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									       Pollution Prevention and Control
       Northern Ireland


       Guidance for Operators on Odour Management at
       Intensive Livestock IPPC installations




        Version 1
        October 2003




        Information Note: Please note a revised Odour Management Guidance document is currently being
        dev eloped




Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                      October 2003
Installations        Version 1
C ontents                                                                                          2

1   Odour management                                                                               3
    1.1     INTRODUCTION                                                                            3
    1.2     GENERAL PRINCIPLES TO BE FOLLOWED                                                       3

2    Pig production: Overview of odour sources and best practice for odour
control                                                                                            4
    2.1     PRODUCTION AND FINISHING OF PIGS                                                        4
            2.1.1                            Production of pigs                                     4
            2.1.2                            Slurry and manure handling and treatment               5
            2.1.3                            Feed preparation regimes                               7

3   Poultry production : Overview of odour sources and control techniques                          9
    3.1     PRODUCTION OF POULTRY                                                                   9
            3.1.1                                    Broiler chickens                               9
            3.1.2                                    Egg production                                 9
            3.1.3                                    Duck rearing                                   9
            3.1.4                                    Turkey rearing                                10
            3.1.5                                    Collection and storage of manure and litter   10

4   Slurry, manure and litter spreading                                                            12

5   Complaints procedure                                                                           13

APPENDIX 1       TEMPLATE ODOUR MANAGEMENT PLAN                                                    14

APPENDIX 2       THE BEAUFORT SCALE                                                                18




2     Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                 October 2003
      installations
1 Odour management
1.1 Introduction
Most f arms should be able to use straightforward techniques and management practices to prev ent generation of
odour, and/or minimise odour to a lev el which does not cause annoy ance or harm. An Odour Management Plan
is the minimum requirement for IPPC farms within 400m of a dwelling or other sensitive receptor such as
a school, or where there is an odour complaint history.


  Premises which are likely to be annoy ed or harmed by odour are generally described as RECEPTORS.


Many of the IPPC requirements giv en in the Standard Farming Installation Rules and Guidance will minimise the
generation of odour. The Odour Management Plan will ref ine these techniques to minimise odour annoy ance in
y our local situation.

Where the f arm is more distant from receptors, the Odour Management Plan may be brief. Where there are
dwellings close to the f arm, or the farm is engaged in highly odorous activ ities such as the production of swill,
more detail will be required.

Where odour continues to cause annoy ance, the Inspector may apply odour conditions to your permit. It is
theref ore in y our interest to ensure that the Odour Management Plan is comprehensiv e, and that it is adhered to
by all those employed at the farm.



1.2          General principles to be followed

 It is best first to:

 1.       Prevent generation of odour by good design and use of "clean technology "

Then if necessary

 2.       Reduce/minimise odour emissions to a lev el that does not cause annoy ance or harm in the community,
          by operating the best operational techniques and management practice.

 3.       Contain the odorous air and abate to an appropriate standard in order to meet the above conditions


  In practical terms f or an existing farm this requires an Odour Management Plan. Where this does not provide
  a suitable lev el of control it will need to be supplemented with "end-of -pipe" abatement equipment to contain
  odorous air and treat odours before release to the atmosphere.

  For a new farm or an extension to an existing one, good design or redesign of buildings to prevent or minimise
  odour is preferable to relying on ‘end-of -pipe’ technology to clean up afterwards.




      Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                          October 2003                     3
      installations
2 Pig production: Overview of odour sources and best
  practice for odour control

This section describes the range of odour sources that can be associated with intensive pig installations; the
areas considered in the production and f inishing of pigs are:

•        Production of pigs.
•        Slurry and manure handling and treatment.
•        Feed preparation regimes.

For each of the abov e activ ities techniques f or prev enting and mitigating the odour are described.


2.1 Production and finishing of pigs

2.1.1 Production of pigs

Odour emissions - Pig Production
The housing of pigs giv es rise to signif icant emissions of odour and ammonia. It is estimated that ov er half the
nitrogen emissions from pig production arise f rom housing. The odour emissions from pig production are
primarily those associated with manure.

Best practice for Odour control - Pig production

The principal source of odour during rearing is generated by slurry and bedding material.

