Home Remodeling Green Building Guidelines by jizhen1947

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 60

									HOME REMODELING

GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES
The Alameda County Waste Management Authority                            Project Team
& Source Reduction and Recycling Board

The Alameda County Waste Management Authority                            Alameda County Waste Management Authority
is a public joint-powers agency comprised of the                         & Source Reduction and Recycling Board
County of Alameda, each of the fourteen cities
within the county, and two sanitary districts that                       777 Davis Street, Ste. 100
also provide refuse collection services. The Authority                   San Leandro, CA 94577
is governed by a Board of Directors made up of                           510.614.1699 tel
elected officials, primarily mayors and city council                     510.614.1698 fax
members, appointed by each member agency.                                www.stopwaste.org
Funding is derived solely from waste disposal and                        Contact: Meri Soll or Karen Kho
waste import mitigation fees collected at the
Altamont, Tri-Cities, and Vasco Road landfill
sites. The agency receives no general tax funds.                         What’s Working

Together with its specialized arm – the Alameda                          57 Acorn Lane
County Source Reduction and Recycling Board –                            Boulder, CO 80304
the Authority offers a wide range of programs in                         303.444.7044 tel
the areas of public education, green building,                           303.444.7013 fax
recycled product procurement, waste reduction,                           www.whatsworking.com
market development and technical assistance.                             Contact: David Johnston


Acknowledgements                                                         Disclaimer

Special thanks to the following building professionals                   The information provided in these Guidelines should be considered by

for their commitment, input and direction in                             contractors, architects and other professionals, as well as owners, in the

developing these Guidelines:                                             course of designing and constructing new or modified structures. They are
                                                                         provided as a public service by the Alameda County Waste Management

Development Committee 2003                                               Authority and Recycling Board in an attempt to provide environmental
                                                                         benefits and reduce costs. The Guidelines are not a substitute for the

Seth Melchert                                                            exercise of sound judgement in particular circumstances and are not

Master Builders                                                          intended as recommendations for particular products or processes.


Michael McCutcheon
McCutcheon Construction Inc.

Dennis and Connie McCullah
Odin’s Hammer

Mercedes Corbell
Mercedes Corbell Design & Architecture

Marc Richmond
Austin Energy




Design: Celery Design Collaborative /Berkeley, CA   Printing: 100% post-consumer recycled paper using soy-based inks.             January 2004
These Guidelines are designed for professional contractors and homeowners

The Guidelines offer:

    • Cost-effective suggestions to minimize construction-related waste, create healthier
      and more durable homes, reduce operating costs for homeowners and support
      local manufacturers and suppliers of resource-efficient building materials.

    • Methods to reduce the impacts of building in Alameda County communities;
      including solid waste management, water conservation, energy efficiency and
      resource conservation.

The practices contained in these Guidelines were selected for their viability in today’s
market and their ability to promote sustainable building. Builders using this booklet
will differentiate themselves in the marketplace while protecting our environment.

The Guidelines were developed through a partnership among local developers, architects,
contractors, green building experts and staff of the Alameda County Waste Management
Authority and Recycling Board.


Agency Involvement

Construction and demolition debris comprise up to 30% of materials disposed in
California landfills. The Alameda County Waste Management Authority and Recycling
Board is working in partnership with the construction and building industry on ways to
reduce this waste stream. Through job site recycling, efficient use of materials, use of
recycled-content building materials and similar practices, the Green Building Guidelines
provide an effective tool to decrease the amount of materials that ends up in landfills.


Construction Waste Generated from a 2,000 Square Foot New Home


      Trash 2.0 tons


      Gypsum 1.7 tons

                                                                      Wood 6.9 tons
      Metals 0.33 tons


      Concrete* 1.2 tons

                                                                 TOTAL 12.91 tons
      Cardboard 0.78 tons



Source: Alameda County Waste Management Authority Case Study of Citation Homes (1999)
* Concrete figure includes waste generated by sidewalk pour.
Table of Contents

1. OVERVIEW OF GREEN BUILDING                                    5

Introduction                                                     6
Benefits of Green Building                                       8



2. GREEN POINTS                                                  9


3. GREEN BUILDING METHODS AND MATERIALS                         14


A. Site                                                        15
B. Foundation                                                  19
C. Structural Frame                                            20
D. Exterior Finish                                             23
E. Plumbing                                                    25
F. Electrical                                                  27
G. Appliances                                                  28
H. Insulation                                                  29
I. Windows                                                     31
J. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)            33
K. Renewable Energy and Roofing                                38
L. Natural Heating and Cooling                                 40
M. Indoor Air Quality / Finishes                               41
N. Flooring                                                    44



4. SUMMARY OF GREEN BUILDING BENEFITS                           46


5. GREEN REMODELING ILLUSTRATIONS                               51


New Addition                                                   52
Second Floor                                                   54
Bathroom                                                       56
Kitchen                                                        58




GREEN BUILDING MATERIALS LISTING             (supplementary insert)
Chapter One:
Overview of Green Building




                                                               INTRODUCTION
This section gives an overview of the basic concepts and

elements of green building. Contractors can use the

Guidelines as a way to describe green building practices

and benefits – highlighting the unique expertise and

services they can provide to the homeowner. Homeowners

can use the Guidelines to gain information on green building

options and to define the objectives of their project.




                                                               5
                                                Introduction

                                                Green building is just applied common sense. To demystify the process and move forward
INTRODUCTION




                                                with your construction project, it is helpful to think of green building as the convergence

                                                of three fundamental objectives:

                                                  1 Conserve natural resources

                                                  2 Increase energy efficiency

                                                  3 Improve indoor air quality


                                                Natural Resource Conservation                           Remodelers have a rapidly expanding range of
                                                                                                        green building materials from which to choose.
                                                Conventional building practices consume large           Recycled-content decking, insulation, reclaimed
                                                quantities of wood, plastic, cardboard, paper,          lumber and other products divert waste from
                                                water and other natural resources that lead –           landfills, while providing quality and durability
                                                unnecessarily – to their depletion.                     that often exceed conventional materials. For
                                                                                                        example, decking material made out of recycled
                                                For example, wood is one of the most common             plastic resins mixed with wood waste fibers can
                                                building materials, but is often used wastefully. We    last up to five times longer than wood decks,
                                                have already harvested 95% of the nation’s old-         and never need to be treated or painted.
                                                growth forests – a trend that simply cannot continue.
                                                Engineered lumber products such as wood I-joists,       Water conservation is another important issue.
                                                wood fiber laminates and oriented strand board,         Wise water usage reduces the strain on resources
                                                utilize fast growing farm trees as an alternative       as well as lowers expenses. Today, remodelers
                                                to old-growth forests. These products can use as        can take advantage of a new generation of high-
GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                little as 50% of the wood fiber to perform the same     efficiency washers, dishwashers, and landscape
                                                structural functions and are typically stronger,        water management systems.
                                                straighter and lighter than solid-sawn lumber.




                                                         GREEN BUILDING TIP          CERTIFIED GREEN BUILDING PROFESSIONALS

                                                         The San Francisco Bay Area chapter of the National Association of the Remodeling Industry
                                                         (SFBA NARI), in coordination with the Alameda County Waste Management Authority, offers
                                                         a comprehensive certification class for California licensed building professionals. The
                                                         class consists of a four session course on how to apply green building methods and
                                                         materials in remodeling. Consumers can locate a Certified Green Building Professional at
                                                         www.sfbanari.com. Building professionals interested in becoming certified can contact
                                                         NARI at 415-982-9200 or visit their website at www.sfbanari.com.


6
Energy Efficiency                                        One of the most common indoor pollutants is




                                                                                                              INTRODUCTION
                                                         formaldehyde, a suspected human carcinogen.
Energy efficiency is a cornerstone of any green          Kitchen cabinets, countertops, shelving and
building project. Generation and use of energy           furniture are typically made from particleboard
are major contributors to air pollution and global       held together by formaldehyde-based adhesives.
climate change. Improving energy efficiency and          The formaldehyde is released into the home for
using renewable energy sources are effective             years after these products have been installed.
ways to improve air quality and reduce the               Many paints and floor finishes also contain
impacts of global warming.                               unhealthy volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
                                                         That “new house smell” is actually the odor of
Improving energy efficiency is also an economi-          these volatile compounds offgassing and is a
cally effective choice for consumers. Lowering           telltale sign that there are harmful chemicals
utility expenses allows residents to enjoy the           in the indoor environment.
financial benefits year after year.
                                                         The building products industry has responded
The first step to increase energy efficiency is to       to these indoor pollution problems by developing
add insulation and weather stripping wherever            alternative paint, finish, and adhesive products.
possible, install double-glazed/low-E windows and        For example, solvent-free adhesives used in
upgrade to high-efficiency appliances. Other energy      flooring and countertops can eliminate many
upgrades/choices include installing solar water          of the suspected and known human carcinogens.
heaters, photovoltaic panels, and purchasing             Paints, varnishes, and cleaners that don’t utilize
“green power” generated from renewable sources           volatile compounds are now commonly available
like the sun, wind and biomass (when available).         from most major manufacturers at costs compa-
                                                         rable to conventional products.
Indoor Air Quality
                                                         In addition to the growing number of readily



                                                                                                              GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
The United States Environmental Protection Agency        available and cost-effective green materials –
(EPA) reports that the air in new homes can be ten       an increasing number of builders and remodelers
times more polluted than outdoor air. According to       are also using natural building materials such
the New England Journal of Medicine, 40% of chil-        as straw-bale, rammed earth, adobe and cob.
dren will develop respiratory disease, in part, due to   While less common in their use, natural
the chemicals in their homes. Poor indoor air quality    building products have a positive impact on the
is caused by the offgassing of chemicals found in        environment as they are renewable and abundant;
many building materials as well as mold and mildew       energy-efficient in production, transport and
that build up in homes due to poorly designed            use; non-polluting; durable and long lasting.
and maintained heating and cooling systems.


         GREEN BUILDING TIP           GREEN REMODELERS GUILD

         Graduates of the NARI Certified Green Building Professional class have formed a new
         trade group called the Green Remodelers Guild. Their mission is to provide continuing
         education in green building practices as well as a forum for discussion of green building
         materials and methodologies. For more information, visit www.build-green.org.


                                                                                                                7
                                                Benefits of Green Building

                                                There are many reasons to build green. These           • Recycled-content ceramic tile
INTRODUCTION




                                                include a concern for the environment, an interest     • Resource-efficient landscapes and gardens
                                                in building more efficiently, health considerations    • 40 year roofing
                                                or a desire to create an environmentally friendly
                                                image for your business. By applying a sustainable     Products and Practices that Provide Greater
                                                                                                       Comfort and Lower Utility Bills:
                                                perspective to design, construction and remodeling,
                                                green building brings the benefits of resource
                                                                                                       Comfort is what drives high energy use. When it
                                                conservation, energy savings and healthy living.
                                                                                                       gets hot, we turn on the air conditioning. By
                                                                                                       increasing the insulation and providing for natural
                                                Each of the features listed in these Green Building    cooling, the electricity demand can be reduced
                                                Guidelines benefit the environment by addressing       with no compromise in occupant comfort.
                                                one or more of the following: resource conservation,   Consider incorporating the following:
                                                energy efficiency, indoor air quality.
                                                                                                       •   Foundation/slab insulation
                                                                                                       •   Increased wall and ceiling insulation
                                                The following is a list of green building features     •   Spray cellulose insulation
                                                that convey the benefits of building green:            •   Advanced infiltration reduction practices
                                                                                                       •   Low-e windows
                                                Higher Quality, Environmentally Sound Products:        •   Hydronic heating
                                                                                                       •   All ducts located in conditioned spaces
                                                Most green building products and materials were        •   Ceiling fans
                                                developed to do something better than their conven-    •   Whole house fans
                                                tional counterpart. These products usually perform     •   Passive solar heating
                                                better and are manufactured in an environmentally      •   Natural cooling
                                                sound manner, thus protecting and restoring our        •   ENERGY STAR® appliances
                                                natural resources. Consider using the following:
                                                                                                       •   Attic ventilation systems
                                                •   Recycled-content decking
                                                •   FSC Certified wood                                 Healthier Products and Practices For Families
GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                •   Engineered lumber
                                                •   Interior steel studs                               What is more important than the health of our
                                                •   Solvent-free adhesives                             children? The public health community has
                                                •   Natural linoleum flooring                          identified homes as one of the most significant
                                                •   Recycled-content ceramic tile                      threats to children’s health. It is only common
                                                •   Flyash in concrete                                 sense to reduce the use of products that are
                                                •   Bamboo flooring                                    known to have health impacts. Consider offering
                                                                                                       the following:
                                                More Durable/Lower Maintenance Products:
                                                                                                       • Low/No-VOC paints
                                                                                                       • Natural linoleum in place of vinyl flooring
                                                Next to quality, durability and reduced maintenance
                                                                                                       • Formaldehyde-free medium density
                                                are very important. There is never enough time to
                                                                                                         fiberboard (MDF)
                                                do what needs to be done and home maintenance
                                                                                                       • Solvent-free adhesives
                                                is never high on the list of how to spend time
                                                                                                       • Water-borne wood finishes
                                                away from work. Consider using the following:
                                                                                                       • Clean ducts before occupancy
                                                •   Fiber-cement siding                                • Exhaust fan in attached garages
                                                •   Recycled-content decking                           • Recycled-content fiberglass insulation with no
                                                •   Exposed concrete flooring                            added formaldehyde
                                                •   Natural linoleum flooring                          • Seal all particleboard and MDF
8
Chapter Two:
Green Points




                                                               GREEN POINTS
When remodeling, it is important to look carefully at the

type of project and incorporate as many green features

as possible. The Green Points is a rating system that has

been developed to offer building professionals and

homeowners a tool to assess how environmentally

friendly or “green” a home is. The items listed on the Green

Points represent a variety of green building opportunities,




                                                               GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
however; not all of them may apply to your project. Each

measure is assigned to a specific category – Resources,

Energy and IAQ/Health – to give you an idea of the

impact of each measure. Although some measures may

fit into more than one category, they have been assigned

to the category where they have the greatest impact.
                                                               WWW.STOPWASTE.ORG




                                                                 9
                                                 Green Points

                                                 Due to the diversity of remodeling project                    with ease of implementation and relative low
                                                 types, assigning a “total points” value to a                  cost. These measures can be used as a starting
                                                 project to be considered environmentally                      point for “greening” your project. You can
                                                 friendly is not feasible. However, 25 measures                download an electronic version of the Green
 GREEN POINTS




                                                 have been highlighted to signify that every                   Points at www.stopwaste.org.
                                                 effort should be made to incorporate them into
                                                 your projects. These items have been chosen
                                                 based up on their impact on the environment
                                                 and the health of the home in coordination



                                                 POINTS PER CATEGORY                                           Available Points             Resources   Energy   IAQ/Health

                                                 A. Site
                                                 1. Recycle Job Site Construction and Demolition Waste
                                                     65% = 1 point; 75% = 2 points; 80% = 4 points             up to 4 Resource pts.

                                                 2. Salvage Reusable Building Material                         4 Resource pts.

                                                 3. Remodel for Mixed Use, Adaptive Reuse, and
                                                     Historic Preservation                                     4 Resource pts.

                                                 4. Protect Native Soil                                        2 Resource pts.

                                                 5. Minimize Disruption of Existing Plants and Trees           1 Resource pt.

                                                 6. Implement Construction Site Stormwater Practices           2 Resource pts.

                                                 7. Protect Water Quality with Landscape Design                2 Resource pts.

                                                 8. Design Resource-Efficient Landscapes and Gardens           4 Resource pts.

                                                 9. Reuse Materials/Use Recycled-Content Materials
                                                     for Landscape Areas                                       2 Resource pts.

                                                 10. Install High-Efficiency Irrigation Systems                2 Resource pts.

                                                 11. Provide for On-Site Water Catchment / Retention           2 Resource pts.
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                                                                               Subtotal from this section

                                                 B. Foundation
                                                 1. Incorporate Recycled Flyash in Concrete
                                                     25% Recycled Flyash = 2 points; Add 1 point for every
                                                     10% increase of flyash, up to 5 points                    up to 5 Resource pts.

                                                 2. Use Recycled-Content Aggregate                             2 Resource pts.

                                                 3. Insulate Foundation Before Backfill                        3 Energy pts.

                                                                                                               Subtotal from this section

                                                 C. Structural Frame
                                                 1. Substitute Solid Sawn Lumber with Engineered Lumber        3 Resource pts.

                                                 2. Use FSC Certified Wood for Framing
                                                     (For every 10% of FSC lumber used = 2 points, up to 10)   up to 10 Resource pts.

                                                 3. Use Wood I-Joists for Floors and Ceilings                  2 Resource pts.

                                                 4. Use Web Floor Trusses                                      2 Resource pts.

                                                 5. Design Energy Heels on Roof Trusses 6” or More             2 Energy pts.




10
POINTS PER CATEGORY                                                  Available Points             Resources   Energy   IAQ/Health

C. Structural Frame (continued)
6. Use Finger-Jointed Studs for Vertical Applications                2 Resource pts.

7. Use Engineered Studs for Vertical Applications                    2 Resource pts.

8. Use Recycled-Content Steel Studs for Interior Framing             2 Resource pts.

9. Use Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs)
    a. Floors                                                        3 Energy pts.
    b. Walls                                                         3 Energy pts.
    c. Roof                                                          3 Energy pts.




                                                                                                                                    GREEN POINTS
10. Apply Advanced Framing Techniques                                4 Resource pts.

11. Use Reclaimed Lumber for Non-Structural Applications             3 Resource pts.

12. Use OSB for Subfloor and Sheathing
    a. Subfloors                                                     1 Resource pt.
    b. Sheathing                                                     1 Resource pt.

                                                                     Subtotal from this section

D. Exterior Finish
1. Use Sustainable Decking Materials
    a. Recycled-Content                                              3 Resource pts.
    b. FSC Certified Wood                                            3 Resource pts.

