REGULATIONS OF THE BOTSWANA MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
Chapter 1. CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGES
1.1 The Constitution may be repealed, amended, substituted and/or modified and/or
revised in any manner, in whole or in part, added to and/or subtracted there from,
only upon vote of not less than two thirds (2/3) of the Members IN GOOD
STANDING PRESENT at an Annual General Meeting or a Special General
Meeting, called specifically only for the purpose of Constitutional Changes.
1.2 In the case of action and/or reaction to proposed changes to the Constitution, it
shall be permissible to obtain a voting result by postal ballot. Such a postal voting
ballot shall be considered valid only if the identity and status of the Member can
be verified beyond any reasonable doubt.
1.3 Upon effecting changes to the Constitution, the Executive Council shall:
1.3.1 Notify all Members of the Association of the constitutional changes;
1.3.2 Effectively incorporate the changes into the Constitution, and
1.3.3 Authorize printing of the Constitution incorporating the news changes.
1.4 The Registrar of Societies of the Republic of Botswana shall within sixty (60)
days, but not exceeding ninety (90) days, be notified by the Secretary of
Executive Council of the changes of the Constitution. Failure to comply in this
respect may subject such changes of the Constitution to nullification by the
Executive Council and/or a quorum of the Association, whichever may act first.
Chapter 2. DISSOLUTION AND INSOLVENCY OF THE ASSOCIATION
2.1 The Association shall not be dissolved, declared dissolved and/or declared
insolvent except upon the vote of not less than two thirds (2/3) of the members IN
GOOD STANDING PRESENT at an Annual General Meeting or a special
General Meeting convened specifically only for the purpose of dissolution and/or
insolvency of the Association.
2.2 Dissolution and/or insolvency of the Association may take place ONLY
2.2.1 A proposal for dissolution and/or insolvency of the Association has been
submitted to an Annual General Meeting or a Special General Meeting,
specifically convened for the purpose of debating the cause(s) and/or reason(s) for
dissolution and/or in solvency, and two thirds (2/3) majority of the Members IN
GOOD STANDING PRESENT have voted in favor of the motion to debate
dissolution and/or insolvency;
2.2.2 Two thirds (2/3) of the Members in GOOD STANDING PRESENT at an Annual
General Meeting or a Special General Meeting called for that purpose, at the
conclusion of debate and deliberations, have voted in favor of dissolution and/or
2.2.3 The Registrar of Societies, a Magistrate and/or a Court of competent jurisdiction,
find legal cause(s), reason(s) for dissolution and/or insolvency of the Association.
2.2.4 Section 1.3 through clauses 1.3.1 to 1.3.3 of the Regulations shall, MUTATIS
MUTANDI, apply to dissolution and/or insolvency of the Association.
2.3 Upon dissolution and/or insolvency of the Association, the Executive Council
2.3.1 Attends to the discharge of Assets and Liabilities of the Association in keeping
with the provisions of the laws of Botswana;
2.3.2 Pay out surplus(s) to a charitable cause to be determined at the dissolution
2.3.3 Give notice, within sixty (60) days and not later than (90) days, to the Registrar of
Societies of the dissolution of the Association.
2.3.4 Failure to give such notice of dissolution and/or insolvency shall subject such
action of dissolution and/or insolvency to either jurisdiction or both nullification
Chapter 3. CONDITIONS OF MEMBERSHIP
3.1 Only qualified and registered Medical Practitioners, licensed by Health
Professions Council of Botswana, and/or Health Professionals listed in Part III of
the Health Professions Act 2001 may become members of the Association.
3.1.1 To become a Full MEMBER or an ASSOCIATE MEMBER of the Association,
candidates must voluntarily apply for such membership on the APPLICATION
FORMS devised for such purpose;
3.1.2 Applicants for membership in either of the above categories must submit proof of
identity, professional qualification and proof of good professional standing;
3.1.3 Council may, at its discretion, confer Honorary and Affiliate Membership on any
Medical Professional, Medical Person in training or a Distinguished Professional.