    1.     Odour emissions from the housing can be minimised by keeping the pig pens clean, e.g. by
           continually or frequently removing the slurry. For new buildings in a Standard Farming Installation,
           frequent remov al of slurry is a requirement. Y ou may wish to specify further measures to keep the pens
           clean.




Dirty pens can be caused by a number of factors, for example:

•        Poor management and building design.
•        Ov erstocking or understocking.
•        Poor v entilation design.
•        Wrong pen shape.
•        Poor f loor surf aces.
•        Incorrect construction of pen div isions.
•        Badly sited feeding and watering facilities.

Bedding systems often do not absorb all the excreta produced.


    2.     For new buildings in a Standard Farming Installation, it is a requirement that there is sufficient
           bedding to provide a clean, dry bed.




    3.     If there is a slatted floor, the slats should be cleaned regularly to minimise odour emission, if it
           is well designed and installed, slats should be self-cleaning. Slurry collection channels should
           be emptied frequently because less odour is emitted from fresh slurry. New buildings in Standard
           Farming Installations will be designed to remove slurry to separate storage f acilities. Y ou may wish to
           specify further measures to keep the slats clean.



4            Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                          October 2003
             installations
Vegetation, f or example tall trees, is often said to prov ide some odour control if densely planted, close to and
taller than the f arm buildings. Only a well established woodland is likely to hav e any appreciable effect and it
should be remembered that many trees lose their leaves in winter. Howev er, the psychological effect of
remov ing the odour source from v iew has an effect on the perception of odour and theref ore screening may be
worthwhile.



    4.        The use of trees as an "odour barrier" or to aid dispersion only rarely has any real effect.
              However there can be a psychological effect in terms of a reduction in the perceived level of
              odour. Farmers may wish to consider such a barrier.



Animal carcasses can be a source of odour if not removed regularly.


    5.        Dead animals should be disposed of via an appropriate route as soon as practicable. If
              carcasses need to be stored prior to disposal, they should be kept in plastic bags or a lidded
              bin. In the event of odour problems a refrigerated storage facility should be made available.



In most cases, attention to housekeeping and good operational practices should be capable of achieving a
signif icant reduction in the level of odour at sensitive receptors. In cases where all reasonable measures hav e
been taken and have not succeeded in reducing emissions to the point where the exposure of sensitive receptors
(local residents) is acceptable then f urther measures may be required. This requires odour to be contained at
source and extracted to the abatement system with minimum f ugitiv e losses. Biofilters or absorption "scrubber"
sy stems (chemical or biological) are the fav oured choice because of their effectiv eness and ease of operation.
Such measures could be incorporated into the Odour Management Plan. If the plan remains ineffectiv e, the
Inspector may add odour conditions to y our permit.




2.1.2 Slurry and manure handling and treatment

Odour emissions - Slurry & Manure Handling
•        Odour emissions increase when slurry is collected and stored in anaerobic conditions.
•        When using aerobic treatment methods odour reductions and overall control is better when the solid content
         is reduced.
•        For effectiv e treatment by aerobic or anaerobic operation, effective design, maintenance and operation are
         important f or optimum perf ormance.



Summary of Best practice for Odour Control - Slurry & Manure Handling
Good housekeeping practices should be implemented.            This often produces noticeable results f or v ery little
outlay , requiring primarily a common sense approach.

    1.      Roadways, yards and other areas should be kept free of slurry or manure. Minimising the
            amount of material exposed will reduce the odour emission. Standard f arming installations must
            keep areas around buildings slurry build up of manure and slurry. This measure location of receptors
It may be possible to locate manure or free of storage areas sensibly by taking account of should be sufficient
and prev ailing wind direction.rom this source.
            to prev ent odour f




    2.        Manure storage areas and any material separated from the slurry or any straw based manure
              should be stored as far away as possible from residential areas.




         Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                          October 2003                  5
         installations
Anaerobic breakdown (unless deliberately induced as a method of treatment) is highly odorous and should be
prev ented by avoiding stagnation of wastes.


