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Question and Answers of Retail Buying Question by ycv18998

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									 The Questionnaire
Development Process

      MKTG 3342
       Fall 2008

   Professor Edward Fox
                      Questionnaire

 Definition – A set of questions designed to
  generate the information necessary to meet
  research objectives
 Characteristics
       Elicits information from respondents
       Results can be tabulated
       Standardized across respondents
       Understandable to respondents
   A good questionnaire must:
       provide the necessary information
       be considerate of respondents
       meet coding and data processing requirements
        The Questionnaire Design Process

                     Implementation
                                            Determine Data
                                           Collection Methods
                                                                  Determine Question
                                                                   Response Format

Prepare Final Copy
                               Determine Survey
                                Objectives and
                                  Constraints                           Decide on Question
                                                                             Wording

Pretest and Revise


                       Obtain Approval                                  Establish
                       from all Relevant        Evaluate the        Questionnaire Flow
                           Parties            Questionnaire and        and Layout
                                                   Layout
    Step 1: Determine Survey Objectives

 Translates research objectives into
  information requirements
 Survey objectives should be spelled out as
  clearly and precisely as possible

 Rule 1 - Let the research objectives
  dictate what questions to ask
 Rule 2 - Avoid unnecessary questions
Step 2: Determine the Data Collection
              Method

   We previously discussed the variety of ways
    that survey data can be gathered
     Personal
     Telephone
     Electronic
     Mail
     Self administered

   Each method has a different impact on
    survey design
    Step 3: Determine the Question
           Response Format
Open-Ended Questions
   Open-ended  questions are those in which the
    respondent can reply in his/her own words
   Example of an open-ended question:

     What are the advantages, if any, of
     ordering from a mail order catalog
     compared with buying at a nearby
     retail outlet?
        Open-Ended Questions


Open-ended questions are useful:

 to interpret closed-ended responses
 when there are too many alternatives
  to list
 when alternatives vary between
  respondents or are not clear
 when intensity of feeling is important
 when verbatim response is helpful
 for some sensitive issues (e.g. illness)
        Open-Ended Questions

Advantages
 More information
 Wide range of responses
 Maybe more accurate description
Limitations
 Respondent articulateness can lead to
  error/variation
 Time consuming for respondent
 Coding and analysis is difficult
    Step 3: Determine the Question
           Response Format
Closed-Ended Questions
  A  closed-ended question is one that requires
    the respondent to make a selection from a list
    of options
   The primary advantage of closed-ended
    questions is avoiding the problems of open-
    ended questions (such as subjectivity, coding,
    etc.)
   May be dichotomous or multiple choice
       Closed-Ended Questions

 Types
   Dichotomous    – Respondent chooses
     between two alternatives
    Multiple-Choice – Respondent selects from
     among several alternatives
 Example of a multiple-choice question:

 Who do you think will win the World Series?
  A. Tampa Bay Devil Rays
  B. Boston Red Sox
  C. Philadelphia Phillies
  D. Los Angeles Dodgers
    Step 3: Determine the Question
           Response Format
Scaled-Response Questions
   Question  format that permits measurement of
    the “intensity” of a respondent’s answers
   Example of a scaled-response question:
      Now that you have tried the new sugar-free
      Slurpee, would you say that you would…
      (Check one)
              definitely buy it
              probably buy it
              might or might not buy it
              probably not buy it
              definitely not buy it
        Closed-Ended Questions
Advantages
 Easier to answer
 Reduce measurement error by overcoming
  respondent articulateness and possible
  interviewer bias
 Easy to code and analyze
 More likely to respond for some personal data
  (e.g. income, age)
Disadvantages
 Information is lost
 Answers may not be precise
 Not able to develop alternatives
      Step 4: Question Wording

 Rule 3: Use simple words
    e.g., not “marital status” but whether
     “married,” “single” or “divorced”
 Rule 4: Use unambiguous words (words
  that are easily and clearly understood)
  e.g. not “where do you usually buy school
   supplies?”
   but “from which retailer(s) did you buy school
   supplies this year?”
  “where” and “usually” are often ambiguous
            Question Wording