2. Use Treated Wood That Does Not Contain Chromium or Arsenic        1 IAQ/Health pt.

3. Install House Wrap Under Siding                                   1 IAQ/Health pt.

4. Use Fiber-Cement Siding Materials                                 1 Resource pt.

                                                                     Subtotal from this section

E. Plumbing
1. Install Water Heater Jacket                                       1 Energy pt.

2. Insulate Hot and Cold Water Pipes                                 2 Energy pts.

3. Retrofit all Faucets and Showerheads with Flow Reducers
    a. Faucets (1 point each, up to 2 points)                        up to 2 Resource pts.
    b. Showerheads (1 point each, up to 2 points)                    up to 2 Resource pts.

4. Replace Toilets with Ultra-Low-Flush Models
    (1 point each, up to 3 points)                                   up to 3 Resource pts.

5. Install Chlorine Filter on Showerheads                            1 IAQ/Health pt.




                                                                                                                                    GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
6. Convert Storage to Tankless Water Heater                          4 Energy pts.

7. Install Water Filtration Units at Faucets
    (2 points each, up to 4 points)                                  up to 4 IAQ/Health pts.

8. Install On-Demand Hot Water Circulation Pump                      4 Resource pts.

                                                                     Subtotal from this section

F. Electrical
1. Install Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs)
    (6 bulbs=2 points, 10 bulbs =3 points, 12 bulbs = 4 points)      up to 4 Energy pts.

2. Install IC-AT Recessed Lighting Fixtures with CFLs
    (1 point each, up to 5 points)                                   up to 5 Energy pts.

3. Install Lighting Controls (1 point per fixture, up to 4 points)   up to 4 Energy pts.

4. Install High Efficiency Ceiling Fans with CFLs
    (1 point each, up to 4 points)                                   up to 4 Energy pts.

                                                                     Subtotal from this section




                                                                                                                                      11
                                                 POINTS PER CATEGORY                                                      Available Points             Resources   Energy   IAQ/Health

                                                 G. Appliances
                                                 1. Install Energy Star® Dishwasher                                       1 Energy pt.

                                                 2. Install Washing Machine with Water and
                                                     Energy Conservation Features                                         1 Energy pt.

                                                 3. Install Energy Star® Refrigerator                                     1 Energy pt.

                                                 4. Install Built-In Recycling Center                                     3 Resource pts.

                                                                                                                          Subtotal from this section

                                                 H. Insulation
 GREEN POINTS




                                                 1. Upgrade Wall and Ceiling Insulation to Exceed Title 24 Requirements
                                                     a. Walls                                                             2 Energy pts.
                                                     b. Ceilings                                                          2 Energy pts.

                                                 2. Install Floor Insulation Over Crawl Space                             4 Energy pts.

                                                 3. Install Recycled-Content, Fiberglass Insulation with
                                                     No Added Formaldehyde                                                3 IAQ/Health pts.

                                                 4. Use Advanced Infiltration Reduction Practices                         2 Energy pts.

                                                 5. Use Cellulose Insulation
                                                     a. Walls                                                             4 Resource pts.
                                                     b. Ceilings                                                          4 Resource pts.

                                                 6. Install Alternative Insulation Materials (Cotton, Spray-Foam)
                                                     a. Walls                                                             4 Resource pts.
                                                     b. Ceilings                                                          4 Resource pts.

                                                                                                                          Subtotal from this section

                                                 I. Windows
                                                 1. Install Energy-Efficient Windows
                                                     a. Double-Paned                                                      1 Energy pt.
                                                     b. Low-Emissivity (Low-E)                                            2 Energy pts.
                                                     c. Low Conductivity Frames                                           2 Energy pts.

                                                 2. Install Low SHGC Window Film on Single-Glazing                        1 Energy pt.

                                                                                                                          Subtotal from this section

                                                 J. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
                                                 1. Use Duct Mastic on all Duct Joints                                    2 Energy pts.
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                 2. Install New Ductwork within Conditioned Space                         3 Energy pts.

                                                 3. Vent Range Hood to the Outside                                        1 IAQ/Health pt.

                                                 4. Clean all Ducts before Occupancy                                      2 IAQ/Health pts.

                                                 5. Install Solar Attic Fan                                               2 Energy pts.

                                                 6. Install Attic Ventilation Systems                                     1 Energy pt.

                                                 7. Install Whole House Fan                                               4 Energy pts.

                                                 8. Install Sealed Combustion Furnaces and Hot Water Heaters
                                                     a. Furnaces                                                          3 IAQ/Health pts.
                                                     b. Water Heaters                                                     3 IAQ/Health pts.

                                                 9. Replace Wall-Mounted Electric and Gas Heaters with
                                                     Through-the-Wall Heat Pumps                                          3 Energy pts.

                                                 10. Install 13 SEER and 11 EER or Higher AC with TXV                     3 Energy pts.

                                                 11. Install AC with Non-HCFC Refrigerants                                2 Resource pts.

                                                 12. Install 90% Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) Furnace        2 Energy pts.

                                                 13. Retrofit Wood Burning Fireplaces
                                                     a. Install EPA certified wood stoves/inserts                         1 IAQ/Health pt.
                                                     b. Install/Replace Dampers                                           1 Energy pt.
                                                     c. Install Airtight Doors on Fireplaces                              1 Energy pt.



12
POINTS PER CATEGORY                                               Available Points             Resources   Energy   IAQ/Health

J. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (continued)
14. Install Zoned, Hydronic Radiant Heating                       3 Energy pts.

15. Install High Efficiency Filter                                4 IAQ/Health pts.

16. Install Heat Recovery Ventilation Unit (HRV)                  5 IAQ/Health pts.

17. Install Separate Garage Exhaust Fan                           3 IAQ/Health pts.

                                                                  Subtotal from this section

K. Renewable Energy and Roofing




                                                                                                                                 GREEN POINTS
1. Pre-Plumb for Solar Water Heating                              4 Energy pts.

2. Install Solar Water Heating                                    10 Energy pts.

3. Pre-Wire for Future Photovoltaic (PV) Installation             4 Energy pts.

4. Install Photovoltaic (PV) System
    (1.2 kw = 6 points, 2.4 kw = 12 points, 3.6 kw = 18 points)   up to 18 Energy pts.

5. Select Safe and Durable Roofing Materials                      1 Resource pt.

6. Install Radiant Barrier                                        3 Energy pts.

                                                                  Subtotal from this section

L. Natural Heating and Cooling
1. Incorporate Passive Solar Heating                              5 Energy pts.

2. Install Overhangs or Awnings over South Facing Windows         3 Energy pts.

3. Plant Deciduous Shade Trees on the West and South Sides        3 Energy pts.

                                                                  Subtotal from this section

M. Indoor Air Quality and Finishes
1. Use Low/No-VOC Paint                                           1 IAQ/Health pt.

2. Use Low VOC, Water-Based Wood Finishes                         2 IAQ/Health pts.

3. Use Low/No-VOC Adhesives                                       3 IAQ/Health pts.

4. Use Salvaged Building Materials for Interior Finish            3 Resource pts.

5. Use Engineered Sheet Goods with No Added Formaldehyde          6 IAQ/Health pts.

6. Use Exterior Grade Plywood for Interior Uses                   1 IAQ/Health pt.

7. Seal all Exposed Particleboard or MDF                          4 IAQ/Health pts.

8. Use FSC Certified Materials for Interior Finish                4 Resource pts.




                                                                                                                                 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
9. Use Finger-Jointed or Recycled-Content Trim                    1 Resource pt.

10. Install Whole House Vacuum System                             3 IAQ/Health pts.

                                                                  Subtotal from this section

N. Flooring
1. Select FSC Certified Wood Flooring                             8 Resource pts.

2. Use Rapidly Renewable Flooring Materials                       4 Resource pts.

3. Use Recycled-Content Ceramic Tiles                             4 Resource pts.

4. Install Natural Linoleum in Place of Vinyl                     5 IAQ/Health pts.

5. Use Exposed Concrete as Finished Floor                         4 Resource pts.

6. Install Recycled-Content Carpet with Low VOCs                  4 Resource pts.

                                                                  Subtotal from this section

                                                                  TOTAL                        Resources   Energy   IAQ/Health

        Total Available Points                                    327                            140       130         57

        Points Achieved




                                                                                                                                   13
                                      Chapter Three:
                                      Green Building Methods and Materials
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                      This section provides more detailed descriptions of green

                                      building practices, material applications, as well as the

                                      associated environmental benefits. The items are ordered by

                                      ease of implementation as well as cost effectiveness.




14
A. Site

1. Recycle Job Site Construction         for reuse. There are a number of           4. Protect Native Soil
and Demolition Waste                     licensed contractors that offer
                                         dismantling services to salvage            Description:
Description:                             materials for reuse. Many firms are        Typically, a building site is cleared
Construction waste generally consists    non-profits and will provide itemized      of vegetation and the topsoil is
of wood, drywall, metals, concrete,      donation receipts. Usable items            removed. After building, sod is laid
dirt and cardboard – materials that      can also be dropped off at used            on subsoil, beginning a cycle of high




                                                                                                                             GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
can be reused or recycled if prepared    building material stores. Refer to         water and chemical dependency.
properly. Each year over 300,000         the Green Building Materials Listing.      Ideally, construction is coordinated
tons of construction and demolition                                                 with a landscape professional to
debris is disposed of at Alameda         Benefit:                                   protect the soil, which is a valuable,
County landfills.                        Salvaging reusable building materials      living resource.
                                         decreases disposal costs, saves
Application:                             natural resources and increases            Application:

Identify the types and quantities        landfill capacity. Donations can be        Design for minimum building &
of materials generated at the job        tax deductible.                            hardscape footprints and little or
site and recycle at least 50% of                                                    no grading. Retain native vegetation.
the construction/demolition                                                         Delineate and limit the construction
debris. Contact local recycling          3. Remodel for Mixed Use,                  footprint; restrict heavy equipment
facilities and haulers to identify       Adaptive Reuse, and Historic               that compacts soil, including cars,
terms and conditions required for        Preservation                               to areas that will be paved or built
recycling materials. Allocate space                                                 over. When grading is unavoidable,
for recycling bins and containers.       Description:                               identify areas to be paved as a
Call the Alameda County Recycling        Reusing existing buildings is one          place to store native topsoil during
Hotline 1.877.STOPWASTE for              of the most straightforward ways to        construction. Amend soil with
more information.                        conserve resources. Older buildings        compost and re-spread topsoil
                                         typically feature high-quality materials   after construction.
Benefit:                                 in the structure, doors, windows,




                                                                                                                             GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
Recycling reduces pressure on land-      and finishes. When working with            Benefit:

fills, saves money by reducing tipping   historic buildings, remodelers             Preserving native soils, along with
fees, and provides raw materials for     should also review the Department          nurturing the health of disturbed
future building products.                of the Interior Standards for              soils, can significantly reduce
                                         Historic Preservation.                     storm runoff, reduce fertilizer
                                                                                    and pesticide requirements,
2. Salvage Reusable                      Application:                               improve water quality and conserve
Building Materials                       Many high quality materials found          irrigation water.
                                         in older structures can be left in
Description:                             place or reused. Large timbers,
Various building materials can be        beams, columns, and trusses can
salvaged and reused, such as floor-      be regraded and certified for use in
ing, doors and windows, tubs and         structural applications.
sinks, cabinets, fixtures, etc.
                                         Benefit:
Application:                             The reuse of older buildings conserves
When remodeling, consider salvage        resources, diverts demolition waste
and deconstruction, by selectively       from landfills, and preserves neigh-
and carefully removing materials         borhood character.

                                                                                                                               15
                                                 5. Minimize Disruption of Existing
                                                 Plants and Trees                         Application:                                    Benefit:

                                                                                          Complete a landscape survey to                  Preserving existing, mature landscape
                                                 Description:                             determine the feasibility of preserv-           features helps prevent soil erosion,
                                                 Through careful planning and             ing or relocating mature trees and              maintains existing sources of natural
                                                 construction practices, valuable         shrubs. Fence trees and shrubs for              cooling (e.g. shade from a mature
                                                 trees and plants can be preserved        protection from equipment.                      tree), diverts waste from landfills,
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                 in existing developments and                                                             and keeps the unique character of
                                                 neighborhoods.                                                                           the community.



                                                                              17

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                                                                                                       19
                                                                 14             15

                                                                13
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                                                                                               10
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                                                                                                                                      5                      4
                                                                                                                    9

                                                                                         11

                                                                                                                8
                                                                                                                                           6
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                                                                                7


                                                 1     Permeable paving on driveway       8        Plants selected to match               14 Drip irrigation for vegetable
                                                       and walkway to front door                   the microclimates                         beds, shrubs, trees and
                                                 2     Water from roof channeled to       9        Irrigation controller waters              elsewhere where feasible.
                                                       rainbarrel.                                 hydrozones according to                15 Raised beds are constructed
                                                 3     Water for wildlife habitat.                 plant needs, soil moisture                from plastic or composite
                                                 4     Lawn in front replaced with                 and weather                               lumber
                                                       low water use native               10       Deciduous trees placed to              16 Compost bin recycles plant
                                                       groundcovers.                               the west & southwest of the               and kitchen debris
                                                 5     Pavers with spaces and low                  house & patio for summer               17 Evergreen windbreak blocks
                                                       water use plants between.                   cooling                                   north winter winds
                                                 6     Diverse plantings with many        11       Repository for leaves to collect       18 Trees not topped but pruned
                                                       California native groundcovers,             under trees as mulch                      properly
                                                       shrubs and trees, but no           12       Mulched paths keep soil                19 Small lawn in backyard where
                                                       invasive species                            covered                                   family will use it
                                                 7     All plants given the space to      13       All plants grouped by water            20 Integrated pest management
                                                       grow to their natural size                  needs into hydrozones                     used for controlling weeds,
                                                                                                                                             insect and disease pests
16
6. Implement Construction Site                                                   walkways, patios, and driveways.
Stormwater Practices                                                             Install like conventional pavers.
                                                                                 Design infiltration basins, swales
Description:                                                                     and berms to keep water on site.
Stormwater runoff is part of a natural
hydrologic process. However, land                                                Benefit:

development and construction                                                     Allowing stormwater percolation




                                                                                                                           GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
activities can significantly alter                                               reduces the volume of polluted
natural drainage patterns and                                                    water that flows into rivers or the
pollute stormwater runoff.                                                       Bay, while replenishing soil moisture
                                                                                 and local aquifers. Additional benefits
Application:                                                                     include reduction in irrigation
Identify all storm drains, drainage                                              requirements, non-source pollution
swales and creeks located near the       Permeable Pavers                        as well as lower risk of flooding.
construction site, and make sure all
subcontractors are aware of their        storm drains minimizes erosion
locations to prevent pollutants from     and water pollution and protects        8. Design Resource-Efficient
entering them. Train employees not       local creeks, reservoirs and the        Landscapes and Gardens
to dump anything down storm              Bay. For more information, visit
drains. Protect all storm drain inlets   www.cleanwaterprogram.com or            Description:

using filter fabric cloth to prevent     call 888/BAYWISE.                       Conventional landscapes have high
sediments from entering the storm                                                inputs of water and chemicals and
drainage system during construction                                              are often overplanted or planted
activities. Keep materials out of the    7. Protect Water Quality with           without regard for climate and soil
rain, and prevent runoff pollution       Landscape Design                        conditions. This results in excess
at the source. Store hazardous                                                   water and fuel consumption, water
                                         Description:
waste in drums and covered bins                                                  pollution and waste generation.
and contract a company to dispose        Designing landscapes to allow
                                         irrigation and stormwater to soak       Application:



                                                                                                                           GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
of it properly.
                                         into the soil recharges groundwater     Specify plants that are appropriate
Benefit:                                 systems and filters out pollutants.     for the climate and soil; select
Properly managing a gallon of water                                              slow-growing, drought tolerant,
                                         Application:
on site saves money in avoided                                                   preferably California native
engineering costs downstream.            Use permeable paving, which allows      plants. Design with perennials
Keeping pollutants out of the            water to percolate into the soil, for   instead of annuals; choose and




           GREEN BUILDING TIP            COMPOST FRUIT, VEGETABLE AND YARD TRIMMINGS

           Compost is nature’s way of recycling. Turn fruit, vegetable and yard trimmings into a first
           rate soil conditioner. Use compost to replace store-bought soil conditioners. Compost adds
           nutrients and beneficial microbes to soil, improves soil fertility and reduces watering
           needs. Composting saves money by lowering garbage bills, increases the ability of soil to
           hold water, improves soil health, and helps extend the life of our landfills. Contact the
           Alameda County Rotline 510.444.SOIL for more information and discounts on
           compost bins.

