To make good candy you must:
Follow the directions exactly
– Mix correctly
– Measure accurately
– Cook to the exact temperature
Types of Candy
– Contain fine sugar crystals
– Taste smooth and creamy
• Examples: fudge, fondant, divinity
– Do not contain sugar crystals
– Can be chewy or brittle
• Examples: caramels, peanut brittle, toffee
• For Crystalline candy you want the sugar
syrup to form crystals, but they should be
very small and fine.
• Sugar must be heated to a specific
temperature, cooled to a specific
temperature and then beaten vigorously
• Sugar syrup should not form crystals
• To prevent crystal formation heat to a very
• Add substances like corn syrup, milk,
cream, or butter to interfere with the
• Use a heavy saucepan to prevent
• Use a candy thermometer to tell when the
correct temperature is reached
Stages of Candy
• Soft Ball 235°F –240: Forms a soft ball when small amount is dropped in cold water and
when removed from the water it can be easily flattened when pressed between fingers.
Used when making fudge, fondant, pralines, creams, and buttercreams.
• Firm Ball 245°F – 250°F / 123°C t0 125°C: Forms a hard ball when small amount is dropped
in cold water and when removed from the water it does not flatten but when squeezed
tightly, it will flattened. Used to make caramels.
• Hard Ball 250°F – 265°F / 125°C – 133°C: When dripped from a spoon the syrup forms thick
threads that when dropped in cold water will form a hard ball that holds its shape when
removed. The ball holds its shape but with enough pressure it can still be change. Used
when making nougat, divinity and marshmallows.
• Soft Crack 270°F – 290°F / 135°C – 145°C: When syrup is dropped into cold water at the soft
crack stage, it separates into hard thread but are not brittle. The threads will bend a little
before they break. Used to make taffy, butterscotch and popcorn balls.
• Hard Crack 300°F – 310°F / 150°C – 155°C: When syrup is dropped into cold water at the
hard crack stage, it separates into hard brittle threads that can not be bent without
breaking. Used to make toffee, brittle and hard candy.
• Thread – 215°F - 235°F / 108°C – 118°C: Forms a thin 2 inch thread when dropped in cold
water. Used when making syrups, jelly, fruit liqueur and some icings.
Thread Stage: 223-235 degrees
Soft Ball Stage: 235-245 degrees
Firm Ball Stage: 245-250 degrees
Hard Ball Stage: 250-266 degrees
Soft Crack Stage: 270-290 degrees
Hard Crack Stage: 300-
Caramel Stage: 320-350 degrees
Common Candy Ingredients
• There are two main factors that affect the
taste of your candy: the ingredients you
use and the procedure you follow. By
educating yourself about common candy
ingredients such as chocolate and sugar,
and by selecting the best ingredients you
can find, you will go a long way toward
ensuring successful, delicious candy.
Working With Sugar
• There is nothing terribly mysterious or
complicated about making candy, but if you are
new to the world of confectionery, you might find
some of the recipe instructions confusing.
Candies that are based on a sugar syrup—sugar
and water boiled together—often give
instructions to boil the syrup to a specific
temperature. To make these recipes, you will
either need a candy thermometer, or will need to
be familiar with the ―cold-water method‖ of
• Please be careful when working with hot sugar,
especially if you decide to use the cold-water
method of temperature testing. Sugar burns are
nasty. Hot sugar is almost impossible to quick
rub or rinse off the skin, and thus continues
burning long after it comes into contact with your
skin. Please don't allow yourself to be sloppy or
distracted when working with hot sugar, and
avoid dangling hair, jewelry, or clothing over the
Working with Chocolate
• After sugar, chocolate is probably the most
common candy ingredient, so it is
important to know how to successfully
work with chocolate. If you make a
mistake while working with chocolate—
and who hasn’t?—there are also solutions
and suggestions for salvaging your
Chop the chocolate before melting
• Chopping insures uniform pieces so it will melt
evenly and not over heat.
• If chocolate comes in contact with any water it
will ―seize‖ and turn into a clumpy grainy mess in
• To avoid seizing:
– Do not use wooden spoons
– Heat in a double boiler and keep below the boiling
– Never cover with a lid (it may cause condensation)
• There are specialty tools called chocolate
chippers that can be purchased and used to
break up chocolate, but a chef’s knife or a
serrated knife works just as well. Choose a
sharp, heavy chef’s knife and press down firmly
and evenly on the chocolate, beginning with the
corners and angling the knife slightly outward.
