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Questionnaire on Labour Union Management

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Questionnaire on Labour Union Management document sample

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									Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT



                              STUDY FOR THE PROJECT:

         “ELIMINATION OF GENDER STEREOTYPES IN THE LABOUR
             SPHERE AND IN TRADE UNION ORGANISATIONS”



    1. INTRODUCTION

    2. METHODOLOGY
           Developing the questionnaire
           Selecting the sectors
           Identification and incidence of gender stereotypes in the
           labour sphere: Questionnaire results
           Experiences and/or measures carried out in our country and
           within the Trade Union to eliminate gender stereotypes and
           segregation in the labour sphere

            RESULTS
              Guide for the elimination of gender stereotypes
              Catalogue of Proposals for the Elimination                       of   gender
              stereotypes
              Web page

    3. SITUATION OF WOMEN

            GUIDE OF THE SITUATION OF WOMEN IN THE SPANISH
            LABOUR MARKET

            GUIDE OF THE SITUATION OF WOMEN WITHIN OUR TRADE
            UNION

    4. SELECTION OF SECTORS

    5. IDENTIFICATION AND INCIDENCE OF GENDER STEREOTYPES
       IN THE LABOUR SPHERE
       Access to employment
             On the job
             Job promotion and taking on management, decision-making
             and control positions
             Access to training
             Pay
             Conciliation of personal and professional life
             Fighting against gender stereotypes




                                                                                              1
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union
and employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


    6. EXPERIENCES AND/OR MEASURES IMPLEMENTED IN OUR
       COUNTRY AND WITHIN THE TRADE UNION IN ORDER TO
       ELIMINATE GENDER STEREOTYPES AND SEGREGATION IN
       THE LABOUR SPHERE

            LEGAL MEASURES
              General legislation
              Specific legal measures

            MEASURES IN COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS

            MEASURES ADOPTED WITHIN THE TRADE UNION

    7. PROPOSALS FOR CHANGES THAT MUST BE UNDERTAKEN BY
       BODIES, INSTITUTIONS AND TRADE UNION AND EMPLOYER
       ORGANISATIONS    IN  ORDER  TO  ELIMINATE  GENDER
       STEREOTYPES

    8. CONCLUSIONS




                                                                                              2
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union
and employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT



                              STUDY FOR THE PROJECT:

       “ ELIMINATION OF GENDER STEREOTYPES IN THE LABOUR
    SPHERE AND IN TRADE UNION AND EMPLOYERS’ ORGANISATIONS
                                ”


    1.    INTRODUCTION

          The study we are presenting is a starting point for the project
    “ Elimination of stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union
    organisations ”.
          This project is developed within the Framework Strategy for Equal
    Opportunities for men and women ( 2001-2005 ). Within this Strategy,
    European trade union organisations see an opportunity to advance in
    achieving de facto equality between both sexes in the labour and trade
    union spheres.
    This project has been founded by the European Commission and the
      Women's Institute of Spain.
           Stereotypes on the basis of gender hinder the attainment of equal
      opportunities between men and women and their most direct
      repercussion is professional segregation in the labour market. The
      existence of gender stereotypes has negative consequences in the
      labour market and places men and women in certain sectors of
      production ( horizontal segregation ) and in certain professional
      categories ( vertical segregation ). Likewise, the roles traditionally
      assigned to men and women condition their access to employment,
      their time on a job, promotion, access to training, pay, leaves and other
      labour conditions.
           The trade union organisations participating in this project ( FGTB
      in Belgium, UIL in Italy, UGT in Portugal and UGT in Spain ) share
      similar problems with regard to the situation of women in the labour
      market. That is why we understand that the elimination of socially
      assumed gender stereotypes will bring about progress in achieving de
      facto equality between men and women.




                                                                                              3
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union
and employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT



    2. METHODOLOGY

          The main long term objective of our project is:


         “ Encouraging the elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour
    sphere and in trade union and employer organisations in order to
    improve the efficiency of trade union action, in defence of female
    workers’ rights and of the improvement of their labour conditions ”.


         In order to fully understand the aim of our project, we will start by
    defining some concepts:
         GENDER STEREOTYPES:
         These are the behaviours which are considered correct and free of
         criticism and attributable to a certain role in society and to a given
         time. Any form of social exclusion rests upon roles and
         stereotypes. Both roles and stereotypes are always built according
         to the particular environment and the society.
         Stereotypes based on gender are an obstacle for the
         achievement of equal opportunities for men and women and
         their most direct repercussion is occupational segregation in
         the labour market.

          HORIZONTAL OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION:
          A different concentration of men and women in certain
          sectors of activity and professions.

          VERTICAL OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION:
          A different concentration of men and women in levels of responsibility, positions
          or professional categories.

        In order to attain the main objective, the following intermediate
    aims have been set:
           “ Analysing in depth the roles and stereotypes that result in
           professional segregation in the labour market .”
           “ Carrying out a comparative analysis between stereotypes
           which are found in the labour sphere and those which are found
           in trade union organisations. ”
           “ Identifying the changes that are necessary in order to
           eliminate gender stereotypes in trade union and employers’
           organisations, in the labour market and in vocational training ”.
           “ Producing a catalogue of trade union proposals aimed at
           institutions and organisations responsible for the survival of
           stereotypes based on gender in the labour sphere ”.



                                                                                              4
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union
and employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


              “ Producing a guide for the elimination of stereotypes based on
              gender in the labour and trade union spheres ”
              “ Creating a web page to spread the results ”

         In order to analyse in depth the roles and stereotypes that cause
    professional segregation in the labour market we have devised a
    questionnaire. This questionnaire has been answered by men and
    women in three sectors ( Construction, a mostly-male sector;
    Education, a mostly-female sector and Banking, an integrated sector in
    terms of gender ).
         The results obtained for the questionnaires together with the
    analysis of experiences and measures implemented in our country and
    within the trade union are the basis to identify the changes that are
    necessary for the elimination of gender stereotypes in trade union and
    employer organisations, in the labour market and in vocational
    training.


              DEVELOPING THE QUESTIONNAIRE

          As we have already said, a questionnaire has been developed in
    order to identify the different gender stereotypes which operate in the
    labour market.
          This questionnaire was sent to the trade unions participating in
    the project. They made their contributions and the final text for it was
    approved by general consent.
          The questionnaire is made up of different sections related to
    different aspects of the labour market, which we think are conditioned
    by the roles which are traditionally assigned to men and women.
                Access to employment
                Permanence on a job
                Promotion and taking on management, decision-making and
                control positions
                Access to training
                Pay
                Conciliation of personal and professional life

         An exploratory sample has been used, so the results obtained
    from the data are an approximation to reality rather than
    representative of the total population.

          ANNEX 1: Questionnaire

            SELECTING THE SECTORS
        Three labour sectors were selected to make up the sample. The
    questionnaires were distributed amongst them for them to be filled out

                                                                                              5
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union
and employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


    so as to obtain information to help identify gender stereotypes in the
    labour sphere.

         During the 1st Transnational Meeting, the four partners in the
    project agreed by consensus on which sectors would make up the
    sample, taking into account the fact that one of them should be mostly
    male, another should be mostly female and another one should be
    integrated in terms of gender ( equal amounts of men and women ).
         Likewise, the number of questionnaires to be filled out in each
    selected sector was determined as 150 ( 50 per sector ), taking into
    account the sex variable ( 50 % men and 50 % women ) in each sector.
         The choice of sectors has been based upon statistical data
    regarding the number of employees in each of the State Federations of
    the Trade Union, which refer to the sectorial structure. In this way we
    can group sectors into three categories: “ mostly female ”, “ mostly male
    and “ integrated in terms of gender 1 ”.
         We can talk about three criteria which can be used to choose the
    sectors. They are the following:
                PARTICIPATION of women: percentage of women in each of
                the sectors
                REPRESENTATION of women: the percentage of women in a
                certain sector divided by the percentage of women in total
                employment. If the value for representation is greater than
                1, it means women are overrepresented in that sector. On
                the other hand, if the representation value is lower than 1,
                it means that women are underrepresented in that sector.
                CONCENTRATION of women: the percentage of total female
                employment concentrated in a certain sector.

         Once the sectors are grouped as mostly-female, mostly-male and
    integrated in terms of gender, we select the three sectors which will
    make up the sample for our study. The selected sectors have been:
         - Education: mostly-female sector
         - Banking: integrated sector in terms of gender
         - Construction: mostly-male sector

         The results obtained from the questionnaires have allowed us to
    identify gender stereotypes operating in the labour market.
       In order to analyse the results of the questionnaires, two variables
    have been taken into account: the sector they came from and the sex of
    the person polled. Thus, we can identify how gender stereotypes
    operate in mostly-female, mostly-male and integrated sectors in terms
    of gender. Likewise, by considering the sex variable, we can observe
    whether the perceptions of men and women are similar or whether
    there are significant differences.


1
 Cáceres Ruiz, Juan Ignacio. “ La segregación ocupacional de la mujer en el mercado de trabajo
español ”. ( Occupational segregation of women in the Spanish labour market )
                                                                                                 6
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union
and employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT



              EXPERIENCES AND OR MEASURES IMPLEMENTED IN OUR
              COUNTRY AND WITHIN THE TRADE UNION AIMED AT THE
              ELIMINATION OF GENDER STEREOTYPES

          Measures and experiences aimed at the elimination of gender
    stereotypes in the labour sphere which have been implemented in our
    country and within our trade union have also been compiled. To that
    effect, the Spanish legal framework has been analysed, as well as
    specific legal measures, measures in collective agreements and
    measures, strategies and/or experiences carried out within our trade
    union in order to fight against segregation in the labour market.

             RESULTS
         The identification and analysis of the incidence of gender
    stereotypes have produced proposals addressing the changes that need
    to be undertaken by bodies, institutions and trade union and employer
    organisations so as to eliminate gender stereotypes, which is the core
    aim of our project. The proposals coming from the trade union
    organisations make up the Catalogue of Proposals, which is one of the
    results of our project.
         Besides the Catalogue of Proposals, we have compiled a Good
    Practices Guide which puts forward measures and strategies developed
    in each of the countries of the partner trade unions participating in the
    project and the results obtained through the analysis of the
    questionnaires.
         Also, a web page has been created, which includes the results of
    the project and which will allow for trade union and employers’
    organisations to have access to the output of the project: Good
    Practices Guide and Catalogue of Proposals for the elimination of
    gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union
    organisations. The web page will allow for greater dissemination of the
    project and will make the results available for a greater number of
    people.




                                                                                              7
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union
and employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

    3.    SITUATION OF WOMEN IN THE SPANISH LABOUR MARKET AND
          WITHIN OUR TRADE UNION

         We consider that it is vitally important to learn about the situation of
    women in the labour market in our country and to compare it with the
    situation in Europe, as well as within our trade union, as it is the reflection
    of cultural and social aspects which characterise our society.
         Below, we show the current situation and the evolution of women in
    the Spanish labour sphere and how it compares with that of Europe.


          GUIDE ON THE SITUATION OF WOMEN IN THE SPANISH LABOUR
          MARKET


            ACTIVITY RATE

          One of the most significant changes in Spanish society in the last few
    decades has been the incorporation and permanence of women in the
    labour market. The basic indicator showing this evolution is the activity
    rate.
          The table below shows how the female activity rate increased between
    1984 and 2004 by 16.33 percentage points.

    Evolution of the Activity Rate in Spain
                                                                                          4th
                          1984           1994        2001           2002         2003    Term.
                                                                                         2004
     Both sexes           49.36          50.95       53.29          54.30        55.39   56.07

         Women            28.76          37.39       40.76          42.32        43.9    45.09
        Men       71.39     65.36    66.56 67.00 67.55   67.52
    Source: Women’s Institute, based on the Active Population Survey
    (EPA), National Statistics Institute.