                                                                                                                             17
                                                 site trees to reduce building            Application:                             or weather based controllers. Use
                                                 heating and cooling energy. Give                                                  captured rainwater. Group plants
                                                                                          Use salvaged or recycled-content
                                                 plants plenty of room to mature,                                                  by water requirements.
                                                                                          materials for hardscapes (patios,
                                                 reducing the need for pruning.
                                                                                          decks, walkways and driveways)
                                                 Avoid invasive species and hedges                                                 Benefit:
                                                                                          and other landscape structures.
                                                 that require constant shearing.                                                   High-efficiency irrigation systems
                                                 Limit turf to the smallest area          Benefit:                                 dramatically reduce landscape water
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                 that will meet recreational needs.                                                use, and are critical to preventing
                                                                                          The durability of plastic or composite
                                                 Recycle yard trimmings by grass-                                                  disease & minimizing weed growth.
                                                                                          lumber is greater than wood as
                                                 cycling, mulching and composting.
                                                                                          they do not rot, crack or splinter.
                                                                                          Salvaging or buying recycled-content
                                                 Benefit:                                                                          11. Provide for On-Site Water
                                                                                          landscaping products conserves
                                                 Sustainable landscape techniques are
                                                                                          natural resources and strengthens
                                                                                                                                   Catchment / Retention
                                                 in harmony with the local environment
                                                                                          markets for recycled materials.
                                                 and help conserve water, reduce use                                               Description:

                                                 of chemicals, create healthier soil                                               Rainwater is channeled through
                                                 and plants, and increase bio-diversity                                            gutters and downspouts to an above
                                                                                          10. Install High-Efficiency
                                                 in landscape areas.                                                               ground cistern or underground
                                                                                          Irrigation Systems
                                                                                                                                   gravel dry well. Stored water is
                                                                                          Description:                             used for landscape irrigation.
                                                 9. Reuse Materials/Use                   New irrigation technologies apply
                                                 Recycled-Content Materials for                                                    Application:
                                                                                          water to the soil at the plant root
                                                 Landscape Areas                          zones at the rate the soil can
                                                                                                                                   Install wherever there is guttered
                                                                                                                                   roof runoff and room for the cistern.
                                                                                          absorb it, significantly reducing
                                                 Description:
                                                                                          water waste from overspray.
                                                 Plastic or composite lumber makes                                                 Benefit:

                                                 a very durable landscape edging,         Application:                             Water catchment reduces the need
                                                 broken concrete can make a very                                                   to use treated, drinkable water for
                                                                                          Install low-flow drip, sub-surface
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                 attractive retaining wall or path,                                                watering of lawns and gardens.
                                                                                          drip, or low-flow sprinklers in place
                                                 and ground glass cullet can be
                                                                                          of standard sprinkler systems for
                                                 used for walkways.
                                                                                          all landscape applications. Base
                                                                                          watering levels on moisture sensors




                                                            GREEN BUILDING TIP            BAY-FRIENDLY GARDENING: FROM YOUR BACKYARD TO THE BAY

                                                            Create Healthy Landscapes, Build Healthy Soil, and Reduce Waste.
                                                            In the Bay Area, how you care for your garden – from applying fertilizer to planting a lawn
                                                            – affects the Bay. Bay-Friendly Gardening means simplifying garden care, preventing and
                                                            reusing plant waste, and using as few resources as possible. Bay-Friendly Gardening
                                                            builds healthy soils, reduces waste and protects local ecosystems by working with nature.
                                                            Start with some simple steps such as leaving your clippings on the lawn, composting
                                                            your plant trimmings and planting native species in your garden. For a copy of the Bay-
                                                            Friendly Gardening how-to guide, call the compost information hotline – 510-444-SOIL
                                                            or visit www.stopwaste.org.


18
B. Foundation

1. Incorporate Recycled               2. Use Recycled-Content                3. Insulate Foundation
Flyash in Concrete                    Aggregate                              Before Backfill

Description:                          Description:                           Description:

Flyash is a byproduct of coal         Concrete and rubble can be             All foundations, including slab
burning power plants and can be       crushed and used for backfill and      floors, can be insulated to minimize
an inexpensive substitute for a       drainage purposes at the base of       heat loss.




                                                                                                                    GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
portion of portland cement used in    foundations.
concrete.                                                                    Application:
                                      Application:                           Insulate foundation with extruded
Application:                          Use recycled materials for backfill.   polystyrene insulation of at least
Typically, 15-50% of cement can be                                           R-4 (1” or greater).
replaced with flyash in residential   Benefit:

concrete mixes, however, installers   Using recycled instead of virgin       Benefit:

should know that it has slightly      materials saves money and natural      Insulating the foundation minimizes
different curing characteristics      resources.                             heat loss from the floors and
than standard concrete.                                                      basement, reduces energy loss
                                                                             and therefore reduces utility bills.
Benefit:

Flyash increases the strength and
durability of the concrete. Using
flyash also reduces the amount of
cement needed, thereby decreasing
the overall environmental impacts
of cement production.




                                                                                                                    GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                                                                                      19
                                                 C. Structural Frame

                                                  1. Substitute Solid Sawn Lumber          2. Use Forest Stewardship                3. Use Wood I-Joists
                                                  with Engineered Lumber                   Council (FSC) Certified Wood             for Floors and Ceilings
                                                                                           for Framing
                                                  Description:                                                                      Description:

                                                  Solid sawn lumber in sizes of 2x10       Description:                             Wood I-joists are engineered to use
                                                  or greater typically comes from old-     FSC certification assures that the       only the wood fiber necessary for
                                                  growth forests. Engineered lumber        forest from which the wood is            the structural function required.
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                  products, on the other hand, come        produced is managed in an                They typically use oriented strand
                                                  from small-diameter and fast growing     environmentally and socially             board (OSB) for the web and either
                                                  plantation trees. These products         responsible manner.                      laminated veneer lumber or solid
                                                  include gluelams, laminated veneer                                                sawn lumber for the chords (top
                                                  lumber, wood I-joists, oriented          Application:                             and bottom pieces).
                                                  strand board, parallel strand lumber,    Use FSC wood whenever new
                                                  and other manufactured wood fiber        wood framing is required. Certified      Application:

                                                  structural materials.                    framing materials and plywood are        Replace solid sawn lumber with
                                                                                           available at many local suppliers.       wood I-joists for floor and ceiling
                                                  Application:                             Refer to the Green Building              joists. Often they can be used at
                                                  Engineered lumber should be used         Materials Listing.                       19.2” centers to save material.
                                                  whenever structural members are                                                   Specify wood I joists with MDI
                                                  replaced. They substitute for 2x10       Benefit:                                 resin whenever possible.
                                                  and 2x12 in most interior applica-       FSC certification guarantees that
                                                  tions such as the structural framing     forests are managed in a way that        Benefit:

                                                  of floors, walls and roofs.              will assure the long-term availability   Wood I-joists use 50% less wood
                                                                                           of precious woods while protecting       fiber to perform the same structural
                                                  Benefit:                                 old-growth forests.                      function as similar sized solid
                                                  Reducing demand for large dimen-                                                  sawn lumber and will never twist,
                                                  sional lumber decreases pressure                                                  warp or split. They are stronger and
                                                  to cut down old-growth forests.                                                   lighter than 2x10 or 2x12 and can
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                  Engineered lumber uses wood fiber                                                 span greater distances. MDI resin
                                                  more efficiently than conventional                                                reduces the amount of formaldehyde
                                                  lumber, resulting in stronger and                                                 used in the adhesive and improves
                                                  higher quality homes.                                                             indoor air quality.




                                                    Forest Stewardship Council             Smart Wood and Scientific
                                                                                           Certification Series

                                                    The FSC logo on a product provides     These groups verify that forest
                                                    consumers with an assurance that       management is accomplished
                                                    the wood they use comes from forests   according to the FSC program.
                                                    managed in an environmentally
                                                    and socially responsible manner.                                                I-Joists use 50% less wood fiber than
                                                                                                                                    solid sawn lumber.

20
4. Use Web Floor Trusses                    6. Use Finger-Jointed Studs for              7. Use Engineered Studs for
                                            Vertical Applications                        Vertical Applications
Description:

Web floor trusses use solid wood or         Description:                                 Description:

laminated veneer lumber top and             Finger-jointed studs use short               Engineered studs are laminates,
bottom chords that are connected            pieces of 2x4 or 2x6 material                like OSB and plywood, that are used
by wood or steel webbing for                glued together to form standard              in vertical structural applications.




                                                                                                                                 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
structural integrity.                       stud lengths.
                                                                                         Application:
Application:                                Application:                                 Use for interior or exterior wall
Use primarily for long-span floor joists.   Use finger-jointed studs (graded             applications except where pro-
                                            equivalent to full dimensional               hibited by seismic codes. They
Benefit:                                    studs – 1997 UBC Standard,                   are particularly appropriate for tall
Web trusses eliminate waste since           Chapters 23 and 35) wherever                 cathedral wall applications.
they are made to order. They reduce         conventional studs are typically used,
the pressure on old growth forests          in vertical applications. Use of finger-     Benefit:

by replacing 2x10s and 2x12s                jointed studs may require code               Engineered studs are straighter
traditionally used for floor joists.        approval by your local jurisdiction,         than conventional studs and will
                                            and may need to be submitted to              not deform, twist, split or warp.
                                            the structural engineer of record            They save wood by using small
5. Design Energy Heels on Roof              for approval.                                laminated pieces.
Trusses 6” or More
                                            Benefit:
Description:                                Finger-jointed studs reduce the use
Energy heels raise the height of            of solid sawn wood studs. They are
the truss at exterior wall top plates       straighter and stronger than solid
to accommodate increased insula-            sawn studs, eliminating crooked
tion at the perimeter of the house.         walls and reducing material waste.




                                                                                                                                 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
Application:                                                                        ventilation baffle

Install where conventional trusses
are used for an addition. An energy
heel needs to be specified when                        Standard Heel Height
                                                       less than 4” for a
ordering roof trusses. The increased                   4/12 pitch
height may require modifications                                                                    compressed
to exterior soffit and trim details.                                                                insulation
                                                                                                    in this area

Benefit:

The perimeter intersection between
walls and roof framing is often an
area of increased heat loss since
conventional trusses reduce insula-                    Energy Heel
tion to less than the required depth.
Raising the heels allows for full
insulation around the house, saving
energy dollars.
                                            Energy Heels on Trusses Allow More Insulation

                                                                                                                                   21
                                                 8. Use Recycled-Content Steel             Benefit:                                     11. Use Reclaimed Lumber for
                                                 Studs for Interior Framing                SIPs are more energy-efficient, provide      Non-Structural Applications
                                                                                           excellent soundproofing and reduce
                                                 Description:                                                                           Description:
                                                                                           infiltration relative to frame construc-
                                                 Steel studs can be either stand-          tion. They can be erected quickly,           High quality dimensional lumber in
                                                 alone or provide a “c” channel over       allowing for faster construction. They       long lengths can often be salvaged
                                                 wood stud pieces. Steel contains          save wood by eliminating much of             from old buildings that are being
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                 up to 95% recycled-content. Steel         the conventional framing lumber.             deconstructed or salvaged.
                                                 contains high recycled-content,
                                                 which typically increases in                                                           Application:

                                                 proportion to the steel’s thickness.                                                   Use reclaimed lumber for non-
                                                                                                                                        structural applications, in place of
                                                 Application:                                                                           new material. For structural applica-
                                                 For use in interior walls.                                                             tions, look for reclaimed lumber
                                                                                                                                        that is engineer-stamped and graded.
                                                 Benefit:

                                                 Steel reduces the need for wood                                                        Benefit:

                                                 and provides strong interior walls.                                                    Reclaimed lumber from decon-
                                                                                                                                        structed buildings reduces resource
                                                                                                                                        consumption and landfill deposits.
                                                                                                                                        Reclaimed lumber is often of higher
                                                                                                                                        quality than new lumber.
                                                                                           Construction using SIPs



                                                                                           10. Apply Advanced Framing                   12. Use Oriented Strand Board
                                                                                           Techniques                                   (OSB) for Subfloor and Sheathing
                                                 Steel Studs
                                                                                           Description:                                 Description:
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                                                           Advanced framing involves using              OSB is manufactured from fast
                                                 9. Use Structural Insulated               wood to its maximum structural               growing farm trees. OSB comes in
                                                 Panels (SIPs)                             potential. For a comprehensive               sheets and is used for sheathing
                                                                                           overview, visit www.nrdc.org.                and subfloors.
                                                 Description:

                                                 SIPs are high-performance, load-          Application:                                 Application:

                                                 bearing panels that consist of a core     Advanced framing includes: framing           Use OSB as an alternative to plywood
                                                 of foam insulation with OSB on either     exterior and interior walls 24" on center,   for sheathing or subfloors.
                                                 side. SIPS can be used for floors,        2 stud corners, ladder blocking at wall
                                                 walls and roofs in residential build-     partitions, stacking trusses over studs      Benefit:

                                                 ings. They are generally R-4 per inch.    and other wood saving strategies.            OSB is as strong as traditional
                                                                                                                                        plywood sheet material and is less
                                                 Application:                              Benefit:                                     expensive. OSB reduces the need
                                                 Use SIPs for structural exterior          Advanced framing saves up to 20%             for large diameter old-growth trees
                                                 walls and roofs in place of stick         on wood and framing labor costs and          required for plywood. Some OSB
                                                 framing. SIPs can be designed to          makes the home more energy efficient         uses lower formaldehyde content
                                                 meet seismic Zone 4 requirements.         by allowing for a higher percentage          adhesives which contribute to a
                                                 Note: It’s important to seal the joints   of the wall to be insulated, reducing        healthier indoor air quality.
                                                 well, to avoid water penetration.         frame conduction heat loss.

22
D. Exterior Finish

1. Use Sustainable Decking Materials                                                    2. Use Treated Wood That Does
                                                                                        Not Contain Chromium or Arsenic
A. Recycled-Content Decking                    B. Forest Stewardship Council            for Decking and Sill Plates
                                               (FSC) Certified Wood Decking
Description:                                                                            Description:

There are two types of recycled-               Description:                             Alkaline Copper Quaternary (ACQ)
content decking: plastic lumber                Certified, sustainably harvested         (commonly sold as ACQ Preserve)




                                                                                                                                  GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
and composite lumber. Recycled                 lumber comes from forests                and Copper Boron Azole (CBA)
plastic lumber contains only                   managed in an environmentally            (commonly sold as Wolman Natural
recycled plastic resins, while                 and socially responsible manner.         Select) are alternative treated woods
composite lumber is made by                                                             that do not contain chromium – a
combining recycled wood fiber and              Application:                             heavy metal – and arsenic, which
recycled plastic resins that are               Use FSC Certified lumber for all         are detrimental to human health.
then formed into deck boards.                  exterior decking applications or
                                                                                        Application:
                                               as structural deck members in
Application:                                   conjunction with recycled-content        Use non-chromium/arsenic treated
Use recycled-content decking in                decking.                                 wood for any application that specifies
all non-structural deck applications.                                                   treated lumber including decking,
Both products can be used in                   Benefit:                                 fencing, and site furnishings.
place of old-growth redwood,                   FSC certification guarantees that
                                                                                        Benefit:
cedar and pressure treated pine.               forests are managed in a way that
These products accept screws and               will assure the long-term availability   ACQ and CBA use copper as its
nails, and cut like wood. Follow               of precious woods while preserving       main component, and is a healthier
manufacturer recommendations                   old-growth forests.                      alternative to lumber treated with
closely regarding the amount of                                                         chromium and arsenic, particu-
expansion that will occur when                                                          larly for children who play on or
using plastic lumber.                                                                   near decks.




                                                                                                                                  GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
Benefit:

The durability of these materials is
greater than wood, providing cost
savings to the homeowner over
the life of the products. They will
not rot, crack or splinter, do not
require staining and are not treated
with potentially toxic chemicals.
Using recycled-content decking
also reduces pressure on old-
growth forests.




                    Recycled-Content Decking

                                                                                                                                    23
                                                 3. Install House Wrap Under              4. Use Fiber-Cement Siding
                                                 Siding                                   Materials

                                                 Description:                             Description:

                                                 House wrap protects the sheathing        Fiber-cement siding is composed
                                                 from moisture and allows vapor           of cement, sand and cellulose
                                                 from inside to escape and provides       fibers. It is currently available
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                 an effective air infiltration barrier.   available in shingles, planks or
                                                                                          4x8, 4x9, or 4x10 sheets. It is
                                                 Application:                             usually textured to look like wood
                                                 Install house wrap according to          siding or stucco finish.
                                                 manufacturer specifications over
                                                 all sheathing before exterior finish     Application:

                                                 is installed. To provide an effective    Replace conventional wood siding or
                                                 drainage plane for water, it needs       stucco finishes with fiber-cement
                                                 to be lapped and edges should be         siding. This product can be cut with
                                                 taped with manufacturer's tape,          a carbide-tipped saw blade, snapper
                                                 and all flashing elements deep to        shears or with a guillotine cutter. Dust
                                                 be properly installed in shingle         protection and control are required
                                                 fashion. Special products have           when cutting with a circular saw.
                                                 been developed for wrapping
                                                 window and door openings and for         Benefit:

                                                 stucco applications.                     Fiber-cement siding is more
                                                                                          durable than wood, termite resistant,
                                                 Benefit:                                 noncombustible and warranted to
                                                 House wrap provides a continuous         last 50 years. Using fiber-cement
                                                 drainage plane that diverts water        siding reduces the demand for
                                                 away from the stud cavity and            old-growth redwood or cedar siding.
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                 provides an effective air infiltration   It may also reduce homeowner's
                                                 barrier. It can also help reduce         insurance rates due to fire resistance.
                                                 moisture build up in stud cavities                                                  Fiber-Cement Siding
                                                 by allowing water vapor to migrate
                                                 through the material.




24
E. Plumbing

1. Install Water Heater Jacket              Benefit:                                4. Replace Toilets with
                                            Insulated pipes save energy and         Ultra-Low-Flush Models
Description:
                                            water. The water does not need to
Water heater jacket insulation is an                                                Description:
                                            run as long to get hot water to a
insulated wrapper that goes around the      distant faucet, thereby reducing        New high-efficiency toilets use 1.6
hot water tank and is secured in place.     hot water heating costs.                gpf (gallons per flush) or less. Some
                                                                                    manufacturers offer dual flush toilets




                                                                                                                             GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
Application:

Install on existing hot water heaters.                                              Application:
                                            3. Retrofit all Faucets and
For new water heaters, make sure            Showerheads with Flow Reducers          Whenever possible, replace
that installation will not void warranty.                                           existing toilets with a new 1.6 gpf
                                            Description:                            – or less – models. Select a toilet
Benefit:                                                                            from EBMUD (www.ebmud.com)
                                            Flow reducers fit into the aerator at
Jacket insulation reduces heat loss         the tip of the faucet and reduce        pre-tested list to ensure the model
by about 10% and more on older              the rate of water flow through the      actually uses no more than 1.6 gpf
water heaters.                              faucet. Low-flow showerheads            and performs well.
                                            replace standard showerheads.
                                                                                    Benefit:

2. Insulate Hot and                         Application:                            Ultra-Low-Flush toilets reduce the
Cold Water Pipes                            Specify low-flow water conservation     amount of water usage.
                                            devices according to East Bay
Description:
                                            Municipal Utility District’s
Insulating water pipes reduces              (EBMUD) recommendations:                5. Install Chlorine Filter
heat loss or gain in the pipes while        • Kitchen faucets ≤ 2.0 gpm             on Showerheads
the water is standing.                      • Bathroom faucets ≤ 1.5 gpm
                                                                                    Description:
                                            • Showerheads ≤ 2.5 gpm
Application:                                                                        Water filters on showerheads
                                            Limit showerheads to one fixture
Insulate hot water pipes in all runs        per shower                              reduce chemicals and particulates




                                                                                                                             GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
through unconditioned spaces:                                                       from the water stream.
basements, crawl spaces, attics,            Benefit:
etc. At a minimum, insulate both                                                    Application:
                                            Flow reducers can cut water usage
hot and cold pipes at least 6 feet          of faucets and showers by as much       Install the water filter between the
from the hot water heater to prevent        as 40% with little noticeable effect.   pipe and the existing showerhead.
convective circulation from the heater
through the pipes.                                                                  Benefit:

                                                                                    Chlorine is absorbed 6 times faster
                                                                                    through the skin than through the
                                                                                    digestive system. It has been shown
                                                                                    that chlorine absorption can have
                                                                                    adverse health effects on some
                                                                                    people and especially children.