Whittle the chocolate gradually, working from the
corners, until the chocolate is chopped into
Can I Fix ―seized‖ Chocolate?
• It can’t be used for dipping, but it can still
be used for baking projects. Stir solid
vegetable shortening into the chocolate,
using 1 tablespoon for every 6 ounces of
chocolate. Stir gently and evenly until the
chocolate has loosened and the
shortening is incorporated. You can now
use this chocolate for brownies, cakes,
cookies, or other recipes that call for
• Shiny finish
• Satisfying snap
• If you're planning on making dipped
chocolates or molded chocolates, the
chocolate will need to be tempered so that
it behaves properly and produces candies
that are both tasty and beautiful.
How to Temper Chocolate
1. Chop the chocolate (never 4. Bring dark chocolate to 115°
use chips or wafers) and milk chocolate to 110°
2. Melt 2/3 of your chocolate in a remove from heat, wipe the
double boiler over simmering bottom of the bowl, set on the
water using a candy counter
thermometer to check 5. Add the remaining chunks of
progress chocolate and stir until melted
3. Use a rubber spatula to stir, 6. When the temperature cools to
gently, but constantly 84° remove any remaining
chunks of chocolate
7. Reheat until 88-89°
8. The chocolate should be kept
over hot water and remain
between 85-88° for use.
Did you know…
• Candy is made simply by dissolving sugar in
water. The different heating levels determine the
types of candy: Hot temperatures make hard
candy, medium heat will make soft candy and
cool temperatures make chewy candy.
• About 65 percent of American candy brands
have been around for more than 50 years.
• Halloween is the holiday with the highest candy
sales, followed by Easter, Christmas and
Fun Facts About Chocolate
• Chocolate is America's favorite flavor. A recent survey revealed that 52
percent of U.S. adults said they like chocolate best. The second favorite
flavor was a tie (at 12 percent each) between berry flavors and vanilla.
• U.S. chocolate manufacturers currently use 40 percent of the almonds
produced in the United States and 25 percent of domestic peanuts.
• U.S. chocolate manufacturers use about 3.5 million pounds of whole milk
every day to make chocolate.
• Sixty-five percent of American chocolate eaters prefer milk chocolate.
• The melting point of cocoa butter is just below the human body temperature
(98.6 degrees) — which is why it literally melts in your mouth.
• Older children are significantly more likely to prefer chocolate than younger
children (59 percent of 9-11year-olds prefer chocolate vs. 46 percent of 6-8
year-olds), according to an NCA survey.
History of Candy
• 1854 The first packaged box of Whitman's chocolate
• 1868 Richard Cadbury introduces the first Valentine's
Day box of chocolates.
• 1880s Wunderle Candy Company creates candy corn. In
1898, Goelitz Confectionery Company began making
candy corn and has made this Halloween favorite longer
than any other company.
• 1893 William Wrigley, Jr. introduces Juicy Fruit gum and
Wrigley's Spearmint gum.
• 1896 Tootsie Rolls debut, introduced by Leo Hirshfield of
New York who named them after his daughter's
• 1900 Milton S. Hershey of Lancaster, PA introduces the first
Hershey milk chocolate bar.
• 1901 The King Leo pure peppermint stick candy was developed and
trademarked. The stick has been in continuous production since
then and is still offered today in old-fashioned gift tins with the King
Leo Lion motif by its current manufacturer, Quality Candy Company,
• 1901 Pastel-colored little candy disks called NECCO wafers first
appear named for the acronym of the New England Confectionery
• 1902 Necco makes the first conversation hearts - tiny Valentine's
Day favorites with messages printed on them.
• 1905 The Squirrel Brand Company of Massachusetts creates the
first peanut bar.
• 1907 Hershey's Kisses chocolates appear in their familiar foil wraps.
• 1912 Life Savers, the candy named for its ring shape
with the hole in the center is introduced in peppermint
flavor. It would be 22 years before the popular five-flavor
roll is introduced.
• 1912 The Whitman's Sampler box of chocolates is born
when the company president decides the needlework
sampler hanging in his home would make beautiful
packaging. It is the the first box of chocolates to include
a now-famous index showing the filling in each candy.
• 1913 Goo Goo Clusters, a Southern favorite, was the
first bar to combine milk chocolate, caramel,
marshmallow and peanuts.
• 1920 Fannie May Candies opens its first candy shop in Chicago producing a variety
of chocolate enrobed buttercreams and caramels.
• 1920 The Baby Ruth candy bar is first sold, named for President Grover Cleveland's
daughter - not the famous baseball player.