 Rule 5: Avoid “double-barreled”
  questions (two questions in one)
        “What is your opinion about the price
   e.g.,
   and convenience of DART?”
 Rule 6: Avoid leading questions
  (questions that imply an answer)
   e.g.“Do you agree that the government
   should cut taxes so that we can lead better
   lives?”
              Question Wording

 Rule 7: Avoid “loaded” questions
  (framing questions so that they are
  leading or emotionally charged)
     e.g., “Do you think chemical companies are
      doing everything possible to control
      pollution?”
 Rule 8: Avoid implicit assumptions or
  alternatives – State them clearly
     e.g., “Do you favor a law mandating
      methanol-free gasoline” [if it means an incras
      in gas prices]
            Question Wording

 Rule 9: Avoid burdensome questions
  (questions that tax memory or skills)
   e.g.,“How many different brands of breakfast
    cereal have you bought in the last twelve
    months?”
 Rule 10: Clarify references (how the
  should respondent answer)
   e.g.,“State your annual income” [personal
    income or household income?]
           Question Wording
 Rule 11: Alternatives should be
  mutually exclusive,collectively
  exhaustive, and have reasonable
  range
  e.g., What is your annual household income?
  __ $0 - $10,000
  __ $10,000 - $15,000
  __ $15,000 - $20,000
  __ $40,000 - $60,000

 What is wrong with this question and how
 would you correct it?
     Question Wording – Scaled
             Responses
 Rule 12: Use appropriate phrases
  e.g.,
  B. Are you: (1) amazingly happy, (2)
     middling happy or (3) kind of unhappy
     (check one)
  A. Are you: (1) very happy, (2) happy or (3)
     unhappy (check one)
 Rule 13: Avoid order bias
  e.g., should you start with (1) as “very
     happy” or (1) as “unhappy?”
        Question Wording - Sensitive /
          Embarrassing Questions
   Questions about borrowing money, personal
    hygiene, sexual activity, criminal history, etc.
    must be phrased carefully to minimize
    measurement error
   Suggestions/Techniques - Not Rules
       Ask non-threateningly and mix with other questions
         e.g., How many times each day do you brush your
           teeth?
       Frame question to prompt more honest responses
         e.g., Many people find it difficult to brush their teeth
           twice a day. How often do you brush your teeth?
        Step 5: Questionnaire Flow and
                   Layout

                        After identifying
  Use screening
                      qualified respondent,
   questions to                                 Ask general
                      begin with a question
identify qualified                             questions first
                         that piques the
   respondents
                      respondent’s interest




Position sensitive,
                                              Ask questions that
threatening, and
                       Insert “prompters”     require “work” in
  demographic
                        at strategic points    the middle of the
 questions as the
                                                 questionnaire
       end
Step 5: Questionnaire Flow and Layout

 Rule 14: Opening questions should be
  simple and interesting – begin with open-
  ended question if warm-up is necessary

 Rule 15: Use “funnel approach” – ask
  most general questions first, then
  increasingly specific questions

 Rule 16: Questions should flow smoothly
  and logically
Step 5: Questionnaire Flow and Layout
 Rule 17: Ask “screener” questions up front
  to assess respondent qualifications

 Rule 18: Ask sensitive questions near the
  end

 Rule 19: Ask for demographic information
  at the end

 Rule 20: The questionnaire’s appearance
  should be attractive and professional
     Step 6: Evaluate the Questionnaire
   Is each question necessary?
   Is the questionnaire too long?
   Will the questions provide the desired information
    to accomplish the research objectives?
   Is the layout attractive and professional?
       Step 8: Pretest and Revise

 Rule 21: Always pretest your questionnaire
 Pretesting can be done by giving the
 questionnaire to a few friends, “experts”, and
 potential respondents (may be 5-10 persons
 total), asking them to fill out, and obtaining
 their feedback
    Step 8: Pretest and Revise

Pretest the questionnaire for:
 wording of individual questions
 flow of the questionnaire
 skip patterns
 length
 respondent interest and attention
         Step 9: Prepare Final Copy

   Even the final copy phase does not allow
    the researcher to relax.
     Precisetyping instructions, spacing,
      numbering, and precoding must be set up,
      monitored, and proofread,

      before …

    Step 10: Implement the Survey

								
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