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Quartz Resonator Technology Prepared by Paroscientific Inc Quartz Seismic Sensors Inc Paros

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									     Quartz Resonator Technology



                               Prepared by:
                           Paroscientific, Inc.
                       Quartz Seismic Sensors, Inc.




Paroscientific, Inc.
                             Introduction

             The widespread use of digital computers and
             digital control systems have generated a need
             for high accuracy, inherently digital sensors.
             We will discuss the design, construction,
             performance, and applications of resonant
             quartz crystal transducers.
             These quartz sensors are used to accurately
             measure:
                  Pressure
                  Acceleration
                  Angular Rate (Gyros)
                  Temperature
                  Weight (Scales)
                  Force (Load Cells)
Paroscientific, Inc.
              Quartz Crystal Resonators Convert
               Analog Forces to Digital Outputs
               with Parts per Billion Resolution




Paroscientific, Inc.
                       Material Properties and Characteristics
                                 of Quartz Sensors
                        Piezoelectric [pressure-charge generation]
                        Anisotropic [direction-dependent]
                         – Elastic Modulus
                         – Piezoelectric Constants
                         – Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
                         – Optical Index of Refraction
                         – Velocity of Propagation
                         – Hardness
                         – Solubility [etch rate]
                         – Thermal and Electrical conductivity




Paroscientific, Inc.
             Advantages of Quartz Resonant Sensors
                  •    High Resolution
                       More precise measurements can be made in the time domain than
                       the analog domain.
                  •    Excellent Accuracy
                       The quartz crystal sensors have superior elastic properties resulting
                       in excellent repeatability and low hysteresis.
                  •    Long Term Stability
                       Quartz crystals are very stable and are commonly used as frequency
                       standards in counter-timers, clocks , and communication systems.
                  •    Low Power Consumption
                  •    Low Temperature Sensitivity
                  •    Low Susceptibility to Interference
                  •    Easy to Transmit Over Long Distances
                  •    Easy to Interface With Counter-Timers, Telemetry, and Digital
                       Computer Systems


Paroscientific, Inc.
          Design of Quartz Resonant Sensors

                       Single Beam Force Sensors
                       Double-Ended Tuning Fork
                       Force Sensors
                       Torsional Temperature Sensors




Paroscientific, Inc.
                             Single Beam Force Sensor


                                                          rce
                                                   t Fo
                           Isolator Spring    I npu
          Flexure Relief




                                                                                  Mounting Surface



                                                                  Isolator Mass

                                         Vibrating Beam
                                         (Electrodes on Both Sides)




Paroscientific, Inc.
                       Single Beam Force Sensor




Paroscientific, Inc.
            Double-Ended Tuning Fork Force Sensors

                       Surface Electrodes


 Electrical Excitation Pads




                                                  Mounting Pad


                                            Dual Tine Resonators
     Applied Load




Paroscientific, Inc.
          Double-Ended Tuning Fork Force Sensors




Paroscientific, Inc.
                        Output Period vs. Force
                               Resonant Period (microseconds)

                                     28

                                     26

                                     24

                                     22


              Full Scale Tension          0      Full Scale Compression

                       10% Change in Period with Full Scale Load



Paroscientific, Inc.
           Torsional Resonator Temperature Sensor

             Electrical Excitation Pads




                                                             Dual Torsionally
                                                             Oscillating Tines

                                                  Mounting Pad



                       Nominal Period of Oscillation=5.8 microseconds
                       Nominal Temperature Sensitivity=45 ppm/0C

Paroscientific, Inc.
                       Wafer of Temperature Sensors




Paroscientific, Inc.
                       Design of Transducers
           •    Temperature Sensors Using Strain
           •    Multi-Sensors (Angular Rate + Acceleration)
           •    Load Cells & Scales
           •    Accelerometers & Seismometers
           •    Pressure Transducers




Paroscientific, Inc.
              Temperature Sensor Using Strain
                       Strain Sensitive Quartz
                       Resonator




                                                 Base Material with Thermal
                                                 Coefficient of Expansion
                                                 Different than Quartz




Paroscientific, Inc.
             Quartz Multi-Sensor (Acceleration &Angular Rate)




                          US Patent 6,595,054, Paros and Schaad,
                       “Digital Angular Rate and Acceleration Sensor”


