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					                                  Global Human Technology




            Effectiveness and ffficiency of FSC and PEFC
                   forest certifications on pilot areas in
                            Nordic countries




 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                     1
                                                     Global Human Technology



        Effectiveness and efficiency of forest certification
             Table of Content
               1. Study objectives
               2. Pilot areas and assessed standards
               3. Ownership of certified forests
               4. Study approach
               5. Effectiveness and efficiency (definitions)
               6. General remarks
               7. Performance requirements of FSC and PEFC forest certification on
                     •     Envronmental values
                     •     Social sustainability
                     •     Economic sustainability
               8. Certification costs
               9. Effectiveness and efficiency of PEFC and FSC certification
               10. Essential elements for the participation of private forest owners
               11. FSC and PEFC certification among private forest owners

 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                                               2
                                            Global Human Technology



                                Study objectives

         Analyse the impact of certification on sustainable forest
            management taking into account the particular conditions
            prevailing in each pilot country

         Evaluate effectiveness and cost-efficiency of FSC and PEFC
            based certification schemes in the pilot countries

         Analyse factors encouraging private forest owners to opt for forest
            certification




 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                                        3
                                          Global Human Technology



                       Pilot areas and assessed standards

         Pirkanmaa region, Finland
          1. PEFC: Finnish Forest Certification System (FFCS): SMS 1002-1
              (1998)
          2. FSC: Finnish Draft for FSC Standard (2004)


         Gävleborg County, Sweden
          1. PEFC: Standard for PEFC Sweden (2000)
          2. FSC: Swedish FSC standard (2000)


         Adger-Telemark, Norway
          1. PEFC: Living Forest Standard (2000)
          2. SGS Qualifor Programme interim local FSC standard (2001)


 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                                    4
                                                                Global Human Technology



                                  Ownership of certified forests


  Pirkanmaa, Finland                      Gävleborg, Sweden                   Adger-Telemark, Norway



                                                     Munici-
                                                     palities                                       Munici-
                    Others                             7%                            Forest State   palities
               State 5%                                                             industry 2%       1%
                10%                                 State
                                                     0%             Non-               5%
          Forest
                                                                 industrial
         industry
                                                                   private
           10%
                                                                   forest
                                Non-
                                               Forest             owners                                      Non-
                             industrial
                                              industry              43%                                    industrial
                               private
                               forest           50%                                                          private
                              owners                                                                         forest
                                75%                                                                         owners
                                                                                                              93%




   In Pirkanmaa and Adger-Telemark practically only PEFC certified forests
   All forests of non-industrial private forest owners are exclusively PEFC certified
   Double certification (FSC and PEFC) common in Swedish forest industry
 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                                                                                5
                                                Global Human Technology



                                    Study approach

         The assessment of effectiveness and efficiency of the
             implementation of each standard was based on:

              1. breakdown of the forest areas certified under the different schemes
              2. analysis of performance requirements in PEFC and FSC certified
                 forest management
              3. impact of forest certification in promoting sustainable forest
                 management
              4. participation of private non-industrial forest onwers in certification




 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                                                  6
                                            Global Human Technology



                           Effectiveness and efficiency

         Effectiveness
              • quality (contribution to SFM through standard requirements)
              • quantity (extent of certified forests)



         Efficiency
              • benefits (market benefits, improved SFM, etc.)
              • costs (organizational costs, auditing costs, loss of stumpage
                revenues, etc.)




 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                                        7
                                          Global Human Technology



                               General remarks

         Certification has levelled out differences between Nordic countries
            independent of the requirements imposed by national legislation
           FSC standards are more detailed and repeat requirements already
            imposed by legislation (predetemined standard structure)
           All standards emphasize environmental aspects and have made
            them an integral part of certified forest management
           All standard comparisons should take into consideration the
            statutory framework and national systems for forest management
           Practical differencies between PEFC and FSC based forestry are
            small
           PEFC and FSC based forest certifications enhanced forest
            management in pilot areas


 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                                        8
                                             Global Human Technology


             Performance requirements of FSC and PEFC
                       forest certification (1)
         Environmental values
           • PEFC and FSC based standards protect valuable habitats, water
             ecosystems and increase decaying wood in forests
           • FSC requires a minimum blanket 5% share of set-aside areas
             regardless the size of a FMU or precense of valuable sites
           • PEFC requires preservation of all sites deemed valuable at a national
             level regardless of their share
           • The share of set-aside areas varied from 1 to 15% between forest
             types and standards
           • At a regional level the set-aside areas in PEFC and FSC certification
             reach a comparable level, whereas in a FMU the difference is larger
           • In large-scale forestry the set-aside areas can provide higher
             protection values than in small-scale forestry, also cost implications
             tend to be higher in small FMUs than in large-scale forestry