          80,00%
          70,00%
          60,00%
          50,00%
          40,00%
                                                                       Mujeres
          30,00%                            Wom                        Hombres
          20,00%
          10,00%
           0,00%
                   1984   1994    2001    2002    2003   IV Trim.
                                                           2004



          WOMEN-MEN-4TH TERM
          (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)


European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


         In comparison with the evolution in the European Union, the great
    advance of Spanish women in the sphere of labour is lower with respect to
    the average activity rate of European women. However, between 1997 and
    2003 that difference has diminished, from 8.8 percentage points in 1997 to
    5.5 percentage points in 2003.

    Evolution of the Female Activity Rate in the European Union-15 in
    comparison with the Female Activity Rate in Spain
                           1997       1998       1999          2000    2001        2002          2003
      WOMEN
     Total UE-             45.50     45.90       46.50         46.91   47.10       47.62         48.13
        15
        Spain              36.70      37.10      37.50         39.18   39.40       41.11         42.58
    Difference 8.80        8.80    9.00    7.73      7.70 6.51 5.55
    Source: Women’s Institute, based on the Yearly Report on Labour
    Statistics, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.


       5 0 ,0 0 %

       4 5 ,0 0 %

       4 0 ,0 0 %

       3 5 ,0 0 %

       3 0 ,0 0 %

       2 5 ,0 0 %                                                       MUJ ERES e n la UE-1 5
                                                                        Es pañ a
       2 0 ,0 0 %

       1 5 ,0 0 %

       1 0 ,0 0 %

        5 ,0 0 %

        0 ,0 0 %
                    1997   1998    1999   2000   2001   2002    2003



           WOMEN IN EU-15- SPAIN-
           (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)

          One of the objectives of the European Strategy for Employment for
    2010 is bringing the general employment rate closer to 70% of the
    population between 15 and 64. More specifically, reaching a female
    employment rate of 60 % and reducing the rate of unemployment, bringing
    it closer to frictional unemployment.
          If we analyse the activity rate according to age groups, despite the
    constant increase of female activity, the female rates are never equal to
    male rates in any of the age segments.




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

    Activity Rates according to age ( Five-year groups )
                                                                           4th Term.
                            2001             2002             2003
                                                                             2004
       TOTAL          40.76       42.32         43.90                        45.09
     Between 16
                      19.96       17.52         18.25        18.62
       and 19
     Between 20
                      54.30       56.40         56.78        57.43
       and 24
     Between 25
                      75.41       76.53         79.79        80.50
       and 29
     Between 30
                      67.97       71.35         74.13        76.25
       and 34
     Between 35
                      62.86       66.07         68.40        71.01
       and 39
     Between 40
                      61.52       64.46         67.02        67.87
       and 44
     Between 45
                      54.80       58.85         60.23        67.87
       and 49
     Between 50
                      42.33       44.69         47.35        50.87
       and 54
     Between 55
                      30.26       31.10         32.90        34.45
       and 59
     Between 60
                      17.28       17.12         18.73        19.12
       and 64
     Between 65
                      20.38        2.30          2.34         2.76
       and 69
     70 and over       0.24        0.29          0.38         0.35
    Source: Active Population Survey ( EPA ), National Statistics Institute.

          However, there has been a significant change between the 80s and
    90s regarding the participation of women in the middle age ranges in the
    labour market. The predominant model for women used to include exiting
    the labour market between the ages of 25 and 40. With time, the female
    activity rate has reached higher values, which could be interpreted as
    women’s strong will to stay in the labour market throughout their life cycle
    and more independently than in previous years.


            EMPLOYMENT RATE

          According to the data for the 4th Term of 2004 of the Active Population
    Survey, the female employment rate is 38.6 %. The difference between male
    and female employment rates has become smaller in the last few years, but
    it is necessary to make even greater progress.




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

    Evolution of the male and female employment rates.
                           MEN       WOMEN DIFFERENCE
    2001            61.58      34.58      27.00 %
    2002            61.45      35.46      25.99 %
    2003            62.01      37.07      24.94 %
    2004            62.60       38.6      24.00 %
    Source: Women’s Institute, based on the Yearly Report on Labour
    Statistics, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.

       7 0 ,0 0 %
       6 0 ,0 0 %
       5 0 ,0 0 %
       4 0 ,0 0 %
                                                                   HOMBRES
       3 0 ,0 0 %                                                  MUJ ERES
       2 0 ,0 0 %
       1 0 ,0 0 %
        0 ,0 0 %
                    2001     2002          2003     2004


           MEN-WOMEN
           (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)

        The sector which concentrates most of the employed population in our
    country is the Services sector, where there is a greater concentration of
    women which was higher than average female occupation in the 4th Term of
    2004 by 11.3 percentage points.

    Employed Female Population according to sector of activity
                                                     4th Term.
                        2002           2003
                                                        2004
     TOTAL WOMEN                 37.93                38.78               39.52

    AGRICULTURE                  27.22                27.40               27.86
    INDUSTRY                     25.37                24.10               25.07
    CONSTRUCTION                    5.46              5.77                 5.76
    SERVICES                48.74          50.00       50.82
    Source: Women’s Institute, based on the Yearly Report on Labour
    Statistics, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT



       60,00%

       50,00%

       40,00%
                                                                                                 2002
       30,00%                                                                                    2003
       20,00%                                                                                    IV Trim. 2004

       10,00%

        0,00%
                AGRICULTURA            INDUSTRIA     CONSTRUCCIÓN         SERVICIOS



        AGRICULTURE- INDUSTRY – CONSTRUCTION – SERVICES-4TH TERM
        (Sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)

        Evolution of the Female Employment Rate in the European Union-
        15 in comparison to the Female Employment Rate in Spain
                               1997       1998            1999     2000       2001     2002             2003
          WOMEN
         Total UE-             39.90      40.40       41.40        42.30      43.00    43.52         43.90
            15
            Spain              26.40      27.20       28.92        31.17      33.40    34.43         35.90

        Difference 13.50                  13.20       12.48        11.13       9.60     9.09            8.00
        Source: Women’s Institute, based on the Yearly Report on Labour
        Statistics, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.


           4 5 ,0 0 %
           4 0 ,0 0 %
           3 5 ,0 0 %
           3 0 ,0 0 %
           2 5 ,0 0 %
                                                                                      MUJ ERES To t al UE-1 5
           2 0 ,0 0 %
                                                                                      Es pañ a
           1 5 ,0 0 %
           1 0 ,0 0 %
            5 ,0 0 %
            0 ,0 0 %
                        1997    1998     1999      2000     2001   2002     2003




          WOMEN TOTAL EU-15 – SPAIN –
          (Sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)

        Between 1997 and 2003, the difference in percentage points between
    female employment in Spain and in the European Union-15 has fallen


European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

    progressively, from a difference of 13.50 % to 8.00 %, with Spanish women
    always below the European average female employment. On the other
    hand, male occupation in Spain, since 2003, is the same as the European
    male average ( 61.00 % ) according to Eurostat.


            UNEMPLOYMENT RATE

          There has been an increase in the number of women in labour
    activity, but this increase has not meant progress in terms of equal
    employment for men and women. In fact, there is discrimination of women
    with respect to men in terms of unemployment, as unemployment affects
    relatively more women.
          Spain is one of the countries of the European Union-15 in which
    female unemployment is highest and where the difference with respect to
    the unemployment rate for both sexes is greatest.

    Unemployment Rate in Spain
              1997    1998     1999                                 2000   2001         2002   2003
    Women                 28.1          26.6          23.0          20.4   15.1         16.3   15.8
    Men                   16.3          13.9          10.9          9.7      7.3        7.7    7.4
     Difference 11.8      12.7      12.1  10.7 7.8    8.6     8.4
    Source: Women’s Institute, based on the Active Population Survey
    (EPA), National Statistics Institute.


             3 0 ,0 0 %

             2 5 ,0 0 %

             2 0 ,0 0 %

             1 5 ,0 0 %                                                    Mu je re s
                                                                           Ho m bre s
             1 0 ,0 0 %

              5 ,0 0 %

              0 ,0 0 %
                          1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003



          WOMEN-MEN
          (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)

       As can be seen in the table above, both male and female unemployment
    rates have fallen progressively in the last few years. Despite this fall, female
    unemployment is greater than male unemployment by 8.4 percentage
    points in 2003.




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

    Evolution of the female Unemployment rate in EU-15 in comparison
    with female Unemployment rate in Spain
                      1997       1998         1999         2000       2001         2002             2003
    WOMEN
    Total UE-         12.30      11.90        10.90        9.90       8.50          8.60            8.80
    15
    Women
                      28.10      26.60        23.30        20.40      15.10        16.30        15.80
    Spain
    Difference        15.8       14.7         12.4         10.5           6.6        7.7            7.0
        Source: Women’s Institute, based on the Yearly Report on Labour
        Statistics, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.


             30,00%

             25,00%

             20,00%

             15,00%                                                             MUJERES e n la UE- 15
                                                                                Muje re s Es paña
             10,00%

              5,00%

              0,00%
                      1997    1998    1999   2000   2001   2002    2003



          WOMEN IN EU-15-WOMEN SPAIN
          (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)

          The difference between the female unemployment rate of the EU-15
    and the female unemployment rate in Spain has fallen, going from a
    difference of 15.8 percentage points in 1997 to 7 points in 2003. In any
    case, Spain is still one of the countries in the EU-15 with the highest
    female unemployment rate.

    Evolution of the male Unemployment Rate in the                                          EU-15          in
    comparison with the female Unemployment Rate in Spain
                      1997       1998         1999         2000       2001         2002             2003
    MEN
    Total UE-          9.6           8.9       8.2          7.2           6.4        6.9            7.4
    15
    Men
                      16.3       13.9         10.9          9.7           7.3        7.7            7.9
    Spain
    Difference         6.7           5.0       2.7          2.5           0.9        0.8            0.5
        Source: Women’s Institute, based on the Yearly Report on Labour
        Statistics, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.


European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT




       18,00%
       16,00%
       14,00%
       12,00%
       10,00%
                                                                                Hombre s UE- 15
        8,00%                                                                   Hombre s Es paña
        6,00%
        4,00%
        2,00%
        0,00%
                1997    1998     1999    2000    2001    2002     2003



          MEN EU-15-MEN- SPAIN
          (sustituir comas por puntos en decimales)

        However, the Unemployment Rate is only 5 decimal percentage points
    away from the average European unemployment rate.


            PART-TIME WORK

         The use of part-time contracting bears no relation with job creation. In
    Spain, the scarce use of part-time employment does not respond to a
    supposed rigidity which would discourage companies from using it but, on
    the contrary, to the insufficient guarantees offered to workers, who only
    accept it as an imposition and not as a possible option.

    Evolution of Part-Time work in the four countries participating in the
    project
                               MEN                                     WOMEN
                199     200     20
                                        2002 2003 1990 2000 2001 2002 2003
                 0       0      01
    Belgiu
             4.4        7.1    5.7      6.0     5.9     28.8    34.5     32.5     32.4     33.4
    m
    Italy    4.0        5.7    5.4      4.9     4.9     18.4    23.4     23.7     23.5     23.6
    Portug
             3.9        4.9    5.1      5.7     5.9     12.8    14.9     14.3     14.4     14.9
    al
    Spain    1.4        2.6    2.6      2.4     2.5     11.5    16.5     16.6    16.3      16.5
    OECD
    Europ    4.4        6.0    5.5      5.8     5.9     26.5    27.4     27.0     27.0     27.1
    e
    Source: OECD       Labour Force Statistics, 2004




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

            Evolution of Part-time Work in Spain

               18,00%
               16,00%
               14,00%
               12,00%
               10,00%                                                          HOMBRES
                8,00%                                                          MUJERES
                6,00%
                4,00%
                2,00%
                0,00%
                        1990       2000      2001      2002      2003




   MEN-WOMEN
   (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)
            In our country, part-time work entails pay differences, as a male or
    female part-time worker can earn, in wages per hour, up to 45 % less than a
    full-time worker. Pay discrimination is even greater between women and men
    working part-time, as female workers are paid up to 56 % less than men for
    identical work hours.
          The report of the working group for employment ( chaired by Win Kok )
    reflects this and recommends that Spain offer guarantees for this type of
    employment in order to make it more attractive, both for men and women.
    The most striking feature about this type of contracting is the fact that in all
    countries of the European Union, it is mainly meant for women. In our
    country the situation is even worse because women working with this kind of
    contract; do not do so as a personal option, but as a way to enter the labour
    market.
          It is mainly women who carry out part-time work and in 2004 in Spain,
    part-time work represented 67.35 % of self-employed women and 82.03 % of
    female employees.