Paroscientific, Inc.
                                Load Cell


                                        Applied Load




               Resonator in Tension
                           Resonator in Compression


Paroscientific, Inc.
                       Load Cell Used in Scale




Paroscientific, Inc.
                       Commercial Quartz Scale




Paroscientific, Inc.
                        Accelerometer (Circa 1960’s)
          Vacuum Can
                                                 Quartz Resonator   Inertial
                                                                    Proof Mass



Flexure Hinge

                                                                     Input Axis




Inertial                                                            Flexure Hinge
Proof Mass


                       Quartz Resonator

                                          Mounting Surface


Paroscientific, Inc.
       Quartz Resonator Accelerometer (Circa 1970’s)




Paroscientific, Inc.
        Quartz Resonator Accelerometers (Circa 1980’s)




Paroscientific, Inc.
                Quartz Triaxial Accelerometer
   An intrinsically digital, triaxial accelerometer with a full
   scale of ±3 g’s was developed with a dynamic range of
   176 dB (to 5 nano-g’s) using readily available readout
   electronics. The dynamic range is at least an order of
   magnitude higher than existing products.

   Other advantages include small size, low power, shock
   protection, and a suitable temperature range for
   oceanographic and seismic vault installations.




Paroscientific, Inc.
                  Quartz Triaxial Accelerometer (Circa 2008)




                        US Patent 6,826,960, Schaad and Paros,
                            “Triaxial Acceleration Sensor”



Paroscientific, Inc.
                                 Quartz Triaxial Accelerometer
                                                       Counter & Digital
       Acceleration Sensing Resonators               Processing Electronics




Quad Oscillator
3 Acceleration +
 1 Temperature



                       Temperature Sensing Resonators
                                                  Inertial Mass    Triaxial
Paroscientific, Inc.                                              Mechanism
          Quartz Crystal Resonator Pressure Transducers


                                    Internal Vacuum
                                                                              Balance Weight
                                   Balance Weight
                                        Bourdon Tube
                                 Quartz Crystal
                                 Resonator Force Sensor
                                                  Case                      Quartz Crystal
                                                                            Resonator Force Sensor

                             Quartz Resonator                             Quartz Resonator
                             Temperature Sensor                           Temperature Sensor
            Pressure Input
                             Bellows
                                                         Input Pressure




Paroscientific, Inc.
                       Digiquartz® Barometer




Paroscientific, Inc.
  Transducer Characteristics and Performance
                       • Static Error Band
                          –   Non-repeatability
                          –   Hysteresis
                          –   Conformance
                       • Environmental Errors
                          –   Temperature
                          –   Acceleration
                       • Long Term Stability
                       • Nano-Resolution




Paroscientific, Inc.
                                                  Static Error Band
                                     (Non-Repeatability, Hysteresis, Non-Conformance)
                        0.0100

                        0.0080

                        0.0060

                        0.0040
           Error % fs




                        0.0020                                                                 Up1
                                                                                               Down1
                        0.0000
                                                                                               Up2
                        -0.0020                                                                Down2

                        -0.0040

                        -0.0060

                        -0.0080

                        -0.0100
                               600        700      800        900         1000   1100   1200

                                                         Pressure (hPa)




Paroscientific, Inc.
                    Total Error Band
          (Over Temperature at Various Pressures)
                                 0.03



                                 0.02



                                 0.01
            Error % full scale




                                                                                                          Zero
                                 0.00                                                                     Mid-scale
                                                                                                          Full-scale

                                 -0.01



                                 -0.02



                                 -0.03
                                      -80   -60   -40   -20   0       20       40   60   80   100   120

                                                              Temperature (deg C)




Paroscientific, Inc.
                    Pressure Hysteresis Measurements on
                   Twenty-Three Paroscientific Barometers
                                                 Number of Units

                       Mean Hysteresis
                       -1.3 Microbars




                -10           -5                0             5       10

                                   Pressure Hysteresis in Microbars




Paroscientific, Inc.
                      Long Term Stability Tests (21-Years)

        0.3                                                                    0.3
        0.2                                                                    0.2
        0.1                                                                    0.1




                                                                       h Pa
h Pa




        0.0                                                                    0.0
       -0.1                                                                   -0.1
       -0.2                                                                   -0.2
       -0.3                                                                   -0.3
          1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013       1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013