3.2 Upon recommendation of the Executive Council, approved by two thirds (2/3) of
the Members at a General Meeting or a Special General Meeting, each Member
shall pay such annual subscription as may be determined by the Executive
Council of the Association from time to time. Such membership fees shall be
levied only upon recommendation and after due consultation with the
Membership Committee, the Ways and Means Committee and the Finance
3.3 The executive Council may, from time to time, determine different membership
fees for Full Members and Associate Members, and/or different groups of
Members within the Association.
3.4 Annual subscriptions shall be payable before 31st March in each year and/or at the
Annual General Meeting or a Special General Meeting, failing which membership
and all rights and privileges of membership shall lapse.
3.5 A Member of the Association shall be considered to be IN GOOD STANDING
with full rights and privileges under the following conditions:
3.5.1 If (s)he has fulfilled all financial obligations to the Association;
3.5.2 If (s)he has no records of serious misconduct and/or malpractice;
3.5.3 If (s)he has not committed any crimes for which conviction has been adjudged;
3.5.4 If (s)he has not been expelled from the Association by the Executive Council;
3.5.5 If his/her membership has not been terminated for any justifiable reason;
3.5.6 If his/her name has not been removed from the Rolls and/or Registers kept by
Health Professions Council of Botswana.
3.6 All Members of the Association shall the right to:
3.6.1 Attend meetings of the Association and participate in the deliberations;
3.6.2 Vote at any Meeting of the Association, PROVIDED THAT THE MEMBER
WISHING TO EXERCISE THE VOTE FRANCHISE IS A MEMBER IN GOOD
3.6.3 Hold office in any of the Official Bodies of the Association, PROVIDED (S)HE
IS IN GOOD STANDING;
3.6.4 Petitions Council, and/or any of the Standing Committees of the Association;
3.6.5 Seek redress before Council and/or any of the Standing Committees when (s)he
feels aggrieved on any matter brought against her/him before Council, including
the right to seek counsel and/or legal advice and assistance;
3.6.6 Obtain circularized notices, letters and/or publications of the Association and of
the Executive Council;
3.6.7 Seek assistance, advice and/or help from the Executive Council, and/or the
Association in time of need, PROVIDED THAT SUCH REQUEST SHALL NOT
BE CONSTRUED TO BE AUTOMATICALLY BINDING ON COUNCIL,
AND/OR THE ASSOCIATION.
3.6.8 Enjoy and benefit from all the profits, achievements and rewards of the efforts
undertaken by the Executive Council and the Association on behalf the Members,
and/or the Medical and Health Professions and may share the fruitful rewards of
prudent financial management and investments made on behalf of the members
and the Association.
3.6.9 Resign from an elected post and/or abstain from active participation in the affairs
of the Association for a period not exceeding two consecutive years.
3.6.10 Withdraw membership from the Association entirely and indefinitely.
3.7 The Association, as a corporate registered body, shall have all the rights granted
to persons under the Laws and/or Statutes of the Republic of Botswana, including
the right to transact business, own and/or sell property, sue and/or be sued in a
court of law.
3.8 The Association, the Executive Council, and/or twenty-five (25) bona fide
Members IN GOOD STANDING, may exercise the right to petition Government
and/or any of its Ministers, and/or legally constituted Agencies and Departments,
on any matter affecting the Association, and/or its Member(s) or on issues
pertaining to Health Care Delivery in Botswana.