    Employed Population, according to professional situation and type of
    working day

    1. Self employed female workers ( Only % of women )

    TYPE OF
                            1998     1999     2000     2001     2003      2004      2005
    WORKING DAY
    Full time              27.34 27.62 27.28 27.50 27.42                  28.04    28.70
    Part time           66.55 63.46 68.90 70.52 66.85 70.48 67.35
    Part time due
    to family duties 98.73 99.30 99.31 99.00 97.99 100.00 98.05
    *
       * Care of children or sick adults or disabled persons
       Source: Women’s Institute, based on the Yearly Report on Labour
       Statistics, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.


European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


    1. Female employees ( Only % of women )

    TYPE OF
                            1998     1999      2000     2001     2003     2004      2005
    WORKING DAY
    Full time               32.98 34.12 34.99 35.31 35.97 36.56 37.06
    Part time               77.92 80.47 80.31 79.94 82.07 82.20 82.03
    Part time due to
                     94.90 99.73 98.74 99.55 99.46 98.45 99.05
    family duties *
        * Care of children or sick adults or disabled persons
        Source: Women’s Institute, based on the Yearly Report on Labour
        Statistics, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.

          The reasons why female employees are in this situation refer to the
    demands of the type of activity carried out, not being able to find full-time
    jobs and to family duties ( the latter represents a very low percentage ).
          Part-time work has developed in detriment of full-time work and has
    become very important for certain activities and collectives ( women, young
    people…) who accept it.
          In general, practically no qualified job or position of responsibility is
    offered as part-time employment to an employee. Besides, it tends to
    concentrate certain socio-professional groups: in fact, it has developed
    wherever there are women, thus reinforcing the segregation logic of the sex
    based assignation of professions and position by means of the differences
    in sharing out the different tasks. Concentration, female concentration and
    lack of qualification are currently the main characteristics of part time
    employment.


            TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT

         Spain is the country with the highest rate of temporary employment in
    the European Union-15. The average rate of temporary employment in the
    European Union is 9.7 %, whereas in Spain this rate is three times higher
    at 26.5 %. Temporariness affects men and women equally, as well as all
    sectors of activity. There has been an increase in temporary employment in
    Spain and, despite the fact that it affects men and women equally, this
    temporariness is linked to other situations of labour precariousness such
    as part-time work, which mostly affects the most vulnerable groups in the
    labour market, one of which is women.




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

  Temporary-work rate in the European Union according to sex. Year
2002
                                                     Difference
                Both sexes   Women         Men
                                                        M/ W
     European
                   9.7         9.1         10.1           1
     Union (15)
          Spain              26.5               25.0             27.5              2.5
    Source: Eurostat. 2002



             30,00%
             25,00%
             20,00%
                                                       Unión Europe a (15)
             15,00%
                                                       Es paña
             10,00%
              5,00%
              0,00%
                       Muje re s     Hombre s


          EUROPEAN UNION-15-SPAIN-WOMEN-MEN
          (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)

         Some of the factors that influence the increase in temporary work are,
    on the one hand, the late incorporation of women to the labour market
    and, on the other, factors related to their occupational distribution.
         As for the differences according to sex, women reach higher
    percentages than men. The higher female temporality is due to the fact that
    their participation in activity is lower than that of men.

    Female employees, according to type and duration of contract
    TYPE OF
                        1998 1999 2000 2001 2003 2003 2004
    CONTRACT
    For an
                        35.64 36.58 37.46 37.36 38.14 38.74 39.55
    unlimited period
    Temporary           38.23 40.21 40.81 42.38 43.41 44.26 44.42
    Source: Women’s Institute, based on the Yearly Report on Labour
    Statistics, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.

            PROFESSIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS

          Systems of professional classification are a mechanism used to
    establish the differences and hierarchy (professional and in terms of pay)
    between people within the sphere of labour relations in companies and in
    sectors of activity. In Spain, the basic regulation mechanisms for labour
    relations were Labour Bylaws and Work Regulations until they were
    repealed in 1995.



European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


          The defining element in the system of professional classification until
    1995 was “ professional category ”. This refers to a limited description of
    tasks, according to a distinction of the job in particular. Systems of
    classification established by Bylaws were based on professional structures
    that limited mobility between different groups or specialities and increased
    the distance between external education and training systems and the
    labour sphere.
          The main aim of the National System of Professional Classifications is
    to regulate and recognise the different forms of acquisition
    ( training/experience and acquired skills which are not formally recognised)
    and accreditation of professional qualifications and to foster the
    relationship between training ( titles and certificates generated by different
    subsystems ) and systems of professional classification that have emerged
    from collective bargaining.
          Since the Statute of Workers was reformed in 1994, Collective
    Bargaining is given the competence to establish systems of professional
    classification. It is vitally important that the concepts on which systems of
    professional classification must be based are comprehensively and
    accurately defined. That is why professional classification mechanisms
    have become more flexible, have abandoned professional category as a
    unique and basic criterion for classification and have started to combine it
    with the concept of “ professional group ”. The “ professional group ”
    introduces the changes that have been brought about by technological
    innovations, new work organisation structures, the trend towards
    recognising broader professional profiles and the need for a progressive
    broadening of functions assigned to workers

            ACCESS OF WOMEN TO MANAGEMENT, DECISION-MAKING AND
            CONTROL POSITIONS

         During the last decades, women have been making their entry into all
    social spheres at an accelerating pace: education, labour, politics, etc.
    However, there is still a long way to go in order to obtain real parity in
    taking on positions of high responsibility within those spheres.
         Women’s possibilities of gaining access to the higher positions of the
    professional hierarchy are still very limited. We can observe two trends:
         - qualified female jobs are concentrated in certain sectors which
             allow women access to intellectual, scientific and technical
             professions ( public sector, education, research, etc.)
         - massive female concentration in administrative professions and
             unqualified jobs in the services sector




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

            SALARIES AND PAY DIFFERENCES

         The analysis of salaries and pay differences is another of the aspects
    that shows inequalities between men and women with regard to
    employment.
         Pay discrimination appears in all sectors of activity and in all
    professional categories. Furthermore, women receive lower salaries with
    regard to indefinite-period or limited-period contracts. In general,
    employees with a temporary contract are paid lower salaries. In this sense,
    women suffer twofold discrimination: the first one based on sex, as their
    salary is less than that of temporary male workers of the same professional
    category, and the second one because they are in precarious employment
    and, therefore, they receive a lower salary than other women with
    unlimited-period contracts who carry out jobs of similar professional
    qualification.
         In Spain, not only is female employment lower, but, on top of that, it
    does not fulfil quality criteria, as there are discriminatory differences
    between men and women’s pay and the rule of “ equal pay for work of
    equal value ” is not applied. In fact, the average hourly wage for women is
    86 % that of men. This is a structural indicator offered by Eurostat which
    reveals, not only pay inequality, but also labour inequality suffered by
    women.
         Such inequality is also reflected in the Pay Structure Survey 2002
    carried out by INE ( National Institute for Statistics ), which shows that the
    average annual female salary is 71.1 % of the male salary.
         The pay difference between men and women does not only respond to
    structural factors ( occupational segregation, both horizontal and vertical,
    labour precariousness, later incorporation of women to the labour market,
    less opportunities to gain a certain experience of seniority for these
    reasons, etc.) but to factors that are deeply rooted within the lower social
    value given to the role of women, and which is reflected in the
    undervaluation of their work and lower pay.


            CONCILIATION OF PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL LIFE

         The unequal share of family duties and household chores between
    men and women is a structural problem in our society. This unequal share
    hinders the entry and permanence of women in the labour market, so it
    would be necessary to launch efficient measures to guarantee a real
    conciliation of personal and professional life.
         Leaves aimed at the conciliation of personal and professional life must
    be shared by women and men, so that there are no interruptions in
    women’s careers for family reasons.




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

    Evolution of maternity leaves
    MATERNITY                Evolution                       %
    LEAVES          TOTAL              Mothers Fathers
                               Index                      Mothers
    1996           127.739      100       -         -         -
    1997           146.971      115       -         -         -
    1998           148.751      116       -         -         -
    1999           165.946      130       -         -         -
    2000           192.422      151    190.547    1.875    99.03
    2001           208.695      163    205.966    2.729    98.69
    2002           224.419      176    221.107    3.312    98.52
    2003           243.620      191    239.858    3.762    98.46
    Source: Compiled for this study using data from the National Social
    Security Institute

         The table above shows a slight increase in fathers who have taken
    maternity leave between 2000 and 2003. However, it is women, almost
    exclusively, that make use of this leave, 98.46 % in 2003. 1996, shown on
    the table, is the first year in which the evolution index of maternity leaves
    was calculated, therefore, it is given a value of 100 in order to use it as the
    base to calculate the following indexes.

    Extended leave of absence to take care of one’s children
    EXTENDED                Evolution                           %
                   TOTAL                Mothers    Fathers
      LEAVES                  Index                          Mothers
    2000            8.339      100       8.007       332      96.02
    2001           10.163      122       9.800       363      96.43
    2002          121.694      152      12.206       488      96.16
    2003           13.879      166      13.377       502      96.38
    Source: Compiled for this study using data from the National Social
    Security Institute.
    Note: Valid data in December 2004

          With regard to extended leaves of absence to take care of one’s
    children ( as is the case with maternity leaves ), it is women who enjoy this
    type of leaves: 96.38 % in 2003. In spite of the slight increase in men who
    decide to make use of this right, there are still only 502 cases ( 3.62 % ) as
    opposed to 13,377 women in 2003.
           The offer of a structure to take care of children and dependent
    persons has an immediate effect on women’s activity (public, social and
    labour activity). It has been seen that in countries in which the offer of care
    services for children and dependent persons is low, such as in Spain and
    Italy, employment rates are lower than in countries such as Sweden,
    Denmark and Finland, in which there is a great tradition in terms of
    creating centres to care for minors and dependent persons.




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

          GUIDE ON THE SITUATION OF WOMEN WITHIN THE TRADE
          UNION

          The General Union of Workers in Spain is made up of eight State
    Federations, which group workers in industry, construction, services and
    public administrations and two State Unions, which group self-employed
    workers, retired people and pensioners. The Federations are the base upon
    which UGT is structured.
              Metal, Construction and Related Industries (MCA)
              Federation of Related Industries (FIA)
              Food and Agriculture Industry (FTA)
              Federation of Transports, Communications and Sea (FTCM)
              State Federation of Workers in Trade, Catering, Tourism and
              Gambling (FTCHTJ)
              Federation of Services (FeS)
              Federation of Public Services (FSP)
              Federation of Education Workers (FETE)
              Union of Self Employed Workers (UTCP), which groups:
                  - Union of Small Farmers and Stockbreeders (UPA)
                  - Union of Professionals and Self-employed Workers (UPTA)
              Union of Retired People and Pensioners (UJP)

                Distribution and evolution of membership broken down
                according to sex
           The table and graph below, show how female membership has
    increased in the last years. In 1997 the percentage of female members was
    27% and they currently represent 31.54 %, that is, women have
    experienced an increase of 4.54 percentage points.

