                        0/9                 2/40 1/22
                                                                                                                                                                           W abasha
                                                B rown 4%                                                                    5% 4%
           Pipestone




                               Murray
                                                                                                        Waseca




                                                                                                                           Steele D odge
                                                                                                                                                                 Olmsted




                                                                                                                                                                                   Winona



                                             C ottonwood W aton-                            B lue Earth    1/16
                                 0/5          0/35       wan                                                    7/33                                                       0/18
                                                                                  0/6       0/25            6%       0/22                                                                   0/12
                                                                                                                21%
                       R ock     N obles                   Jackson                Martin        Faribault                 Freeborn
                                                                                                                                             Mower                           Fillmore        H ouston
                                  0/4                        0/3                  0/11                                     0/14                                                0/25            0/1
                                                                                                                                                           0/7
  2000 – The APV spread continues!

Plant Surveillance results
   48% MN, 53% ND, 29% SD flocks positive
APV taskforce
   Management Protocol/Surveillance Committee
APV - starlings, sparrows, barn swallows,
 ducks, geese.........
Goals
   Short term=control, Long term=eradication

                      2005 NIAA                 28
2001 – Are we making progress?
38% MN flocks positive
Joint USDA/UM Research Symposium
   Discuss different vaccine strategies
Seasonality of APV
   APV outbreaks in domestic turkeys
    Correspond to wild bird migration
    Spring – March through May
    Fall – October through November


                      2005 NIAA            29
2002 – The projects continue
 43% MN flocks positive, ND, SD pos.
 USDA approved licensed vaccine
   Biomune product – PNEUMOMUNETM
   Permitted use began August 2002
 APV Projects continue
   Clinical Signs Reporting System
   CE distribution process complete
   Regional Control & Eradication Project

                     2005 NIAA               30
 2002 - MORGAN AREA PROJECT
RATIONALE
  Create one functional turkey farm
  Eradication is possible!
   ND, SD, MN
  Common elements to successful eradication
   Entire operation positive at once
   One decision maker to coordinate these efforts
   Well defined farms, isolated from other turkeys
   Complete protection of all flocks, all neighbors

                        2005 NIAA                      31
Kittson                     Roseau




                                                               Lake of the            Koochiching
 Marshall
                                                               Woods

                                                  Beltrami
                                                                                                                                      St. Louis
Polk                      Pennington                                                                                                                                                       Cook
                                                                                                                                                                              Lake
                           Red Lake

                                                                                      Itasca




                                                  Clearwater
    Norman                      Mahnomen
                                                                Hubbard       Cass


       Clay                   Becker


                                                                                                          Aitkin

                                                               Wadena                Crow Wing
                               Otter Tail                                                                                         Carlton
       Wilkin

                                                                                                                                                                              Surrounding counties, source of data for
                                                               Todd                                                                    Pine                                   9 farms of serology GMT comparisons

                            Grant       Douglas

                                                                                                                                                                              Endemic counties, source of data for
                                                                                         Morrison         Mille Lacs
                                                                                                                                                                              13 single age and 8 multiage farms of
                                                                                        Benton
   Traverse                 Stevens     Pope                   Stearns                                                 Isanti                                                 serology GMT comparisons
    Big Stone

                                                                                                                                      Chisago
                                                                                              Sherburne
                             Swift                                                                                     Anoka
                                                                                                                                                                              Area counties with APV in 2003 that
                                                                          Meeker             Wright                                                                           were negative in 2002
                                      Chippewa
                                                                                                                                            Washington



                                                                                                                                Ram
                                                                                  Mc Leod                Hennepin
              Lac Qui Parle
                                                 Renville                                        Carver
                                                                                                                                                                                      25 mile radius project area
            Yellow Medicine
                                                                                                                                                                                      All growers within this
                                                                                       Sibley
              Lincoln          Lyon                                                                     Scott                                                                         zone invited to participate
                                                                                                                    Dakota
                                                                                                                                                         Goodhue
                                                                                                      Le Sueur Rice
                                                                                  Nicollet
                                            Redwood                                                                                                                Wabasha
                                                               Brown
                              Murray                                                                     Waseca Steele                    Dodge
              Pipestone




                                                 Cottonwood            Watonwan       Blue Earth                                                                                Winona
              Rock             Nobles             Jackson                Martin          Faribault                     Freeborn          Mower                     Fillmore      Houston

                                                                                                        2005 NIAA                                                                                                        32
2003 – APV spreads to WI!
54% MN flocks positive
Breeder Hen vaccination recommended
Pneumovirus Projects
   Clinical Signs Reporting System
   Eradication strategies
   Pooled sample project
   Regional Control & Eradication project


                     2005 NIAA               33
                                                                                                  APV PREVALENCE REPORT
                                                                                                  January - December 2003
K ittson                  R oseau

                                  0/44
                                  0%
                                                                      Lake of the
Marshall                                                              W oods            K oochiching
                         0/5
                         0%                     B eltrami
                                                                                                                                    St. Louis

 Polk                   Pennington                                                                                                                                                             C ook
                                                                                                                                                                                 Lake
                         R ed Lake

                                                                                          Itasca




                                             Clearwater
            N orman              Mahno
           24/26                 men
                                                                      H ubbard    C ass
           92%
        C lay                 B ecker                                   0/5           1/5
                                       48/96                            0%            20%
           0/21                                                                                        A itkin
                                       50%
           0%                                                         W adena
                                                                                          C row
                               Otter Tail                                                                       0/12                C arlton
                                                                                          W ing
         W ilkin                                                      10/46                                     0%
                                56/176                                22%
                                33%                                   Todd
                                                                                                                                      Pine