    3.     Slurry and manure should be removed frequently from collection pits and at least every 3
           days. If allowed to collect for more than 5 days anaerobic conditions will prevail, increasing
           odour generation and making slurry harder to separate. This will be a requirement for new
           Standard Farming Installations




    4.     The presence of oxygen is essential to the composting process and to prevent odorous
           anaerobic breakdown. Manure should be stored in narrow windrows no longer than 10-15m
           long and no taller than 3m high to assist composting. A method of collecting any run-off
           from the store should be provided.




Slurry management

    5.     Exposed slurry stores should not be located close to residential areas. Where practicable
           exposed surfaces should be covered with a floating cover or lidded to minimise the odour
           emissions emitted.

           The solid content of the slurry store may be reduced using a separation stage. With less solid
           material present the need for stirring is reduced.

           Milk, whey or silage effluent should not be added to the slurry if there is a risk of causing
           odour problems as a result of the location of the slurry store or treatment tanks, or from the
           spreading of the manure. Wherever appropriate, silage effluent should be stored separately
           from slurry and manure.



Slurry treatment



    6.     If an aerobic or anaerobic system is employed to reduce the odour emission it should be
           capable of handling all the arising from the process and should be operated according to the
           manufacturers instructions

           When using aerobic treatment methods odour reductions and overall control is better when
           solid content is reduced.

           Monitoring should be undertaken in accordance with the supplier’s instructions to ensure
           that the appropriate conditions are maintained, particularly in the case of aerobic digestion



    7.     Additives to mask or counteract odour are rarely effective and should not be used without
           prior consultation with the Inspector.



In most cases, attention to housekeeping and good operational practices should be capable of achieving a
signif icant reduction in the level of odour at sensitive receptors. In cases where all reasonable measures hav e
been taken and have not succeeded in reducing emissions to the point where the exposure of sensitive receptors
(local residents) is acceptable then f urther measures may be required. This requires odour to be contained at
source and extracted to the abatement system with minimum f ugitiv e losses. Biofilters or absorption "scrubber"
sy stems (chemical or biological) are the fav oured choice because of their effectiv eness and ease of operation.
Such measures could be incorporated into the Odour Management Plan. If the plan remains ineffectiv e, the
Inspector may add odour conditions to y our permit.




6        Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                         October 2003
         installations
2.1.3 Feed preparation regimes

Odour emissions - Swill boiling and rendering

The emissions from swill boiling and rendering are highly odorous. Where such activities take place on the farm,
the Odour Management Plan will hav e to consider the measures to be taken to prevent, minimise and abate
odour in some detail. Where the process has a history of complaints the Inspector may add site-specific
conditions to the permit.

Summary of Best practice for Odour Control - Feed preparation overview

To minimise the impact of odours f rom swill boiling and rendering operations suitable odour abatement systems
should be used for:

•        incondensible gas from process v essels.
•        v entilation gas f rom raw material storage vessels and areas.
•        v entilation gas f rom process areas.

The incondensible gas flow rate is low and the intensity is high, but it will v ary throughout a cooking cycle. This
ty pe of incondensable gas stream is best treated by thermal oxidation. Thermal oxidation can be achieved using
a dedicated dev ice or by using the steam raising boiler. Whichev er dev ice is chosen the equipment should be
operated to ensure that all incondensible gases are completely oxidised. This can require the steam boiler to be
operated at an increased f iring rate, even though the steam is not required, which may add to running costs.

    1.         An appropriate odour abatement technique will be required to treat the process gas prior to
               discharge to atmosphere. In the case of rendering operations the Department of the
               Environment’s guidance note NIPG6/1 The Processing of Animal Remains and By Products
               should be consulted.



The v entilation gas f low rate will be high and the intensity of the odour moderate but it will vary depending on the
time of year, temperature and raw materials being processed. A well designed chemical scrubber or biof ilter
should be used to control the building ventilation emissions. When designing and operating an abatement
sy stem ensure:

(a)      Extraction volumes are minimised. The cost of abatement is proportional to the gas flow rate. Gas v olume
         can be minimised by:

         •   the process being housed in as small a building as practicable.
         •   ensuring the integrity of the building is sound, with no lose or holed cladding sheets, or gaps between
             the cladding sheets and floor or roof.
         •   ensuring access doors are kept closed using self closing dev ices
         •   ensuring held space f rom storage tanks is discharged directly to the odour abatement system.