• 1921 Chuckles - colorful, sugared jelly candies are first made.
• 1922 Goldenberg's Peanut Chews are first made in Philadelphia and soon became
popular along the East Coast.
• 1922 Hans Riegel invented a chewy candy called the "dancing bear". Later this
confection became known as gummi bears.
• 1923 Mounds, the double candy bar, offered a coconut filling enrobed in chocolate.
• 1923 M&M/Mars Milk Way Bar is the first of many candies to be introduced by the
Mars family, created to taste like a malted milk that would be available anywhere, any
• 1925 Bit-O-Honey debuts, the honey-flavored taffy bar made with bits of almond.
• 1926 Milk Duds are introduced as bite-size caramel morsels covered in chocolate.
• 1928 Crunchy Heath Bars appear, offering chocolate covered toffee.
• 1928 Reeses Peanut Butter Cups, named for the man who created them, are a
peanut butter-chocolate combination among the most popular candy bars today.
• 1930 M&M/Mars introduces the Snickers Bar, named for a favorite horse owned by
the Mars family. It is the number-one selling candy bar in the U.S. today.
• 1930's Ferrara Pan Candy Company introduces Boston Baked Beans. Ferrara has
the ability to make 38,600 pounds of Boston Baked Beans per day.
• 1931 Tootsie Roll Pops are introduced and soon widely advertised as the lollipop that
offers two candies in one - flavored hard candy on the outside and chewy Tootsie Roll
• 1931 Valomilk, the creamy marshmallow center candy bar, was created by accident
when a candymaker at Sifers Candy Company forgot about a batch of cooking
marshmallow and it remained runny when cooled. Combined with chocolate, it made
a wonderful, gooey treat.
• 1932 MARS® Almond Bar introduced by M&M/MARS
• 1932 Katherine Beecher Butter Mints are melt-in-your mouth butter mints perfected
by Katherine Beecher in her Manchester, PA candy company where they are still
made today, according to the original recipe.
• 1932 Red Hots are made by Ferrara Pan Candy Company. These fiery little candy
pellets are flavored with cinnamon.
• 1932 M&M/Mars debuts the 3 Musketeers Bar, originally made as a three-flavor bar
featuring chocolate, vanilla and strawberry nougat. In 1945, it was changed to all
• 1936 The 5th Avenue Bar was originated by the man perhaps best known for his
cough drops - William H. Luden. It was made from layers of peanut butter crunch
coated in milk chocolate.
• 1938 Bartons was founded, they are the maker of "Almond Kisses", two almonds
surrounded by caramel. They are now owned by Cherrydale Farms/Haddinton Farms.
• 1939 Hershey's Miniatures chocolate bars debut.
• 1941 "M&M's" Plain Chocolate Candies are introduced in response
to slack chocolate sales in summer. Fifty-nine years later,
M&M/Mars changed the name of this popular candy item to "M&M's"
Milk Chocolate Candies.
• 1942-1945 Women working on the Whitman's Sampler production
line secretly slipped notes to soldiers in those boxes destined for
military shipment. The notes resulted in several long-term
friendships and even a few marriages.
• 1949 Junior Mints offered soft mint centers drenched in dark
• 1949 Smarties small pastel candy disks are introduced, followed by
the Smarties Necklace nine years later.
• 1949 El Bubble Bubble Gum Cigars are the first five-cent bubble
gum. In the mid-1980s, the same company began to make pink and
blue bubble gum cigars to celebrate births.
• 1954 Marshmallow Peeps are introduced by
Just Born, Inc. in the shape of Easter chicks.
Today, Peeps come in a variety of seasonal
shapes and more than 2 million Peeps are made
• 1954 Atomic Fireballs are introduced by Ferrara
Pan Candy Company.
• 1950 Bobs Candy Canes, sold under the Cris
Cringle brand, are introduced nationwide.
Legend has it that candy canes were originally
created by a German choirmaster.
• 1960 M&M/Mars Starburst Fruit Chews are
introduced and later fortified with 50 percent of
the daily value for Vitamin C.
• 1960 Blammo becomes the first sugar free, soft
bubble gum introduced by Amurol Confections.
• 1962 Lemonheads are created by Ferrara Pan
Candy Company, later inspiring the introduction
of Grapeheads, Appleheads, Orangeheads and
• 1963 SweeTarts The candy pellets with the
original sweet and tart flavor combination are
• 1970 Snickers Munch Bar introduced by
• 1976 Introduced by Herman Goelitz Candy
Company, Jelly Belly Jelly Beans offer
consumers fun and unique flavors in a tiny jelly
• 1978 Hershey's Reese's Pieces bite-size
candies are introduced and four years later
made popular by the blockbuster movie E.T.