                             S/N 34264 Long-Term Stability                                         S/N 37131 Long-Term Stability




                                           Median Drift Rate = -6 ppm per year



Paroscientific, Inc.
            Nano-Resolution Technology
          Inherently digital sensors based on quartz crystal technology
          are used extensively for environmental monitoring because of
          their high absolute accuracy and long-term stability

          Many oceanic, atmospheric and seismic applications require
          broadband, high-resolution measurements of dynamic
          phenomena

          Advances in counting circuitry and digital signal processing
          have improved the resolution of Quartz Crystal Resonator
          Sensors to a sensitivity of parts-per-billion over an extended
          spectrum



Paroscientific, Inc.
                        Output Period vs. Force
                               Resonant Period (microseconds)

                                     28

                                     26

                                     24

                                     22


              Full Scale Tension          0      Full Scale Compression

                       10% Change in Period with Full Scale Load



Paroscientific, Inc.
                       Reciprocal Start-Stop Counting

                       Pressure
                       Signal
                                                          Time
                                                          N Periods


                       Timebase
                                                          Time
                       Clock (fc)




               τ=Sensor Output Period= 1/Resonant Frequency
               N=Number of Periods
               Transducer period output, τ, gates a high frequency clock, fc,
               for N periods and the clock pulses are counted.


Paroscientific, Inc.
                       Pressure
                       Signal
                                                  Time
                                                  N Periods


                       Timebase
                                                  Time
                       Clock


   Sampling Time=Nτ
   Period Resolution=+/- 1 Count/(Total Counts)=+/- 1 / (Nτ)(fc)
                    = +/- 1 / (Sampling Time) (fc)
   Force Resolution= +/- 10 / (Nτ)(fc) (Only 10% of the counts are
                                        related to Force)
   Example: If clock=20 MHz and sampling time=1 second
   Then the Force Resolution=5x10-7 Full Scale


Paroscientific, Inc.
                       Linearization and Temperature
                               Compensation
        Force = C[1- τ 02/ τ 2] [1-D(1- τ 02/ τ 2)]
        τ =Force Resonator Period Output
        C=Scale Factor in Desired Engineering Units
        D=Linearization Coefficient
        τ 0=Period Output at No Load (Force=0)
        U=(Temperature Sensor Period)-(Temperature Period at zero 0C)
        τ 0= τ 1+ τ 2U+ τ 3U2+ τ 4U3+ τ 5U4
        C=C1+C2U+C3U2
        D=D1+D2U
        Temperature=Y1U+Y2U2+Y3U3 (0C)



Paroscientific, Inc.
                        Intelligent Instrumentation
                                           Transducer

                        Pressure Signal                   Temperature Signal
                                          Multiplexer
                                                                  15 Mhz Clock
                                            Counter

            EPROM
                                      Microprocessor
           EEPROM


                                           Shift Store
                                            Pass On


                       RS-232 &                                 RS-232 &
                                           RS-232 &
                       RS-485 In          485 Interface         RS-485 Out
Paroscientific, Inc.
                 Nano-Resolution Counting Techniques
  Start-Stop Reciprocal Counting: Measure time with a high-speed clock for N
  signal periods.

  Regression Counting: Measure signal periods many times (over-sample) and
  apply a regression algorithm. This is a Finite-Impulse-Response (FIR) filter with up to
  100 times higher sensitivity at 1 Hz sampling and Nano-Resolution is possible.

  IIR Nano-Counting: Uses a multi-stage Infinite-Impulse-Response (IIR) digital low-
  pass filter with each stage of the form:

  wn = α zn + (1 – α) wn-1

  zn Is the unfiltered period and wn is the filtered period output after one filter stage.
  Alpha, α, is small and determines the frequency cutoff value of the low-pass filter.
  A 5-stage low-pass filter attenuates all values above the cutoff at -100 dB/decade.
  High-frequency signals are filtered (anti-aliasing filter) and Nano-Resolution is possible.