 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                                              9
                                                Global Human Technology


             Performance requirements of FSC and PEFC
                       forest certification (2)
         Social sustainability
              • In Nordic countries main concern is to maintain forest-related
                employment opportunities in
                    • forestry and forest industry
                    • recreation and turism
                    • non-wood products and traditional livelyhoods

         On recreational use of forests neither PEFC or FSC standard add
            to the common law on free access to forests recognized in all
            Nordic countries

         Forest certification has broadened the scope of socially
            sustainable forest management


 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                                         10
                                                    Global Human Technology


             Performance requirements of FSC and PEFC
                       forest certification (3)
         Economic sustainability
              •   Long-term economic sustainability of forestry in small and larger FMUs is the
                  baseline for forest certification
              •   Requirements are often general compared to those on environment
              •   Only few criteria promote active wood production (regeneration is well covered)
              •   Set-aside areas and other harvesting restrictions increase significantly the
                  long-term losses in stumpage revenues compared to the normative level,
                  which decreases the options reach economic profitability in forestry
              •   Through set-aside areas forest owners make a significant long-term
                  environmental investment. FSC certification tends to require higher investment
                  but PEFC certification has led to similar levels of set-aside areas e.g in
                  Sweden and Norway
              •   The investment has not brought sufficient economic benefits to forest owners




 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                                                            11
                                            Global Human Technology



                                Certification costs

         Reliable data on certification costs was not recorded by certified
            organisation
           In large group certification the direct audit costs (internal and
            external) become marginal (only 0.4-5% of total costs)
           Losses of stumpage revenues cover 50 to 99% of the total costs
           Indicative estimates for the cost implications of forest certification
            varied in
             • PEFC certification between 1.4 – 2.5 – 13.6 EUR/ha
             • FSC certification between 2.6 – 13.6 –19.1 EUR/ha
           Incremental costs of double certification were marginal due to joint
            auditing procedures for the PEFC and FSC standards



 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                                             12
                                                       Global Human Technology


            Effectiveness and efficiency of PEFC and FSC
                            certification
         Effectiveness                                   Efficiency
              •   Determined by the extent of                •   Benefits include (i) improved
                  certified area; overrules the                  management in forestry
                  minor differences in performance               organisations, (ii) integration of
                  requirements                                   environmental and social
              •   PEFC certification more effective              aspects, (iii) improved market
                  in Finland and Norway (private                 communication and (iv) improved
                  non-industrial forest owners)                  public image
              •   In Gävleborg, Sweden FSC                   •   PEFC certification has been
                  certification dominated till 2004.             successful in (i), (ii), (iii)
              •   Through double certification and           •   FSC in (i) – (iv)
                  harmonisation of the PEFC and              •   FSC is more expensive
                  FSC standards both schemes                     especially for private non-
                  are effective in promotion of SFM              industrial forest owners
                  in Sweden.



 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                                                              13
                                                 Global Human Technology


        Essential elements for the participation of private
                   non-industrial forest owners
        1. Full commitment of forest owners’ organisations that inform and
           justify the benefits and responsibilities related to certification
        2. Efficient group certification arrangements organized by forest
           owners’ organisation
              •    low threshold for participation (in connection with timber sales or
                   other routine activity)
              •    trust that the group promotes forest owners’ interests
        3. Market demand for certified timber increases forest owners’
             participation significantly
              •    access to markets (traders trade only certified timber)
              •    positive price premiums: higher price for certified timber
              •    negative price premiums: lower price for uncertified timber
        4. Market demands justify the investments made in promotion and
             implementation of forest certification

 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                                                 14
                                               Global Human Technology


            FSC and PEFC certification among private non-
                      industrial forest owners

         Forest certification deemed an essential element in providing assurance
            on SFM (environmental)
           PEFC certification supported by the Nordic forest owners’ organizations
            has gained ground in private non-industrial forestry
           FSC does not have efficient group certification arrangements supported
            by forest owners’ organisations, resulting low popularity in non-industrial
            private forestry
           Forest owners are willing to make a written commitment in joining group
            certification (required in Sweden and Norway)
           Threshold for individual certification in FSC or PEFC is too high
           FSC standard with blanket 5% threshold for set-aside areas requires, in
            average, higher environmental investments from small-scale forest
            owners than national PEFC standards



 Savcor Indufor Oy 2005                                                                  15

				
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