                YEARS           % WOMEN          % MEN
                  1997           27.00%           73.00%
                  2001           29.53%           70.00%
                  2004           31.45%           68.55%
                  2005           31.54%           68.46%



                80,00%
                60,00%
                40,00%                                     % MUJERES
                                                           % HOMBRES
                20,00%
                 0,00%
                         1997    2001     2004   2005




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT



                  Participation of women in the sectorial organisation of the
                  trade union

                STATE FEDERATIONS                             % MEN              % WOMEN
              Metal, Construction and
                                                               92.20                7.80
              Related Industries
              Related Industries                               81.94                18.06
              Food and Agriculture Industry                    70.29                29.71
              Transports, Communications
                                                               83.95                16.05
              and Sea
              Trade, Catering, Tourism and
                                                               50.46                49.54
              Gambling
              Services                                         58.46                41.54
              Public Services                                  53.92                46.08
              Education                                        36.71                63.29
              Self Employed Workers                            78.29                21.71
              Retired People and Pensioners                    80.64                19.36




          The Federations with greater female presence are Education (the
    only one in which the percentage of women, 63.29 %, is greater than that
    of men, 36.71 % ), Trade, Catering, Tourism and Gambling ( 49.54 %
    women and 50.46 % men ), Public Services ( 46.08 % women and 43.92
    men) and Services ( 41.54 % women and 58.46 % men ). In the rest of the
    Federations, the presence of women does not reach 30 %.

                Participation of women in the territorial organisation of the
                trade union

            AUTONOMOUS
            COMMUNITY                       % MEN                 % WOMEN
            UNIONS
           Andalucia                         67.99                   32.01
           Aragon                            67.37                   32.63
           Asturias                          70.80                   29.20
           Balearic Islands                  64.78                   35.22
           Canary Islands                    65.36                   34.64
           Cantabria                         70.42                   29.58
           Castilla-La                       71.20                   29.50



European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

           Mancha
           Castilla and Leon                 69.94                   30.06
           Catalonia                         73.58                   26.42
           Valencian
                                             67.64                   32.36
           Community
           Extremadura                       69.93                   30.07
           Galicia                           65.37                   34.63
           Madrid                            62.41                   37.59
           Murcia                            65.81                   34.19
           Navarra                           71.05                   28.95
           Basque Country                    73.44                   26.56
           La Rioja                          64.68                   35.32
           Ceuta                             69.71                   30.29
           Melilla                           56.86                   43.14




               The territorial structure of UGT clearly shows that the presence
        of women in Autonomous Community Unions is higher than the
        percentages of female membership which appeared in the tables
        showing State Federations. The Community of Madrid and Melilla have
        the highest percentages of women ( 37.59 % and 43.14 % respectively ).

                    Participation of women as trade union delegates

               Male and female trade union delegates represent the membership
        of their trade union organisation in all the necessary dealings with the
        company and they have the right be listened to by the company in
        treating problems of a collective nature which affect workers in general
        and trade union members in particular.
               The following table shows the evolution of the distribution of
        trade union delegates according to sex.



                        % WOMEN         % MEN
            97-00         22.85%         77.15%
            99-02         23.77%         76.23%
            00-03         25.37%         74.63%
            01-04         26.02%
                           80,00%        73.98%
                           60,00%
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
                                                                   % MUJERES
employer organisations”” 40,00%
Research Project. UGT-Spain                                        % HOMBRES
                           20,00%
Madrid, October 2005
                            0,00%
                                    97-00 99-02 00-03 01-04
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

              The presence of women as trade union delegates in State
        Federations and Unions ( 26.02 % ) is lower than the percentage of
        female members ( 31.54 % ). The Metal, Construction and Related
        Industries Federation ( MCA ) is the one with the lowest female trade
        union representation ( 8.33 % ), whereas the Federation of Education
        Workers ( FETE ) has 47.52 % of female delegates. Despite the fact that
        this Federation has the highest number of female delegates, this
        percentage is 16 percentage points away from the percentage of female
        membership ( 63.29 % ).
              It is significant that in many State Federations and Unions, the
        percentage of female delegates is lower than the percentage of female
        members in the Federation. This is the case in the Federation of
        Workers in Trade, Catering, Tourism and Gambling, where female
        membership is 49.54 % and the percentage of female trade union
        delegates is 35.23 %. Such is the case with the Public Services
        Federation ( FSP ), which has 46.08 % of female members and 35.03 %
        of female trade union delegates. The Services State Federation ( FES )
        has 41.54 % of female members and 38.95 % of female trade union
        delegates.

               STATE
                                                % MEN             % WOMEN
               FEDERATIONS
              Metal, Construcción
                                                 91.10                8.33
              y Afines
              Industrias Afines                  76.86               23.10
              Agroalimentaria                    71.09               28.67
              Transporte,
                                                 84.83               15.09
              Comunicación y Mar
              Turismo, Comercio-
                                                 64.67               32.23
              Hostelería y Juego
              Servicios                          60.92               38.95
              Servicios Públicos                 64.88               35.03
              Enseñanza                          52.31               47.52
                AUTONOMOUS
               COMMUNITY                        % MEN             % WOMEN
               UNIONS
              Andalucia                          79.06               20.49
              Aragon                             74.37               25.61
              Asturias                           78.72               21.25
              Balearic Islands                   65.48               34.48
              Canary Islands                     73.29               26.64
              Cantabria                          77.77               22.18
              Castilla-La Mancha                 79.74               20.14
              Castilla and Leon                  77.29               22.71
              Catalonia                          68.38               31.60
              Valencian
                                                 74.48               25.52
              Community


European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

              Extremadura                        68.38               31.60
              Galicia                            73.73               26.20
              Madrid                             70.94               29.01
              Murcia                             72.94               27.06
              Navarra                            72.63               27.37
              Basque Country                     78.14               21.74
              La Rioja                           75.91               24.09
              Ceuta                              79.31               20.69
              Melilla                            78.86               21.14


                Presence of women in management, decision-making and
                control positions within the Trade Union

               The Confederal Congress is the supreme body of the
        Confederation and it meets every four years. It is generally made up of
        800 male and female delegates elected by means of a proportional
        representation system within State Federations and Unions and
        Autonomous Community Unions.
               Confederal Congresses are the highest expression of participation
        and democracy. They analyse and evaluate the actions of the
        management, participation and control bodies and they determine the
        policies to be carried out and the people who will be in charge of them.
               Amongst its responsibilities, Congress approves a fundamental
        programme, an action plan and internal regulations, as well as
        Confederal Statutes, the Congresses Regulations and Rights
        Regulations.
               The 39th Confederal Congress was held on June 3rd and 4th
        2005.
                   Distribution of the 800 Delegates in the 39th Confederal
                   Congress

                       STATE FEDERATIONS                    % MEN             % WOMEN
                     Metal, Construcción
                                                             88.42               11.58
                     and Related Industries
                     Related Industries                      78.57               21.43
                     Food and Agriculture
                                                             70.00               30.00
                     Industry
                     Transports,
                     Communications and                      47.42               25.58
                     Sea
                     Trade, Catering,
                                                             65.79               34.21
                     Tourism and Gambling
                     Services                                70.69               29.31
                     Public Services                         70.37               29.63


European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

                     Education                               66.67               33.33
                     Self Employed Workers                   72.73               27.27
                     Retired     People and
                                                             72.73               27.27
                     Pensioners
                      AUTONOMOUS
                                                            % MEN             % WOMEN
                      COMMUNITY UNIONS
                     Andalucia                               72.73               27.27
                     Aragon                                  73.33               26.67
                     Asturias                                72.22               27.78
                     Balearic Islands                        66.67               33.33
                     Canary Islands                          70.00               30.00
                     Cantabria                               66.67               33.33
                     Castilla-La Mancha                      72.73               27.27
                     Castilla and Leon                       79.17               20.83
                     Catalonia                               57.50               42.50
                     Valencian Community                     43.75               56.25
                     Extremadura                             63.64               36.36
                     Galicia                                 68.42               31.58
                     Madrid                                  62.16               37.84
                     Murcia                                  71.43               28.57
                     Navarra                                 57.14               42.86
                     Basque Country                          73.33               26.67
                     La Rioja                                80.00               20.00
                     Ceuta                                  100.00                0.00
                     Melilla                                100.00                0.00

               Prior to the 39th Confederal Congress being held (June 2005),
        the Confederal Executive Commission reminded the State Federations
        and Unions and Autonomous Community Unions about the demand
        stated in the Confederal Statutes to bring the presence of men and
        women in Trade Union bodies more in line with UGT membership. In
        this sense, it was pointed out that “ such presence should tend to be
        proportional to the number of male and female members in each
        Federation and Union, in all spheres and at all levels of the
        Confederation, guaranteeing a minimum presence of 20 % for each sex in
        those organisations in which they reach or exceed such percentage ”.
               The Federation of Related Industries ( FIA ), the Agriculture and
        Food Federation ( FTA ) and the Federation of Transports,
        Communication and Sea, which have scarce female presence, had a
        level of female participation in the Confederal Congress which exceeded
        their percentages of female membership, with over 20 % of female
        delegates in the 39th Confederal Congress. However, although the level
        of female presence in the Metal, Construction and Related Industries
        Congress was higher than the membership, it only reached 11.58 %.




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

               It is significant that those Federations in which the percentage of
        female membership is higher than 40 %, the percentage of delegates in
        the 39th Confederal Congress never reached the percentage of female
        membership.
               The Autonomous Community Unions of Cantabria, Catalonia,
        Valencian Community, Extremadura and Navarra have had the highest
        levels of female delegates in the 39th Confederal Congress taking into
        account their percentages of female membership.
               It is worth looking at the bodies whose proportion of delegates
        was much lower than their proportion of members. In the 39th
        Confederal Congress, the Autonomous Communities of La Rioja and
        Castilla and Leon reduced their female representation by 15 % and 10
        % respectively.

             Confederal Committee
             It is made up by one hundred and sixty representatives, elected
       by the State Federations and Unions and Autonomous Community
       Unions proportionally to their membership, and the members of the
       Confederal Executive Committee ( 13 ).
            The Confederal Committee has to discuss and define the general
     policy of UGT within the framework of the Resolutions taken in its
     congresses. Also, it receives a Performance Report from the Executive
     Commission twice a year which it has to analyse and decide upon.
     Likewise, it is aware of the annual reports issued by the Rights
     Commission and the Economic Control Commission.
            The table above clearly showed how there has been an important
     increase in the presence of women in the Confederal Committee since
     1994, with 3.87 % in the 36th Confederal Congress and 22.54 % in the
     38th Confederal Congress.

            The Confederal Executive Commission
            Currently, the Confederal Executive Commission is made up of 13
      members: General Secretariat, Organisation and Communication
      Secretariat, Treasury, Trade Union Action Secretariat, Equality
      Secretariat, Secretariat for Employment and Social Protection, Secretariat
      for Working Youth, Secretariat for the Coordination of Territorial Policies
      and Employment Training, Secretariat for Trade Union Training and
      Cultural Action, Secretariat for the Coordination of Collective Bargaining
      and two Executive Secretariats.
            The Confederal Executive Commission carries out tasks and
      mandates derived from the Statutes and Resolutions of the Confederal
      Congress and the Confederal Committee, and are accountable for its
      performance to the Committee and the Congress.




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT




Participation of women in Executive Commissions
     The composition in terms of numbers and the assignment of duties
     within the Executive Commission are not uniform. Each organisation
     establishes the number of members and distributes duties according to
     their own criteria, approved in the respective Congresses.