4. TERMINATION OF MEMBERSHIP
4.1 Membership maybe terminated in the following ways:
4.1.2 By resignation, save that no subscription paid shall be refunded;
4.1.3 IPSO FACTO, by failure to pay annual subscriptions on or before 31st March in
any year, and/or at an Annual General Meeting, or a Special General Meeting for
a period of two consecutive years;
4.1.4 Commission of a crime for which conviction has been rendered against a Member
4.1.5 Fraudulent or gross misdemeanor, including conviction for malpractice;
4.1.6 Expulsion from the Association or any of its constituted functional bodies;
4.1.7 Expulsion or withdrawal of license by Health Professions Council;
4.1.8 Failure to pay duly levied fines or accept penalties imposed by Council;
4.1.9 Failure to participate in the affairs of the Association for two (2) consecutive
4.1.10 For justifiable reason(s) the Executive Council deems fit to warrant expulsion.
4.1.11 IPSO FACTO, upon sentence to imprisonment without the option of a fine for a
criminal offence, and/or upon being struck off the Register of Health Professions
Council of any country for misconduct, and/or malpractice;
4.1.12 On expulsion by the Executive Council on grounds of conduct detrimental to the
honour and interests of the Health Professions and the Association; PROVIDED
THAT NO PERSON shall be so expelled without being given an opportunity to
be heard on the allegation against him/her, and PROVIDED FURTHER THAT
membership so lost may be revived upon payment of all arrears subscription
amounts with interest, and PROVIDED THAT THE affected Member has paid all
fines and fulfilled all requirements for his offence and has been fully and
unreservedly restored to normal civilian and/or professional status, and
PROVIDED FURTHER THAT decision of the executive Council shall be final
and shall not be subject to an appeal, except before the Chief Justice of the High
Chapter 5. STANDING COMMITTEES
5.1 The Standing Committees of the Association shall be as provided for in Section 6
through Section 6.10 of the Constitutional herein. The activation and composition of
Standing Committees and appointment of Chairpersons of Standing Committees
and/or the Ad Hoc Committee and Elections Commission shall be the sole
prerogative of the Chairperson of the Executive Council. Standing Committees shall
have a permanent life time while an Ad Hoc Committee and/or the Elections
Commission shall cease to exist upon completion of its assignment and mandate.
5.2 The Chairperson of Standing Committees shall be as prescribed or appointed by the
Chairperson of the Executive Council with majority approval of Council members.
5.3 The functions of the Standing shall be as provided for in the Constitution.
5.4 The Chairperson and the Executive Council may, from time to time, amend, by
expansion, and/or deletion, the number and functions of the Standing Committees, as
Chapter 6. EXECUTIVE CONTROL
6.1 The composition and membership of the Executive Council shall be as prescribed
by the Constitution except that the membership may be expanded or decreased by
a simple majority vote of a quorum at an annual General Meeting or Special
6.2 Executive Control of the Association and its affairs shall be vested in the
Executive Council, whose Chairpersons shall be the responsible Member
answerable directly to the General Membership at an Annual General Meeting,
and/ or a Special General Meeting convened solely for this purpose.
6.3 Members of the Executive Council may be held responsible and answerable for
acts of commission and/or omission individually, BUT NOT COLLECTIVELY,
by the Chairperson, and/or the Association at a General Meeting, and/or a Special
General Meeting; PROVIDED THAT ample opportunity has been given such
Member(s) to defend themselves, and/or have been given the right to seek counsel
from a legal person.
6.4 Elections for Executive Council shall be held at an Annual General Meeting,
and/or a Special General Meeting, of the Association called specifically for the
sole purpose of elections. Voting at an election shall be by ballot.
6.5 The Executive Council shall have a general mandate to do on behalf of the
Association such acts and enter into such contracts as may be necessary, and/or
expedient for the achievement of the objectives and aims of the Association, save
that major decisions affecting the Association shall not be taken without the prior
approval of the Association at a Special or Annual General Meeting.
6.6 The Executive Council shall meet not less than four (4) times annually upon dates
appointed by a quorum of the Council, and upon twenty – one (21) days written
notice to members of Council.
6.7 The Executive Council shall have the power, where this is necessary, and/or
expedient, for any purpose, to co-opt additional members to the Executive
Chapter 7 MEETINGS
There shall be only two types of meetings of the Association, namely:
7.1 ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING
The Association shall hold one Annual General Meeting each year.
