A Manual for Training Reclamation Inspectors in the Fundamentals of Hydrology - Section 1 by SMRE


									          Permit Application Information                            For a n initial inspection where mining will be under-
                                                                 ground, the inspector should consider:
  Each permit approved under a permanent program for                  type of mining;
surface coal mining and reclamation is issued based upon              possibilities of surface water and groundwater deple-
the review of information submitted by the applicant in the           tion; and
Permit Application Package. The Permit Application Pack-              long-term problems such as subsidence.
age contains a comprehensive review of groundwater and
surface water resources, including extensive baseline data,         During review of the Permit Application Package, the in-
for the proposed mining site and adjacent areas. This infor-     spector should pay close attention to any baseline data that
mation is used by the applicant to estimate the probable         indicate abnormal conditions or fluctuations and note any
hydrologic consequences (PHC)of the proposed mining. If          such abnormalitiesthat might need verification under field
the probable hydrologic consequences are adverse, the            conditions. Where modeling techniques or adjacent area
applicant sets forth a plan to prevent or minimize distur-       studies are referenced, the inspector may need to compare
bance to the hydrologic balance. That plan includes a pro-       actual site conditions to the hypothetical projections
posed monitoring scheme to verify its effects.                   presented in the application.
  The regulatory authority uses the applicant’s PHCs and            During review of the PHC, frequent crosschecking with-
other information to make a cumulative hydrologic impact         in the Permit Application Package may be necessary.
assessment (CHIA) which is used as a “yardstick” in the          Review the proposed mining procedures, such as handling
permit approval process to determine whether the proposed        of overburden and burial of acid or toxic waste for their like
operation has been designed to prevent material damage to        ly impact upon the hydrology. The CHIA, if available, can
                                                                 be a useful reference because it may help identify possible
the hydrologic balance beyond the permit area. It may be         errors in the PHC or discrepancies in the impact area
necessary to update CHIASas additional data are gathered         described in the Permit Application Package.
or when permit applications undergo extensive revision.
                                                                    While conducting the Permit Application Package review,
  Before making an initial inspection, the reclamation           the inspector should make brief notes for later field refer-
inspector should review the Permit Applicqtion Package;          ence and report writing. Such notes might include:
the permit, which may contain specific stipulations, and
the CHIA to become familiar with:                                     typical effluent quality of the receiving streams and the
     the general topography of the mine plan area and its             identity of parameters measurable in the field;
     relationship to the proposed method of operation and             average seasonal rainfall and dimensions of commonly
     any previous mining;                                             referenced events, such as 10 year, 24 hour, or proba-
     the location of surface waters within and adjacent to            ble maximum precipitation event;
     the permit site and potential users of surface water and         discharge parameters at key monitoring points if differ-
     groundwater resources;                                           ent from routine performance standards;
     the location of identifiable mining-related hydrologic           characteristics of major affected soil types such as erudi-
     contact points such as sediment ponds, stream buffer             bility, particle suspension, and coloration;
     zones, diversions, monitoring wells, and point-source            typical habitat and organisms in receiving streams;
     discharges from the permit area;                                 types of streams in and near the mining area;
     the geologic description of lands within and adjacent            the identity of any users of those groundwaters and sur-
     to the permit area and the expected relationship of that         face waters that might be affected by operations;
     geology to surface and subsurface flow patterns before           the names, dimensions, and general quality of the coal
     and after disturbance;                                                    to
                                                                      seam@) be mined, including any potentially adverse
     the analysis of coal and overburden, especially the iden-        characteristics such as acidity, iron, or manganese;
     tification of acid- or toxic-forming materials that may          general direction of identifiable subsurface flow and the
     be disturbed or activated during mining;                         names of important aquifers;
     the character and population of aquatic biota,-fish,             location and depth of any monitoring wells and the
     plant, or other biological resources-that may be affect-         identity of parameters to be measured as shown or list-
     ed by disruptions in flow or changes in water quality            ed in the Permit Application Package;
                                                                    0 types of vegetation and         soil-stabilizing practices
     caused by mining;
     the water parameters on the permit site before mining,           required; and
     as well as the baseline information for adjacent ground-       *for undergmund mining, the nature, extent, and
     water or surface water resources;                                projected mining impacts.
     the areas or locations authorized for point source dis-        Whenever possible, some field inspections should be con-
     charge and any conditions upon such discharges which        ducted during or immediately after adverse weather condi-
     are delineated in the approved Permit Application           tions. Inspection during periods of system stress allows
     Package;                                                    better evaluation of both Permit Application Package
     the monitoring and reporting requirements specified;        proposals and the likely effectiveness of their application.
     the identity of special hydrologic features, functions,     Hydrologic protection measures should be designed to
     or requirements stated in or conditioned by the Permit      accommodate problems that arise under exbeme conditions
     Application Package and the permit; and                     and should be judged accordingly.
     the soil types within the Permit Application Package           Field evaluation of mining operations often requires travel
     area and their susceptibility to erosion and transport.     in areas not easily accessible by vehicle. The necessary