                                                                                                                               25
                                                 6. Convert Storage to Tankless              7. Install Water Filtration Units         8. Install On-Demand Hot Water
                                                 Water Heaters                               at Faucets                                Circulation Pump

                                                 Description:                                Description:                              Description:

                                                 Tankless water heaters (flash or on-        Water filtration units can be installed   An on-demand hot water circulation
                                                 demand heaters) heat water as needed        under counter at individual fixtures      pump can send hot water to fixtures
                                                 rather than having a tank in which          or for the whole house. They reduce       in seconds; without wasting water
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                 hot water is stored. Their capacity to      chlorine and many other chemicals,        while waiting for it to get hot. It uses
                                                 provide hot water is virtually unlimited.   particulates and microorganisms.          a pump to rapidly move water from a
                                                                                                                                       water heater to fixtures. It stops when
                                                 Application:                                Application:                              water reaches a pre-set temperature.
                                                 Install tankless water heater as close      Whole house filters are for drinking
                                                 to the point of use as possible. The        water and plumbing (not for hosebibs      Application:

                                                 device should have a variable-set           or toilets). Install filtration system    Install the pump at the furthest faucet
                                                 thermostat and be appropriately             between the cold water line and           from the water heater. Only one pump
                                                 sized. Gas tankless water heaters           the main drinking water faucets in        is needed to supply hot water to any
                                                 typically have more capacity than           the house.                                fixture and can easily be installed.
                                                 electric tankless heaters.
                                                                                             Benefit:                                  Benefit:
                                                 Benefit:                                    Agricultural run-off, chemical leaching   Both water and energy are saved
                                                 Typical storage water heaters lose          and microorganisms increasingly           since water doesn’t have to be
                                                 15% of their energy through standing        contaminate public water systems          wasted until it reaches the correct
                                                 tank losses, whereas tankless heaters       across the country. House filtration      temperature for use. Hot water
                                                 use energy only for immediate hot           systems reduce the health threat of       arrives to the fixture 5 times faster
                                                 water needs. Tankless water heaters         these contaminants.                       than on average.
                                                 often are quicker and more reliable.
                                                 .
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                  On-Demand Water Circulation Pump



                                                                                                                Cold
                                                                                                                Hot

                                                                                                            “On-demand” Switch




                                                                Water Heater




26
F. Electrical

1. Install Compact Fluorescent             Benefit:                                      Benefit:
Light Bulbs (CFLs)                         Typical recessed fixtures are not             Lighting controls reduce energy
                                           energy efficient because they use             use by having the lights on for
Description:
                                           incandescent lamps, generate signif-          shorter periods of time.
CFLs screw in like conventional            icant heat, and allow conditioned
bulbs but consume up to one-               air to infiltrate out of the house.
fourth of the electricity used by          IC-AT fixtures eliminate the air              4. Install High Efficiency Ceiling




                                                                                                                                 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
incandescent bulbs to produce an           leakage, while compact fluorescent            Fans with CFLs
equivalent amount of light.                lamps stay cool and use less energy.
                                                                                         Description:
Application:
                                                                                         Ceiling fans improve interior
Install CFLs in place of standard          3. Install Lighting Controls                  comfort by circulating cold and
incandescent bulbs. Choose a CFL                                                         warm air. They can be adjusted
that is one-fourth the wattage of          Description:                                  to either draw warm air upward
the incandescent bulb.                     Lighting controls use dimmers,                during summer months or push
                                           sensors and timers to turn lights             it downward during the winter.
Benefit:
                                           off in unused areas or during times
Compact fluorescent bulbs are a            when lighting is not needed.                  Application:
profitable investment, saving                                                            Preferable locations are bedrooms
several times their purchase price         Application:                                  and living rooms where occupants
through reduced electricity bills          Install lighting controls either at           spend time. Ceiling fans must be
and fewer replacement bulbs                specific locations or as a whole              supported adequately between
because they last eight times longer.      house system. Lighting controls are           ceiling joists.
                                           especially applicable for exterior
                                           uses. Dimmable CFLs are available             Benefit:
2. Install Insulation Compatible           at a premium.                                 Ceiling fans can reduce the need
Air-Tight (IC-AT) Recessed                                                               for air conditioning.
Lighting Fixtures with Compact



                                                                                                                                 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs)

Description:

Conventional IC recessed fixtures                                     ENERGY STAR ® qualified compact fluorescent
are not energy efficient because they                                 lighting lasts up to eight times longer than incandes-
use incandescent bulbs and they                                       cent lighting. Save $22 to $65 in energy costs over
                                                                      the life of a compact fluorescent bulb. You'll replace
allow the “chimney effect” to occur,
                                                                      an incandescent eight times to match the life
in which the heat of the bulb and
                                                                      expectancy of a single compact fluorescent.
fixture naturally draws the room’s
conditioned air up through the fixture’s                                      How do you choose the right compact
holes and exhausts it into the attic                                          fluorescent bulb? The following is a
or ceiling/floor cavity. IC-AT fixtures                                       general guide to assist you:
are sealed, eliminating this effect
                                                                                                           Source: www.pge.com
and also allowing for insulation to
be blown on top to keep the heat in.         Existing Incandescent Lamp    Proposed ENERGY STAR®            Savings over the
                                                                           Compact Fluorescent Bulb         life of the bulb
Application:                                 40 - 60 watts                 11 - 15 watts                    $22 - $35
Use IC-AT fixtures with CFLs                 75 watts                      16 - 20 watts                    $43 +
                                             90 - 100 watts                23 - 40 watts                    $52 +
wherever recessed cans are specified.

                                                                                                                                   27
                                                 G. Appliances

                                                 1. Install Energy Star® Dishwasher      Benefit:                                      Benefit:

                                                                                         Horizontal axis machines save resour-         New, efficient refrigerators can
                                                 Description:
                                                                                         ces by using less water and energy.           save over 10% of the total annual
                                                 ENERGY STAR® dishwashers use            They use up to 40% less water and             electrical bill. Check with your local
                                                 water and energy more efficiently.      50% less energy than conventional             utility company for rebate programs.
                                                                                         top loading washers, translating into
                                                 Application:
                                                                                         lower energy and water bills for the
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                 Select ENERGY STAR® dishwashers.        resident. Manufacturers claim that            4. Install Built-In Recycling
                                                 These dishwashers use an internal       there is less wear and tear on clothes        Center
                                                 water heater to boost temperatures      compared to the traditional agitator
                                                 inside the dishwasher. For this         (top loading) machines. Some of the           Description:
                                                 reason, water heaters can be            newer model top loading washing               Built-in recycling centers provide bins
                                                 turned down to 120 degrees,             machines offer water and energy               for separated recyclables and food waste.
                                                 saving water heating costs.             savings as well.
                                                                                                                                       Application:
                                                 Benefit:                               Horizontal Axis Washing Machines
                                                                                                                                       To be most effective and make recycling
                                                 Water-efficient dishwashers are                                                       easy, recycling bins should be built
                                                 also energy-efficient because most                                                    into kitchen cabinets, while stand alone
                                                 energy consumed by dishwashers                                                        units in the garage will also be helpful.
                                                 is used to heat water. ENERGY
                                                 STAR® dishwashers use 25% less                                                        Benefit:
                                                 energy than comparable models.                                                        A built-in recycling center offers an
                                                                                                                                       easy and convenient choice between
                                                                                                                                       the trash bin and the recycling bins
                                                 2. Install Washing Machine with                                                       rather than having to move between
                                                 Water and Energy Conservation                                                         two separately located bins.
                                                 Features                                3. Install Energy Star® Refrigerator
                                                                                                                                      Built-In Recycling Center
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                 Description:                            Description:
                                                 Horizontal axis machines load from      Refrigerators and freezers are among
                                                 the front, spinning clothes in and      the largest users of electricity in
                                                 out of the water to tumble them         most homes. They can account for
                                                 clean. Some newer model top             up to 25% of household energy
                                                 loading washing machines offer water    use. New appliances are much
                                                 and energy conservation features.       more energy-efficient.

                                                 Application:                            Application:
                                                 Select ENERGY STAR® horizontal          Use ENERGY STAR® rated refriger-
                                                 axis and conservation model             ators when replacing old units.
                                                 washing machines.



                                                                                        You will find the ENERGY STAR® label on products that exceed energy performance
                                                                                        guidelines for energy efficiency. If all consumers, businesses, and organizations in
                                                                                        the United States chose ENERGY STAR® products over the next decade, the
                                                                                        national annual energy bill would be reduced by about $200 billion. For more infor-
                                                                                        mation, visit www.energystar.gov.


28
H. Insulation

1. Upgrade Wall and Ceiling                2. Install Floor Insulation Over         3. Install Recycled-Content,
Insulation to Exceed                       Crawl Space                              Fiberglass Insulation with
Title 24 Requirements                                                               No Added Formaldehyde
                                           Description:
Description:                               Insulate and seal floors over            Description:

Insulation in exterior walls and           unconditioned crawl spaces with          Many fiberglass insulation
ceilings can reduce the demand for         R-19 or greater.                         products include recycled glass,




                                                                                                                                GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
air conditioning and heating and                                                    formaldehyde-free binders, no
make homes more comfortable.               Application:                             asphalt adhesives or colored dyes.
                                           Seal all penetrations through the
Application:                               floor, including electrical, plumbing    Application:

A. Wall Insulation                         and ductwork, with expanding foam        When using fiberglass insulation,
Insulate walls of existing wood frame      to prevent migration of air, moisture,   specify recycled-content and no
houses to the capacity of the wall         and mold spores. Install insulation      formaldehyde. This type of fiber-
cavity, exceeding the Title 24 Standard    with vapor barrier towards the floor     glass insulation is installed exactly
for your climate zone by 20%. Wall         (warm side). Protect underside of        as traditional fiberglass.
cavities with existing insulation          fiberglass with inexpensive sheath-
can be blown full of new cellulose         ing or wire mesh materials that act      Benefit:

or fiberglass to increase the density,     as a barrier to vermin.                  Formaldehyde-free binders reduce
thereby increasing the R-value.                                                     indoor air quality problems and
Exterior walls can be wrapped with         Benefit:                                 insulation contains up to 30%
a minimum of 1” (R-4) rigid foam           Improves comfort by insulating the       recycled glass.
to increase R-value if total exterior      floor, protects indoor air quality
refinish is being performed.               from moisture that can grow in
                                           damp crawl spaces.                       4. Use Advanced Infiltration
B. Ceiling Insulation                                                               Reduction Practices
Increase ceiling insulation in
existing structure to exceed Title         Recycled-Content Fiberglass Insulation   Description:
                                           with No Added Formaldehyde




                                                                                                                                GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
24 Standard for your climate zone                                                   Expanding foam and caulk are
by 20%, when possible. Installation                                                 used to prevent infiltration where
is generally intended to be in ceilings                                             wood connections are made or
below attic space, with appropriate                                                 framing is drilled to provide
gable or soffit ventilation. If existing                                            plumbing and electrical runs.
cathedral or flat ceilings are already
insulated, and re-roofing is being                                                  Application:

done at the same time, add addi-                                                    These methods are especially
tional rigid foam insulation on top                                                 important when fiberglass insulation
of the existing roof sheathing.                                                     is installed, since fiberglass does
Special products are available that                                                 little to reduce infiltration. Seal holes
come pre-vented for new roofing.                                                    between floors and between stud
                                                                                    cavities around wire runs. Caulk
Benefit:                                                                            top and bottom plates on all floors.
Increased wall and ceiling insulation
improves comfort, decreases heating                                                 Benefit:

and cooling requirements, saves                                                     Reduction in infiltration increases
money, and makes the home quieter.                                                  comfort and reduces energy bills.



                                                                                                                                  29
                                                 5. Use Cellulose Insulation                                                               6. Install Alternative Insulation
                                                                                                                                           Materials
                                                 A. Walls                                        B. Ceilings
                                                                                                                                           Description:
                                                 Description:                                    Description:                              Advanced insulation materials such
                                                 Cellulose is a highly effective insu-           Dry-blown or loose-fill cellulose is      as spray foam, recycled cotton and
                                                 lation made out of recycled news-               treated with borates for fire and         others are alternatives to conven-
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                 paper. Damp-spray cellulose wall                insect resistance. Cellulose does not     tional products.
                                                 insulation is mixed with low-toxic              contain formaldehyde, which is com-
                                                 binders to adhere to itself and the             mon in many fiberglass insulations.       Application:

                                                 stud and joist cavity surfaces.                                                           Varies per product type. Cotton
                                                                                                 Application:                              comes in both batt and loose fill
                                                 Application:                                    Spread cellulose over ceiling joists or   while spray foam is spray applied
                                                 This installation is intended for               blow into tight cavities to increase      and expands in place.
                                                 new construction or total “gut”                 ceiling R-value. It is important to
                                                 renovation, where existing wall                 maintain attic or ceiling ventilation     Benefit:

                                                 surfaces have been removed to the               pathways, especially in cathedral         Cotton uses recycled-content fabric
                                                 studs. It is not cost effective in              ceiling applications. Avoid excessive     (such as blue jeans trimmings)
                                                 other applications. Avoid damp                  blown-in cellulose behind netting as      while spray foam provides superior
                                                 blown cellulose during wet months               it may make it difficult to achieve       air infiltration resistance. Both
                                                 and install drywall only after testing          flat walls and ceilings with drywall.     types have no added formaldehyde.
                                                 for 25% (maximum) moisture content.             Best to use 5/8" drywall only over
                                                 Use boric acid treatment only;                  dry-blown cellulose insulation. Use
                                                 avoid ammonium sulfate treated                  boric acid treatments only and avoid
                                                 cellulose insulation.                           ammonium sulfate treated cellulose.

                                                 Benefit:                                        Benefit:

                                                 Spray insulation completely fills               Cellulose insulation is fire-resistant,
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                 cavities and penetrations, thus                 manufactured with recycled materials,
                                                 reducing air infiltration. The binder           and has no added formaldehyde.
                                                 in the insulation reduces the                   It also reduces air leakage and
                                                 chance of settling. The cellulose is            contributes to a more comfortable
                                                 treated to retard insects and fire;             and energy-efficient home.
                                                 use boric acid treatment only. Using
                                                 cellulose insulation makes the
                                                 home quieter, more comfortable
                                                 and reduces energy use.




                                                       Loose-Fill Cellulose Insulation (Left),
                                                       Damp-Spray Cellulose (Right).

30
I. Windows

1. Install Energy-Efficient Windows          B. Low-Emissivity (Low-E)                              C. Low-Conductivity Frames
                                             Windows
Windows play a big role in the energy                                                               Description:

efficiency of homes. In the summer,          Description:                                           Most window frames and sashes
they can allow unwanted heat into            Low-E coatings, virtually unnoticeable                 are made of wood, vinyl, fiberglass
the house, and in the winter, windows        to the eye, are installed inside the                   or aluminum. Wood, vinyl and
can account for as much as 25%               air space of a double-paned window.                    fiberglass generally insulate better




                                                                                                                                           GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
of the heat loss. When replacing             The low-E coatings help prevent                        than aluminum frames.
windows, look for models with the            heat from escaping through the
following energy saving features:            glass in winter and block heat from                    Application:

                                             entering the home during summer.                       Consider specifying wood windows
A. Double-Paned Windows                                                                             as standard window packages.
                                             Application:
Description:                                 Use low-E, double-paned windows                        Benefit:

Double glazing insulates almost              whenever windows are replaced.                         Wood windows create greater
twice as well as single glazing.             Check with your local utility com-                     comfort and better energy efficiency
                                             pany for rebate programs.                              and are an environmentally prefer-
Application:                                                                                        able material.
Replace single-paned windows with            Benefit:

double-paned windows whenever                Low–E windows reflect heat, making
possible. Check with your local              the home more comfortable in cold
utility company for rebate programs.         weather and on hot summer days.
                                             The cost premium of 10-15% for
Benefit:                                     low-E glass typically pays for itself
High quality double-paned windows            in a few years. Low-E, double-paned
make the whole house quieter and             glass coating increases glass R-value
more comfortable during all seasons,         to 3 compared to R-1 for single-
while saving energy and money.               glazed windows.




                                                                                                                                           GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
   When replacing windows, use the following as a guide to selecting the most energy efficient windows for
   your climate zone:
                                Albany
                                 Berkeley



                                         Oakland
                               Alameda

                                              ZONE 3
                                                 San        Castro                Dublin
                                               Leandro      Valley
                                                                                                   Livermore
                                                   San Lorenzo                        Pleasanton

     In hot climates (Zone 12)                       Hayward
     choose windows with SHGC and                                    Union City               ZONE 12
     U-factor values of .45 or lower.
     In moderate climates (Zone 3)                       ZONE 3
     make sure that the U-factor                                            Fremont
                                                                Newark
     value is also .45 or lower.