7.1.1 The Annual General Meeting shall be held not later than 31st October in each
year. At an Annual General Meeting, all members of the Executive Council shall
be required to be present, EXCEPT a written apology has been submitted by an
Officer to the Executive Council seven (7) days prior to the date of the Annual
General Meeting specifying reason(s) for non- attendance. Failure to comply with
these stipulations shall subject absentee(s) to a penalty, and/or a fine determined
by the quorum of Members present at the Annual General Meeting.
7.1.2 Notification of the date of the Annual General Meeting shall be given in writing,
and/or through an appropriate public media, and/or a means of communication to
each member of the Association not less than twenty-one (21) days in advance of
such Annual General Meeting.
7.1.3 Notification(s) of an Annual General Meeting shall be sent by the Secretary of the
Executive Council. Notice of an Annual General Meeting shall be sent by mail to
each member at his/her address as maintained by the Membership Secretary,
and/or via an appropriate public media, and/or modern means of communication.
7.1.4 Resolutions for inclusion on the agenda of the Annual General Meeting shall be
submitted to the Secretary, not later than fourteen (14) days before the meeting.
7.1.5 The Secretary shall give notice of the agenda, in writing or through an appropriate
public media or means of communication to each member of the Association not
less than seven (7) days before the Annual General Meeting.
7.1.6 The Executive Council shall appoint an Organizing Committee for the Annual
General Meeting. The duty of the Organizing Committee shall be to prepare an
appropriate programme of activities, including a Scientific Programme, for the
Annual General Meeting.
7.1.7 The Organizing Committee shall be charged with sourcing appropriate funds to
defray the cost of the Annual General Meeting and Scientific Congress, in
addition to appropriations or subventions committed for this purpose by the
7.1.8 The Chairperson, and all Principal Officers serving in position of responsibility on
the Executive Council, shall submit, in writing, an appropriate report of their
stewardship relating to the affairs of the Association committed to their charge.
8. SPECIAL GENERAL MEETING
8.1 The Executive Council may, at its discretion, and shall upon the petition of not
less than twenty (20) Members of the Association, call a Special General Meeting
for the transaction of business specified in the petition, and/or raised by the
8.2 The Executive Council shall within seven (7) days of receipt of a petition in terms
of section 8.1 above give not less than fourteen (14) days written notice to each
Member of the meeting date.
Chapter 9. STANDING ORDERS AND PROCEDURES
9.1 The Standing Orders and Debating Procedures of the Association shall be in
accordance with those of Parliamentary Procedures and common debate in an
organized forum where deliberations are conducted according to democratic and
orderly formal procedural format.
9.2 The general rules relating to the Conduct of Meetings shall be:
9.2.1 Circulation of a written citation in terms stipulated by the Regulations;
9.2.2 Agenda for meetings must be circulated, and/or specified in due time;
9.2.3 A Specific quorum must be obtained before a valid meeting can proceed;
9.2.4 Discussions and debates shall proceed in an orderly manner under direction and
control of the officer conducting the meeting;
9.2.5 Voting and all rights and privileges must be exercised appropriately;
9.2.6 Minutes and/or appropriate records of proceedings must be kept;
9.2.7 Important decisions and/or action(s) taken must be voted upon and duly recorded;
9.2.8 Regulations relating to majority vote must apply at all meetings;
9.2.9 Resolutions can be carried only by two thirds (2/3) majority of the quorum;
9.2.10 Ad Hoc agenda items may be discussed and/or debated before adjournment.
9.3 Regular Standing Orders and Debating Procedures of the Association shall be
followed and shall apply to all meetings of the Association, including those of the
Executive Council, Annual and Special General Meetings and/or the Standing
Committees of the Association and Regional Coordinating Committees.
9.4 The Association may, from time to time, determine and/or amend its own
standing Orders and Debating Procedures, EXCEPT THAT these changes may
not be inconsistent with any of the terms and provisions of the Constitution and
10.1 Publicized meetings of the association, the Executive Council and/or any of its
Standing Committees shall proceed only when a quorum has been constituted and
10.2 Quorum at any duly publicized meeting of the Executive Council, and/or any of
the Standing Committees, shall be ONE THIRD of the composite membership or
AN APPROPRIATE NUMBER of Members so decided at the FIRST duly
convened meeting of the Executive Council, and/or Committee.