Paroscientific, Inc.
                                                 Nano-Resolution with
                                              Regression (FIR) Counting
                              (FIR: Finite-Impulse-Response in Digital Signal Processing)
                                          Start-Stop Method                                                                        Regression Method

                   800                                                                                      800
                   700                                                                                      700
 n Clock Counts




                   600




                                                                                          n Clock Counts
                                                                                                            600
                   500                                                                                      500
                   400                                                                                      400
                   300                                                                                      300
                   200                                                                                      200
                   100                                                                                      100
                     0                                                                                        0
                  -100                                                                                     -100
                         -1   0   1   2   3     4       5       6   7   8   9   10   11                           -1   0   1   2    3    4      5        6   7   8   9   10   11
                                                    N Periods                                                                                N Periods




 Start-stop method: Slope between endpoints determines sensor period.
 Regression counting: Many sub-samples, slope is least-squares regression fit.
 Statistical improvement is √(N/6). Nano-resolution (parts-per-billion) is possible.




Paroscientific, Inc.
                                       Resolution Improvement with Nano-Counting
                          1.0000




                          0.1000
Standard Deviation (Pa)




                                                                                 Reciprocal Start-Stop Counting Technique


                          0.0100




                          0.0010




                                                               Nano-Resolution With Advanced Counting Algorithms
                          0.0001
                               1.E+0     1.E+1      1.E+2     1.E+3      1.E+4      1.E+5       1.E+6   1.E+7   1.E+8   1.E+9
                                                                      Record Length (seconds)




                                        Paroscientific, Inc.
                                        Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
                          Experimental IIR Nano-Counting Resolution
             100


              10


               1
Pascal




             0.1


            0.01


           0.001


          0.0001


         0.00001
               0.0001           0.001           0.01           0.1         1     10   100
                                                       Time Interval (seconds)




                        Paroscientific, Inc.
                        Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
            Ambient Barometric Infrasound Spectrum
           And Digiquartz Nano-Barometer Noise Floor




Psi^2/Hz




                                                               Hz
              Day-long barometric data in Seattle (7/23/08)
              Green curve: Infrasound ambient background (no micro-baroms)
              Red curve: Instrument self-noise 7.2 E-7 Pa^2/Hz (-61 dB re: Pa^2/Hz)


           Paroscientific, Inc.                          Plot courtesy of Spahr Webb
           Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
                 Pacific Ocean Microbaroms Using IIR Filter




Paroscientific, Inc.
Digiquartz Nano-Barometer Spectral Resolution
Superimposed on Infrasound Ambient Spectrum



                                              - Bowman et al, SAIC, Infrasound Technology Workshop -
                                                    Tokyo, Japan November 13-16, 2007


                          Micro-barom Peak




         - Digiquartz Nano-Barometer Spectral Resolution -




             Paroscientific, Inc.
             Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
      1006.75


       1006.7


      1006.65


       1006.6
hPa




      1006.55


       1006.5


      1006.45


       1006.4


      1006.35


       1006.3
            1200       1400             1600                 1800                 2000   2200   2400
                                                 seconds after 10/3/09 8:00 UTC




                   Paroscientific, Inc.
                   Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
     6




     4




     2
Pa




     0




     -2




     -4




     -6
      1950          2000                2050                           2100   2150   2200
                                           seconds after 10/3/09 8:00 UTC




             Paroscientific, Inc.
             Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
                     Infrasound Measurements with Paroscientific Nano-Resolution Barometers
                     Space Shuttle Pressure Signal - April 20, 2010 - 5:00 to 6:10 PDT - Passband 0.1 to 5 Hz
1 Pa per trace




                 0     1          2          3         4          5          6          7          8            9   10

                                                             minutes

                           Paroscientific, Inc.
                           Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
Paroscientific, Inc.
Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
      Digiquartz Depth Sensor Noise Floor




 Vertical axis: Spectral density plot in psi2/Hz    Horizontal axis: Frequency in Hz
 Green curve: Infrasound ambient background (measured with 7000 m depth sensor)
 Blue curve: Instrument self-noise (less than 0.14 Pa /Hz)
 Noise floor of a 2000 m depth sensor is 0.01 Pa2/Hz

Paroscientific, Inc.
                                                Plot courtesy of Spahr Webb
Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
                         New Technologies for
                       Environmental Monitoring
          New Nano-Resolution Technologies offer unprecedented,
          cutting-edge, scientific and educational opportunities in the
          oceanic, atmospheric and seismic fields

          Low-cost, multi-use, cross-disciplinary research of air-sea-land
          interactions can be accomplished by adding Nano-Resolution
          Sensors to existing networks

          New environmental monitoring capabilities include measuring
          absolute barometric pressure fluctuations to nano-bars for
          infrasound detection, measuring water level fluctuations to
          microns with absolute, deep-sea depth sensors, and measuring
          acceleration and Earth's gravity to nano-g’s


Paroscientific, Inc.
              Application Areas for Quartz Sensors with Nano-Resolution

 Atmospheric




 Oceanic




 Seismic




Paroscientific, Inc.
              Tsunami Warning System




            Photos and Diagrams courtesy of N.O.A.A.