• 1979 TWIX Caramel Cookie Bars introduced in
the U.S. by M&M/MAR
• 1980 Goelitz introduces the first American-
made gummy bears and gummy worms.
Formerly, these candies were imported
• 1981 A European favorite since 1974,
SKITTLES Bite Size Candies are
introduced in the U.S. by M&M/MARS
• 1992 DOVE Dark Chocolate Bar and DOVE Milk Chocolate Bar
introduced nationally by M&M/MARS
• 1994 Blitz Power Mints are one of several strong mints introduced in
the 1990s as the breath freshener category grows.
• 1994 STARBURST® Jellybeans introduced by M&M/MARS
• 1996 Zingos, another one of several strong mint introductions, is
created by Brown & Haley.
• 1998 Holopops become the first hologram lollipops introduced by
Light Vision Confections. The design on their etched surface
appears to change as you move the pop.
• 1999 Sound Bites Lollipops from Cap Candies is the first radio-
lollipop combination in the growing interactive candy segment
• 2001 "M&M's"® Dulce de Leche Caramel
Chocolate Candies introduced to tap into
growing Latino market
Candy from Around the World
In China and many other Asian countries, as
well as in Hawaii, pickled or preserved fruits
covered in li hing, a sweet-sour-salty powder,
are a popular treat, along with candied ginger
Strong and salty varieties of black licorice, made from
the root of a flowering plant, are very popular in many
European countries, particularly Holland, Denmark, and
A thick, extremely sweet form of caramelized milk known as
dulce de leche (doce de leite in Portuguese) is a popular
favorite in many Central and South American countries.
Gummy bears were invented in Germany in the 1920s, which
led to the creation of many other kinds of "gummy" candies.
Today, gummy candies are a big favorite in many countries.
Made in many Middle Eastern countries, Turkish
Delight, or loucum ("rest for the throat"), is a jellied
sweet that’s flavored with rose water or fruit and often
contains nuts such as pistachios, hazelnuts, walnuts, or
These brigadeiros, often served at birthday parties in Brazil, are
made with condensed milk and cocoa powder, then rolled in
• Made from the beans of the cacao tree
• Beans are roasted first, shelled, pressed,
and heated until they form a liquid which is
called chocolate liquor
• Some of the fat or cocoa butter may be
removed. High cocoa butter fat is a sign of
high quality chocolate
• Baking and eating chocolate are made
from the chocolate liquor
• It comes in various degrees of sweetness
– Unsweetened—no sugar
– Bittersweet –a little sugar
– Semisweet-a little more sugar
– Milk chocolate-the most sugar
• Sweetened chocolates also contain vanilla, milk
chocolate also contains milk solids
Other Chocolate Products
• Cocoa—made from dried chocolate liquor
that is finely ground into a powder
• White chocolate-made form cocoa butter,
sugar, milk solids, and flavorings
• Imitation chocolate—made with vegetable
oil instead of cocoa butter—lacks the
creamy texture of chocolate
To Melt Chocolate
• Chop into small pieces
• Place in a double boiler over hot water
• Stir constantly as it melts
• Remove from heat after melting to prevent
• May be melted in the microwave
• Tempering returns the cocoa butter crystals to suspension within the
chocolate mass and produces a chocolate with a dark glossy appearance
and a firm consistency. There are many processes used for tempering but I
have found the following to be most reliable. You will need a double boiler, a
candy thermometer that will register low temperatures to 82.4F, a rubber
spatula and at least one pound of semi-sweet, milk or white chocolate
chopped into small pieces.
• Melt 2/3 of the chocolate in the double boiler over hot, but not simmering,
water that is not touching the bottom of the container holding the chocolate.
(Remember, the biggest enemy of real chocolate is heat, so don't let the
water get too hot.) Melt the chocolate until it reaches a temperature of
• Remove the top of the double boiler containing the chocolate and place it
on a towel on the counter. Beat in the remaining 1/3 of chopped chocolate
letting the mixture cool to approximately: 87.8F for semisweet chocolate,
84.2F for milk chocolate, and 82.4F for white chocolate. Mixture should be
smooth and glossy. Hold at that temperature by moving the container on
and off the hot water while you dip or mold your chocolates.
• A simple mixture of chocolate and cream
Candy bar test