10.3 The quorum at a duly publicized Annual General Meeting shall be one third of the
membership or, twenty five (25) Members IN GOOD STANDING, whichever
shall be less.
10.4 The quorum, at a Regional Coordinating Committee Meeting, shall be one third
(1/3) of the membership, or three (3) members IN GOOD STANDING,
whichever shall be less.
10.5 The provisions relating to a quorum at an Annual General Meeting shall,
MUTATIS MUTANDI, apply to a Special General Meeting.
10.6 In the Event of a quorum not being present, an Annual General Meeting shall
stand adjourned for a period of twenty-one (21) days, and a written notice of such
adjournment shall be given immediately to all Members in a stipulated manner.
At the resumed meeting, SUCH MEMBERS AS ARE PRESENT shall constitute
10.7 In the event of a quorum not being present at a meeting of the Executive Council,
Standing Committees, and/or any of the constitutionally functioning committees,
the provisions in section 10.4 shall, MUTATIS MUTANDI, apply to any, and/or
10.8 For the purpose determining the validity of meetings, notice of a meeting shall be
deemed to have been given to a Member if such notice was posted or sent to
him/her by ordinary mail at his/her address registered with the Association or via
any modern means of written communication at a time within the limits imposed
by the Constitution and the Regulations.
Chapter 11. EXERCISE OF THE FRANCHISE OF VOTING
11.1 A general franchise shall hold and be extended to every Member of the
Association, EXCEPT, Honorary and Affiliate Members of the Association.
Freedom of speech, self-expression and participation in debates and deliberations
of the Association at any meeting of Members of the Association shall be a right
of all members.
11.2 The right and exercise of the franchise of the Vote shall, HOWEVER, remain the
exclusive right and privilege of MEMBERS IN GOOD STANDING ONLY at all
Meetings and fora of the Association, including the Executive Council, and/or the
Standing Committees and Regional Committees.
11.3 Voting at election of the Executive Council and other officers of the Association,
at an Annual General Meeting and/or a Special General Meeting shall be by
simple majority and by closed ballot, while voting by resolution shall be by
simple majority and by show of hands.
11.4 Voting in the Executive Council, the Standing Committees, and/or the Regional
Coordinating Committees shall, MUTATIS MUTANDI, be by simple majority and
by show of hands.
11.5 In the event of a split vote in the election of officers at an Annual General
Meeting, the voting shall be repeated for another single round of voting, following
which, in the event of a second split vote, the election of the officer in question
shall be done by casting lots.
11.6 In the event of a split vote on any issue at the Executive Council, and/or any of
the constituted committees of the Association, the Chairperson shall have a
11.7 Voting on Resolutions, whether in the Executive Council, and/or at a General
Meeting or Special Meeting of the Association, shall be declared confirmed by
two thirds (2/3) of the eligible voting members in attendance and shall be by a
show of hands.
11.8 Decisions made, and/or, actions taken in accordance with stipulated procedures
and provisions specified herein, are binding on all Members affected thereby.
Such decisions and/or actions shall not be contested in any form and//or manner
EXCEPT ample satisfactory justification(s), reason(s) and/or grounds for doing so
are presented, beyond reasonable doubt, in accordance with the stipulations of the
11.9 Under no circumstance shall decisions and actions arrived at by the majority vote
in any duly constituted forum and/or meeting of Members of the Association be
nullified, not even by a Magistrate, and/or the Chief Justice of the High Court,
EXCEPT if they are in stark violation of the Law and Statutes of Botswana and
are so contested and found to be unjust before a Magistrate, and/or the Chief
Justice of the High Court, and/or the Court of Appeals.
Chapter 12. ELECTIONS
12.1 The Honorary President shall be elected for a single term of five (5) years and
shall not be eligible for re-election until after the expiration of two intervening
terms of the Presidency. The tenure of the Honorary President shall, therefore, be
limited to five (5) years.