(b)      The abatement system is maintained and operated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

          For a chemical scrubber this should include maintaining:
         •   pH and redox values at the correct lev el;
         •   Liquid lev el in the scrubbing tower;
         •   Liquid f low f or recirculated liquids and chemical dosing;
         •   Fan operation.

For a biofilter this should include maintaining:
    •    Filter medium being kept moist;
    •    Remov al of any compound toxic to micro-organisms;
    •    The f ilter integrity by avoiding cracks or fissures;
    •    Fan operation.




         Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                         October 2003                   7
         installations
    2.    An appropriate abatement technique will be required to treat the ventilation air prior to
          discharge to the atmosphere. In the case of rendering operations the Department of the
          Environment’s guidance note NIPG6/1 The Processing of Animal Remains and By Products
          should be consulted.



House keeping and good management practice


    3.    Good housekeeping and attention to removal of wastes (in covered containers) is an important
          aspect of odour control, as is stock control and avoidance of storage for more than a few hours
          unless refrigerated storage is available. Material should not be stored outside.




8        Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                  October 2003
         installations
3 Poultry production : Overview of odour sources and
  control techniques

This section describes the range of odour sources that can be associated with intensive poultry installations; the
areas considered in the production of poultry are:

•   Broiler chickens.
•   Egg production.
•   Duck rearing.
•   Turkey rearing.
•   Collection, storage and disposal of manure and litter.

For each of the abov e activ ities techniques f or prev enting and mitigating the odour are described.



3.1 Production of Poultry
3.1.1 Broiler chickens

Odour emissions - Broiler Chickens
The principal source of odour emission f rom broiler production comes from the rearing building and is mainly
caused by the breakdown of excreta. Other sources of odour are from waste f ood spilt onto the floors, the scent
glands of the animals and the animal f eeds. The odour emission rate is heavily dependent on the moisture
content of the litter. The moisture content of the litter can be affected by:

•    Drinker ty pe and management
•    Poor env ironmental management: poor fan control and insulation
•    Nutrition: ingredients causing increased water usage (e.g. salt, v egetable proteins, barley (without
     enzy mes), molasses.
•    Health factors: e.g. malabsorption syndrome, infectious bursal disease, bacterial infections etc.
•    Poor quality and/or excess proteins: some meals, poorly processed v egetable proteins, excess amino acids.

Feeds that contain certain oils and animal fats are poorly absorbed by the birds and can result in greasy manure,
causing capping of the litter and odour production.

The odour emission from a building is dependent on particulate (dust) emission. Research suggests that
remov ing the dust f rom an odorous stream reduces the odour concentration by about 65%.

Some odour will arise from the cleaning and disinf ection of sheds, f rom the remov al of accumulated manure and
litter, and also from f umigants used.


3.1.2 Egg production

Odour emissions - Egg Production
Odour emissions f rom egg production differ significantly f rom broiler production. The two main ty pes of system
are caged and barn/free range. Newer caged systems which incorporate manure drying will emit less odour than
an older system, or barn and f ree range systems. In free-range systems in particular, odour emissions may be
higher because it is difficult to control the atmosphere inside the house. In many systems manure remains in or
under the housing for the length of the production cycle. If there is no method of dry ing such manure, anaerobic
conditions may develop, contributing to increased odour emissions.

Some odour will arise as a result of cleaning and disinfection of sheds, from the removal of accumulated manure
and litter and also from f umigants.

3.1.3 Duck rearing




    Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                               October 2003              9
    installations
Odour emissions - Duck Rearing
No published odour emission data are av ailable f or duck rearing processes.


3.1.4 Turkey rearing

Odour emissions - Turkey Rearing
Ty pes and sources of emission will be similar to those f rom broiler production.



3.1.5 Collection and storage of manure and litter


Odour emission - Manure handling
Odour emissions will arise during the remov al of litter from houses, howev er the duration will be short (ca. 1 day
per house). The lev el of the emission will be the meteorological conditions during clean out and the state of the
litter.