Paroscientific, Inc.
Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
Tsunami Detection (Earthquake Generated Tidal Waves)
Improved Sensitivity of <0.1mm at Depths of 6000 meters




        Paroscientific, Inc.
        Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
      1299.51


                           Comparison Nano-Resolution Depth Sensor / BPR (with offset)
      1299.50




      1299.49




      1299.48
psi




      1299.47




      1299.46




      1299.45




      1299.44




      1299.43

                19:49    19:50   19:51   19:52   19:53   19:54   19:55   19:56   19:57   19:58   19:59   20:00   20:01




                        Paroscientific, Inc.
                        Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
     Co-located Depth Sensor and
     Ocean Bottom Seismometer




Paroscientific, Inc.
Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
     Co-located Depth Sensor and
     Ocean Bottom Seismometer




Paroscientific, Inc.
Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
Paroscientific, Inc.
Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
Paroscientific, Inc.
Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
        Ocean Observatory Program




Paroscientific, Inc.
Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
Paroscientific, Inc.
Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
Paroscientific, Inc.
Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
Paroscientific, Inc.
                                       Slide Courtesy of John Delaney
Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
 Nano-Resolution Barometers Co-located with GPS, Radar, and Cabled Systems
 Nano-Resolution Barometers Co-located with GPS, Radar, and Cabled Systems

   Co-locating Nano-Resolution Sensors at existing networks provide low-cost,
   Co-locating Nano-Resolution Sensors at existing networks provide low-cost,
   cross-disciplinary, multi-use, value-added enhancements to the established
   cross-disciplinary, multi-use, value-added enhancements to the established
   research, educational, and outreach infrastructures.
   research, educational, and outreach infrastructures.

Accurate, stable, full-scale absolute, barometric data can:
Accurate, stable, full-scale absolute, barometric data can:
  Correct for atmospheric noise on seismic instruments
   Correct for atmospheric noise on seismic instruments
  Provide weather information (pressure fields and GPS-MET to determine
   Provide weather information (pressure fields and GPS-MET to determine
  precipitable water vapor for fog forecasts and flood warnings)
   precipitable water vapor for fog forecasts and flood warnings)
  Provide climate information (solar-driven atmospheric tides)
   Provide climate information (solar-driven atmospheric tides)

Nano-Resolution measurements of atmospheric fluctuations (infrasound) can:
Nano-Resolution measurements of atmospheric fluctuations (infrasound) can:
  Perform nuclear monitoring for the CTBT
   Perform nuclear monitoring for the CTBT
  Test for acoustic sea-air-land coupling interactions such as microbaroms,
   Test for acoustic sea-air-land coupling interactions such as microbaroms,
  earthquakes, volcanoes, bolides, Earth's hum, and turbulence
   earthquakes, volcanoes, bolides, Earth's hum, and turbulence
  Provide severe weather information for tornado and hurricane predictions
   Provide severe weather information for tornado and hurricane predictions
  Extend the frequency response over a wider spectrum into deep infrasound
   Extend the frequency response over a wider spectrum into deep infrasound
  Replace microphones that can not make absolute measurements, do not have
   Replace microphones that can not make absolute measurements, do not have
  built-in, anti-aliasing software filters, and require special dynamic calibration
   built-in, anti-aliasing software filters, and require special dynamic calibration
  equipment
   equipment