                                                                                                                                             31
                                                 2. Install Low Solar Heat Gain
                                                 Coefficient (SHGC) Window Film
                                                 on Single-Glazing                                                                                                                        5.

                                                 Description:
                                                                                         1.                                                                                               6.
                                                 Low solar heat gain coefficient
                                                 window film reduces solar heat                                                                                                           7.
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                 gain through glass (particularly
                                                                                         2.                                                                                               8.
                                                 during late afternoon and evening
                                                 hours) while still transmitting light
                                                 and visibility.
                                                                                         3.                                                                                               9.

                                                 Application:                            4.
                                                 Reflective film should only be
                                                 used on single-glazed windows.
                                                 Look for a SHGC of less than the
                                                 code requirement of 0.4. Consider
                                                 using on all east or west facing
                                                                                         1. Look for this label as your assurance that      7. The NFRC “rating”, a numerical value,
                                                 windows.                                this window has been independently rated           represents the applicable energy performance
                                                                                         using a procedure established by the NFRC.         characteristic. Residential (or “AA”) and
                                                 Benefit:                                Although other labels may be present, the          Non-residential (or ”BB”) are NFRC size
                                                                                         NFRC label is your best source of energy           designations. Representative test sizes are
                                                 Low SHGC window film reduces            performance information.                           chosen for each product type and identical sizes
                                                 overheating, improves comfort and                                                          are compared among different manufacturers.
                                                                                         2. U-factor is a measure of heat transferred
                                                 can significantly lower the need for    by the entire window (frame, sash and glass)       8. Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) is a
                                                 additional cooling.                     either into or out of the building. A smaller      measure of the solar energy entering the
                                                                                         U-factor will provide a window which is more       building though the entire window. A lower
                                                                                         comfortable on cold days. Try to purchase a        SHGV will reduce air conditioning costs and
                                                                                         window with the lowest U-factor.                   provide more comfort on hot days.

                                                                                         3. Visible Transmittance (VT) is a measure of      9. Air Leakage (AL) is a measure of the
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                                                         the amount of visible light entering the window.   amount of air that can pass through the
                                                                                         Try to select a window with a high VT. It will     cracks and joints in the window assembly.
                                                                                         bring more natural day-light into your home.       The lower the AL, the less air will pass through.

                                                                                         4. NFRC technical procedures by which the          10. Independent Certification and
                                                                                         window was evaluated.                              Inspection Agency (IA) selected by the window
                                                                                                                                            manufacturer. All testing is done by an NFRC-
                                                                                         5. Name of the window manufacturer.                accredited laboratory, and results are sent to
                                                                                                                                            the IA for evaluation. Both laboratories and
                                                                                         6. Manufacturer’s description of the               manufacturers are inspected annually to
                                                                                         labeled product.                                   ensure that NFRC standards are maintained.




                                                                                                                                                                       Source: www.NFRC.org




32
J.Heating,Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

1. Use Duct Mastic on all                  2. Install New Ductwork within            3. Vent Range Hood to the
Duct Joints                                Conditioned Space                         Outside

Description:                               Description:                              Description:

Leaks in the joints between                Ducts in exterior walls, attics and       Steams, gases, smoke and other
ductwork allow conditioned air to          in uninsulated spaces lose a              combustion by-products (such as
escape into attics and basements.          significant amount of heated or           unburned hydrocarbons) can result




                                                                                                                              GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
Nationally, leaks at the joints            cooled air capacity.                      from cooking. Stovetop range
between ductwork connections                                                         hoods expel these by-products to
allow, on average, 25% of the              Application:                              the outside.
conditioned air to escape into             All ductwork for heating or cooling
attics and basements. Duct tape            should be run through conditioned         Application:

loses its effectiveness in 3-5 years.      space inside the insulated envelope.      Range hoods are particularly
Mastic maintains the seal for decades.     Ducts run through attic space can be      important for gas stoves and can
                                           buried under new loose fill insulation.   be installed most easily where
Application:                                                                         stoves are adjacent to exterior walls.
Install mastic at every metal duct         Benefit:

joint and around the bends in elbows.      Locating ducts in the conditioned         Benefit:

It is important for all ducts to be        space significantly reduces energy        Range hoods improve indoor air
sealed. Professional testing for a         loss and improves occupant comfort.       quality, prevent overheating and
duct leakage rate of under 10% can                                                   excess moisture build-up.
be helpful in determining success.

Benefit:

Leaky air ducts can cause negative
pressure in the house which can
allow carbon monoxide from gas
water heaters and furnaces into the




                                                                                                                              GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
home. Well-sealed ductwork also
keeps the house more comfortable.




           GREEN BUILDING TIP            INSPECT AIR DUCTS REGULARLY

           Ducts should be inspected, tested and sealed to ensure adequate airflow and eliminate
           loss of conditioned air. Ducts can leak as much as 20-30% of the air passing through
           them and can bring dust, unconditioned outdoor air and humidity into living spaces. To
           find out how leaky your ducts are have them professionally tested and seek to have them
           repaired so that you accomplish a leakage rate of under 10%. Thorough duct sealing can
           cut heating and cooling costs in many homes by 20%.


                                                                                                                                33
                                                 4. Clean all Ducts Before                  6. Install Attic Ventilation           7. Install Whole House Fan
                                                 Occupancy                                  Systems
                                                                                                                                   Description:
                                                 Description:                               Description:                           Whole house fans can cool a house
                                                 Debris and dust from construction can      Soffit/eave ventilation and            without using an air conditioner by
                                                 cause allergic reactions in occupants.     gable/continuous ridge ventilation     exhausting warm, indoor air and
                                                                                            exhaust excess heat and moisture       bringing in large volumes of fresh,
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                 Application:                               from attic spaces by natural           cool, outdoor air at night.
                                                 Cover or seal all ductwork in work         convection.
                                                 space during construction. Clean                                                  Application:

                                                 or vacuum all ductwork before              Application:                           The fan must be mounted in a
                                                 occupancy to eliminate dust. Clean         Install equal amounts of ventilation   hallway ceiling on the top floor. An
                                                 ducts before carpet is laid and            between the soffits/eaves and the      insulated, airtight seal is necessary
                                                 finishes are applied.                      gables/ridges. The code requirement    to prevent air leakage through the
                                                                                            of 1 square foot of net free area of   fan in winter. Fans should be sized
                                                 Benefit:                                   venting for every 150 square feet of   to produce between 4-5 air changes
                                                 Children are especially sensitive to       attic floor area should be doubled.    per hour and should have two
                                                 micro particulates like drywall dust.      Keep insulation from blocking the      speeds: low speed for continuous
                                                 Cleaning and vacuuming ductwork            soffit/eave vents.                     ventilation and high speed.
                                                 reduces dust around the house after                                               PLEASE NOTE: Keep a window
                                                 occupancy.                                 Benefit:                               open when fan is running to avoid
                                                                                            Attics can reach up to 150º F on       back drafting of carbon monoxide
                                                                                            a hot summer day. That heat            from gas appliance flues.
                                                 5. Install Solar Attic Fan                 migrates into the house, exchanging
                                                                                            air with the living space. Eave and    Benefit:
                                                 Description:                               soffit venting and continuous ridge    An average whole house fan uses
                                                 Solar attic fans exhaust heat from         venting increases comfort, reduces     one-tenth the electricity of an air
                                                 attic spaces in summer and clear           air conditioning costs and reduces     conditioning unit. Moving large
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                 condensation in the winter.                problems associated with excess        volumes of air can achieve indoor
                                                                                            attic moisture.                        comfort at higher temperatures
                                                 Application:                                                                      without air conditioning.
                                                 Solar attic fans are powered by the sun
                                                 and are most effective when placed
                                                 on the southern side of the roof and         Air Flow with Whole-House Fan
                                                 centered between the roof rafters. Avoid
                                                 installing under overhanging trees or
                                                 other structures creating shade.

                                                 Benefit:

                                                 In the summer, attics can reach up
                                                 to 150ºF. That heat migrates into the
                                                 home and increases the temperature
                                                 inside. A solar attic fan removes
                                                 much of this hot air and reduces the
                                                 burden on the air conditioning system.




34
8. Install Sealed Combustion           9. Replace Wall-Mounted Electric      10. Install 13 SEER and 11 EER
Furnaces and Hot Water Heaters         and Gas Heaters with Through-         or Higher Air Conditioning with a
                                       the-Wall Heat Pumps                   Thermostatic Expansion Valve (TXV)
Description:

Sealed combustion furnaces and         Description:                          Description:

water heaters duct fresh, outdoor      Wall-mounted electric and gas         Air conditioning equipment is one
air directly into a sealed jacket      heating units are potential health    of the greatest loads on power grids.




                                                                                                                     GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
around the combustion chamber          and fire hazards. Gas units produce   SEER (Seasonal Energy Efficiency
eliminating the use of conditioned     both unburned hydrocarbons and        Ratio) measures cooling system
house air for combustion.              carbon monoxide, a deadly unnotice-   efficiency at low temperatures while
                                       able gas. A wall heat pump has an     EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) is a
Application:                           exterior compressor and an interior   high temperature performance
Install in place of conventional       air handler that blows conditioned    rating. The higher the SEER/EER
furnaces or hot water heaters.         air throughout the home.              number the less power is required
                                                                             to provide comfort. This assures that
Benefit:                               Application:                          the air conditioning system operates
Traditional natural gas furnaces and   Replace any wall-mounted heater       at high efficiency during the full
hot water heaters use conditioned,     with a heat pump. Replacement         range of summer temperatures.
indoor air for combustion. When        with a heat pump is potentially       TXV is a refrigerant regulation
a negative pressure situation is       expensive. Another option is to use   device that can help ensure that the
created in the home by exhaust         the water heater as the heat source   air conditioning system operates at
fans, dryers or leaky ducts, carbon    using fan coils in each room to       maximum efficiency over a wide
monoxide can be pulled into the        distribute heat in the home.          range of conditions.
house from the combustion
chamber and exhaust flue. Sealed       Benefit:                              Application:

furnaces and hot water heaters         Eliminating wall-mounted electric     Higher SEER (13 – 18 SEER)
eliminate that condition, thereby      and gas heaters results in greater    and EER (11 or greater) units are
improving indoor air quality and       safety and more energy savings.       installed like any other AC equip-




                                                                                                                     GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
reducing the danger of carbon                                                ment. Some AC equipment comes
monoxide contamination. They also                                            with a factory installed TXV and
improve energy efficiency by not                                             others accept a TXV that can be
taking your home’s conditioned air                                           bolted on. Zoned AC systems allow
and sending it outdoors through                                              2 to 4 zones to be conditioned at
the exhaust flues.                                                           different temperatures so only the
                                                                             spaces being used are cooled. These
                                                                             require thermostats in each zone.

                                                                             Benefit:

                                                                             High SEER units save money and
                                                                             energy and reduce peak load
                                                                             problems for utilities. High EER
                                                                             systems not only save money and
                                                                             energy but offer more cooling when
                                                                             you need it most, on very hot days.
                                                                             Installing air conditioning systems
                                                                             with a TXV lowers utility bills and
                                                                             saves energy.

                                                                                                                       35
                                                 11. Install Air Conditioning with         Benefit:                                 Benefit:
                                                 Non-HCFC Refrigerants                     A properly sized, high efficiency        EPA certified stoves or fireplace
                                                                                           furnace costs less to operate. It        inserts reduce the amount of
                                                 Description:
                                                                                           saves natural resources, reduces         pollutant particulate matter by
                                                 R-22 is an HCFC refrigerant used in       air emissions and helps create a         75-90% compared to a standard
                                                 residential heating and cooling sys-      cleaner environment.                     fireplace. A properly operating
                                                 tems. R–22 contains chlorine which                                                 damper reduces drafts throughout
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                 is an ozone-destroying chemical. In                                                the house when the fireplace is not
                                                 2010, under the Clean Air Act, HVAC       13. Retrofit Wood Burning                in use. Airtight doors, when shut,
                                                 manufacturers can no longer produce       Fireplaces                               can reduce the heat taken from the
                                                 new air conditioners using R-22.                                                   house as well as reduce drafts
                                                                                           Description:                             when the fireplace is not in use.
                                                 Application:
                                                                                           The burning of wood in fireplaces
                                                 Some new AC units already use             is a major source of air pollution
                                                 alternatives to R-22 refrigerant such     during the winter months, generat-       14. Install Zoned, Hydronic,
                                                 as R-410A, as well as the trade brand     ing up to one-third of the particulate   Radiant Heating
                                                 Puron and others. Additional care         matter on cold evenings. In addition,
                                                 should be taken when handling             open fireplaces suck air out of the      Description:
                                                 refrigerants, always select a reputable   house and extract more heat than         Hydronic heating forces hot water
                                                 dealer who employs service technicians    they provide. Retrofitting wood          through radiators located in different
                                                 that have achieved Environmental          burning fireplaces with airtight doors   areas or zones throughout the
                                                 Protection Agency (EPA) certification     and working dampers reduces down         house. It is typically installed as
                                                 to handle refrigerants.                   drafting, heat loss and the amount       baseboards or in floors.
                                                                                           of oxygen drawn from the house for
                                                 Benefit:                                                                           Application:
                                                                                           combustion purposes.
                                                 Using alternatives to HCFC                                                         Use hydronic, radiant heating
                                                 refrigerants reduces depletion of         Application:                             instead of forced air heating. The
                                                 the ozone layer in case of leakage        Retrofit wood burning fireplaces         system must be designed before
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                 during replacement.                       with EPA certified wood stoves or        construction starts.
                                                                                           fireplace inserts, pellet stoves or
                                                                                           natural gas units. These units should    Benefit:
                                                 12. Install 90% Annual Fuel               have direct outside combustion air       Hydronic heating is more comfort-
                                                 Utilization Efficiency (AFUE)             vented into the insert. If total         able and saves energy by heating
                                                 Furnace                                   retrofit is not feasible, then replace   only the zone that requires heat.
                                                                                           old damper if it no longer seals the
                                                 Description:
                                                                                           flue due to mechanical failure,
                                                 High efficiency furnaces convert          rust or soot buildup in the chimney.
                                                 gas to heat with greater efficiency.      Retrofit sealed doors onto fireplaces.
                                                                                           Outside air, needed for combustion,
                                                 Application:
                                                                                           should be brought in behind the
                                                 Replace conventional furnaces with        doors. Some fireplaces provide for
                                                 high efficiency models. Installing the    controlled air intake from inside
                                                 proper size of furnace for the home       the house that can be shut down
                                                 is just as important as its efficiency.   when not in use.
                                                 Check with your local utility company
                                                 for rebate information.



36
15. Install High Efficiency Filter       16. Install Heat Recovery               17. Install Separate
                                         Ventilation Unit (HRV)                  Garage Exhaust Fan
Description:

High efficiency filters remove 70%       Description:                            Description:

or more of dust and particulates         An HRV is a mechanical ventilation      According to the U.S.
from the air.                            system that recovers heat from the      Environmental Protection Agency,
                                         exhausting, stale, indoor air and       an attached garage is the single




                                                                                                                        GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
Application:                             transfers it to the incoming, fresh,    most significant contributor to
Filters are installed in the return      outdoor air.                            poor indoor air quality. Car exhaust
air stream at the air handler, which                                             contains many known carcinogens
should be sized to handle the            Application:                            and can migrate into living spaces
reduced air pressure caused by the       The unit should be designed into        through doors and cracks in walls
filter. Some units have an air con-      the HVAC system to distribute the       adjacent to the garage.
ditioning setting for the fan that       fresh air more evenly throughout
will handle the retrofit filter.         the home. Note: Use of this equipment   Application:

                                         is particularly appropriate with        Install exhaust fan on the opposite
Benefit:                                 blower door test results of less        wall from the door to the house. It
The EPA has identified micropar-         than .35 Natural Air Changes per        can be wired to an electric garage
ticulates as a leading cause of          Hour (NACH).                            door or put on a timer to run for
respiratory discomfort. By removing                                              15 minutes after door has been
these particles, the filter makes        Benefit:                                opened or closed. Do not install
the living space healthier.              Heat recovery ventilators provide       fan if water heater or gas furnace
                                         fresh, outdoor air while exhausting     are located in garage.
                                         stale indoor air. They also save
                                         energy by recovering the heat lost      Benefit:

                                         in the exhausting air and transfer      An exhaust fan creates a healthier
                                         it to the incoming air.                 indoor environment by reducing
                                                                                 the potential hazard of car exhaust




                                                                                                                        GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
                                                                                 from entering the house.




                                       Radiant Floor Heating


           GREEN BUILDING TIP           CHANGE FURNACE FILTERS OFTEN

           Furnace filters capture large particles of dust, pollen, and other indoor pollutants
           preventing them from build-up on the workings of the system and from distributing
           throughout your home. The best option is to purchase high efficiency disposable filters
           with a MERV rating of between 6 and 12; greater than 12 will restrict your system’s air
           flow too much. Replace these filters as they become built-up with contaminants;
           generally every two months or as needed. If utilizing reusable, high efficiency electronic
           or electrostatic filters, remember to clean them often.