12.2 The Chairperson and all elected officers serving on the Executive Council shall be
elected for a period of three (3) years in the first instance and may be eligible for
re-election to the same position for another single term of office immediately
thereafter. At tenure, an elected officer shall be eligible for election to hold the
same post only after an intervening period of six years following his/her last term
in office in the same capacity.
12.3 An officer who has attained tenure in an office may be elected to hold another
position not previously held by that officer.
12.4 The election of the Chairperson and the Chairperson-Elect shall be staggered in
such a manner that the election of both officers shall not take place in the same
Chapter 13. REMOVAL FROM OFFICE:
13.1 An elected officer, and/or group of elected officers, may be removed from office
for any justifiable reason(s) specified in the Regulations. In principle, an elected
officer may be removed from office by resignation, impeachment, and/or
resolution by the Executive Council or at a Special General Meeting convened for
13.2 Generally, gross misconduct, failure to perform duties for which the an officer
was elected, termination of membership, expulsion from office and incompetence,
in addition to conditions herein specified above in the Constitution and the
regulations, may constitute sufficient reasons and/or grounds for removal from
13.3 In particular, an officer may be removed from office because of:
13.3.1 Protracted illness and/or disability beyond one (1) year;
13.3.3 Gross misconduct, unethical behaviour and/or commission of a crime for which
judgment has been rendered against him/her under the Constitution and
Regulations of the Association and/or the Laws and Statutes of the Republic of
13.3.4 Unethical behavior, malpractice, felony, and/or breach of the fundamental
professional code of conduct and/or for conduct considered detrimental to the
image, honour and dignity of the Medical Professions;
13.3.5 Any of the reasons stated herein for which membership may be suspended and/or
13.3.6 Any justifiable serious offence the Executive Council may consider sufficient
grounds enough for removal of officer(s) from office.
Chapter 14 RESIGNATION FROM OFFICE
In principle, to serve the Association in any capacity is both a right and a privilege
exercised by Member(s) at the discretion of the Officer so elected and/or chosen.
Similarly, to resign is also a right and privilege of an officer to be exercised by Members.
14.1 Therefore, an elected Officer may, if (s)he finds it expedient and/or compelling
enough, resign at any time, PROVIDED JUSTIFIABLE REASONS FOR SO
DOING ARE PRESENTED, IN WRITING, TO THE CHAIRPERSON OF THE
EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, AND/OR THE COMMITTEE TO WHICH THE
OFFICER WAS ELECTED, APPOINTED, OR CO-OPTED.
14.2 The Chairperson shall, upon receipt of a letter of resignation from an Officer, call a
Special Meeting of the Executive Council, and/or Committee on which the officer
was serving to deliberate the reasons for resignation.
14.3 All efforts shall be made to dissuade an Officer from resigning. In so doing,
attempts shall be made to resolve the conflict causing the officer to tender in a
letter of resignation.
14.4 Failure to resolve the matter, the Chairperson shall put the matter to a vote. A
simple majority, in favour or against accepting the resignation, shall decide the
matter. If the majority vote is in favour of accepting the resignation, the
chairperson shall accept the resignation of the Officer, whose position shall
immediately be declared vacant and subject to election in the appropriate manner.
14.5 In the event that a majority vote rejects the letter of resignation, the Chairperson
shall refer the matter to a higher forum for decision.
14.6 In the case of resignations from the Executive Council, the matter shall be referred
to a Special General Meeting, and/or an Annual General Meeting, whichever can
meet first. Decision of the majority in accordance with voting procedures, shall be
14.7 In the case of resignations from other constituted Committees and Posts of the
Association, the matter shall be referred to the Executive Council. Decision of the
majority in accordance with voting procedures, shall be binding.
14.8 In principle, all efforts shall be made to dissuade an Officer from resigning. In so
doing, attempts shall be made to resolve the conflict prompting the Officer to
tender in a letter of resignation.
