Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

Lecture 53-Artificial sweetners

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 10

									                           Dental Biochemistry 2011
                                        Lectures 53




Artificial Sweetners

     Mukund Modak, Ph.D.
               COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES
Homopolymeric                   Glycogen
Heteropolymeric                 Covalent linkage to protein
                                 (amino acids) or fatty acid
                                 Glycolipid in membrane and
                                 gangliosides

Proteoglycans
Mucopolysaccharides (Mucins)             Found in connective
N-Acetyl glucosamine                     tissues, blood group
N-Acetyl galactosamine                   substances
N-Acetyl Neuraminic acid

Other Polysaccharides
                            Hyaluronic acids (lubricant in joints)
                            Chondroitin Sulfate (collagen)
                            Heparin (Anti coagulant)
                            Keratin sulfate (Hair component)
                            Glucuronates (liver detoxification)
                                                                     2
                   NATURAL SWEETNERS
    Sweetner                                 Degree of Sweetness

   Sucrose                                                1X
   Corn sweeteners made by glucoamylase and glucoisomerase
    action on corn starch (high fructose 55-80 %)          1.2X
   Plant glycosides
   Phyllodulcin (Japan)                                   20X
   Glycyrrhizin (Licorice roots)                          50X
   Stevia (Stevia Leaves)                                 200X
   Lo-Han fruit                                           400X
   Serendipity berries (Monellin)                         2500X
   Large Polypeptide “Talin”                              2500X




                                                                   3
Table : Relative Sweetness of Simple Sugars
   Sweetner                  Degree of Sweetness


   Sucrose                        1

   Lactose                        0.4

   Maltose                        0.5

   Galactose                      0.6

   D-Glucose                      0.7

   D-Fructose                     1.1

   D-Xylose                       0.7

   L- Tagatose                    1.0

   Sorbitol                       0.5

   Leavorotatory Hexose


                                          Continued…   4
Sweetner                    Degree of Sweetness


Mannitol                        0.7

Xylitol                         0.7

Dulcitol                        0.4

Glycerol                        0.8

Glycine                         0.7

Chloroform                      40

Glycyrrihizin (Licourish)       50




                                                  5
Table : Relative Sweetness of Synthetic Sweetners
  Sweetner                             Degree of Sweetness

   Sucrose                                   1

   Aspartylphenyalanine methyl ester         100 – 200
   (Aspartame, Neotame, Equal)

  Sodium Saccharin                           200 – 700
   (Sweet and Low)

  Sodium cyclohexylsulfamate                 30 – 80
   (Cyclamate)

  Sucralose                                  700-1000
   (Splenda)


  Acesulfame K or Ace-K                      200-300
  (Sunett or Sweet One)


  Naringin dihydrochalcon                    300




                                                             6
            MOST POPULAR SYNTHETIC SWEETNERS

Saccharin                                  300X




                                 N


                                 S




A component of sweet and low®


                                                  7
L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester




                                                      (Equal)




       Sucrose                            Sucralose (750x)
                                          (Splenda)             8
Physico-chemical, physiological and Medical Properties of
Sucralose (Splenda)

        pH and heat stability             Stable at pH 2 – 11
                                          100 ºC for 30 mins
                                          50 ºC for 7 days
        No hydrolysis in vivo             1 – 6 dichloro fructose is a
                                          minor but physiological
                                          breakdown product
        No dehalogenation                 i.e. Release of Cl
        Non-toxic                         16 gm/day
        No effect on glucose level or insulin secretion
        Inhibits formation of glucan/fructan polymers

Cariogenecity
       Reduction in Sulcal caries
       Non cariogenic
       Not metabolized by oral bacteria

                 Caution: Long term effects not known
                                                                         9
            Concerns about Synthetic Sweetners


Saccharin                               Renal tumor in animals

Aspartame and Neotame (Equal)            Neurotoxicity of phenylalanine with high
                                        intake. People with phenylketoneurea
                                        (PKU) at high risk.

Acesulfame K (Sunett or Sweet One)      Increases insulin (hypoglycemic effects);
                                        carcinogenic in animal studies.

Stevia (Stevia Plant Extract)           Bitter after taste; used in combination
                                        with other sweetners

Sucralose (Splenda)                     Some breakdown seen in digestive track.
                                        No known ill effects.




                           Conclusion: Use in moderation
                                                                                    10

								
To top