                                             ABSOLUTE VALUES              RELATIVE VALUES
          EXECUTIVE COMMISSIONS
                                      TOTAL       MEN       WOMEN       % MEN       % WOMEN

        36th CONFEDERAL
        CONGRESS                       310         364         41       90.91%        9.09%

        37th CONFEDERAL
        CONGRESS                       297         235         62       79.12%        20.88%

        38th CONFEDERAL
        CONGRESS                       331         235         96       71.00%        29.00%

        39th CONFEDERAL
        CONGRESS                       314         192         135      61.15%        38.85%

        * Provisional Data


               In terms of relative values, there is an important increase of 30
      percentage points in the presence of women, going from 9.09 % in the
      36th Confederal Congress to 29 % in the 38th Confederal Congress in
      relation to the Executive Commissions. The data for the 39th Confederal
      Congress are provisional, as some of the Ordinary Congresses have not
      been held yet ( Metal, Construction and Related Industries will be held in
      February 2006 ).
               The increase in the presence of women in decision-making,
      management and control bodies in the trade union is closely related to
      the quota system established in the 37th Confederal Congress, according
      to which “ The Confederation will establish in its Congresses a system of
      participation at all levels of Congresses, Committees and Executive
      Commissions in order to guarantee a presence of women and men in these
      bodies which is more in line with the membership of UGT. This presence


European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

      will tend to be proportional to the number of female and male members in
      each Federation and Union. As a guideline, it will not be higher than eighty
      percent or lower than twenty percent for each sex ”.

            The expression “ as a guideline ” which appears in the congress
     Resolutions meant that the system of quotas was understood as a
     recommendation rather than as an obligation to be fulfilled by
     Federations and Unions. The 38th Confederal Congress eliminated the
     expression “ as a guideline ” and substituted it with “ a minimum presence
     of twenty percent for each sex will be guaranteed in all cases in those
     organisations which reach or exceed that percentage ”.
              A significant change took place since the 38th Confederal
     Congress, particularly in the Confederal Executive Commission, where
     even parity representation between women and men was achieved, in
     excess of proportional representation of female membership. Women in
     Executive Commissions of Autonomous Communities evaluate this
     positively. However, although the representation of women in State
     Federations has increased, it is still below the percentage of women who
     are members of UGT.

           The Rights Commission

            The Rights Commission is the body that ensures respect for the
       rights and duties of members, organisations and decision-making,
       management and control bodies within UGT. It ensures compliance
       with internal regulations and applies the disciplinary regime. It presents
       an annual report of its actions to the Confederal Committee for it to
       evaluate its performance.
          It is made up of seven members: a chairperson and six members,
     elected by the Confederal Congress by absolute majority out of the
     delegates.


          COMMISSION OF                 ABSOLUTE VALUES                   RELATIVE VALUES
           CONFEDERAL
             RIGHTS
                                 TOTAL         MEN         WOMEN         % MEN       % WOMEN

        36th CONFEDERAL
        CONGRESS
                                    5            5             0         100.00%        0.00%

        37th CONFEDERAL
        CONGRESS
                                    7            5             2         71.43%        28.57%

        38th CONFEDERAL
        CONGRESS
                                    7            5             2         71.43%        28.57%

        39th CONFEDERAL
        CONGRESS
                                    7            4             3         57.14%        42.86%


          The presence of women in the Rights Commission in the 38th
     Confederal Congress was of only 28.58 % ( 2 women ) as opposed to


European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

     71.42 % of male members ( 5 men ). In the 39th Confederal Congress, the
     percentage of women rose to 42.88 %, which is a significant increase.

            The Economic Control Commission

          The Economic Control Commission is the body in charge of
     supervising the accounts of UGT, verifying the administration of the
     Trade Union’s financial resources and ensuring that they are used
     according to the resolutions of its management bodies. It carries out
     reviews of the Confederation accounts every term and it can carry out
     other reviews whenever it decides to. It presents an annual report of its
     actions to the Confederal Committee and a general report to the
     Confederal Congress, which will evaluate its performance.
          It is made up of five members: a chairperson and four members,
     elected by the Confederal Congress by the absolute majority of the
     delegates.

          COMMISSION OF                  ABSOLUTE VALUES                    RELATIVE VALUES
           CONFEDERAL
            ECONOMIC
             CONTROL             TOTAL          MEN         WOMEN          % MEN        % WOMEN

        36th CONFEDERAL
        CONGRESS
                                     3            3             0          100.00%        0.00%

        37th CONFEDERAL
        CONGRESS                     5            4             1          80.00%         20.00%
        38th CONFEDERAL
        CONGRESS
                                     5            3             2          60.00%         40.00%

        39th CONFEDERAL
        CONGRESS
                                     5            3             2          60.00%         40.00%


            The percentage of women in the Economic Control Commission
     rose to 40 % ( 2 women ), but it is still not a parity commission.




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
4.   SELECTION OF SECTORS

      Once the questionnaire was designed, the sample of sectors that were
to fill out the questionnaire in order to obtain information on gender
stereotypes was selected.
    Three sectors of production were selected (a mostly-female sector, a
mostly-male sector and an integrated sector in terms of gender), as we
consider that gender stereotypes operate differently in each of them, so the
consequences of belonging to one sector or another will be different.
      We have chosen a variable and established a threshold according to
which the sectors can be grouped as “ mostly-female ”, “ mostly-male ” and
“ integrated in terms of gender ”. The grouping variable chosen for this
study is REPRESENTATION and the threshold established is 1.15. This
allows us to define the three groups as follows:
      -      Mostly-female sectors: those in which the percentage of
         women ( participation ) exceeds the percentage of women in
         total employment ( which is 41.30 % ) by 15 %. That is,
         mostly-female sectors are those in which the percentage of
         women is greater than 56.30 %.
      -      Mostly-male sectors: those in which the percentage of
         men ( participation ) exceeds the percentage of men in total
         employment ( which is 58.70 % ) by 15 %. That is, mostly-
         male sectors are those in which the percentage of men is
         greater than 73.70 %.
      -      Integrated sectors in terms of gender: those in which the
         representation of women and men is between 1 and 1.15.
      The statistical data which we are using to calculate participation,
representation and concentration come from the Active Population Survey
(EPA) for the 4th Term of 2005, in particular, employed population broken
down according to sex. Using this data, the Organisation Secretariat of our
trade union has adapted the EPA data to the sectorial structure of our
trade union.

TABLE 1:
Employed population broken down according to sex in each of the
sectors of production
                                   EMPLOYED POPULATION
     SECTORS
                        MEN               WOMEN              TOTAL

TOTAL                 8,313,000          5,848,300         14,161,300

EDUCATION              354,900           673,200            1,028,100

SERVICES              1.041.100          1.452.800          2.493.900

TRADE, CATERING,
TOURISM AND           1,217,100          1,407,300          2,624,400
GAMBLING

PUBLIC SERVICES       1,088,200          1,257,500          2,345,700


INDUSTRY               488,900            273,500            762,400




                                                                          1
FOOD AND
                         537,400             248,200             785,600
AGRICULTURE
TRANSPORT,
COMMUNICATION            612,000             178,500             790,500
AND SEA
METAL,
CONSTRUCTION
                        2,973,400            357,300            3,330,700
AND RELATED
INDUSTRIES
Source: Based on EPA 4th Term of 2005.

      The table shown below refers to the participation of men and women
in each of the sectors:
    1.   Mostly-female sectors: those in which female participation exceeds
         by more than 15 % total female employment ( which is 41.30 % ).
         This category includes Education and Services.
    2.   Mostly-male sectors: those in which male participation exceeds by
         more than 15 % total male employment ( which is 58.70 % ). This
         category includes Transport, Communication and Sea and Metal,
         Construction and Related Industries.
    3.   Integrated Sectors in terms of Gender: This category includes all
         other sectors.

TABLE 2: PARTICIPATION

                         PARTICIPATION
     SECTORS
                                    WOMEN
                      MEN (%)
                                     (%)

TOTAL                  58.70         41.30

EDUCATION               34.52        65.48         1. Sectors with greater female
                                                   participation: MOSTLY-FEMALE
SERVICES                41.75        58.25         SECTORS
TRADE, CATERING,                     53.62
TOURISM AND             46.38
GAMBLING                                           2. INTEGRATED SECTORS IN
                                                   TERMS OF GENDER
PUBLIC SERVICES         46.39
                                     53.61
RELATED
                        64.13        35.87
INDUSTRIES

FOOD AND
                        68.41        31.59
AGRICULTURE

TRANSPORT,
COMMUNICATION           77.42        22.58
AND SEA                                           3. Sectors with greater male
METAL,                                            participation:
CONTRUCTION AND                                   MOSTLY-MALE SECTORS
                        89.27        10.73
RELATED
INDUSTRIES
Source: Based on EPA 4th Term of 2005.

   The sector with greatest female participation is Education, in which
women represent 65.48 % of all employees in the sector. On the opposite



                                                                                 2
extreme is the Metal, Construction and Related Industries sector, in which
women are practically absent, as they only represent 10.73 % of all
employees in the sector.
      Table 3 shows a double line dividing the sectors into two. Above the
line are those sectors in which the representation of women reaches values
greater than 1, which means that women are over-represented. On the
other hand, under the line are those sectors in which the representation of
women is below 1, that is, women are under-represented in those sectors.

Table 3: REPRESENTATION
                         REPRESENTATION
     SECTORS
                        MEN          WOMEN


EDUCATION               0,588         1,585


SERVICES                0,711         1,410
                                                Sectors in which women are
TRADE, CATERING,                                over-represented
TOURISM AND             0,790         1,298
GAMBLING

PUBLIC SERVICES         0,790         1,298


RELATED
                        1,093         0,869
INDUSTRIES

FOOD AND
                        1,165         0,765
AGRICULTURE                                     Sectors in which women are
TRANSPORT,                                      under-represented
COMMUNICATION           1,319          0,547
AND SEA
METAL,
CONSTRUCTION
                        1,521          0,260
AND RELATED
INDUSTRIES
Source: Based on EPA 4th Term of 2005.

     With regard to concentration we can say that women are more
concentrated in mostly-female sectors than men are in mostly-male
sectors. This is clear when we see how women reach higher percentages in
mostly-female sectors ( 24.84 % in Services, 24.06 % in Trade, Catering,
Tourism and Gambling; 21.50 % in Public Services ) than men do in
mostly-male sectors ( except in the Metal, Construction and Related
Industries sector, in which women reach 35.77 % ).
     The greater concentration of women in mostly-female sectors implies
that the adverse effects of a high degree of occupational segregation affect
women most. This phenomenon implies an unfair situation for women, as
men and women do not enjoy equal opportunities when choosing their job.
The range of choice is greater for men, as they can choose from the whole
range of sectors in order to carry out their work, whereas the range of
choice for women is much smaller.




                                                                          3
 Table 4: CONCENTRATION


                               CONCENTRATION
        SECTORS

                             MEN (%)       WOMEN (%)

   TOTAL                     100.000            100.000


   EDUCATION                  4.269             11.511



   SERVICES                  12.524             24.841


   TRADE, CATERING,                             24.063           Sectors in which women
   TOURISM AND               14.641
                                                                 are more concentrated
   GAMBLING
   SERVICIOS
                             13.090             21.502
   PÚBLICOS

   RELATED
                              5.881              4.677
   INDUSTRIES

   FOOD AND
                              6.465              4.244
   AGRICULTURE
   TRANSPORT,
   COMMUNICATION              7.362              3.052
   AND SEA
   METAL,
   CONSTRUCTION
                             35.768              6.109
   AND RELATED
   INDUSTRIES

    Source: Based on EPA 4th Term of 2005.