                                                                                                                          37
                                                 K. Renewable Energy and Roofing

                                                 1. Pre-Plumb for Solar Water Heating     solar system can also supplement         3. Pre-Wire for Future
                                                                                          use of a standard water heater.          Photovoltaic (PV) Installation
                                                 Description:

                                                 Insulated copper pipes are installed     Application:                             Description:

                                                 from the attic to a hot water closet     Provide sufficient south-facing roof     Running wires from the roof to the
                                                 or mechanical room for future solar      area for collectors, and space in a      electric service entrance/circuit
                                                 installation. This option allows the     hot water closet for the additional      breaker panel can save costly
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                 homeowner to install an active solar     hot water storage tank.                  installation of photovoltaic panels
                                                 system at a later date if they desire.                                            at a future date.
                                                                                          Benefit:
                                                 Application:                             Solar hot water systems can pay          Application:

                                                 Provide south-facing roof area for       back in as little as seven years and     Run two pair #10 THHN wire plus
                                                 collectors and access for piping to      reduce the use of gas or electricity     #8 ground in conduit from the
                                                 a mechanical room. This is primarily     for water heating.                       south facing roof to a junction box
                                                 applicable to homes that are being                                                near the panel (don’t wire the
                                                 extensively rehabilitated on the                                                  panel). East and West facing
                                                 interior. The most cost-effective         Solar Water Heating                     roofs can work if the South is
                                                 time to install this pre-plumbing is                                              unavailable or shaded for panels.
                                                 during construction.
                                                                                                Solar                              Benefit:
                                                 Benefit:                                   Collector                              Photovoltaic panels and systems
                                                 Solar hot water pre-plumbing during                                               will continue to drop in price
                                                 the remodeling process can save                                                   over the next few years.
                                                 money for the homeowner if, at                                                    Homebuyers may not be able to
                                                 some point in the future, they want                                               afford the system today but may
                                                                                                                      Cold




                                                 to install a solar system.                                                        be interested in the future when
                                                                                                                             Hot




                                                                                                                                   the price comes down. Visit
                                                                                                                                   www.consumerenergycenter.org
                                                 2. Install Solar Water Heating
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                                                                                                   for more information on rebates.

                                                 Description:                                     Hot Water
                                                 Solar water heating systems use solar         Storage Tank
                                                 panels to collect heat from the sun.
                                                 The hot water is stored for use at a                Heat
                                                 later time. Water pre-heated by a              Exchanger



                                                                GREEN BUILDING TIP         CONSIDER THE BENEFITS OF INSTALLING PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) PANELS

                                                                Reliability: Generate your own electricity using renewable resources. Your electric utility
                                                                can “store” and buy the extra electricity you generate or supply it if your system does not
                                                                generate enough. Security: PV Panels provide a secure source of electricity. Environmentally
                                                                Friendly: PVs are a clean, replenishable resource that do not contribute to global warming.
                                                                Sustainability: Use PVs to help ensure our energy future by tapping into an “infinite” power
                                                                supply. Contact the California Energy Commission at 800.555.7794 for information on
                                                                cash rebates on eligible renewable energy electric-generating systems.


38
4. Install Photovoltaic (PV) System       5. Select Safe and Durable            6. Install Radiant Barrier
                                          Roofing Materials
Description:                                                                    Description:

PV panels contain hundreds of             Description:                          When radiant energy from the
small cells that collect the sun’s        40-50 year asphalt composition,       sun strikes the roof surface, it is
energy and convert it into electricity.   tile, slate, fiber-cement and metal   converted to heat energy which
Excess electricity can be sent back       are examples of safe and durable      radiates downward into the attic




                                                                                                                         GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
into the utility grid for a credit on     roofing materials. Avoid cedar and    and the adjoining rooms. A radiant
electric bills. The collected energy      wood shake shingles.                  barrier reflects or blocks radiant
can also be stored in large batteries                                           heat and does not emit it to the
to meet the needs of nighttime            Application:                          cooler surfaces around it. Radiant
energy requirements.                      Applicable anytime roofing material   barrier sheathing is a roof sheathing
                                          is specified.                         material with a reflective layer
Application:                                                                    (film or foil) applied to the under-
Typical PV installations include flat     Benefit:                              side of the OSB. Another radiant
roof, sloped roof, building integrated    A durable and safe roof is cost       barrier application is reflective film
PV and ground mount. Items to             effective and reduces landfill        or foil that attaches to the rafters,
consider when installing PV include:      deposits. Some products may           reflects radiant heat upwards and
sunlight – minimum of 4 hours             also reduce your homeowner            does not emit it downward towards
required during peak period (8 a.m.       insurance rates.                      the attic and the home’s interior.
to 4 p.m.) with no shade; orienta-
tion – anything but North; angle –                                              Application:

flat to 60 degrees; adequate roof         Photovoltaic Panel System             Radiant barrier sheathing can be
area-depending on type of PV                                                    used in place of conventional roof
selected (monocrystal, polycrystal                                              sheathing or apply reflective material
or amorphous).                                                                  (foil or paint) to the underside of
                                                                                rafters and decking.
Benefit:




                                                                                                                         GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
PV panels can be used as a                                                      Benefit:

means to decrease reliance on                                                   Radiant barriers reduce heat
conventional power plants that                                                  build-up in attic spaces by not
contribute to air pollution.                                                    re-radiating heat from the roof to
                                                                                the attic and eventually to the
                                                                                interior rooms. They can prevent
                                                                                up to 97% of the sun’s radiant
Installing Solar Water System             Radiant Barrier Sheathing             heat from entering the home and
                                                                                can bring attic temperatures
                                                                                down as much as 30 degrees on
                                                                                hot days, keeping the whole
                                                                                home cooler and reducing energy
                                                                                consumption for air conditioning.




                                                                                                                           39
                                                 L. Natural Heating and Cooling

                                                 1. Incorporate Passive                     is allowed into the space, where it    The additional cooling demanded
                                                 Solar Heating                              can be absorbed by thermal mass,       by low-angle sun penetration of
                                                                                            and be re-radiated as heat. Also       west windows in late summer after-
                                                 Description:                               consider shading devices on the west   noons create the most significant
                                                 Passive solar systems provide heat         and east facing windows to protect     summer peak utility costs.
                                                 to the structure through south             from morning and afternoon heat,
                                                 facing windows in conjunction              especially in hotter climates.         Application:
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                 with internal thermal mass.                                                       Plant shade trees on the west and
                                                                                            Benefit:                               south sides of the home to provide
                                                 Application:                               Overhangs, awnings and trellises are   shade and summer cooling. The
                                                 The house must incorporate windows         an integral part of making passive     most important areas to shade are
                                                 that face within 30 degrees of due         solar heating and natural cooling      windows and paved areas. Keep
                                                 south and have the ability to store        work. Removable/retractable fabric     trees an appropriate distance from
                                                 excess heat in massive elements            awnings offer a low cost solution      the home or utilities to avoid intro-
                                                 such as a slab floor or stone fireplace.   to reduce heat gain, lower energy      duction of pests and root/branch
                                                                                            bills, and make the home more          intrusions as trees mature.
                                                 Benefit:                                   comfortable in the summer.
                                                 Passive solar design can reduce                                                   Benefit:

                                                 heating requirements by 30-50%,                                                   Planting shade trees can reduce
                                                 saving energy and money.                   3. Plant Deciduous Shade Trees         summer air-conditioning costs
                                                                                            on the West and South Sides            by 25% to 40%. Trees provide
                                                                                                                                   numerous additional benefits to
                                                 2. Install Overhangs or Awnings            Description:                           the environment including
                                                 over South Facing Windows                  During summer months, the sun          cleansing the air, creating habitats
                                                                                            shines on the south and west sides     for birds and play places for children
                                                 Description:                               of the home causing the home to        as well as adding aesthetic beauty
                                                 Properly sized overhangs or awnings        heat up which in turn makes air        to the neighborhood. Through
                                                 on south facing windows are important      conditioners work their hardest.       shade and evapotranspiration,
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                 components of passive solar heating        Trees offer the best solution for      trees can create a microclimate
                                                 and natural cooling. Overhangs and         keeping out low-angle sunlight from    that is up to 15 degrees cooler
                                                 awnings help keep the heat of the          west and south windows in summer.      than the surrounding area.
                                                 sun from entering the home during
                                                 summer, but allow heat to enter in
                                                 the winter. These shade control
                                                 devices can be oversized roof over-
                                                 hangs, wood trellises/arbors with
                                                 deciduous plants, or adjustable or
                                                 demountable awnings made of
                                                 fabric or metal.

                                                 Application:

                                                 The overhang or awning design
                                                 should keep out summer sun by
                                                 shading the entire window during
                                                 the hottest month(s) of the year.
                                                 Size overhangs or awnings above
                                                 south windows so that winter sunlight
                                                                                                                                   Awning and Trellises to Reduce Heat Gain

40
M. Indoor Air Quality / Finishes

1. Use Low/No VOC Paint                 2. Use Low VOC, Water-Based              3. Use Low/No-VOC Adhesives
                                        Wood Finishes
Description:                                                                     Description:

Most paint releases volatile organic    Description:                             Unlike solvent-based adhesives
compounds (VOCs), a major indoor        Conventional solvent-based wood          that off-gas toxic compounds for
air pollutant, into the home. Once      finishes can offgas for months, and      months, low/no-VOC adhesives
outside, VOCs react with other          can be harmful to children. Low          reduce toxic gasses such as aro-




                                                                                                                          GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
pollutants, producing ground-level      VOC finishes, such as water-borne        matic hydrocarbons or solvents
ozone that also affects human health.   urethane and acrylic, are lower in       that contribute to air pollution.
Often low/no-VOC products are man-      toxic compounds compared to
ufactured without mercury or mercury    conventional solvent-based finishes      Application:

compounds, or pigments of lead,         while providing similar durability.      Use low/no-VOC products in place
cadmium, chromium, or their oxides.                                              of standard adhesives for all
                                        Application:                             interior applications such as
Application:                            Low VOC wood finishes can be             installation of flooring, countertops,
Paint with low/no-VOCs is available     used in most applications where          wall coverings, paneling and
from most major manufacturers           solvent-based finishes are typically     tub/shower enclosures.
and is applied like traditional paint   used. If solvent-based wood finishes
products. High washability should       must be used, they should be left        Benefit:

be specified for bathrooms,             to offgas for three to four weeks        Low/No-VOC adhesives are often
kitchens and children's bedrooms.       prior to occupancy.                      stronger, emit fewer pollutants,
Every finish and most colors are                                                 and reduce the potential harmful
available in low/no-VOC paints.         Benefit:                                 impacts on the health of the
                                        Using low VOC wood finishes reduces      occupants and installers.
Benefit:                                offgassing into the home, improving
Low/No-VOC paint reduces the            indoor air quality, and reducing the
emissions of VOCs into the              formation of urban smog.
home, improving indoor air quality




                                                                                                                          GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
and reducing the formation of
urban smog.




                                                              Low/No-VOC paint



           GREEN BUILDING TIP           CONTACT BAY AREA BUILD IT GREEN

           Build It Green is a program designed to provide Bay Area homeowners,
           homebuyers, remodelers, and builders a trusted resource for information on
           Green Building and its various applications. A local effort with far reaching
           effects, the program is dedicated to creating healthier, more durable, and energy and
           resource-efficient homes that will provide Bay Area residents years of higher quality living.
           Visit www.build-green.org for more information on events, products, presentations and more.


                                                                                                                            41
                                                                                             Formaldehyde-Free Medium Density
                                                                                                             Fiberboard (MDF)
                                                                                                                                shelving, cabinets, trim and
                                                                                                                                substrate for countertops.

                                                                                                                                Benefit:

                                                                                                                                Elimination of engineered sheet
                                                                                                                                goods containing urea formaldehyde
                                                                                                                                reduces exposure to residents,
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                 4. Use Salvaged Building              5. Use Engineered Sheet Goods            particularly children, who are most
                                                 Materials for Interior Finish         with No Added Formaldehyde               susceptible. Some boards made
                                                                                                                                from agricultural waste are superior
                                                 Description:                          Description:                             to wood-based particleboard in
                                                 Salvaged building materials are       Engineered sheet goods such as           moisture resistance and structural
                                                 selectively and carefully removed     particleboard and medium density         properties, and provides for the
                                                 from buildings for reuse. Many        fiberboard (MDF) typically use           reuse of a former waste product.
                                                 salvaged materials are superior to    adhesives that contain urea
                                                 the products available today such     formaldehyde, a suspected human
                                                 as old-growth non-structural beams,   carcinogen. The formaldehyde is          6. Use Exterior Grade Plywood
                                                 flooring and interior trim.           continuously released, referred to       for Interior Uses
                                                                                       as "offgassing", for years after
                                                 Application:                          installation. Formaldehyde off-          Description:

                                                 Use salvaged building materials the   gassing contributes to poor indoor air   Exterior plywood uses phenolic
                                                 same way conventional materials are   quality. Better alternatives include     resins that offgas one-tenth as
                                                 used. Please note, salvaged painted   MDF without formaldehyde binders         much as interior plywood. Interior
                                                 wood items often contain lead based   as well as sheet goods made from         plywood typically uses urea-
                                                 paint. Use lead safe painting and     agricultural waste, such as straw-       formaldehyde glue which offgasses
                                                 paint removal strategies identified   based particleboard manufactured         into the house.
                                                 by the Alameda County Lead            with non-formaldehyde binders.
                                                 Poisoning Prevention Program –                                                 Application:
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                 www.aclppp.org/hazard.shtml.          Application:                             Substitute interior plywood with
                                                                                       Whenever possible, eliminate new         exterior plywood for custom cabinets
                                                 Benefit:                              particleboard and formaldehyde           and shelving.
                                                 Using salvaged building materials     based MDF inside the home by using
                                                 keeps valuable resources out of       solid wood for stair treads, exterior    Benefit:

                                                 landfills, reduces pressures on the   grade plywood (which uses the less       Formaldehyde is a suspected
                                                 landfills as well as offering the     dangerous phenol formaldehyde),          human carcinogen and should be
                                                 homeowner inexpensive and             MDF with formaldehyde-free               avoided whenever possible.
                                                 unique materials for the home.        binders, or straw-based MDF for


                                                            GREEN BUILDING TIP         SELECT LESS-TOXIC CLEANING SUPPLIES

                                                            High-quality, non-toxic and environmentally responsible cleaning products are readily
                                                            available. Choose products that are non-toxic, ammonia and chlorine-free, as well as
                                                            biodegradable. These cleaning products are as effective as conventional cleaners, without
                                                            harsh chemicals that can lead to health problems and atmospheric ozone loss. For tips on
                                                            how to make and use toxic-free household cleaners, call 1.877.STOPWASTE for a copy of
                                                            Easy Recipes for A Healthy House.

42
7. Seal all Exposed                          FSC certified wood instead of              Benefit:
Particleboard or MDF                         clear, knot-free trim as this material     Finger-jointed or recycled-content
                                             is typically harvested from non-           trim is straighter and more stable
Description:                                 sustainable, old growth forests.           than conventional clear wood, and
Using non-toxic, low permeability paint                                                 uses materials more efficiently.
or sealer to seal exposed particleboard      Application:

or MDF will reduce the release of            Use FSC certified materials in any




                                                                                                                              GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
harmful gasses and is the next best          application that normally uses con-        10. Install Whole House Vacuum
solution to elimination of particleboard.    ventional stain-grade materials.           System

Application:                                 Benefit:
                                                                                        Description:
Whenever formaldehyde-based                  Sustainable forest certification assures   Whole house vacuums exhaust
MDF or particleboard is used, seal           that the forest from which the trim is     the dust to the outside rather than
all exposed edges of cabinets,               produced is managed in a way that          collecting it in a bag that may not
undersides of countertops, stairs,           will assure the long-term availability     filter the dust effectively.
shelving, etc. with at least two coats       of these precious woods while pro-
of less-toxic, low permeability paint        tecting ancient, old growth forests.       Application:
or sealer prior to installation.                                                        Whole house vacuum systems
                                                                                        must be vented outdoors, not into
Benefit:                                     9. Use Finger-Jointed or                   a garage, and not to any area
Sealing all exposed particleboard            Recycled-Content Trim                      where air may be taken back into
reduces exposure of harmful emissions                                                   the house.
to residents, particularly children,         Description:

who are most susceptible.                    Finger-jointed trim is manufactured        Benefit:
                                             from short pieces of clear wood glued      Whole house vacuums expel the
                                             together to create finished trim.          dust outside the house whereas
8. Use Forest Stewardship                    recycled-content trim is made from         most vacuum cleaners do not filter
Council (FSC) Certified Material             recycled polystyrene/plastics.             the dust effectively and merely



                                                                                                                              GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
for Interior Finish                                                                     redistribute the dust that is most
                                             Application:
                                                                                        harmful to the respiratory system.
Description:                                 Use finger-jointed or recycled-            This can aggravate asthma and
FSC certified materials (e.g. trim,          content trim in any application            other respiratory problems.
doors, shelving) come from forests           where trim is to be painted.
that are managed in accordance
with sustainable forest practices.
It is particularly important to specify



           GREEN BUILDING TIP               PURCHASE VACUUM CLEANER WITH HEPA FILTER

           If installing a whole house vacuum system is not feasible, consider purchasing a high
           efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. It catches small dust particles that are typically
           blown around the house during vacuuming. The EPA has determined that indoor
           particulate dust is a significant health hazard. HEPA filters reduce exposure to these
           harmful particulates. Children, asthmatics, senior citizens and others with respiratory
           diseases can benefit from reduced dust in the living environment.