Paroscientific, Inc.
                  GPS Meteorology




 GPS Determination of Precipitable Water Vapor
• Measure Total Delay=Ionospheric + Neutral Delays
• Ionospheric Delay (frequency dependent) determined by
  comparing L1 & L2 GPS signals
• Neutral Delay=Wet Delay + Hydrostatic Delay
  (Barometric Pressure, Temperature, Humidity dependent)
• Calculate Precipitable Water Vapor from Wet Delay
Paroscientific, Inc.
Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
                Atmospheric Noise Mitigation
   Local atmospheric pressure fluctuations are significant sources of
   noise in seismic data. Pressure changes associated with common
   atmospheric phenomena such as frontal passages, jet-stream
   passages, boundary-layer convection, and gravity waves can deform
   the ground that surrounds a seismometer to cause significant
   horizontal tilt noise. Other atmospheric influences include the
   gravitational effects of a variable weight of the column of air above the
   seismometer, vertical ground deformations, and possible buoyancy
   effects. The reconstruction and elimination, in real time or post facto,
   of these atmospheric effects requires the monitoring of local pressure
   changes with collocated high-resolution, broadband barometers. The
   pressure-induced noise can be deterministically removed from the
   seismometer, strainmeter, and tiltmeter data to substantially increase
   the overall performance of the seismic sensor network.



Paroscientific, Inc.
                   Atmospheric Tides at Harvard Vault
   Andreas Muschinski analyzed a 15-day long series of pressure data
   acquired with Paroscientific Barometers at the Harvard Vault.

   The solar atmospheric tides can be clearly seen in the frequency
   spectrum of the pressure fluctuations. The dominant mechanism for
   solar tides is thermal expansion due to solar radiation.

   The observed amplitudes are:
   12 hour tide amplitude--100 Pa            8 hour tide amplitude--40 Pa
   6 hour tide amplitude-----30 Pa           4 hour tide amplitude----8 Pa

   We thank Robert Busby and John Collins of IRIS for conducting the
   tests and providing the data, Harvard University for use of their facility,
   equipment and seismic data, and Quanterra, Inc. for their collection,
   integration and installation assistance.



Paroscientific, Inc.
             Atmospheric Tides at Harvard Vault




Paroscientific, Inc.
             Atmospheric Tides at Harvard Vault




Paroscientific, Inc.
                       Year-long Atmospheric Tides at Albuquerque
 Andreas Muschinski made a preliminary analysis of the GSN AMN0 (Albuquerque) pressure time
 series compiled by Tim Ahern and Rick Benson. The dataset, collected with a Paroscientific
 broadband barometer, contains about 200 million one-second samples of surface barometric
 pressure covering the 6-year period from January 2002 through April 2007. This first preliminary
 analysis considered the first 365 days from the second file with 31.5 million one-second samples
 (data points). A sequence of 52,560 (365 x 86,400/600) ten-minute averages (averages over 600
 subsequent samples) and resulting periodogram were computed.

 The solar tides reflect the Fourier components of the daily pressure signals associated with the
 daily temperature signals. The (solar) diurnal tide, the semidiurnal tide, the 8-h (1/3 day) tide, the
 6-h (1/4 day) tide, and all the higher harmonics up to the 206-min tide (1/7 day) are resolved with
 an unprecedented signal-to-noise ratio. Also the 160-min tide (1/9 day) is visible. An estimate of 5
 Pa (!) for the amplitude of the 6-h (1/4 day) tide was obtained. The amplitudes of the higher
 harmonics are even smaller.

 Installation of state-of-the-art, broadband barometers on the EarthScope grid would dramatically
 improve our ability to monitor atmospheric tides and their seasonal variability, annual cycle, and
 possible long-term trends on regional and global scales. The resulting database would open new
 avenues for basic and applied research and would be useful for the improvement of numerical
 weather prediction (NWP) models, global circulation models (GCMs), and
 climate system models (CSMs).


Paroscientific, Inc.
                       We thank David Simpson, Tim Ahern, Rick Benson, Rick
                       Aster, and their colleagues at IRIS, GSN, PASSCAL, and
                       DMC for providing the data and format analysis techniques




Paroscientific, Inc.
Paroscientific, Inc.
CASA-Paroscientific Infrasound
   Networks Partnership
           David McLaughlin
        University of Massachusetts
          College of Engineering



                                      73
     CASA mission: create value through end-to-end engineering
     research that integrates systems technologies with real users
     and applications.