During storage the level of odour emission will increase if the manure and litter gets wet.


Best Practice for Odour Control - Poultry Production

Odours f rom poultry sheds come f rom a number of sources. They are mainly caused by the breakdown of f aeces
and urine. Other sources of odour are from waste f ood spilt onto floors, the scent glands of animals and animal
f eed. A major means of minimising odour emissions is through the use of good agricultural practice. The DARD
Code of Good Agricultural Practice For The Prev ention of Pollution of Air and Soil (chapter 2)) prov ides some
guidelines on reducing odours from liv estock buildings, manure and slurry stores, and when spreading organic
wastes. DEFRA has produced a more comprehensiv e guide “The Air Code” : Code of Good Agricultural Practice
f or the Protection of Air . This Code of Practice adv ises that the following f actors contribute to the emission of
odours f rom poultry sheds:

•     the build up of slurry or manure on concrete around buildings;
•     the removal and disposal of dead animals;
•     the maintenance of drains;
•     the cleanliness of bedding;
•     the management of drinking systems, with particular emphasis on frequently adjusting nipple and drip cups to
      bird ey e level to avoid spillage and wet litter;
•     the stocking density;
•     the moisture content of the litter ;
•     the insulation of the buildings and the long term maintenance of that insulation;
•     the v entilation and heating system;
•     the type of heating;
•     the composition of the feed, particularly its oil and fat content and its protein content;

The housekeeping practices at a well run poultry operation should take these factors into account as part of their
day to day management/operation of a site. In practice, to improv e the operation of a site, the operator may need
to:


     1.      Fine tune daily management of drinking system to ensure that all litter is kept dry i.e.
             moisture content is less than 40%. Nipple drinkers and drip cups (operate on demand) should
             be used in preference to bell drinkers (always full of water) and they should be sited at the
             correct height to minimise spillage. Where this cannot be maintained end-of-pipe abatement
             will probably be required. Standard farming installations are required to manage litter to keep it as
             dry and friable as possible.




10         Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                          October 2003
           installations
       2.       Investigate the options for increasing the initial depth of litter. A depth maintained at 10-15 cm
                should be sufficient to absorb the moisture loading.




       3.       Investigate the minimum ventilation and heating requirements. Ideally buildings should be
                heated by indirect firing systems. Direct-fired gas or oil heaters introduce extra moisture into
                the buildings.



       4.       Optimise feeding regimes. Using low crude protein feeds to minimise excretion of uric acids
                and substituting essential amino acids will reduce the ammonia emission. Feeds containing
                oils and fats that are poorly absorbed should be avoided so that ‘capping’ of the litter does
                not occur. The use of feed to reduce ammonia and odour emissions is currently being
                investigated.



       5.       Improve clean and dirty water management systems by:

                •    Maintaining drains and concrete areas.
                •    Rapid disposal of any slurry material generated when buildings are cleaned out at the
                     end of the cycle.
                Rules for standard f arming installations will ensure effectiv e management of y ard areas and
                drainage.




       6.       Ensure dust deposits around ventilation discharge points are cleared on a regular basis to
                prevent excessive build up. Minimising dust production through good housekeeping and
                animal husbandry would be cost effective, in addition to the obvious welfare benefits. Rules
                f or standard farming installations will ensure that dust is collected or removed




       7.       Litter removed from the buildings at the end of the production cycle should be stored dry.
                The storage area should be stored away from residential areas.




       8.       Dead animals should be disposed of via an appropriate route as soon as practicable. If
                carcasses need to be stored prior to disposal, they should be kept in plastic bags or a lidded
                bin. In the event of odour problems. a refrigerated storage facility should be made available.



Good practice in egg production:


         9.         A belt manure removal system (ideally with forced air drying) should be used to avoid the
                    accumulation of manure from caged layers. This should be operated every 3 days.

                    Where manure falls directly into a deep pit, ventilation of the pit should be provided to keep
                    the manure dry.
                    New buildings on a Standard Farming Installation must be designed and operated on these
                    principles.