                                                                                                                                43
                                                 N. Flooring

                                                 1. Select Forest Stewardship               2. Use Rapidly Renewable                    Application:
                                                 Council (FSC) Certified                    Flooring Materials                          Install recycled-content tiles wher-
                                                 Wood Flooring                                                                          ever conventional tiles are specified.
                                                                                            Description:
                                                 Description:                               Bamboo and cork flooring are alter-         Benefit:
                                                 Certified wood flooring comes from         natives to hardwood flooring. Bamboo        Some recycled-content ceramic tile is
                                                 forests that are managed in accor-         is a fast growing grass that can be         very dense which significantly reduces
 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS




                                                 dance with sustainable forest practices.   harvested in three to five years.           the amount of moisture and stains that
                                                 Certified wood flooring products           Cork is a natural flooring material         are absorbed into the tile, making it
                                                 are available in a wide variety of         that is obtained from the outer             more durable and easier to maintain.
                                                 domestic and exotic species.               bark of the cork oak tree that is
                                                                                            regenerated every 10 years.
                                                 Application:
                                                                                                                                        4. Install Natural Linoleum In
                                                 Use FSC certified wood in place of         Application:
                                                                                                                                        Place of Vinyl
                                                 conventional hardwood flooring.            Use these alternative flooring materials
                                                                                            in place of conventional hardwood. It       Description:
                                                 Benefit:                                   is important to specify a durable finish.   Natural linoleum is manufactured
                                                 Sustainable forest certification assures                                               from natural materials such as cork
                                                 that the forest from which the floor-      Benefit:
                                                                                                                                        and linseed oil. Unlike vinyl, linoleum
                                                 ing is produced is managed in a way        Fast growing, rapidly renewable             does not contain petroleum-based
                                                 that will assure the long-term avail-      floor substitutes are attractive and        products or chlorinated chemicals
                                                 ability of these precious woods while      reduce pressure on hardwood forests.        such as PVC, which may be a
                                                 protecting ancient, old-growth forests.    Bamboo is as durable as wood;               source of VOC offgassing. There is
                                                                                            cork is naturally fire and moisture         also concern of byproducts such as
                                                                                            resistant as well as sound absorbing.       cancer causing dioxins, which may
                                                                                                                                        be produced during the manufac-
                                                                                                                                        turing of vinyl.
                                                                                            3. Use Recycled-Content
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                                                            Ceramic Tile                                Application:

                                                                                                                                        Use natural linoleum in place of
                                                                                            Description:
                                                                                                                                        vinyl flooring.
                                                                                            Recycled-content ceramic tile can
                                                                                            contain up to 70% recycled glass.           Benefit:
                                                                                            Originally developed for high traffic       Linoleum is low-toxic, easy to repair,
                                                                                            commercial conditions, recycled-            durable, and stain resistant. Linoleum
                                                                                            content tiles are very durable and          can last up to 40 years whereas
                                                                                            wear well in residential applications.      vinyl lasts typically 7-10 years.

                                                 Bamboo Flooring



                                                            GREEN BUILDING TIP              PLACE DOORMATS AT ALL EXTERIOR DOORS

                                                            Dust, dirt-borne contaminants, and chemicals such as fertilizer and pesticides are tracked
                                                            into the house on shoes. Using a doormat, or preferably leaving shoes at the door, reduces
                                                            this source of toxic contaminants. A doormat is an easy and inexpensive method to reduce
                                                            toxic materials that would otherwise be brought into the home.

44
                                           Ingredients of Natural Linoleum
Used with permission from This Old House




                                                                                                                                                                 GREEN BUILDING METHODS & MATERIALS
                                           5. Use Exposed Concrete                  6. Install Recycled-Content Carpet with Low-VOCs
                                           as Finished Floor

                                           Description:                             Description:                         Benefit:

                                           For slab-on-grade additions, the         Recycled-content carpet is made      Recycled-content carpet saves
                                           concrete can be polished, finished       from recycled plastic bottles,       resources and diverts waste from
                                           with expansion joints in various         recycled nylon/wool or recycled      landfills. Approximately 40 two-liter
                                           patterns or stained with pigments to     cotton. Recycled-content carpet      soda bottles are recycled per square
                                           make an attractive finish floor. This    does not differ in appearance or     yard of carpeting. Recycled carpet
                                           approach is especially appropriate       performance and the price is         is often more resilient and colorfast
                                           for radiant, in-floor heating systems.   comparable to conventional carpet.   than carpet made from virgin fibers.
                                                                                    Some recycled-content carpets
                                           Application:                             include agricultural by-products
                                           Use this approach for finished           such as corn silk. Carpet tiles as
                                           basements or additions on slab           well as broadloom are available.



                                                                                                                                                                 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
                                           construction. Finish must be             The Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI)
                                           designed and constructed when            has a Green Label Indoor Air
                                           slab is being poured.                    Quality Test Program which labels
                                                                                    the VOC content of carpeting.
                                           Benefit:
                                                                                    Application:                                    Look for carpets that meet
                                           When using the slab as a floor finish,
                                                                                    Use recycled-content carpet in all              or exceeds the CRI Green
                                           it eliminates the need to use other
                                                                                    applications where conventional                 Label requirements.
                                           flooring materials. It is durable and
                                           easy to clean and can be used to         carpet is specified. Choose carpet
                                           hold piping for active radiant floor     that meets or exceeds the CRI
                                           heating or as a thermal mass for         Green Label requirements.
                                           passive solar heating.                   Resource: www.carpet-rug.com



                                                      GREEN BUILDING TIP            MINIMIZING OFFGASSING FROM ADHESIVES

                                                      Use low VOC, water-based sealants and low/no solvent adhesives when installing or
                                                      refinishing flooring. When installing laminate flooring, use glueless installation to
                                                      minimize offgassing from adhesives.

                                                                                                                                                                   45
                                      Chapter Four:
                                      Summary of Green Building Benefits
 SUMMARY OF GREEN BUILDING BENEFITS




46
A. Site                                                               BENEFITS

1. Recycle Job Site Construction and Demolition Waste                 Reduces pressure on landfills, saves money by reducing landfill fees,
                                                                      and provides raw materials for future building products.
2. Salvage Reusable Building Materials                                Reduces landfill deposits, decreases disposal costs and saves natural
                                                                      resources.
3. Remodel for Mixed Use, Adaptive Reuse, and Historic Preservation   Diverts demolition waste, preserves neighborhood character and
                                                                      conserves resources.
4. Protect Native Soil                                                Reduces storm runoff, fertilizer and pesticide requirements, improves
                                                                      water quality and conserves irrigation water.
5. Minimize Disruption of Existing Plants and Trees                   Helps prevent soil erosion, maintains existing sources of natural cooling,




                                                                                                                                                     SUMMARY OF GREEN BUILDING BENEFITS
                                                                      diverts waste from landfills, and adds a unique character to the community.
6. Implement Construction Site Stormwater Practices                   Minimizes erosion and water pollution; and protects the Bay.
7. Protect Water Quality with Landscape Design                        Reduces the volume of polluted water flowing into rivers or the Bay.
8. Design Resource-Efficient Landscapes and Gardens                   Helps conserve water, reduces use of chemicals, and creates
                                                                      healthier soil and plants.
9. Reuse Materials/Use Recycled-Content Materials for                 Conserves natural resources and strengthens markets for
   Landscape Areas                                                    recycled materials.
10. Install High Efficiency Irrigation Systems                        Reduces landscape water use and lowers water costs.
11. Provide for On-Site Water Catchment/Retention                     Reduces the need to use treated, potable water for lawns and gardens.


B. Foundation

1. Incorporate Recycled Flyash in Concrete                            Increases the strength and durability of the concrete and reduces
                                                                      the amount of cement needed.
2. Use Recycled-Content Aggregate                                     Saves money, natural resources and energy.
3. Insulate Foundation Before Backfill                                Reduces utility bills by minimizing heat loss.


C. Structural Frame

1. Substitute Solid Sawn Lumber with Engineered Lumber                Reduces demand for virgin lumber, is stronger, straighter, and more durable.
2. Use FSC Certified Wood for Framing                                 Ensures long-term availability of precious woods.




                                                                                                                                                     GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
3. Use Wood I-Joists for Floors and Ceilings                          Uses 50% less wood fiber, will not twist, warp or split, stronger and
                                                                      lighter than 2x10s or 2x12s and can span greater distances.
4. Use Web Floor Trusses                                              Eliminates waste. Reduces the pressure on old growth forests.
5. Design Energy Heels on Roof Trusses 6" or More                     Allows for full insulation around the house, saving energy and money.
6. Use Finger-Jointed Studs for Vertical Applications                 Uses recycled-content materials, is straighter and stronger than solid sawn
                                                                      studs, and eliminates crooked walls, thereby reducing material waste.
7. Use Engineered Studs for Vertical Applications                     Engineered studs are straighter, and will not deform, twist, split or
                                                                      warp. They save wood by using small laminated pieces.
8. Use Recycled-Content Steel Studs for Interior Framing              Steel reduces the need for wood and provides strong interior walls.
9. Use Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs)                             Reduces infiltration relative to frame construction, is energy-efficient,
                                                                      provides excellent soundproofing, is erected quickly, and saves wood
                                                                      by eliminating much of the conventional framing lumber.
10. Apply Advanced Framing Techniques                                 Makes the home more energy efficient, saves wood and construction
                                                                      costs. It also allows for a higher percentage of the wall to be insulated
                                                                      reducing frame conduction heat loss.
11. Use Reclaimed Lumber for Non-Structural Applications              Reduces resource consumption and landfill deposits, and is often
                                                                      of higher quality than new lumber.
12. Use OSB for Subfloor and Sheathing                                Reduces the need for large diameter old-growth trees, is as strong as
                                                                      traditional plywood sheet material and is less expensive.




                                                                                                                                                       47
                                                 D. Exterior Finish                                                       BENEFITS
                                                 1. Use Sustainable Decking Materials                                     Contains recycled-content materials, is more durable and reduces
                                                                                                                          demand for old-growth timbers.
                                                 2. Use Treated Wood That Does Not Contain Chromium or Arsenic            Reduces exposure to chromium and arsenic, which are harmful, partic-
                                                                                                                          ularly to children who play on structures built with treated wood.
                                                 3. Install House Wrap Under Siding                                       Protects the home by diverting water away from the wall cavity.
                                                 4. Use Fiber-Cement Siding Materials                                     Lasts longer, is fire-resistant, and reduces maintenance costs.


                                                 E. Plumbing
 SUMMARY OF GREEN BUILDING BENEFITS




                                                 1. Install Water Heater Jacket                                           Reduces heat loss by 10% (on older heaters.)
                                                 2. Insulate Hot and Cold Water Pipes                                     Saves energy and water, and reduces water heating costs.
                                                 3. Retrofit all Faucets and Showerheads with Flow Reducers               Saves water and is a low cost option.
                                                 4. Replace Toilets with Ultra-Low-Flush Models                           Saves water.
                                                 5. Install Chlorine Filter on Showerheads                                Reduces chlorine absorbed by skin.
                                                 6. Convert Storage to Tankless Water Heater                              Saves energy, is often quicker and more reliable.
                                                 7. Install Water Filtration Units at Faucets                             Reduces contaminants in water.
                                                 8. Install On-Demand Hot Water Circulation Pump                          Deliver hot water quicker to fixture, saving water and energy.


                                                 F. Electrical

                                                 1. Install Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs)                        Lowers energy bills and reduces need for energy production.
                                                 2. Install IC-AT Recessed Lighting Fixtures with CFLs                    Saves energy and reduces the amount of heat loss/gain.
                                                 3. Install Lighting Controls                                             Reduces need for energy and lowers energy bills.
                                                 4. Install High Efficiency Ceiling Fans with CFLs                        Reduces the need for air conditioning. Saves energy.


                                                 G. Appliances

                                                 1. Install Energy Star® Dishwasher                                       Reduces water and energy use, and lowers utility bills.
                                                 2. Install Washing Machine with Water and Energy Conservation Features   Uses less water and energy than conventional top loading washers.
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                 3. Install Energy Star® Refrigerator                                     Reduces energy and can save over 10% on utility bill.
                                                 4. Install Built-In Recycling Center                                     Makes it easy and convenient to recycle.


                                                 H. Insulation

                                                 1. Upgrade Wall and Ceiling Insulation to Exceed Title 24 Requirements   Lowers utility bills, improves comfort, decreases heating and cooling
                                                                                                                          needs and makes home quieter.
                                                 2. Install Floor Insulation Over Crawl Space                             Lowers utility bills, improves comfort.
                                                 3. Install Recycled-Content, Fiberglass Insulation with No Added         Reduces indoor air quality problems due to formaldehyde binders, and
                                                    Formaldehyde                                                          can contain up to 30% recycled glass.
                                                 4. Use Advanced Infiltration Reduction Practices                         Reduces drafts, and makes home more energy-efficient.
                                                 5. Use Cellulose Insulation                                              Increases energy-efficiency, uses recyclable materials, and contains
                                                                                                                          no formaldehyde.
                                                 6. Install Alternative Insulation Materials                              Uses recycled-content materials and provides superior air infiltration
                                                                                                                          resistance.




48
I. Windows                                                          BENEFITS

1. Install Energy-Efficient Windows                                 Increases energy-efficiency, and provides greater comfort.
2. Install Low SHGC Window Film on Single-Glazing                   Reduces overheating, improves comforts and lowers the need for
                                                                    additional cooling.


J. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

1. Use Duct Mastic on all Duct Joints                               Improves indoor air quality, and keeps the homes more comfortable.
2. Install New Ductwork within Conditioned Space                    Reduces energy loss and improves occupant comfort.
3. Vent Range Hood to the Outside                                   Improves indoor air quality.




                                                                                                                                                       SUMMARY OF GREEN BUILDING BENEFITS
4. Clean all Ducts Before Occupancy                                 Reduces dust around the house after occupancy.
5. Install Solar Attic Fan                                          Increases comfort and reduces air conditioning use.
6. Install Attic Ventilation Systems                                Increases comfort and reduces air conditioning use.
7. Install Whole House Fan                                          Reduces electricity usage, and moves large volumes of air to achieve
                                                                    comfort at higher temperatures without air conditioning.
8. Install Sealed Combustion Furnaces and Hot Water Heaters         Improves indoor air quality, reduces the danger of carbon monoxide
                                                                    contamination.
9. Replace Wall-Mounted Electric and Gas Heaters                    Reduces fire hazard, saves energy and improves indoor air quality.
10. Install 13 SEER and 11 EER or Higher Air Conditioning with a    Saves money and energy, and reduces peak load problems.
    Thermostatic Expansion Valve (TXV)
11. Install Air Conditioning with Non-HCFC Refrigerants             Reduces depletion of the ozone layer.
12. Install 90% Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) Furnace   Reduces air emissions, costs less to operate, and saves natural resources.
13. Retrofit Wood Burning Fireplaces                                Reduces drafts, pollutant particulate matter and the amount of heat
                                                                    taken from the home.
14. Install Zoned, Hydronic, Radiant Heating                        Saves energy by only heating the zone that requires heat.
15. Install High Efficiency Filter                                  Makes living space healthier, and reduces microparticulates from the air.
16. Install Heat Recovery Ventilation Unit (HRV)                    Improves indoor air quality and reduces energy.
17. Install Separate Garage Exhaust Fan                             Creates healthier indoor environments.




                                                                                                                                                       GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
K. Renewable Energy and Roofing

1. Pre-Plumb for Solar Water Heating                                Saves money should a solar system be installed in the future.
2. Install Solar Water Heating                                      Reduces the use of gas or electricity, and pay back in as little as seven years.
3. Pre-Wire for Future Photovoltaic (PV) Installation               Allows installation of PV system in the future.
4. Install Photovoltaic (PV) System                                 Decreases reliance on conventional power plants.
5. Select Safe and Durable Roofing Materials                        Reduces landfill deposits and saves money on replacement costs.
6. Install Radiant Barrier                                          Keeps the whole home cooler by reducing heat build-up in attic spaces.


L. Natural Heating and Cooling

1. Incorporate Passive Solar Heating                                Reduces heating requirements by 30-50%, saves energy and money.
2. Install Overhangs or Awnings over South Facing Windows           Reduce heat gain, making the home more comfortable
                                                                    in summer.
3. Plant Deciduous Shade Trees on the West and South Sides          Reduce summer air-conditioning costs while providing numerous bene-
                                                                    fits to the environment.




                                                                                                                                                         49
                                                 M. Indoor Air Quality and Finishes                         BENEFITS
                                                 1. Use Low/No-VOC Paint                                    Improves indoor air quality, reduces smog, and is healthier for
                                                                                                            installers and occupants.
                                                 2. Use Low VOC, Water-Based Wood Finishes                  Reduces smog and is healthier for installers and occupants.
                                                 3. Use Low/No-VOC Adhesives                                Improves indoor air quality, and are healthier for occupants and installers.
                                                 4. Use Salvaged Building Materials for Interior Finish     Keeps valuable resources out of landfill.
                                                 5. Use Engineered Sheet Goods with No Added Formaldehyde   Reduces exposure to formaldehyde, provides reuse of a former
                                                                                                            waste product.
                                                 6. Use Exterior Grade Plywood for Interior Uses            Reduces formaldehyde exposure to occupants.
 SUMMARY OF GREEN BUILDING BENEFITS




                                                 7. Seal all Exposed Particleboard or MDF                   Reduces exposure of harmful emissions to occupants.
                                                 8. Use FSC Certified Materials for Interior Finish         Assures the long-term availability of precious woods while
                                                                                                            protecting ancient, old-growth forests.
                                                 9. Use Finger-Jointed or Recycled-Content Trim             Uses material more efficiently, saves money and resources, and
                                                                                                            is straighter and more stable than conventional clear wood.
                                                 10. Install Whole House Vacuum System                      Expels dust outside the house, improving indoor air quality.