74
CASA’s Radar Network Innovation Concept



                                       gap
        Weather
        hazards




                                                  Numerous 
                                                  inexpensive,     Data
                                                  closely‐
                                                  spaced
                                                                     Tasking   Multiple
                                                  radars
                                                                               end users




 Innovation = “fresh thinking that adds value to practice & use”
     Vision
       Network of co-located radar (EM sensors) and
       infrasound arrays (Paroscientific absolute
       pressure sensors)




       Radar is good for weather diagnosis…



       Infrasound (today) is not good for weather
       diagnosis…




76
Goal
  Co-locate infrasound arrays with the CASA IP1 radars
  Infrasound arrays geolocate infrasound detections
  Feed those detections that fall inside the IP1 testbed
  into CASA’s radar control system
  Radars scan the source of infrasound
  Atmospheric scientists use radar and infrasound
  signals to identify signatures of hazardous weather
  and its precursors
  Mature the concept to the point where infrasonic
  detections are being fed into the operational warning
  and response system (AWIPS, WeatherScope) for            Co-located deployment of
  end-user evaluation and training
                                                           infrasonic arrays in CASA’s
                                                           IP1 testbed radar network in
                                                           southwestern Oklahoma




  A long-standing and very important NWS goal
   Timeline
                          Testing:
                          Wind Filter
                          Beamforming
                          Operational Bandwidth                                     Automated 
                                                                                    detections
            UMASS                           Design Review
            Prototype array 
            deployment                                                              Infrasound 
                                                      Data flowing to 
                                                      Atmospheric                   in MC&C
Project                                               Scientists
Launched                                                                            Operational 
1/10. 
                                                                                    Users
1/10                                      1/11                               1/12
                                                                                    Displayed in 
                                                                                    AWIPS
                                                                                    Research 
                                                                                    Publications
                                                            IP1 Deployment
    NSF Proposal               IP1 Site Logistics
             Quartz Seismic Instrumentation
   Digital force sensors have been applied to measure a
   variety of physical parameters including pressure,
   temperature, load, angular rate, weight, and acceleration.
   Resonant quartz crystals, that change their frequency of
   oscillation with applied load, have many sensing
   advantages over analog devices. These advantages
   include the ease of measurements in the time domain,
   remarkable resolution, high accuracy, low power
   consumption, excellent long-term stability and
   insensitivity to environmental errors. Thus quartz sensor
   technology may also meet some needs of the seismic
   community.


Paroscientific, Inc.
      Resonant Quartz Crystal Accelerometers
   An intrinsically digital, triaxial accelerometer with a full
   scale of ±3 g’s was developed with a dynamic range of
   176 dB (to 5 nano-g’s) using nano-counting techniques.
   The dynamic range is at least an order of magnitude
   higher than existing products.
   Advantages include small size, low power, shock
   protection, and a suitable temperature range for
   oceanographic and seismic vault installations.
   Applications include Earthquake Monitoring, Directional
   Drilling, Gravity Surveys, and Monitoring of Carbon
   Sequestration.


Paroscientific, Inc.
        Quartz Triaxial Accelerometer (Circa 2008)




US Patent 6,826,960, Schaad and Paros, “Triaxial Acceleration Sensor”



     Paroscientific, Inc.
     Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
                        Quartz Triaxial Accelerometer
                                                        Counter & Digital
      Acceleration Sensing Resonators                 Processing Electronics




Quad Oscillator
3 Acceleration +
 1 Temperature



               Temperature Sensing Resonators
                                          Inertial Mass            Triaxial
               Paroscientific, Inc.                               Mechanism
               Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
              Lunar-Solar Gravitational Tides
            Measured with Quartz Seismic Sensor




Paroscientific, Inc.
                        Earthquake Nano-Resolution with
                      3-g Full-scale Quartz Seismic Sensor
                          Triax IIR Alpha=0.0005 Honshu M=7.2 (6/13/08 23:43:46 UTC) 16:40-17:40 PDT
1000 ng/div




              0       1         2          3          4          5          6          7          8    9   10
                                                              Minutes



                          Honshu (Japan) Earthquake (13 June 2008)
                          Measured in Seattle WA (USA) with IIR nano-counting

                  Paroscientific, Inc.
                  Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation
     Paroscientific, Inc.
     Quartz Sensors, Inc.
                   4500 148th Ave. N.E.
                  Redmond, WA 98052
                www.paroscientific.com




Paroscientific, Inc.
Digiquartz® Pressure Instrumentation

								
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