 Table 5: Participation, Representation and Concentration of women
 and men in the different sectors of production


                             PARTCIPTN.                   REPRSNTN.      CONCNTRTN.
    SECTORS.
                     M         W        M (%) W (%)                      M (%)    W(%)
                                                          M (%) W (%)
  TOTAL           8,313,000 5,848,300 58.70       41.30                  100.00   100.00



  EDUCATION        354,900   673,200    34.52     65.48   0.59    1.58    4.27    11.51




  SERVICES        1,041,100 1,452,800   41.75     58.25   0.71    1.41   12.52    24.84


Sectors in which women are
under-represented




                                                                                           4
TRADE,
CATERING,
                1,217,100 1,407,300   46.38   53.62   0.79   1.30   14.64   24.06
TOURISM AND
GAMBLING

PUBLIC
                1,088,200 1,257,500   46.39   53.61   0.79   1.30   13.09   21.50
SERVICES


RELATED
                 488,900    273,500   64.13   35.87   1.09   0.87   5.89    4.68
INDUSTRIES


FOOD AND
                 537,400    248,200   68.41   31.59   1.16   0.76   6.46    4.24
AGRICULTURE


TRANSPORT,
COMMUNICATI      612,000    178,500   77.42   22.58   1.32   0.55   7.36    3.05
ON AND SEA
METAL,
CONSTRUCTN.
                2,973,400   357,300   89.27   10.73   1.52   0.26   35.77   6.11
AND RELATED
INDUSTRIES
Source: Based on EPA 4th Term of 2005.

      The two sectors with the highest percentages of women out of the
mostly-female group are Education and Services, whereas amongst the
mostly-male sectors, it is those related to industry and transport that have
the highest percentages of men. It is possible to say that mostly-female
sectors share certain characteristics which are closely related to existing
stereotypes about women, such as being delicate, sensitive, being naturally
inclined to take care of others, manual dexterity and being better
predisposed to receiving orders.




                                                                                    5
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

    5.    IDENTIFICATION   AND    INCIDENCE    OF  GENDER
          STEREOTYPES IN THE LABOUR SPHERE USING THE
          QUESTIONNAIRE AS A TOOL TO GATHER INFORMATION

         Stereotypes based on gender hinder the attainment of equal
    opportunities for men and women. One of the most immediate
    consequences of gender stereotypes is professional segregation of the
    labour market.
         Professional segregation based on gender is a worrying issue that
    should be taken into account when trying to eradicate inequality between
    men and women in the labour sphere.
         A large number of workers are excluded from most jobs, that is, from
    most trades and professions. The persistence of gender stereotypes has
    negative consequences in different spheres of the labour market: in access
    to employment, training, permanence on a job, job promotion, taking on
    management, decision-making and control positions and pay.
         Horizontal and vertical segregation persist in the labour market, and
    they entail situations of inequality between men and women.

          -   HORIZONTAL SEGREGATION:
              It refers to the concentration of female jobs in certain sectors of
              activity and professions (and viceversa). This type of segregation
              can take place when a worker is being employed, as certain job
              vacancies are explicitly aimed at worker of one or the other sex. As
              a result of horizontal segregation, in most cases there is a problem
              of pay discrimination, due to the traditionally lower salaries for
              female categories than for male categories.

          -   VERTICAL SEGREGATION:
              It refers to the fact that female jobs are concentrated in categories
              at the lower end of the professional hierarchy. Women encounter
              difficulties when trying to gain access to jobs in the higher
              positions of the hierarchical ladder of the companies. Once women
              have been able to tackle these obstacles, they encounter another
              difficulty, pay under-valuation.
              This problem results in decision-making resting mostly in men’s
              hands.

         The aim of our project is to identify and eliminate gender stereotypes
    in the labour sphere and in trade union organisations. To this effect we
    have designed a questionnaire for workers in three professional sectors:
    education ( mostly-female sector ), construction ( mostly-male sector ) and
    banking ( integrated sector in terms of gender ).
       The data obtained from the questionnaire have served to identify the
    gender stereotypes operating in the labour market. The results of the
    questionnaire allow us to identify the segregating factors and to determine
    the causes which have to be acted upon in order to eliminate gender
    stereotypes. A Good Practices Guide and a Catalogue of Proposals have
                                                                                          1
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

    been produced based on the analysis of these causes. They put forward the
    necessary changes that the different bodies, institutions and trade union
    and employer organisations need to undertake in order to eliminate
    stereotypes based on gender.

          IDENTIFICATION OF GENDER STEREOTYPES
        The questionnaire is made up of several theme sections to allow for a
    more accurate identification of gender stereotypes in the labour market.
    These are the different areas:
                Access to employment
                On the job
                Promotion and taking on management, decision-making and
                control positions
                Access to training
                Pay
                Conciliation of personal and professional life
                Fighting against gender stereotypes

         We have carried out an analysis of the results obtained through the
    data gathered with the questionnaires from each of the selected sectors:
    Construction ( mostly-male sector ), Banking ( integrated sector in terms of
    gender with a greater female presence ) and Education ( mostly-female
    sector ).
         The results obtained can not be understood in absolute terms, and
    the conclusions extracted from this analysis must be seen as trends or
    approximations to the social picture.
         The questionnaire has been answered by a total of 364 people, out of
    which 259 belong to the Banking sector, 71 to Education and 34 to
    Construction.
         - Banking represents 71.8 % of the total number of questionnaires
         - Education represents19.50 % of the questionnaires
         - Construction represents 9.32 % of the questionnaires




                                                                                          2
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

          DISTRIBUTION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES ACCORDING TO SEX

          CONSTRUCTION

                      14,71%
                                                          Mujeres
                                                          Hombres
                29,41%                        55,88%      Ns/Nc




          BANKING

                         9,65%
                   4,63%                                 Mujeres
                                                         Hombres
                                                         Ns/Nc
                                     85,71%




          EDUCATION


                             4,23%
                33,80%                                   Mujeres
                                                         Hombres
                                          61,97%         Ns/Nc




          WOMEN-MEN-DK/NA
          (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)

          The distribution of questionnaires according to sex was not balanced
          ( 50 % men and 50 % women ) in any of the analysed sectors.
          However, the results obtained are exploited according to sector and
          sex.




                                                                                          3
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT



          DISTRIBUTION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES ACCORDING TO
          AGE

          CONSTRUCTION


                     60,00                52,94


                     40,00
                                                    17,65    20,59
                     20,00                                                              %
                                5,88                                  2,94     0,00
                      0,00
                             18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64                    65 y
                                                                              más


          BANKING


                  40,00                            37,45

                  30,00                 27,03                26,64

                  20,00

                  10,00      5,79                                                       %
                                                                       2,32
                                                                                 0,00
                   0,00
                            18-24      25-34      35-44     45-54    55-64     65 y
                                                                               más




          EDUCATION


                    40,00                          38,03
                                                             33,80
                    30,00
                    20,00                15,49
                                                                      11,27
                    10,00                                                               %
                               1,41                                            0,00
                     0,00
                             18-24     25-34      35-44     45-54    55-64    65 y
                                                                              más




          65 AND OVER
          (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)

              In the Construction sector over half of the people polled are in the
          25-34 age range ( 52.94 % ). In the Banking sector, almost all the
          people polled are between 25 and 54 years old ( 27.03 % are 25-34
          and 37.45 % are 35-44 and 26.34 % are 45-54 ). In the Education
                                                                                            4
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

          sector almost two thirds of the people polled are in the 35-44 age
          range ( 38.03 % ) and in the 45-54 age range ( 33.80 % ).

          DISTRIBUTION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES ACCORDING TO
          EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
          CONSTRUCTION
                          40,00
                                                                                                            35,29
                          35,00
                          30,00
                          25,00                                                                                         23,53
                          20,00
                          15,00                     11,76
                          10,00            8,82                                      8,82                                              %
                                                                          5,88                    5,88
                           5,00
                                                                0,00
                           0,00




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                         45,00
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                                                                                                                44,02
                         20,00
                         15,00
                                                                                                                                       %
                         10,00                                                           18,53 16,22
                          5,00                    11,58
                                      0,77                   0,39    3,47     3,09                                          1,93
                          0,00
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          EDUCATION

                          50,00                                                                                         45,07
                          45,00
                          40,00
                          35,00                                                                             29,58
                          30,00
                          25,00
                          20,00
                          15,00                                                                                                        %
                          10,00                                 5,63      5,63
                           5,00            2,82                                      2,82         4,23
                                                      1,41
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            ELEMENTARY-SECONDARY-VOCATIONAL               TRAINING     I-
          VOCATIONAL      TRAINING     II-GCSE     EQUIVALENT-‘A’  LEVEL
          EQUIVALENT-DIPLOMADEGREE
            (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)

                                                                                                                                   5
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


             Taking into account the level of education, in the three sectors
          analysed in this research project, most of the people polled have
          university diplomas or degrees.

          1. ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT

             In the last few decades there has been an important increase in
          female activity in the labour market. However, this increase has not
          meant advance in terms of employment equality for men and women.
          Thus, employment discrimination of women with regard to men still
          exists.
             The labour market has become more female, but this has not
          brought with it an egalitarian make up of the labour market in terms
          of men and women. There are “ female ” professions which become
          even more female and “ male ” professions which become even more
          male, and this influences entry into the labour market.
             Professional options for women are concentrated mainly in the
          services sector and in a few branches of activity.
             Sometimes women encounter direct discrimination when trying to
          get a job. This can be seen in candidate forms, which explicitly state
          preference for a man. In other occasions discrimination is indirect,
          and therefore more difficult to detect.
             Gender stereotypes determine the entry of women into the labour
          sphere through certain production sectors ( horizontal segregation )
          and in certain categories ( vertical segregation ). That is why one of the
          sections in the questionnaire refers to access to employment.
             The analysis of the results obtained from the questionnaires show
          that the sectors in which the participation of women is greater
          ( Banking and Education ), percentages are higher than in the mostly-
          male sector ( Construction ) when considering whether the sex
          variable has an influence on access to employment.

          Question 5
           Do you think sex is a variable that      Construction     Banking       Education
           plays a role in getting a job?               (%)            (%)            (%)
           Yes, often                                  44.12          52.90          49.30

           Yes, sometimes                              41.18          41.31          46.48

           Yes, but rarely                             11.76           5.41           4.23
           No, never                                    2.94           0.39           0.00


             In the Construction sector, 11.76 % of the people polled think that
          the sex variable “ rarely ” plays a role and almost 3 % think that it
          “ never ” plays a role. However, in the other two sectors those
          responses hardly reach 6 % in Banking and 5 % in Education.


                                                                                          6
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


           Question 5               Construction (%)        Banking (%)          Education (%)
           according to sex             M         W         M          W          M            W
           Yes, often               10.00      58.00     33.33     53.60        50.00         47.73

           Yes, sometimes           50.00      42.00     66.67     40.54        41.67         50.00

           Yes, but rarely          30.00      0.00       0.00        5.41       8.33         2.27
           No, never                10.00      0.00       0.00        0.45       0.00         0.00


              Looking at the sex variable, we can see that in Education there are
          hardly any significant differences. However, in the Construction
          sector, only 10 % of polled men consider that the sex variable “ often ”
          plays a role as opposed to 57.89 % of the women.
              With regard to the difficulties encountered by men and women in
          getting a job, 20.59 % of the people polled in the Construction sector
          think that men and women “ never ” encounter the same difficulties
          when trying to get a job. It is significant that the percentage of people
          polled who state that men and women “ rarely ” or “ never ” encounter
          the same difficulties when trying to get a job is 58.83 % in the mostly-
          male sector and 43.66 % in the mostly-female sector.

          Question 6
             Do you think that both men and
                                                  Construction        Banking           Education
             women encounter the same
                                                      (%)               (%)                (%)
             difficulties in getting a job?
             Yes, often                                8.82             11.97             21.13

             Yes, sometimes                            32.35            39.00             35.21

             Yes, but rarely                           38.24            30.12             26.76
             No, never                                 20.59            18.92             16.90


             We can see how in the mostly-female sector ( Education ) the
          perception of difficulties tends to be less, perhaps due to the fact that
          there is a greater presence of women and they consider that they have
          not encountered different difficulties than the ones encountered by
          men when getting their job. That is why the Education sector has the
          greatest percentage of responses saying that men and women “ often ”
          encounter the same difficulties in getting a job.