In most cases, attention to housekeeping and good operational practices should be capable of achieving a
signif icant reduction in the level of odour at sensitive receptors. In cases where all reasonable measures hav e
been taken and have not succeeded in reducing emissions to the point where the exposure of sensitive receptors
(local residents) is acceptable then f urther measures may be required. This requires odour to be contained at
source and extracted to the abatement system with minimum f ugitiv e losses. Biofilters or absorption "scrubber"




    Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                           October 2003                 11
    installations
sy stems (chemical or biological) are the fav oured choice because of their effectiv eness and ease of operation.
Such measures could be incorporated into the Odour Management Plan. If the plan remains ineffectiv e, the
Inspector may add odour conditions to y our permit.


4 Slurry, manure and litter spreading
Odour emissions – Slurry, Manure and Litter Spreading
Odours released f rom animal manure or slurry spreading activities are one of the most frequent sources of odour
complaints. During spreading, odours can be detected from between 1000 to 3000 metres from the f ield.
Sev eral f actors affect the amount of odour emitted during and after slurry or manure spreading, these include:

•    Whether the material contains waste milk or silage effluent (increases the amount of odour released).
•    Method of storage.
•    Length of storage.
•    Pre-treatment method employed (if any).
•    Ty pe of spreading equipment used.
•    Rate of application to land.
•    Weather.

Spreading techniques

•    Band spreaders discharge slurry at ground lev el through a series of trailing pipes. Measurement shows an
     odour reduction of 55-60% when compared to conventional splash plate spreaders.
•    Shallow channel application, uses a mechanism to make grooves 50-70mm deep in the soil, 200-300mm
     apart and the slurry is directed into the channel immediately behind the cutting blade. Measurement shows
     an odour reduction of 55-60% when compared to conv entional splash plate spreaders.
•    Shallow injection, slurry is applied at a depth of 50-80mm in groov es 250-300mm apart. The grooves are
     closed again by press wheels or discs. The amount of odour emitted is approximately 85% less than for
     conv entional spreaders.
•    Deep injection, applies slurry at a depth of 120-300 mm in the soil using injector times, spaced about
     500mm apart. The amount of odour emitted is about 85% less than f or conventional spreaders.

     Odour lev els arising f rom different spreading techniques can vary with spreading method and burial
     technique. The data shows that although low trajectory spreaders reduce the initial odour impact at the time
     of spreading, the odour problem remains after spreading. Hence burial or injection of manure/slurry
     achiev es a substantial reduction in odour emission. Standard Farming Installations will be required to band-
     spread or inject slurry, or to incorporate it within 6 hours. Manure must be incorporated within 24 hours.

In summary:

1.   Odour emissions are lower when slurry discharge is at ground level, use of high trajectory splash
     plates should be avoided.
2.   The duration of the odour emission is longest when the slurry remains on the soil. The length of
     odour event will be reduced by immediate injection or soon afterwards using tillage equipment.
3.   Odour emissions and intensity are higher if the slurry is untreated when spread.


Summary of Best practice for Odour Control - Slurry & Manure Spreading
To minimise the odour emissions generated by slurry and manure spreading, the following methods should be
adopted:

Use of best practice for spreading


     1.        Band spreaders and injectors have been shown to minimise the generation of odour
               whilst spreading by as much as 55 to 85% when compared to conventional splash plate
               spreaders.

               When spreading on bare land lightly cultivate the land (e.g. by ploughing or harrowing)
               after surface spreading to mix in the slurry.
               This is a requirement for Standard Farming Installations.




12        Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                        October 2003
          installations
Sympathetic timing and location of spreading


     2.         Avoid spreading during periods of high humidity and very light winds or clear, still nights.
                During these meteorological conditions there is very little turbulence to disperse the odour.

                When odorous or partly composted manure has to be applied to land do not spread it close to
                houses. Where practicable, it should be spread onto arable land and then immediately ploughed
                in.

                Unless the slurry is band spread, injected or odourless, spreading should be avoided at
                evenings, weekends and bank holidays.



