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					        Fostering New Sources of Mo-99
   for International Nuclear Medicine Needs
IAEA CRP on Mo-99 Production Using LEU
         or Neutron Activation
  Ira N. Goldman, Natesan Ramamoorthy, Pablo Adelfang
            International Atomic Energy Agency
             2008 RERTR International Meeting
                     October 5 - 9, 2008
                      Washington, DC
                  RERTR 2008
                IAEA Mo-99 CRP

•   Background and History
•   Participants
•   Recent Activities and Progress
•   Training/Technical Support and Procurements
•   Near-Term Plans
•   Conclusion
                    RERTR 2008
                  IAEA Mo-99 CRP
•   99mTc reigns as the most used diagnostic tracer; 75-
    80% of all imaging  >25 million studies/year
•   Weekly 99Mo requirements: ~450000 GBq (12000Ci, ‘6-
    day curies’) at reference time (~50% for USA). Well over
    95% of 99Mo is produced using HEU targets (~50 kg)
•   Efforts to shift production of medical isotopes away
    from use of HEU (through RERTR, DOE/USA)
•   Some Member States (MS) of IAEA are seeking to
    become small scale, indigenous producers of 99Mo
•   Need to encourage and provide access to LEU
    technology or neutron activation (NA) methods as HEU
    is phased out from commercial use
                     RERTR 2008
                   IAEA Mo-99 CRP
• Assist member states with adoption of LEU Cintichem
    (foil targets) or neutron activation (gel moly)
•   Further demonstrate efficacy of LEU production of 99Mo
•   Advance intnl coopn for non-proliferation and nuclear
    security objectives, promote sustainable development.
•   Foster capacity building for local/regional self-
    sufficiency to meet 99Mo needs
•   Not Aimed: Engaging the large-scale industrial
    producers (but some are participating/contributing)
                      RERTR 2008
                    IAEA Mo-99 CRP
• November 2004 - Project Design Consultancy, Vienna
• February 2005 - CRP approved
• May 2005 - Potential Mo-99 Producer’s Workshop, Buenos
    Aires, Argentina
•   December 2005 – 1st RCM, Vienna, Austria
•   March 2006 – Foil Targets Workshop, Serpong, Indonesia
•   November 2006 - Workshop on Operational Aspects of Mo-
    99 Production, Vienna, Austria
•   April 2007 – 2nd RCM, Bucharest and Pitesti, Romania
•   2007-2008 – Various training activities in Argentina, Chile,
    India, and Indonesia; equipment procurement, process
    installation, testing
•   Oct 13-16, 2008: 3rd RCM, MURR, Columbia, Mo, USA
                      RERTR 2008
                      Mo-99 CRP

• Contract Holders:

  -Chile/CCHEN - LEU foil targets fission moly
  -Egypt/EAEA – fission moly and gel generators
  -Kazakhstan/INP - gel moly portable generators
  -Libya/DRETC - LEU foil targets fission moly
  -Pakistan/PINSTECH - LEU foil plate targets fission
  -Romania/IFIN-HH Magurele - gel moly
  -Romania/INR Pitesti - LEU foil targets fission moly
                  RERTR 2008
                  Mo-99 CRP

• Agreement Holders:

                          RERTR 2008
                        IAEA Mo-99 CRP
                      Recent Progress/Activities
•   KAERI LEU foils sent to Poland, U.S. (ANL and MURR), October 2007
•   Further calculation and analytical work (Chile, Egypt, Libya, Pakistan)
•   Annular foil target assembly and testing (Chile, Romania2)
•   R&D LEU foil plate target and LEU electro-deposition (Pakistan)
•   Hot cell modifications and preparations (Chile – new manipulators;
    Libya, Romania2, MURR)
•   Development of processing procedures, cold run (Chile, MURR,
•   Development of QA procedures (Chile, MURR, Romania2)
•   Substantial intra-participant training and HR development (next slide)
•   Gel moly development and implementation (Kazakhstan, Romania1)
                      RERTR 2008
                    IAEA Mo-99 CRP
     Fostering Provision of Materials, Information Exchange
• Aluminium tubing shipped from ANL (03/06)
• KAERI supply of test foils with IAEA facilitation for transfers.
    LEU foils delivered to 4-5 participants (2007)
•   Glassware procured by IAEA with DOE funding; received
    by late 2006/early 2007
•   ANSTO safety documentation distributed (early 2007)
•   MURR assistance in performing and evaluating thermal
    hydraulics calculations
•   BRIT/BARC assistance with gel generator know-how
•   CRP website increasingly important tool with several
    technical reports posted
                       RERTR 2008
                     IAEA Mo-99 CRP
    Training/Technical Assistance and Procurements