             Question 6           Construction (%)      Banking (%)          Education (%)
             according to sex
             and sector             M         W         M         W          M            W
             Yes, often            30.00      0.00     16.67     10.36       37.50       13.64
             Yes, sometimes        30.00     26.32     58.33     38.74       29.17       40.91
             Yes, but rarely       30.00     47.37     16.67     30.63       20.83       27.27

             No, never             10.00     26.32      8.33     20.27       12.50       18.18

                                                                                                7
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


                If we take into account the sex variable, men in Education think
          that they encounter the same difficulties as women, whereas more
          women say they encounter different difficulties.
              Perhaps the fact that there is greater female participation may
          make men think that both men and women encounter the same
          difficulties. However, it is women in the mostly-female sector who
          think that they encounter different difficulties.
              With regard to the type of difficulties which women have to face in
          order to get a job, the three analysed sectors consider, unanimously,
          that preconceived ideas and stereotypes on the role of women are the
          greatest obstacles that women have to tackle in order to enter or re-
          enter the labour market. Lack of time due to an unequal share of
          family duties is another of the big difficulties mentioned in trying to
          get a job.

          Question 7
           In your opinion, what kind of
           difficulties do women encounter Construction                         Banking      Education
           when trying to get a job?           (%)                                (%)           (%)

               Preconceived ideas and
               stereotypes about the role of                       76.47         77.61        77.46
               women
               Lack of time (unequal share of
                                                                   70.59         70.27        70.42
               family duties)


          1.    Training shortcomings
          2.    Less professional experience
          3.    Little confidence in their own abilities
          4.    Lack of time (unequal share of family duties)
          5.    Preconceived ideas and stereotypes about the role of women

          CONSTRUCTION
                                                   MUJERES
                          100,00
                           50,00
                            0,00                                                         %
                                   1       2        3       4    5 Otras
                                                                (especificar)


                                                   HOMBRES
                            60
                            40
                            20
                             0                                                           %
                                       1       2        3   4   5 Otras
                                                                (especificar)




                                                                                                      8
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

          BANKING
                                                        MUJERES
                        100

                         50

                          0                                                                 %
                                1       2           3        4       5 Otras
                                                                      (especificar)



                                                    HOMBRES

                        100

                         50
                                                                                             %
                          0
                              1         2           3        4       5      Otras
                                                                         (especificar)




          EDUCATION
                                                    MUJERES
                       150,00
                       100,00
                        50,00
                         0,00                                                               %
                                    1       2           3        4       5 Otras
                                                                         (especificar)


                                                    HOMBRES
                         60
                         40
                         20
                          0                                                                 %
                                        1       2        3       4    5 Otras
                                                                     (especificar)



          WOMEN-MEN-OTHERS (SPECIFY)
          (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)

          Question 8
           When you got your current job, did
           you   personally encounter     any Construction                                Banking      Education
           obstacles?                             (%)                                       (%)           (%)

             YES                                                                  17.65    16.99         16.90

             NO                                                                   79.41    81.47         83.10

             Don’t know/No answer                                                  2.94    1.54           0.00



             Question 8 according to
                                                         Construction (%) Banking (%)               Education (%)
             sex and sector

                                                                                                             9
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


                                                                        M                W           M              W        M        W

             YES                                                    0.00            31.58        41.67          14.41      21.00    15.91
             NO                                                 100.00              63.16        58.33          83.78      79.00    84.09

             Don’t know/No answer                                   0.00              5.26           0.00           1.80     0.00     0.00


              In mostly-female sectors women say they do not encounter
          difficulties in getting a job. Out of the total number of polled women,
          14.41 % in the Education sector and 15.91 % in the Banking sector
          say they have encountered difficulties. However, in the Construction
          sector ( mostly male ), 100 % those who say they have encountered
          difficulties to get their current job are women.
              In sectors which are considered mostly-female, women do not say
          that they encounter difficulties in getting a job, whereas the opposite
          is the case in mostly-male sectors.
              The difficulties encountered in the Construction sector are the
          existence of preconceived ideas and stereotypes about the role of
          women and lack of professional experience.

          Type of obstacles
          1. Lack of training
          2. Lack of professional experience
          3. Lack of confidence in your abilities
          4. Lack of time (unequal share of family duties)
          5. Preconceived ideas and stereotypes about the role of women
          6. Others (specify)

          CONSTRUCTION

                  80,00
                                                                                 66,67
                  60,00                    50,00
                  40,00
                                                                                                                %
                  20,00                                 16,67                                16,67
                               0,00                                 0,00
                   0,00
                               1           2            3           4            5           6


          BANKING


                   50
                   40
                   30
                                                                            43,18                           %
                   20
                                                   27,27    25,00
                   10     15,91       11,36                                          13,64
                    0
                           1           2            3           4            5           6




                                                                                                                                     10
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

          EDUCATION

                 40
                 30
                 20                  33,33 33,33                   %
                                                   25,00
                 10          16,67                         16,67
                  0   0,00
                       1      2       3     4       5       6


          (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)




                                                                                         11
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT



          2. ON THE JOB

             The roles traditionally assigned to men and women not only
          condition access to employment, they also play a role once on the job.

          Question 10:
             What kind of tasks do you
                                               Construction       Banking       Education
             personally carry out in the
                                                   (%)              (%)            (%)
             company you work for?
             Skilled tasks                          24.00          18.15          39.44

             Unskilled tasks                         3.00           1.93           2.82
             Administrative tasks                   32.00          60.23          28.17
             Technical tasks                        26.00          13.90          19.72
             Management tasks                       12.00           4.63           9.86


              In the three analysed sectors, the greatest percentages refer to
          administrative tasks. Banking is the sector where the percentage of
          polled people who carry out administrative tasks is highest ( 60.23 % )

             What kind of tasks do you
             personally carry out in the                    CONSTRUCTION
             company you work for?
                                                        MEN           WOMEN
                                                        (%)            (%)
             Skilled tasks                             10.00           26.32
             Unskilled tasks                            0.00           5.26

             Administrative tasks                       0.00           42.11
             Technical tasks                           50.00           21.05

             Management tasks                          30.00           5.26


              The mostly-male sector, Construction, shows quite significant
          differences between the tasks carried out by men and women. In this
          sector, 43 % of the polled women carry out administrative tasks,
          whereas none of the polled men carry out such tasks. We can say that
          women working in mostly-male sectors tend to carry out tasks which
          are considered traditionally “ female ” or jobs which are considered
          “ female ” generally carried out by women and associated to the role of
          “ housewife ”)
              In this sense, we can identify vertical segregation as, within a
          mostly-male sector, women are concentrated in categories situated in
          the lower levels of the professional hierarchy. Segregation entails,
          amongst other negative consequences, very short careers.
              As a consequence, decision-making is left in the hands of men.
          This can also be seen in the fact that 30 % of polled men carry out

                                                                                          12
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

          management tasks and only 5.26 % of polled women (in the
          Construction sector) are in management positions.
             In mostly-female sectors ( Education ), women carrying out
          administrative tasks also exceed men ( women 32 %, men 17 % ). On
          the other hand, percentage differences with regard to skilled,
          unskilled, technical and management tasks taking into account the
          sex variable are not as significant as in the mostly-male sector
          mentioned above.

             What kind of tasks do you
             personally carry out in the                       EDUCATION
             company you work for?
                                                        MEN           WOMEN
                                                        (%)            (%)
             Skilled tasks                             45.83           36.36
             Unskilled tasks                            0.00           4.55
             Administrative tasks                      16.67           31.82
             Technical tasks                           29.17           15.91
             Management tasks                           8.33           11.36



             What kind of tasks do you
             personally carry out in the                        BANKING
             company you work for?
                                                        MEN           WOMEN
                                                        (%)            (%)
             Skilled tasks                             16.67           18.02
             Unskilled tasks                            8.33           1.80
             Administrative tasks                      58.33           61.71
             Technical tasks                           16.67           12.61
             Management tasks                           0.00           4.95


             While on a job we consider the degree of satisfaction of a person
          with regard to the tasks they carry out to be relevant.

          Question 11
             Are you satisfied with the
                                               Construction       Banking       Education
             tasks you carry out on your
                                                   (%)              (%)            (%)
             job?
             YES                                    64.71          58.98          78.87
             NO                                     29.41          35.91          18.31
             Don’t know/No answer                    5.88           8.11           2.82




                                                                                          13
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


          Question 11 according to sex and sector
                                                Construction      Banking       Education
             Are you satisfied with the             (%)             (%)            (%)
             tasks you carry out on your
             job?                                 W       W      W          W   W       W

             YES

             NO

             Don’t kinow/No answer


               Taking into account sex and sector, Construction is the sector in
          which there is greater dissatisfaction amongst women with regard to
          the tasks they carry out in their job ( 36.84 % ). However, it is striking
          that in the Banking sector 50 % of polled men say they are
          unsatisfied.

                The reasons mentioned for this dissatisfaction are the following:

             Reasons why you are
                                            CONSTRUCTION
             unsatisfied with the                              BANKING (%)      EDUCATION (%)
                                                 (%)
             tasks you carry out
             1. Few tasks                       10.00                3.23             7.69

             2. Tasks below my
                                                40.00              41.94             69.23
             qualifications

             3. Tasks above my
                                                 0.00                4.30             0.00
             qualifications

             4. Too many tasks                  30.00              44.09              7.69

             5. My training surpasses
                                                70.00              37.62             53.85
             the tasks I carry out

             6. My training is
             insufficient for the tasks I        0.00                5.38             7.69
             carry out


             In the three analysed sectors, carrying out “ tasks below my
          qualifications ” and “ my training surpasses the tasks I carry out ” are
          the reasons for dissatisfaction pointed out most by the people polled.
          This can be related to the distribution of polled people, taking into
          account the level of education, as in the three sectors, most of the
          people polled have diplomas or degrees, whereas the tasks they carry
          out are mostly administrative.
             These dissatisfactions are directly related to the existence of
          vertical segregation in the labour market. Despite having certain
          qualifications and a certain level of training, women are unsatisfied,

                                                                                         14
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

          because they find themselves on the lower levels of the professional
          hierarchy within a sector.

          Question 12
             Do you think your
                                      CONSTRUCTION
             current job matches your                           BANKING (%)    EDUCATION (%)
                                           (%)
             abilities?
             YES                               64.71               59.07             70.42

             NO                                32.35               36.68             26.76

             Don’t know/No answer               2.94               4.25              2.82


              Education is the sector in which more people think their current
          job matches their abilities ( 70.42 % ).
              With regard to the skills that have been considered positive for
          men and women to carry out their job, in the Banking sector
          ( integrated in terms of gender ), both men ( 58.33 % ) and women
          (55.67 % ) respond that a “ practical and problem-solving character ”
          was one of them.

