SOCIOLOGY THEORIES Should first define the term "theory". theory is a set of propositions expressed sistemetis and logically interconnected, which is based firmly on empirical data. Every person, whether consciously or not, always link the events in his head or properties in ikhtiarnya to explain or understand the things experienced in everyday life. About the person who fainted at a rally on the square, people will say "because it is too hot!" and "he was unusually long standing". Implicitly, everyone makes the theories of his world in order to be meaningful, regular, and he himself more ready to face the future. Through theory, one expects to be able to foresee it and adjust its actions with that knowledge. Making the theory of conscious, explicit, organized and meticulous, and then to prove, is part of the scientific efforts. The following example is taken from George Homans essay, The Structure of Social Science. He relates, that at the time he was a teenager often swim in the Bay of Massachusetts in the United States. Just like his friends he also had that little warm water near the shore, when the wind was blowing from the direction of the weapon system. He checked the event by making a record, although not systematically. The same thing always happens. Warm or cold water has to do with wind direction. How to explain it? Then he imagined the following theory. Hot water tends to arise surface. Add too, that the more sunlight warms the water on the surface than beneath it. So there are two causes that explain why the water at the surface is hotter than the water below. More wind impact on the water on the surface, and push it according to directions, while the water below the surface usually remain calm and not moving. Due to these facts, the wind coming from the sea will result in warm water piling near the shore, while the wind coming from the interior of warm water will shift to where the distant ocean. Given another principle, that water is always flat, then it must be concluded that warm water is moved into place is always replaced with water under the surface of the cooler. That's why the water near the coast is warm, when the wind was blowing toward the coast, and cold when blowing out to sea. Each part of a series of mind is a proposition that states with hubu relationship that exists between some of the features found in nature. Propositions it is a logical whole, which results in a larger sense. The history of sociology has produced many theories. Robert Merton distinguishing between grand theories and theories of the middle range. grand theories are so abstract and general, thus presumed to be able to cover all existing social realities. For example, the theory of Karl Marx taught that the entire socio-cultural life of human beings due to how humans develop economic relations. Another example: Pitirim Sorokin (1889-1968) created a theory that socio-cultural life of impregnated and is caused by a certain mentality. He distinguishes between three types of cultural mentality, the "ideational" (sensitive to spiritual values, speculative), "sensate" or sensory (emphasis on material values and empirical), and between the two extremes that mentality of "mixed". The third type is in turns to be dominant at certain times and make people either uphold the religious life and philosophy, or a lifestyle rather materalistis and technocratic, or a combination. (Sorokin, 1957:683-692). Theory of Talcott Parsons, who analyze the social reality at its most abstract and general as the "social system", is another example of grand theory. With theories of middle range theories meant that not aim to cover all social reality, but highlights and explains only limited aspects of social phenomena or specific. Theories whose scope is limited to be formed in such a way that hypotheses can be derived, and they can be tested empirically. Example: Durkheim's theory of "suicide". percentage incidence of "suicide" varies according to the large-small degree of integration of people into their group; Religion Protestant indicate the degree of integration is lower than the Catholic religion; Where is the majority of the Protestant religion, as in countries Skandinavis, the incidence of "suicidal self "tends to increase; Spanish Protestants in this country only a little, then the number" suicide "in the country Spain is rather low. In this context can only just touched on important theories in sociology. Theories that take shelter under the paradigm of social facts are: The theory of structural- Functionalism, Conflict theory, system theory, and theories of Macro Sociology. All of this theory to analyze the role and influence-fenoemen social phenomenon, such as institutions, social class, social control systems, power, norms and others, who as if from outside myself humans produce pelangsungan or change the community. The theory of Structural Functionalism, or study the impact of structures and functions of social institutions in community life as a regular and stable. Each social phenomena have objective consequences, both positive and negative, whether conscious or not. Analysis of the consequences it may help to understand why-phenomenon phenomenon was maintained, changed or canceled. Lighting principle used is to live together mansuia adaptation to the situation or environment. For example, the phenomenon of social coatings studied so far produce the division of labor, the division of rights and obligations, and division of property, which is necessary for the sake of stability and self-defense community. Conflict theory explains social life by taking the impact of power structures and interest groups as a central issue. Explain the basic principle that social life is dominance of the strong over the weak. The emphasis of living of the people, public opinion manipulation, intimidation, and oppression, is makanisme-mechanism that was supposed to bring "stability". But the community is inherently unstable, because the arena of competition and penabrakan different interests. For example, social coating understood as a result of the domination of the strong objective. Systems theory emphasizes that all social institutions and structures relate to one another, so that changes in one cause changes in other fields. Every social system depends on certain prerequisites such as: membership is always renewed, the ability to achieve its goals, integration, and mechanisms to overcome the internal crisis. Sociology macro look at the whole life of society as a result of a developmental process that runs itself. Theories under the auspices of the social definition paradigm is: The Theory of Action (social action), Symbolic interactionism and phenomenological sociology. Action theory was pioneered by Max Weber. The key to understanding life together in the hands of humans. He thought, and reveals his thoughts into the community. So-called social structures and institutions are not other than human behavior, which either use rational thought, whether using affective or emotional thinking, whether to follow tadisi granted. So the principles of lighting and subject matter is the human mind. Symbolic Interaksinisme prioritize symbolic style as the core of human interaction. Humans who act gives specific meaning to his behavior and mengintepretasi behavior of others by means well. For example, language is not just an empty sound, but a voice full of meaning and means of communication. This applies to the entire analog of human social life. Among the figures can be referred to the Symbolic interactionism: GH Mead (1863-1931), sociologist, sociology of the Chicago school, and Herbert Blumer. Sociological Theory Phenomenology is based on the teachings of Alfred Schuzt, that emphasizes the "intersubjectivity". Just as happens in interpersonal interactions, as well as social groups understand each other, and this allows a mutual understanding of cooperation between them. According to Ritzer, social interaction occurs and lasts through the interpretation and understanding of each action, both among individuals and between groups. (Ritzer, 1980:72). Finally just called a paradigmatic theory of social behavior, namely Exchange Theory with the character George Homans. Exchange Theory (exchange theory) was formulated in five inter-related propositions, namely: a) In any action, the more often a particular action to obtain the reward, the more often people will do that action. b) If in the distant past there was a specific stimulus, or set of stimuli is an event where a person's actions to obtain reward, the more stimuli that are now similar to the last, the more likely that someone did a similar action or somewhat similar. c) The higher the value of an act, then increasingly happy person doing the action. d) The more frequently in the newly passed a person receives a certain reward, then the less valuable for that person every unit increase in the reward. e) If a person's actions do not reap the rewards he hoped for, or accept the punishment that is not desired, then he will be angry: he becomes highly likely to show aggressive behavior, and results of such behavior become more valuable to him. Where the actions of a person who hoped to obtain rewards, special rewards are greater than the dikirakannya, then he will feel happy, more likely he or she will carry out the behavior of his favorite, and the results of such behavior will become more valuable to him. (Poloma, 1984:59-67).