Minimise the odour by treating the slurry or manure prior to spreading


     3.         Manure which has been aerobically composted and slurry which has been treated as per the
                previous section will be less odorous than untreated material




5 Complaints procedure
The existence of a complaints procedure can help the f armer to
-       Improv e relationships with neighbours
-       Identify sources of odour and prevent f uture problems

The complaints procedure should be tailored to y our f arm and y our neighbours, but should contain the f ollowing
elements

1)        A telephone number and specif ic contact (the ‘responsible person’) for making complaints should be
          av ailable
2)        Complaints should be entered into a log with numbered pages
3)        The complainant should be asked to giv e details of
          i)        the time the odour was detected
          ii)       how long it lasted
          iii)      the nature of the odour
4)        The ‘responsible person’ should then, if possible, make a note of
          i)        the conditions at the time the odour was detected, covering wind speed and direction, cloud cover
                    and height, and temperature.
          ii)       the activ ity on the farm at the time the odour was detected
5)        It may be usef ul to v isit the complainant, both to collect more information and f rom a public relations point of
          view.
6)        The reason f or the odour should be inv estigated and a note of the findings added to the log.
7)        The complainant should then be contacted with an explanation.

Following complaints it may be appropriate to rev iew the Odour Management Plan. For example complaints may
relate to spreading at particular times of day. It may be possible to adjust spreading times to prevent f urther
complaints.

The complaints log should be made available to the Inspector on request.




          Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                                October 2003                   13
          installations
APPENDIX 1 TEMPLATE ODOUR MANAGEMENT PLAN

Name of Farmer or operating company:




Address of farm:




Permit number:



Name and job title of person with day-to-day responsibility f or activ ities carried out on the farm: (the “responsible person”)




Approv ed by:




The responsible person undertakes to adhere to the agreed plan at all times. If this cannot be achieved with
respect to a specific ev ent or activ ity, then the responsible person should inf orm the Inspector as soon as
practicable. The Inspector shall be notif ied without delay of any incident or accident, which is causing or may
cause signif icant pollution.


The Odour Management Plan shall be reviewed at least once every calendar y ear. The operator shall notify the
Inspector of any amendments or additions to the plan deemed necessary after any such rev iew. The Inspector’s
agreement in writing is required bef ore any such amendment or addition is made.

Agreed rev iew date:

History of changes:




14       Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                              October 2003
         installations
Complaints procedure
1        Complaints should be passed to the ‘responsible person’ on receipt. The responsible person f or this site
         is


Name…………………………………………………                               Tel no………………………………………

2        Complaints should be logged on the sheet provided and kept in the Complaints Log in the site office


Complaint number………………………………..                                   Date of complaint………………………………….

Complainant details         …………………………………………………………………………………………………

Complainant Tel             …………………………………………………………………………………………………

Details of complaint:
(date, time, nature of odour, any other details)




Complainant visited?                           Y es/No

Weather conditions:

Cloud cover       Ov ercast          Part low cloud      Part high cloud   Clear

Wind direction    …………………………..                Wind speed……………………………………………………..
                                              (see appendix 2 for Beaufort Scale)



Temperature:

On farm activity/ies at the time of the complaint:



Suggested cause of complaint:




Complainant contacted with explanation Yes/No            Date…………………. By whom?……………………..

Need for Odour Management Plan review?                           Yes/No




    Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                            October 2003                 15
    installations
Activities with potential for odour generation (example for sow unit)

Main Activities undertaken                                     How often/length of      How is odour released to the environment? (list release points -
                                                      yes/no   cycle?                   and how many?)
Farrowing                                             Y                                 2 houses each with 4 v ents in the ridge

Dry sows                                              Y                                 Natural ventilation
Weaners                                               Y                                 Automatically controlled naturally v entilated buildings. Monopitch with
                                                                                        one open side.
Finishing pigs                                        N
Other activities

Cleaning of animal housing                            Y        Farrowing                Cleaning and disinf ection
                                                               accommodation monthly
                                                               Dry sows 3 monthly
                                                               Weaners 2 monthly
Slurry/manure removal                                 Y                                 Manure handling
                                                                                        Transport to manure storage
Slurry/manure storage                                 Y                                 Y ard storage of manure/ temporary field heaps
Slurry treatment                                      N
Slurry spreading                                      Y        In accordance with the   Areas identified in the Manure Management Plan
                                                               Manure     Management
                                                               Plan
Manure spreading                                      Y        In accordance with the   Areas identified in the Manure Management Plan
                                                               Manure     Management
                                                               Plan
Storage of carcasses prior to disposal                Y        Daily                    Carcass storage area prior to collection
Carcass disposal                                      N
Animal products rendering                             N
Swill production                                      N
Feed production                                       Y        Daily                    Doorways
Other (specify)




Guidance f or Operators on Odour Management at IPPC                     October 2003
Installations        Version 1
Actions to be taken to prevent or minimise odorous releases (example for sow unit)
For all the release points listed above……..