                                                                      82/116     Morrison
                          Grant




                                                                                                                         Kanabec
                                        D ouglas
                                                                      71% 75/133
                                          4/8


                                                                                                        Mille Lacs
                                                                             56%
                                          50%
                                                                                           B enton
                                                                                                                                                      Flock tests:           2007
    Traverse                                 Pope                     Stearns
                          Stevens                                                                                     Isanti
                                                                                                                                                      Total flocks positive: 1074(54%)


                                                                                                                                     Chisago
                                        9/10                                  171/210                                  20/6
     B ig Stone
                                        90%                                   81%                 Sherburne            0%                   0/8
           1/17
             6%                Swift   71/90                                                                          A noka                0%
                                                                      166/ Meeker W right         0/14
                                                          Kandiyohi




                                       79%
                        0/5     C hippewa                             209 105/143 14/16           0%                                   Washington
                                         13/16                        79%  73%    88%     H ennepin
                        0%                                                                          R am
            Lac Qui Parle               81%
                                                                                      Mc Leod
               Yellow Medicine                      R enville                                      C arver
                                                                       17/31                                                        8/
                         1/10      10%
                                                                       55% Sibley 0/6                  Scott
                                                                                                                                   15 53%
            Lincoln             Lyon                                                                             D akota
                                            R edwood                              0%                Le SueurR ice        Goodhue
                                12/40          21/56                                                  9/13
                                                                                      N icollet                         28/46 10/30
                                30%            38%                           29/56                    69%
                                                                      B rown 52%                                        61% 33%                                 W abasha
            Pipestone




                               Murray                                                                                                    D odge
                                                                                                        Waseca




                                             10/46                           W atonwa B lue Earth                    12/ Steele
                                                                                                                                                      Olmsted




                                                                                                                                                                        Winona



                        0/10 0/7                                                                                                19/33
                        0% 0%                22%                             n 1/9       7/25                        19 15/34                                   11/23 1/7
                                             C ottonwood  11%                              28%                       63%44% 58%                                 48% 14%
               R ock            N obles         Jackson Martin                                Faribault                                                           Fillmore          H ouston
                                                                                                                      Freeborn Mower
                                 0/14                                           0/6                                   3/13                          4/5            6/21
                                 0%                                             0%                                    23%                           80%            29%
2004 – APV spreads to IA
APV status in the Midwest
 57% MN flocks positive
 APV is identified in Iowa
 Positive flocks in SD & WI…ND negative
Vaccination not complete answer
APV levels in wild birds
 Sparrows, gulls, geese……same as turkeys

                  2005 NIAA            35
                                    % POSITIVE MN FLOCKS/LOTS - PROCESSING PLANT SURVEILLANCE

70%
                                           Jan-00 - CE BEGINS                                                     Aug-03
                                                                                                                                  May-04
                                                                                                                                           Oct-04
                                                                                                                            Feb-04
60%                                      Dec-99                                                          May-03
                                                               Nov-00
                       May-99                      May-00                           Dec-01
                                                     Jul-00                              Mar-02                                            Nov-04
50%                                                                                             Jul-02   Feb-03
                               Jun-99                                            Aug-01                                  Dec-03
                                                     Jun-00
                                                                Dec-00                                             Sep-03
                                                 Apr-00                           Nov-01
             Nov-98            Jul-99   Nov-99            Aug-00
40%                                                                                                           Apr-03
                                                                        Jun-01    Sep-01       May-02    Nov-02
                                                              Jan-01
       Aug-98              Aug-99
                                                      Sep-00
                      Feb-99                                              May-01                   Oct-02
30%
                                                                                           Sep-02 - PNEUMOMUNE
                                                                                               VACC. BEGINS
         Sep-98                   Sep-99                               Apr-01
20%


                  Mar-99
10%



 0%
                 9




                 0




                 1




                 2




                 3




                 4
  98

                 8




               99

                 9




               00

                 0




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                 1




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               04

                 4
         M 9




         M 0




         M 1




         M 2




         M 3




         M 4
             -9



              -9



             -9



              -0



             -0



              -0



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             -0
               9




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  g-




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            g-




            g-
            b-




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            b-
        ov



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Au




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         Fe




         Fe




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       N




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         N
                                                                   August 1998 - December 2004
 2005 – APV Eradication Project
USDA APV Eradication project in Minnesota
 develops
   Evaluation of the USDA approved modified-live
    vaccine in a controlled pen study
   Designing and implementing a field vaccination
    project
   Data analysis to determine if a coordinated APV
    vaccination strategy can be successful.


                       2005 NIAA               37
2005 NIAA   38
AVIAN PNEUMOVIRUS PROGRAM
         -RESULTS -
 APV introductions in Minnesota have
  not been eradicated within 6 months
 Has spread to neighboring states
 Destruction/stamping out policy has
  never been used
 No indemnity paid or requested
 Losses have been borne by the growers


                  2005 NIAA          39
 AVIAN INFLUENZA
 AVIAN PNEUMOVIRUS
 –The Future-


Can we eradicate these diseases?

How do we need to look at AI/APV?

Do we need to look at APV differently?



                  2005 NIAA               40
HERE’S A PAIR OF HAPPY DUCKS. WE CAN ALL BE HAPPY
DUCKS IF WE KEEP AI/APV OUT OF OUR FLOCKS!




                      2005 NIAA              41

								
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