14.9 In the event that a majority vote accepts the resignation of an Officer, the post shall
be immediately declared vacant and appropriate steps taken to fill that post.
14.10 Under no circumstances, however, shall any Officer be coerced, intimidated,
threatened, and/or in any way forced to serve in a post against his will and good
Chapter 15. FINANCES OF THE ASSOCIATION
15.1 All monetary payments and receipts of the Association shall be made into the
banking account(s) of the Association, the signatories of which shall be any two (2)
of the following members of the Executive Council, namely the Chairperson, the
secretary and the treasurer, and/or any other member nominated by the Executive
Council for the time being and in respect of whose name the Bankers of the
Association have been duly notified.
15.2 The Treasurer and/or Membership Secretary may collect membership fees directly
and give receipts to Members for payment of subscriptions. Such receipts shall be
subject to scrutiny, from time to time, by the Executive Council and the Auditor of
15.3 All subscriptions and other monies and/or monetary instruments payable to
individuals authorized to receive such monies, etc., shall be submitted to the
Treasurer, who upon receipt of such payments, shall deposit the amount into the
bank accounts of the Association and tender receipts to the members concerned
immediately. All ad hoc transactions shall be subject to scrutiny by the Executive
Council and the Auditor.
15.4 The Treasurer shall keep proper up to date records and/or books of account in
respect of funds and financial transactions on behalf of the Associations, and these
records and/or books of accounts and transactions shall be subject to an audit by
the Auditor of the Association.
15.5 The Members of the Association shall, from time to time, be jointly but not
severally liable for the debts of the Association.
15.6 Any Member of the Association who carries out financial transactions in the name
and on behalf of the Association may be held countable and liable in the event that
such functions do not stand upright in the light of day and/or after and audit.
15.7 Any Member and/or Members jointly or severally held liable for transactions
and/or debts of the Association shall be considered culpable PROVIDED THAT
AN APPROPRIATELY CONDUCTED INVESTIGATION HAS
ESTABLISHED LIABILITY BEYOND ANY REASONABLE DOUBT
AND/OR PROVIED THAT A PLEA OF NULLI CONTENDRE HAS BEEN
JOINTLY AND/OR SEVERALLY ENTERED BY SUCH MEMBERS OF THE
Chapter 16. CHANGES TO THE REGULATIONS
16.1 The Association may, at any time, change and/or revise its Standing Orders,
and/or Regulations in accordance with the provisions set forth herein.
16.2 The Regulations may, from time to time, be changed, revised, amended, amended,
Substituted and/or modified in any manner, in whole or in part, added to, and/or
Subtracted, therefrom, only upon vote of not less that two thirds (2/3) of the
Members IN GOOD STANDING PRESENT at an Annual General Meeting,
and/or a Special General Meeting called specifically only for the purpose of
16.3 In the case of action, and/or reaction to proposed changes to the Regulations, the
provisions relating to Changes of the Constitution, as proscribed in section 14.2
through 14.2.1, shall, MUTATIS MUTANDI, apply in part or in whole, as if they
relate to the Regulations. It shall be permissible to obtain a voting result by postal
ballot. Such a postal voting ballot shall be considered valid only if the identity and
status of the members can be verified beyond and reasonable doubt.
16.4 Upon endorsement of these Constitutional Changes, and/or Amendments, along
with the newly formulated Regulations, by unanimous vote of Members at a duly
constituted Special General Meeting held on the 26th day of June 2004 and a two
thirds (2/3) majority vote of endorsement of their action at an annual General
Meeting, this Constitution shall be deemed ratified and shall form the basic
organic legal corporate document of the Botswana Medical Association.
16.5 All sections and provisions of the old Constitution, not in conformity with the
Revised Constitution and the Regulations, are hereby repealed and declared extant
and obsolete for all purposes and activities of the Association.
16.6 Anything herein to the contrary, notwithstanding, shall be considered NULL AND
VOID and shall not be binding on the Association and/or the Members.
Done this 26th day of June 2004