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SOCIOLOGY THEORIES

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					SOCIOLOGY THEORIES

        Should first define the term "theory". theory is a set of propositions expressed
sistemetis and logically interconnected, which is based firmly on empirical data. Every
person, whether consciously or not, always link the events in his head or properties in
ikhtiarnya to explain or understand the things experienced in everyday life. About the
person who fainted at a rally on the square, people will say "because it is too hot!" and "he
was unusually long standing". Implicitly, everyone makes the theories of his world in order
to be meaningful, regular, and he himself more ready to face the future. Through theory,
one expects to be able to foresee it and adjust its actions with that knowledge.
Making the theory of conscious, explicit, organized and meticulous, and then to prove, is
part of the scientific efforts. The following example is taken from George Homans essay, The
Structure of Social Science. He relates, that at the time he was a teenager often swim in the
Bay of Massachusetts in the United States. Just like his friends he also had that little warm
water near the shore, when the wind was blowing from the direction of the weapon system.
He checked the event by making a record, although not systematically.

        The same thing always happens. Warm or cold water has to do with wind direction.
How to explain it? Then he imagined the following theory. Hot water tends to arise surface.
Add too, that the more sunlight warms the water on the surface than beneath it. So there are
two causes that explain why the water at the surface is hotter than the water below. More
wind impact on the water on the surface, and push it according to directions, while the
water below the surface usually remain calm and not moving. Due to these facts, the wind
coming from the sea will result in warm water piling near the shore, while the wind coming
from the interior of warm water will shift to where the distant ocean. Given another
principle, that water is always flat, then it must be concluded that warm water is moved into
place is always replaced with water under the surface of the cooler. That's why the water
near the coast is warm, when the wind was blowing toward the coast, and cold when
blowing out to sea. Each part of a series of mind is a proposition that states with hubu
relationship that exists between some of the features found in nature. Propositions it is a
logical whole, which results in a larger sense.

        The history of sociology has produced many theories. Robert Merton distinguishing
between grand theories and theories of the middle range. grand theories are so abstract and
general, thus presumed to be able to cover all existing social realities. For example, the
theory of Karl Marx taught that the entire socio-cultural life of human beings due to how
humans develop economic relations. Another example: Pitirim Sorokin (1889-1968) created
a theory that socio-cultural life of impregnated and is caused by a certain mentality. He
distinguishes between three types of cultural mentality, the "ideational" (sensitive to
spiritual values, speculative), "sensate" or sensory (emphasis on material values and
empirical), and between the two extremes that mentality of "mixed". The third type is in
turns to be dominant at certain times and make people either uphold the religious life and
philosophy, or a lifestyle rather materalistis and technocratic, or a combination. (Sorokin,
1957:683-692).

       Theory of Talcott Parsons, who analyze the social reality at its most abstract and
general as the "social system", is another example of grand theory. With theories of middle
range theories meant that not aim to cover all social reality, but highlights and explains only
limited aspects of social phenomena or specific. Theories whose scope is limited to be
formed in such a way that hypotheses can be derived, and they can be tested empirically.
Example: Durkheim's theory of "suicide". percentage incidence of "suicide" varies according
to the large-small degree of integration of people into their group; Religion Protestant
indicate the degree of integration is lower than the Catholic religion; Where is the majority
of the Protestant religion, as in countries Skandinavis, the incidence of "suicidal self "tends
to increase; Spanish Protestants in this country only a little, then the number" suicide "in
the country Spain is rather low.

        In this context can only just touched on important theories in sociology. Theories
that take shelter under the paradigm of social facts are: The theory of structural-
Functionalism, Conflict theory, system theory, and theories of Macro Sociology. All of this
theory to analyze the role and influence-fenoemen social phenomenon, such as institutions,
social class, social control systems, power, norms and others, who as if from outside myself
humans produce pelangsungan or change the community. The theory of Structural
Functionalism, or study the impact of structures and functions of social institutions in
community life as a regular and stable. Each social phenomena have objective consequences,
both positive and negative, whether conscious or not. Analysis of the consequences it may
help to understand why-phenomenon phenomenon was maintained, changed or canceled.
Lighting principle used is to live together mansuia adaptation to the situation or
environment. For example, the phenomenon of social coatings studied so far produce the
division of labor, the division of rights and obligations, and division of property, which is
necessary for the sake of stability and self-defense community.

        Conflict theory explains social life by taking the impact of power structures and
interest groups as a central issue. Explain the basic principle that social life is dominance of
the strong over the weak. The emphasis of living of the people, public opinion manipulation,
intimidation, and oppression, is makanisme-mechanism that was supposed to bring
"stability". But the community is inherently unstable, because the arena of competition and
penabrakan different interests. For example, social coating understood as a result of the
domination of the strong objective. Systems theory emphasizes that all social institutions
and structures relate to one another, so that changes in one cause changes in other fields.
Every social system depends on certain prerequisites such as: membership is always
renewed, the ability to achieve its goals, integration, and mechanisms to overcome the
internal crisis.

        Sociology macro look at the whole life of society as a result of a developmental
process that runs itself. Theories under the auspices of the social definition paradigm is: The
Theory of Action (social action), Symbolic interactionism and phenomenological sociology.
Action theory was pioneered by Max Weber. The key to understanding life together in the
hands of humans. He thought, and reveals his thoughts into the community. So-called social
structures and institutions are not other than human behavior, which either use rational
thought, whether using affective or emotional thinking, whether to follow tadisi granted. So
the principles of lighting and subject matter is the human mind. Symbolic Interaksinisme
prioritize symbolic style as the core of human interaction. Humans who act gives specific
meaning to his behavior and mengintepretasi behavior of others by means well. For
example, language is not just an empty sound, but a voice full of meaning and means of
communication. This applies to the entire analog of human social life. Among the figures
can be referred to the Symbolic interactionism: GH Mead (1863-1931), sociologist, sociology
of the Chicago school, and Herbert Blumer.

        Sociological Theory Phenomenology is based on the teachings of Alfred Schuzt, that
emphasizes the "intersubjectivity". Just as happens in interpersonal interactions, as well as
social groups understand each other, and this allows a mutual understanding of cooperation
between them. According to Ritzer, social interaction occurs and lasts through the
interpretation and understanding of each action, both among individuals and between
groups. (Ritzer, 1980:72). Finally just called a paradigmatic theory of social behavior, namely
Exchange Theory with the character George Homans. Exchange Theory (exchange theory)
was formulated in five inter-related propositions, namely:

       a) In any action, the more often a particular action to obtain the reward, the more
often people will do that action.

      b) If in the distant past there was a specific stimulus, or set of stimuli is an event
where a person's actions to obtain reward, the more stimuli that are now similar to the last,
the more likely that someone did a similar action or somewhat similar.

       c) The higher the value of an act, then increasingly happy person doing the action.

        d) The more frequently in the newly passed a person receives a certain reward, then
the less valuable for that person every unit increase in the reward.

       e) If a person's actions do not reap the rewards he hoped for, or accept the
punishment that is not desired, then he will be angry: he becomes highly likely to show
aggressive behavior, and results of such behavior become more valuable to him. Where the
actions of a person who hoped to obtain rewards, special rewards are greater than the
dikirakannya, then he will feel happy, more likely he or she will carry out the behavior of his
favorite, and the results of such behavior will become more valuable to him. (Poloma,
1984:59-67).

				
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