                                                 N. Flooring

                                                 1. Select FSC Certified Wood Flooring                      Assures the long-term availability of woods while protecting ancient,
                                                                                                            old-growth forests.
                                                 2. Use Rapidly Renewable Flooring Materials                Reduces demand for old-growth hardwood.
                                                 3. Use Recycled-Content Ceramic Tiles                      Uses recycled-content materials and is easy to maintain.
                                                 4. Install Natural Linoleum in Place of Vinyl              Reduces exposure to toxins, is durable, and healthier for occupants
                                                                                                            and installers.
                                                 5. Use Exposed Concrete as Finished Floor                  Eliminates the need for additional flooring materials,
                                                                                                            is easy to maintain, and very durable.
                                                 6. Install Recycled-Content Carpet with Low VOCs           Saves resources, diverts waste from landfills, is more resilient
                                                                                                            and colorfast than carpet made from virgin fibers.
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




50
                                                                                                                                                 51
                                                                             GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
                                                 GREEN REMODELING ILLUSTRATIONS                                              WWW.STOPWASTE.ORG
                Green Remodeling Illustrations
Chapter Five:
                                                 New Addition
                                                 Consider the following green remodeling options in a new addition.
                                                                                                                                                                            Existing ceiling insulated
                                                                                                                                                                            to exceed Title 24

                                                                                                                             Light colored 40-year
                                                                                                                             composition shingles


                                                 Site
                                                 • Recycle Job Site Construction and Demolition Waste
                                                                                                                                                         Solar hot water heating system
                                                 • Salvage Reusable Building Materials
                                                 • Design Resource-Efficient Landscapes and Gardens
                                                 • Provide for On-Site Water Catchment / Retention
                                                 • Remodel for Mixed Use, Adaptive Reuse, and Historic Preservation
                                                 • Install High Efficiency Irrigation Systems
                                                 • Reuse Materials or Use Recycled-Content Materials for Landscape Areas
                                                 • Protect Native Soil
 GREEN REMODELING ILLUSTRATIONS




                                                                                                                                                      Engineered lumber in roof
                                                 • Minimize Disruption of Existing Plants and Trees
                                                 • Implement Construction Site Stormwater Practices


                                                 Foundation
                                                                                                                                            High performance glazing
                                                 • Incorporate Recycled Flyash in Concrete
                                                 • Use Recycled-Content Aggregate for Backfill Drainage
                                                 • Insulate Foundation Before Backfill                                                                        Low/No VOC interior paint

                                                 Structural Frame
                                                 • Substitute Solid Sawn Lumber with Engineered Lumber
                                                 • Use FSC Certified Wood for Framing
                                                                                                                                 Finger-jointed or
                                                 • Use Wood I-Joists for Floors and Ceilings
                                                                                                                                 Engineered studs
                                                 • Use OSB for Subfloor and Sheathing
                                                 • Use Finger-Jointed, Engineered or Steel Studs for Vertical Applications
                                                 • Use Reclaimed Lumber                                                                                                    Low-VOC finish

                                                 • Use Web Floor Trusses                                                            Flyash concrete
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                 • Design Energy Heels on Roof Trusses 6” or More
                                                 • Apply Advanced Framing Techniques
                                                                                                                                                              Sustainable flooring
                                                 Exterior Finish
                                                 • Use Sustainable Decking Materials
                                                 • Use Treated Wood that Does Not Contain Chromium
                                                   or Arsenic for Decking and Sill Plates
                                                 • Use Fiber-Cement Siding Materials
                                                 • Install House Wrap Under Siding


                                                 Plumbing
                                                 • Install Hot Water Jacket Insulation
                                                 • Convert Storage to Tankless Water Heaters
                                                 • Insulate Hot and Cold Water Pipes
                                                                                                                               Electrical
                                                 • Retrofit all Faucets and Showerheads with Flow Reducers
                                                                                                                               • Install Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs
                                                 • Replace Toilets with Ultra-Low-Flow Models
                                                                                                                               • Install Lighting Controls
                                                 • Install Chlorine Filter on Showerhead
                                                                                                                               • Install High Efficiency Ceiling Fans with CFLs
                                                 • Install Water Filtration Units at Faucets
                                                                                                                               • Install Insulation-Compatible, Air-Tight Recessed Lighting Fixtures
                                                 • Install On-Demand Hot Water Circulation Pump                                  with CFLs



52
                                                                          Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
                                                                          • Use Duct Mastic on all Duct Joints
                                                                          • Install New Ductwork within Conditioned Space
                                          Upgrade to double pane,
                                          low-E window                    • Install 90% or Greater Efficiency Gas Forced Air Furnace
                                                                          • Install Attic Ventilation Systems or Solar Attic Fan
                                                                          • Clean all Ducts Before Occupancy
                                                                          • Install Whole House Fan
                                                                          • Replace Wall-Mounted Electric and Gas Heaters with Heat Pumps
                                                                          • Install Zoned, Hydronic, Radiant Heating
                                                                          • Retrofit Wood Burning Fireplaces
                                                                          • Install Heat Recovery Ventilation Unit (HRV)




                                                                                                                                            GREEN REMODELING ILLUSTRATIONS
                                                                          • Install High Efficiency Filter
                                                                          • Install 13 SEER and 11 EER (or higher) Air Conditioning
                                                                            with Non HCFC Refrigerant with a TXV
                                                                          • Install Sealed Combustion Units

                                  Fiber cement siding                     Renewable and Solar Energy
                                                                          • Pre-Plumb or Install Solar Water Heating System
                                                                          • Pre-Wire or Install Photovoltaic (PV) System
                                                                          • Install Radiant Barrier
                                                                          • Select Safe and Durable Roofing Materials
Hot and cold water
pipes insulated
                                                                          Natural Heating and Cooling
                                                                          • Incorporate Passive Solar Heating
                          House wrap under siding                         • Install Overhangs or Awnings over South Facing Windows
                                                                          • Plant Deciduous Shade Trees over the West and South Sides

                          Recycled-content insulation
                          with no added formaldehyde                      Indoor Air Quality / Finishes



                                                                                                                                            GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
                                                                          • Use Low/No-VOC Paint
                                                                          • Use Low VOC, Water-Based Wood Finishes
                                                                          • Use Low/No VOC Adhesives
                                                                          • Use Exterior Grade Plywood for Interior Uses
                                                                          • Use FSC Certified Materials for Interior Finish
                                                                          • Seal all Exposed Particleboard or MDF
                                                                          • Use Finger Jointed or Recycled-Content Trim
  Insulation                                                              • Use Salvaged Building Materials for Interior Finish
  • Upgrade Wall and Ceiling Insulation to Exceed Title 24 Requirements
                                                                          • Use Engineered Sheet Goods with No Added Formaldehyde
  • Install Recycled-Content Fiberglass Insulation
                                                                          • Install Whole House Vacuum System
    with No Added Formaldehyde
  • Use Advanced Infiltration Reduction Practices
                                                                          Flooring
  • Use Cellulose Insulation
                                                                          • Select FSC Certified Wood Flooring
  • Install Floor Insulation Over Crawl Space
                                                                          • Use Rapidly Renewable Flooring Materials
                                                                          • Use Recycled-Content Ceramic Tile
  Windows
                                                                          • Install Natural Linoleum in Place of Vinyl
  • Install Energy-Efficient Windows
                                                                          • Use Exposed Concrete as Finished Floor
  • Install Low Solar Heat Gain Coefficient Window Film
    on Single-Glazing                                                     • Install Recycled-Content Carpet with low VOCs



                                                                                                                                              53
                                                 Second Floor
                                                 Consider the following green remodeling options in a second floor.




                                                                                                                                         40 year composition roofing




                                                                                                                                                                            Whole house fan
 GREEN REMODELING ILLUSTRATIONS




                                                 Site
                                                 • Recycle Job Site Construction and Demolition Waste
                                                 • Salvage Reusable Building Materials
                                                                                                                                                                       Double pane,
                                                 • Implement Construction Site Stormwater Practices                                                                    Low-E window


                                                 Structural Frame
                                                 • Substitute Solid Sawn Lumber with Engineered Lumber
                                                 • Use FSC Certified Wood for Framing
                                                 • Use Wood I-Joists for Floors and Ceilings
                                                                                                                                        Recycled-content carpet
                                                 • Use OSB for Subfloor and Sheathing                                                   with low VOCs
                                                 • Use Finger-Jointed, Engineered or Steel Studs for
                                                   Vertical Applications
                                                 • Use Web Floor Trusses
                                                 • Design Energy Heels on Roof Trusses 6” or More
                                                 • Apply Advanced Framing Techniques
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                                                                                                                Fiber cement siding

                                                 Exterior Finish
                                                 • Use Treated Wood that Does Not Contain Chromium or
                                                   Arsenic for Decking and Sill Plates
                                                 • Use Fiber-Cement Siding Materials
                                                                                                                                                                       90% AFUE furnace
                                                 • Install House Wrap Under Siding


                                                 Plumbing
                                                 • Insulate Hot and Cold Water Pipes
                                                 • Install Chlorine Filter on Showerhead
                                                 • Install Water Filtration Units at Faucets
                                                 • Install On-Demand Hot Water Circulation Pump
                                                                                                                         Insulation
                                                 Electrical                                                              • Upgrade Wall and Ceiling Insulation to
                                                 • Install Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs)                          Exceed Title 24 Requirements
                                                 • Install Lighting Controls                                             • Install Recycled-Content Fiberglass Insulation
                                                                                                                           with No Added Formaldehyde
                                                 • Install High Efficiency Ceiling Fans with CFLs
                                                                                                                         • Use Cellulose and Other Alternative Insulation
                                                 • Install Insulation-Compatible, Air-Tight Recessed Lighting Fixtures
                                                   with CFLs                                                             • Install Floor Insulation Over Crawl Space



54
    Engineered wood I-joist




                                                                      Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
                                                                      • Use Duct Mastic on all Duct Joints
                                                                      • Install New Ductwork within Conditioned Space




                                                                                                                                   GREEN REMODELING ILLUSTRATIONS
                                                                      • Clean all Ducts Before Occupancy
                                                                      • Install Whole House Fan
                                                                      • Install 90% or Greater Efficiency Gas Forced Air Furnace
                                                                      • Install Heat Recovery Ventilation Unit (HRV)
   FSC certified wood                                                 • Install High Efficiency Filter
                                                                      • Install 13 SEER and 11 EER (or higher) Air Conditioning
                              Finger-jointed or
                                                                        with Non HCFC Refrigerant with a TXV
                              Engineered studs
                                                                      • Install Sealed Combustion Units
                                                                      • Install Attic Ventilation Systems or Solar Attic Fan


                                                                      Renewable Energy and Roofing
                                  Oriented Strand Board in subfloor   • Install Radiant Barrier
                                                                      • Pre-Wire or Install Photovoltaic (PV) System
                                                                      • Select Safe and Durable Roofing Materials


                                                                      Natural Heating and Cooling
                                                                      • Incorporate Passive Solar Heating




                                                                                                                                   GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
                                                                      • Install Overhangs or Awnings over South Facing Windows


                                                                      Indoor Air Quality / Finishes
                Low VOC finish                                        • Use Low/No-VOC Paint
                                                                      • Use Low VOC, Water-Based Wood Finishes
                                                                      • Use Low/No VOC Adhesives
                                                                      • Use Exterior Grade Plywood for Interior Uses
                                                                      • Use FSC Certified Materials for Interior Finish
                                                                      • Seal all Exposed Particleboard or MDF
                                                                      • Using Finger Jointed or Recycled-Content Trim
                                                                      • Using Engineered Sheet Goods with No Added Formaldehyde


                                                                      Flooring
                                                                      • Select FSC Certified Wood Flooring
                                                                      • Use Rapidly Renewable Flooring Materials
Windows
                                                                      • Use Recycled-Content Ceramic Tile
• Install Energy-Efficient Windows
                                                                      • Install Natural Linoleum in Place of Vinyl
• Install Low Solar Heat Gain Coefficient Window Film
  on Single-Glazing                                                   • Install Recycled-Content Carpet with low VOCs



                                                                                                                                     55
                                                 Bathroom
                                                 Consider the following green remodeling options in a bathroom.




                                                                                                                                                       Compact fluorescent bulbs




                                                 Site
                                                 • Recycle Job Site Construction and Demolition Waste
                                                 • Salvage Reusable Materials


                                                 Structural Frame                                                                      Flow reducers
 GREEN REMODELING ILLUSTRATIONS




                                                 • Substitute Solid Sawn Lumber with Engineered Lumber
                                                 • Use FSC Certified Wood for Framing
                                                 • Use Wood I-Joists for Floors and Ceilings
                                                 • Use OSB for Subfloor and Sheathing
                                                 • Use Finger-Jointed, Engineered or Steel Studs
                                                   for Vertical Applications
                                                 • Apply Advanced Framing Techniques


                                                 Plumbing
                                                 • Install Water Heater Jacket                                                                               Formaldehyde-free
                                                 • Convert Storage to Tankless Hot Water Heaters                                                             MDF substrate

                                                 • Insulate Hot and Cold Water Pipes
                                                                                                                         FSC certified wood
                                                 • Retrofit all Faucets and Showerheads with Flow Reducers
                                                 • Replace Toilets with Ultra-Low-Flow Models
                                                 • Install Chlorine Filter on Showerhead
                                                 • Install Water Filtration Units ar Faucets
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                 • Install On-Demand Hot Water Circulation Pump


                                                 Electrical
                                                 • Install Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs
                                                 • Install Lighting Controls
                                                 • Install High Efficiency Ceiling Fans with CFLs
                                                 • Install Insulation-Compatible, Air-Tight Recessed Lighting Fixtures


                                                 Insulation                                                               Windows
                                                 • Upgrade Wall and Ceiling Insulation to                                 • Install Energy-Efficient Windows
                                                   Exceed Title 24 Requirements
                                                                                                                          • Install Low Solar Heat Gain Coefficient Window Film
                                                 • Install Recycled-Content Fiberglass Insulation                           on Single-Glazing
                                                   with No Added Formaldehyde
                                                 • Use Advanced Infiltration Reduction Practices                          Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
                                                 • Use Cellulose and Other Alternative Insulation                         • Use Duct Mastic on all Duct Joints
                                                 • Install Floor Insulation Over Crawl Space                              • Install New Ductwork within Conditioned Space
                                                                                                                          • Clean all Ducts Before Occupancy
                                                                                                                          • Install Sealed Combustion Units
                                                                                                                          • Install High Efficiency Filter



56
                              Double paned,
                              Low-E window




                                       Chlorine filter
                                                           Low/No VOC interior paint




                                                                                                                                GREEN REMODELING ILLUSTRATIONS
                                        Recycled-content tile

     Ultra-Low-Flush toilet




                                                                                                                                GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




Indoor Air Quality / Finishes                                                 Flooring
• Use Low/ No-VOC and Formaldehyde-Free Paint                                 • Use Recycled-Content Ceramic Tile
• Use Low VOC, Water-Based Wood Finishes                                      • Install Natural Linoleum in Place of Vinyl
• Use Low/No VOC Adhesives                                                    • Use Exposed Concrete as Finished Floor
• Use Exterior Grade Plywood for Interior Uses                                • Install Recycled-Content Carpet with Low VOCs
• Use FSC Certified Materials for Interior Finish
• Seal all Exposed Particleboard or MDF
• Using Finger Jointed or Recycled-Content Trim
• Use Salvaged Building Materials for Interior Finish
• Use Engineered Sheet Goods with No Added Formaldehyde




                                                                                                                                  57
                                                 Kitchen Remodel
                                                 Consider the following green remodeling options in a kitchen remodel.




                                                                                                                                                                  Upgraded insulation

                                                 Site
                                                 • Recycle Job Site Construction and Demolition Waste
                                                 • Salvage Reusable Materials


                                                 Plumbing
                                                 • Insulate Hot and Cold Water Pipes
                                                 • Retrofit all Faucets with Flow Reducers
                                                 • Install Water Filtration Units at Faucets
                                                                                                                                                                              Range vented outside
                                                 • Install On-Demand Hot Water Circulation Pump
 GREEN REMODELING ILLUSTRATIONS




                                                 Electrical
                                                 • Install Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs
                                                 • Install Lighting Controls
                                                 • Install High Efficiency Ceiling Fans with CFLs
                                                 • Install Insulation-Compatible, Air-Tight Recessed Lighting Fixtures


                                                 Appliances
                                                                                                                                                       Energy Star®
                                                 • Install Energy Star® Dishwasher
                                                                                                                                                       refrigerator
                                                 • Install Washing Machine with Water and
                                                   Energy Conservation Features
                                                 • Install Energy Star® Refrigerator
                                                 • Install Built-In Recycling Center


                                                 Insulation
                                                 • Upgrade Wall and Ceiling Insulation to
                                                   Exceed Title 24 Requirement
                                                 • Install Recycled-Content Fiberglass Insulation
 GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING




                                                   with No Added Formaldehyde
                                                 • Use Advanced Infiltration Reduction Practices
                                                 • Use Cellulose and Other Alternative Insulation
                                                 • Install Floor Insulation Over Crawl Space

                                                                                                                                                                             Sustainable flooring with
                                                 Windows                                                                                                                     Low/No VOC Adhesives
                                                 • Install Energy-Efficient Windows
                                                 • Install Low Solar Heat Gain Coefficient Window Film
                                                   on Single-Glazing
                                                                                                                         Indoor Air Quality / Finishes
                                                                                                                         • Use Low/No-VOC Paint
                                                 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
                                                                                                                         • Use Low VOC, Water-Based Wood Finishes
                                                 • Use Duct Mastic on all Duct Joints
                                                                                                                         • Use Low/No VOC Adhesives
                                                 • Vent Range Hood to the Outside
                                                                                                                         • Use Exterior Grade Plywood for Interior Uses
                                                 • Install Sealed Combustion Units
                                                                                                                         • Use FSC Certified Materials for Interior Finish
                                                 • Install High Efficiency Filter
                                                                                                                         • Seal all Exposed Particleboard or MDF
                                                 Natural Heating and Cooling                                             • Using Finger Jointed or Recycled-Content Trim
                                                 • Install Overhangs or Awnings over South Facing Windows                • Use Salvaged Building Materials for Interior Finish
                                                 • Plant Deciduous Shade Trees on the West and South Sides               • Use Engineered Sheet Goods with No Added Formaldehyde



58
                                                                Compact fluorescent light
                                                                bulbs in IC-AT fixtures




                Formaldehyde-free materials




                                                                                                               Upgraded insulation




                                                                                                                                     GREEN REMODELING ILLUSTRATIONS
                                                                                            FSC Certified trim




                                                                                                        Low/No VOC paint




                                                                            Non-toxic household cleaners


                    Flow reducer




                                                                                              ENERGY STAR® dishwasher




                                                                                                                                     GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING
Recycled-content tile




                                    Built-in recycling center
                                                                Flooring
                                                                • Select FSC Certified Wood Flooring
                                                                • Use Rapidly Renewable Flooring Materials
                                                                • Use Recycled-Content Ceramic Tile
                                                                • Install Natural Linoleum in Place of Vinyl
                                                                • Use Exposed Concrete as Finished Floor



                                                                                                                                       59
60
     GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES FOR HOME REMODELING   NOTE




                                                            Notes

								
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