 documentation and sampling equipment should have mini-           any clues to inappropriate mining, construction, and recla-
 mum encumbrance and weight.                                      mation practices.
   Except where the inspector is extremely familiar with a
permit, drainage or hydrology maps and notes accumulated               Field-checking the Permit Application Package
during the Pennit Application Package study should always
be on hand during a field review. To avoid overlooking               The Permit Application Package identifies measures that
areas or items which may have problems, make a brief list         are approved for use on a given site. The major questions
of specific areas or facilities to be checked. A more detailed    are: (I)Are the proposed control measures appropriate for
version might include a point-to-point itinerary and a list       the site conditions and mining practices described in the
of items to be inspected at each location along the route.        Permit Application Package? (2) Are the site conditions,
   Use facts and insight gained through review of the Per-        as they are presented in these documents, verifiable in the
mit Application Package and prior inspections to identify         field? (3) Are they supported by the inspector’s indepen-
specific areas, items, facilities, etc. to be inspected and to    dent observations made on the site? and (4) Do the meas-
choose the equipment needed to make the necessary meas-           ures and practices set forth in the Permit Application Pack-
urements and take the necessary samples. Some nearly              age, with any requested variances, meet requirements?
indispensable items are:                                             Answers to these questions can be found from evaluations
     a camera with extra f l ;im                                  such as the three given here. This is not intended to be
     “quick check” water quality indicators, such as a Hach       a complete list. Any specific case may involve any or all
     Kit;                                                         of the listed items-plus others.
   * several clean, prenumbered sample bottles;
     nitric acid;
     0.45 micron filters;
                                                                  Evaluation of the Completeness and Applicability of the
                                                                  Mining and Reclamation Plan with Respect to Hydrology
     a device for measuring water level in wells;
     a 6- to 12-foot retractable tape measure; and                I.   Investigation pertinent to the particular permit area.
     a note pad.                                                       A. Study maps of geology, hydrology, and topography
These items may be managed easily in a knapsack. By                       along with other permit documents to see if the plan
using them correctly an inspector can adequately identify                 is complete and meets regulatory requirements. Per-
and document most water violations common to mining.                      tinent items may include:
                                                                          1. general strike and dip of strata;
                                                                          2. variations in strike and dip in and near the per-
             Hydrologic Aspects of the                                        mit area;
            Permit Application Package                                    3. slope of land surface;
                                                                          4. location of natural surface drainage courses:
   Nearly every step of the mining/reclamationprocess, and                5. location of previous man-made alterations to the
 every structure designed and built to serve the permit site,                 natural surface and drainage patterns as caused
 may be viewed as a technique for the control of drainage                     by roads, such as logging roads, skid trails;
 and erosion. Preparing mining and reclamation plans and                      previous mining, as evidenced by spoil piles,
maps, designating the sequence of operations, designing                       deep mine adits, auger holes, subsidence; ini-
structures, and selecting methods and processes by which                      gation facilities, such as ditches and pipes;
the overburden and spoils are to be removed, handled, and                 6. surface water and groundwater monitoring pro-
placed are all aimed toward controlling water.                                grams should address sampling site locations,
   Specific inspection duties of the reclamation inspector                    sampling methods, sampling schedules, sample
may vary with circumstances and time of involvement.                          preservation and chain of possession, testing
Some inspectors become involved during permit applica-                        methods, and names and qualifications of test-
tion review, and may be required to verify in the field the                   ing lab personnel; and
various statements, conditions, and site situations described             7. determine whether an aquifer exists and if so,
in the Permit Application Package. For others, duties begin                   verify:
only after the Permit Application Package has been                            a. description of physical characteristics of
approved. Still others exercise what is primarily an over-                       matrix materials
sight role; their duties involve periodic inspection of min-                  b. description of hydrologic characteristics of the
ing and reclamation operations.                                                  aquifer(s). Some items of interest are:
   Regardless of an inspector’s specific duties, their scope,                    (I) Is the potential yield to wells of
or when during the permitting and inspection process they                             consequence?
begin, it is important that inspectors understand and be able                    (2) Is it of a pressurized (artesian)or unpres-
to interpret the various permit documents in light of the                             surized (free water table) type?
requirements, and understand the assumptions and princi-                         (3) Seasonal flow and stage characteristics
ples upon which the spoil handling methods, construction                         (4) Chemistry of the water.
techniques, and reclamation practices have been selected.                     c. What are the geographic limits of the aquif-
   Equally important in the day-to-day performance of an                         er? For example: Is the aquifer entirely with-
inspector’s duties is the ability to recognize in the field any                  in the permit area or does part of it extend
conditions that support or contradict these assumptions and                      beyond that area?


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