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Wills Validity 1. Capacity a. Atleast 18 & sound mind b. Understand i. Extent of property ii. Natural object of bounty iii. Nature of disposition c. Incapacity i. Deficiency in attention, significantly impairs ability to understand 2. Intent a. Must intent to make disposition effective at death _______________________________________ Document Types 1. Integration a. Must be physically present b. Must have intent to integrate 2. Incorporation by reference a. In existence at time of execution b. Clearly identified c. Expressly referred to d. Intent to incorporate i. Prior will may be incorporated to validate 3. Codicil a. Subsequent instrument that modifies, revokes, or republishes a will b. Same will validity reqs. 4. Acts of independent legal significance a. Docs, events of third party affecting will, independent purpose b. Can occur before or after will 5. Pour-over trust a. Valid as incorp by ref of existing trust 6. Will substitutes a. Docs with testamentary effect b. No reqs. c. Types i. Gift, insurance, contract, trust, deed, bank acct, JT Revival 1. Revival: revocation of a subsequent will revises earlier will 2. Republication by codicil a. Re-execution/incorp by ref 3. Dependant Relative Revocation a. Revocation on mistaken believe that alternate disposition is valid b. Does not revoke original will c. Affectuate’s t’s intent Formalities Formal will a. Writing b. Signed by t or another in his presence/at direction c. Presence of two witnesses i. Must know its t’s will and acknowledge ii. Don’t need at same time 2. Holographic a. Material provisions in t’s handwriting, signed by t i. Intent ii. Id property iii. Beneficiaries b. Date not needed ___________________________________ Revocation 1. Need intent 2. Physical act a. Burning, tearing, cancel, obliterate,destroy b. Must touch words c. Can destroy duplicate d. Proxy 3. Proxy a. By third party b. Under t’s presence c. At t’s direction 4. Partial is allowed 5. Presumption a. Last found in t’s possession is presumed destroyed with intent to revoke b. Lost: copy with witness ok 6. Codicil a. New will/subsequent instrument b. Express/Implied c. Can revoke just codicil 7. Law a. Divorce, DRR Distribution 1. Omitted heir a. Spouse married after execution b. Child born/adopted after execution c. Full intestate share d. Except - presumptions i. Intention to omit on face ii. All property left to other parent iii. Other prop outside will 1. 1. 2. 3. Lack v Revoca Undue 4. Mistak 5. Fraud 1. Lapse: 2. Anti-la 3. Except Other 1. Gifts a. b. c. d. e. Ademption a. b. Specific: particular item General: general economic benefit Demonstrative: specific resource Residual: remainder Intestate Specific gift is lost, destroyed, sold, no longer exists Unless otherwise specified i. Gets nothing ii. General: take similar Estate is insufficient to satisfy gifts, reduced pro rata i. Gift id by T ii. Intestate iii. Residual iv. General v. Demonstrative vi. Specific Gift is free of debt CL: mortgage paid off CA: subject to liens 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 2. Probate If no will, defective, dispose of entire estate Surviving spouse gets CP auto a. Atleast ½ - one child, grandchild, parent, or sibling b. 1/3 if more than one Advancement a. Give portion of intestate share ahead of time Posthumus heir: conceived before but born after death – takes intestate share simultaneous: beneficiary presumed died first adopted/illegitimate: treated as natural 3. Abatement a. 4. 5. Exoneration a. b. c. Satisfaction a. 6. Inter vivos satifies/reduces testamentary gift if i. Contemporaneous writing showing intent ii. Acknowledgment in writing by beneficiary Simultaneous death: beneficiary presumed died first
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