The emphasis should be on prev ention or minimisation at source and the use of best practice in managing and carrying out odour-generating activities


Release point                                             Action to be taken                                             Comments/contingencies in case of breakdown
Farrowing house vents                                     Keeping housing clean         and removing slurry in           Slurry removed every 3 days by grav ity. Breakdown
                                                          accordance with Standard      Farming Installation rules       unlikely
                                                          section 5.1
Dry sows                                                  Keeping housing clean and     prov iding sufficient straw to   Straw will be topped up if not sufficient. Excessiv ely wet
                                                          maintain a clean, dry, bed.                                    straw in busy areas will be replaced.
Weaners                                                   Keeping housing clean and     prov iding sufficient straw to   Straw will be topped up if not sufficient. Excessiv ely wet
                                                          maintain a clean, dry, bed.                                    straw in busy areas will be replaced.
Other activities

Cleaning of animal housing                                None required.                                                 Cleaning and disinf ection low odour
Slurry/manure removal                                     Slurry and manure to be removed straight to slurry and
                                                          manure store. No manure or slurry to be left on yard.
Slurry/manure storage                                     Slurry to be in covered storage as in Standard Farming         Field heap to be removed within 48 hours if generates
                                                          Installation Rules 5.2.                                        complaint.
                                                          Temporary f ield heaps to be sited downwind of nearest
                                                          receptor.
Slurry spreading                                          Injection
Manure spreading                                          Incorporation within 24 hours. No spreading evenings,
                                                          weekends or bank-holidays.
Storage of carcasses prior to disposal                    Carcasses to be stored in cov ered skip
Feed production                                           Doors closed during operation of the mill                      Low odour, and generally operated overnight.
Other (specify)




         Guidance f or Operators on Noise Management for IPPC installations           October 2003      Version 1                                                     17
APPENDIX 2 THE BEAUFORT SCALE
Y ou can estimate wind speed by observing the effect of wind on your surroundings. Only a general indication is required – odour is more commonly an annoyance in calm
conditions.



FORCE        WIND SPEED                              DESCRIPTION             WIND SPEED INDICATORS
             MPH       KNOTS           KPH

0            <1           <1           <1            Calm                    Smoke rises v ertically
1            1-3          1-3          1-5           Light air               Smoke drift indicates wind direction; v anes do not move
2            4-7          4-6          6-11          Light breeze            Wind f elt on f ace; leav es rustle; vanes begin to mov e
3            8-12         7-10         12-19         Gentle breeze           Leav es and small twigs in motion; light f lags extended
4            13-18        11-16        20-29         Moderate breeze         Leav es and loose paper raised up; flags f lap; small branches mov e
5            19-24        17-21        30-38         Fresh breeze            Small trees begin to sway; flags f lap and ripple
6            25-31        22-27        39-50         Strong breeze           Large branches in motion; whistling heard in wires
7            32-38        28-33        51-61         Moderate gale           Whole trees in motion; resistance felt in walking against wind
8            39-46        34-40        62-74         Fresh gale              Whole trees in motion; twigs break; resistance f elt in walking against wind;
9            47-54        41-47        75-86         Strong gale             Slight structural damage occurs; shingles blow from roofs
10           55-63        48-55        87-101        Whole gale              Trees broken or uprooted; considerable structural damage occurs
11           64-74        56-63        102-120       Storm                   Widespread damage to trees and buildings
12           75+          64+          120+          Hurricane               Sev ere and extensiv e damage




        Guidance f or Operators on Noise Management for IPPC installations          October 2003 Version 1                                                   18

								
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