• BRIT (India), February 2008, 1 Kazakhstan SV re: portable
    gel moly generator technology
•   BATAN, March 2008 - 1 Chilean, 2 Libyan Fellows LEU
    ingot rolling process, foil target fabrication, waste treatment
•   CNEA, June 2008 - 1 Libyan SV, QC for Mo-99 production
•   CCHEN, August 2008 - 1 Poland SV, LEU annular target
    fabrication equipment design, assembly, welding (2 Libyans
    unable to reach Chile)
•   Additional aluminum tubes procured by ANL for Chile and
•   Bids for Cintichem laboratory equipment and supplies for
    Libya; evaluation underway
       RERTR 2008: IAEA Mo-99 CRP
      Progress Status and Perspectives
• Several groups in the CRP will advance to
  demonstrating 99Mo production using LEU
• Objective findings on all related aspects: feasibility
  to adaptability – scope, requirements
• Possible role of a few groups significant: (i)
  MURR, USA to establish compliance of LEU moly
  for generator use; (ii) 4 groups already handling
  generator production, thus well placed to use local
  LEU moly
• 2 other groups will show the scale of applicability
  of gel moly system
                    RERTR 2008
                  IAEA Mo-99 CRP
                      Future Activities

• 3rd RCM, 13-16 October, MURR
• Provision of fabricated annular targets to Libya
• 1 Poland Fellowship to MURR (1 month, Oct-Nov. 2008)
• Extension of CRP for an additional two years
• Irradiation of LEU targets and processing of hot targets
• Irradiation of Mo oxide and preparation of ‘moly Mo-99 gel
  powder for gel column generators
• Compare, assess, and interpret results, provide follow-up,
  and suggest adaptive changes
• Review compliance with specifications and purity
• Document/publish results
                      RERTR 2008
                    IAEA Mo-99 CRP
                      Other Activities

• Participated in Global Initiative (GI) for Preventing
    Proliferation Workshop on Mo-99 Production, Sydney,
    December 2007
•   Maintain contact/input to NAS Mo-99 Study
•   Participated in DOE Isotopes Workshop, August 2008
•   Respond to many inquiries regarding research reactors and
    Mo-99 production.
•   Encouraging RR networking, collaboration for isotope
    production (and other activities) under IAEA Research
    Reactor Coalitions Initiative.
Sydney Workshop on the
Production of 99Mo using LEU

    Dec 2-5, 2007; 50 participants from 14 countries
•   IAEA invited to, (I) join Executive Committee; (ii)
    present a talk; (iii) chair a Session
•   Practically all stakeholders sat together!
•   Workshop report: key issues, challenges
    (technical; economic; political) and path forward
•   Formal report to GI plenary in summer 2008
                     RERTR 2008
                   IAEA Mo-99 CRP

               Other influencing events

• Vulnerability of Mo-99 supplies: Fall 2007 Canadian event;
    Summer 2008 European scenario
•   May 2008: Closure of MAPLE reactor project announced
•   NAS Mo-99 Study complete; Report awaited
•   Follow-up on DOE Isotopes Workshop held in August 2008
•   Enquiries regarding the IAEA help: research reactor
    availability and Mo-99 production
•   Progress in additional production plans and identifying
    potential possibilities
                          RERTR 2008
                        IAEA Mo-99 CRP

• Many CRP participants continue to make excellent progress.
• Increasing technology transfer between the contract holders.
• Participants are developing physical and human resource infrastructure
    to carry out successful trial irradiation and processing.
•   Recent events have demonstrated the fragility of the global Mo-99
    supply infrastructure.
•   Medium term outlook for global Mo-99 supply highly uncertain due to
    aging isotope production reactors, lack of planned replacements.
•   Several participants have significant facilities that could be utilized in
    addressing global Mo-99 requirements.
•   Partnerships, joint ventures, or other commercial arrangements needed
    to further develop such potential alternative producers.
•   IAEA prepared to provide a forum to bring together all
    stakeholders for an objective analysis of requirements and to
    consider options for path forward.

• DOE/NNSA – primary
  project funding
• NTI: project
  management finances
• Government of Norway
  – financial support
  CERCA: in-kind
Thank you all for your attention

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