          Question 13
             Which of these skills                           Banking          Education
             do you think have       Construction (%)
                                                               (%)               (%)
             been considered
             positive for your
             current job?                M        W        M         W        M        W

             1. Organisational
                                      60.00    83.33    25.00      48.28   35.00    64.71
             skills
             2. Realistic outlook     20.00    22.22    33.33      19.70   25.00    38.24
             3. Practical and
             problem-solving          40.00    61.11    58.33      55.67   55.00    32.35
             character
             4. Negotiation skills    20.00    27.78    25.00      16.75   25.00    55.88
             5. Communication
                                      20.00    33.33    33.33      48.28   35.00    23.53
             skills
             6. Leadership skills     30.00    16.67     8.33      6.40    10.00    20.59
             7. Motivation and/or
                                      30.00    38.89    33.33      52.22   50.00    70.59
             involvement
             8. Smart appearance
                                      10.00    38.89    33.33      32.02   35.00    23.53
             and good manners
             9. Teamwork skills       40.00    66.67    33.33      50.74   50.00    55.88

             10. Initiative           40.00    22.22    16.67      35.96   50.00    47.06
             11. High level of
             motivation to help        0.00    33.33     8.33      18.23   35.00    38.24
             others
             12. Manual dexterity      0.00    11.11    16.67      6.40    15.00     2.94


                                                                                          15
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

             13. Physical strength
                                       0.00     0.00      0.00    0.99       5.00    0.00
             (muscular)
             14. Availability to
                                      10.00     5.56      16.67   5.42     15.00    26.47
             travel

              Likewise, in the Construction sector, the most valued skills by the
          people polled in order to carry out their tasks were “ organisational
          skills ” ( 60 % of men and 83.33 % of women ). Although this skill is
          the most valued by both men and women, the percentage of women is
          higher, perhaps because more women carry out administrative tasks
          in the Construction sector. Skills such as “ practical and problem-
          solving character ” ( 40 % of men and 61.11 % of women ) and
          “ teamwork skills ” ( 40 % of men and 66.67 % of women ) reach high
          percentages in men and women that are even higher for women.
          However, it is worth noting that “ initiative ” is valued by 40 % of men
          but only 22.22 % of women.
              In Education, the mostly-female sector, “ organisational skills ” is
          one of the most valued skills for women to be in their current job with
          64.71 % of responses, while this skill was only chosen by 35 % of the
          men. On the other hand “ practical and problem-solving character ” is
          the skill chosen most by men ( 55 % ) but is only chosen by 32.35 %
          of women. This is possibly related to a stereotypical vision of women
          and the role they play that makes them think they are further than
          men from decision-making.
              The adoption of measures or strategies by companies in order to
          employ more women is a practice used to fight segregation in the
          labour market. Out of the three sectors analysed, Education (mostly-
          female) reaches the highest percentage in the adoption of measures
          and/or strategies to employ a greater number of women. However, the
          percentage is very low ( 16.90 % ). It is significant that it is the mostly-
          female sector that reaches a highest percentage, even if it is low. The
          percentage of polled people who answer “ Don’t know/No answer ”
          ( which, we venture to think, reflects lack of knowledge ) is very high
          in all three sectors.

          Question 14.
             Has the company you work for
             adopted measures and/or            Construction        Banking         Education
             strategies to employ more              (%)               (%)              (%)
             women?
             YES                                       11.76         16.60            16.90
             NO                                        26.47         34.36            56.34
             Don’t know/No answer                      61.76         49.03            26.76




                                                                                         16
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

              CONSTRUCTION

                              11,76%
                                               SI
                                  26,47%       NO           EDUCATION
               61,76%
                                               Ns/Nc


                                                              26,76%          16,90%            SI
                                                                                                NO
              BANKING                                                         56,34%            Ns/Nc



                               16,60%
                                               SI
               49,03%
                                               NO
                                  34,36%       Ns/Nc




        YES –NO-DK/NA
        (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)

                The perception that polled people have of the sector they belong
        to fits reality. The Construction sector is considered “ mostly-male ” by
        85.29 % of the people, Education is considered “ mostly-female ” by
        46.48 % of the people and Banking is considered “ mixed ( equal
        numbers of men and women )” by 51.35 % of the people. However, there
        is also a very high percentage of people, 41.31 %, who consider it
        “ mostly-male ”.

          Question 15
             How would you describe the        Construction       Banking              Education
             sector you work in?                   (%)              (%)                   (%)
             Mostly male                            85.29          41.31                14.08

             Mostly female                          0.00               3.09             46.48
             Mixed (equal numbers of men
                                                    14.71          51.35                38.03
             and women)
             Don’t know/No answer                   0.00               4.25              1.41




                                                                                                17
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


              CONSTRUCTION

                    14,71%                          Masculinizado
                   0,00%           0,00%
                                                    Feminizado
                                                    Mixto
                                     85,29%         Ns/Nc




              BANKING


                           4,25%                    Masculinizado
                                           41,31%   Feminizado
                  51,35%                            Mixto
                                     3,09%          Ns/Nc




              EDUCATION


                             1,41% 14,08%           Masculinizado
                  38,03%                            Feminizado
                                                    Mixto
                                      46,48%
                                                    Ns/Nc




              MOSTLY-MALE-MOSTLY-FEMALE-MIXED-DK/NA
              (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)

              With regard to equal treatment for men and women and how it is
          perceived by the people polled in each of the sectors, the greatest
          perception of equal treatment is found in Education ( 69.01 % ). This
          can be related to the fact that it is a mostly-female sector to which
          women have easier access and where there is a greater concentration
          of women. In the Construction sector, a mostly-male sector, 44.12 %
          of the people polled consider that there is equal treatment for men
          and women in their sector ( the same percentage think that there is
          not such equality ).




                                                                                         18
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

          Question 16
             Do you think there is equal
                                               Construction         Banking        Education
             treatment for men and women
                                                   (%)                (%)             (%)
             in the company you work for?
             YES                                     44.12           23.17            69.01
             NO                                      44.12           67.18            23.94
             Don’t know/No answer                    11.76           9.65             7.04


              If we take into consideration the sex variable, we obtain significant
          results, as the perception that men and women have about the
          existence of equal treatment is not the same. Women tend to say there
          is no equal treatment more than men. In Construction, 63.16% of
          polled women state that there is no equal treatment for men and
          women, whereas no men choose that response. In Education ( mostly-
          female ), both women and men say that there is equal treatment, but
          the percentage of men ( 79.17 % ) is greater than that of women
          ( 65.91 % ).

          Question 16 according to sex and sector
             Do you think there                                Banking          Education
             is equal treatment    Construction (%)
                                                                 (%)               (%)
             for men and
             women in the
             company you work          M         W            M      W         M          W
             for?
             YES                     80.00     31.58     33.33      22.07     79.17     65.91

             NO                       0.00     63.16     66.67      68.02     16.67     25.00

             Don’t know/No
                                     20.00     5.26          0.00   9.91      4.17      9.09
             answer


             In the three analysed sectors, the reason for the existence of
          inequality between men and women that is given most is the fact that
          “ management is mainly male ” ( Construction: 70.59 %, Banking:
          70.35 % and Education 88.24 % ). It is the mostly-female sector,
          Education, which reaches the highest percentage.
             In the Construction sector 70.59 % of the people polled say that
          “ women are paid less than men for work of equal value ”. In the
          mostly-male sector there is greater concern with reasons related to
          equal pay and the existence of stereotypes and prejudices which can
          explain the low level of female participation in this sector. On the
          other hand, in the mostly-female sector ( Education ) there is greater
          concern with promotion, perhaps because women are already
          represented in this sector and there is no equality when it comes to
          promotion in the company or workplace.




                                                                                              19
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

          Question 16.
          % of polled people who answer that the following aspects DO have an
          influence
             Aspects which have an
             influence on that situation of       Construction    Banking       Education
             unequal treatment for men                (%)           (%)            (%)
             and women in a company

             1. Women are paid less than
                                                      70.59        29.07           5.88
             men for work of equal value


             2. In the case of candidates with
             the same qualifications, a man is
                                                      41.18        50.00          47.06
             more likely to be employed than
             a woman

             3. In the case of candidates with
             the same qualifications and
                                                      35.29        75.58          64.71
             skills, men are more likely to get
             promoted than women


             4. Management is mainly male             70.59        70.35          88.24


             5. There is unequal access to
                                                      5.88          1.74           0.00
             training

             6. There are stereotypes and
                                                      47.06        35.47          58.82
             prejudices


             7. Unequal share of family
                                                      23.53        35.47          41.18
             duties


             8. Women are more likely to
             have a precarious job than men           23.53        23.26          23.53
             with the same qualifications


             9. Women are more likely to
             work part time than men with             23.53         5.81          23.53
             the same qualifications




                                                                                          20
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


              CONSTRUCTION

                 80,00
                 70,00
                 60,00
                 50,00
                 40,00                                                                                SI
                 30,00
                 20,00
                 10,00
                  0,00
                          1       2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9 10 11



              BANKING

                 80,00
                 70,00
                 60,00
                 50,00
                 40,00                                                                               %SI
                 30,00
                 20,00
                 10,00
                  0,00
                          1       2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9 10 11




              EDUCATION

                 100,00

                  80,00

                  60,00
                                                                                                      SI
                  40,00

                  20,00

                   0,00
                              1       2       3       4       5       6       7       8    9 10 11




              YES
              (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)




                                                                                                           21
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

          3. JOB PROMOTION AND TAKING ON MANAGEMENT, DECISION-
             MAKING AND CONTROL POSITIONS

             Vertical segregation, that is, the concentration of female jobs in the
          categories on the lower levels of the professional hierarchy, entails
          negative consequences for women, amongst which is the short length
          of women’s careers and limited possibilities of promotion within the
          company.
             The possibilities of reaching the higher positions within the
          professional hierarchy are still very limited for most women. In this
          sense, there are two trends:
                        Qualified female jobs are concentrated in those sectors
                        which allow women access to intellectual professions:
                        public sector, education, research…
                        Large concentration of women in administrative
                        professions and unqualified jobs in the services sector.

          Question 17
             In the company you work
                                                   Construction      Banking              Education
             for, the people in
                                                       (%)             (%)                   (%)
             management are mostly:
             Men                                      88.24            94.59                   60.56

             Women                                    0.00                0.00                 12.68
             An equal proportion of men
                                                      5.88                1.93                 23.94
             and women
             Don’t know/No answer                     5.88                3.47                 2.82


             The table above shows how the people in management are mostly
          men in the analysed sectors. However, in the Education sector,
          management is more accessible to women, as they have greater
          presence and there is not such vertical segregation as in those sectors
          in which the presence of women is less.

              CONSTRUCTION

                       5,88%   5,88%                              HOMBRES
                     0,00%
                                                                  MUJERES

                                                                  Hombres y Mujeres a partes
                                                                  iguales
                                                                  Ns/Nc
                                          88,24%




                                                                                                       1
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

                BANKING
                              3,47%
                           1,93%                                   HOMBRES
                           0,00%
                                                                   MUJERES

                                                                   Hombres y Mujeres a partes
                                                                   iguales
                                                                   Ns/Nc
                                           94,59%




                EDUCATION


                                                                   HOMBRES
                                   2,82%
                  23,94%
                                                                   MUJERES

                                                                   Hombres y Mujeres a
                  12,68%                            60,56%         partes iguales
                                                                   Ns/Nc



             MEN-WOMEN-EQUAL PROPORTION OF MEN AND WOMEN-
             DK/NA
             (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)
             The adoption of measures and/or strategies to increase the
          number of women in management, decision-making and control
          positions is hardly pointed out by the people polled. In Education, the
          mostly-female sector, 23.94 % say that their company has adopted
          such measures. There are high percentages of people who do not
          answer or do not know whether their company has implemented
          measures or strategies to increase female presence in management
          positions.

          Question 18.
             Has the company you work for
             adopted measures and/or
             strategies to increase the             Construction        Banking            Education
             number of women in                         (%)               (%)                 (%)
             management, decision-making
             and control positions?
             YES                                        5.88               5.02                 23.94
             NO                                        44.12               45.17                53.52
             Don’t know/No answer                      50.00               49.81                22.54




                                                                                                        2
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

                The strategy that has been adopted most in the Education sector
          is the implementation of quotas.
              Some of the gender stereotypes operating in the labour market
          regarding the access of women to management, decision-making and
          control positions are:
                      Managers ( mostly men ) do not want to employ women for
                      management, decision-making and control positions
                      because the latter want to have children, due to household
                      chores, because it is women who are in charge of these
                      tasks…
                      Women do not have the same level of training that men
                      have. Women can not take on management positions
                      because their level of training is lower than that of men.
                      Women do not carry out the same activities as men.

               In the analysed sectors, mostly-male management is considered
          one of the obstacles that hinder the access of women to management
          positions ( 72.73 % of the respondents in Construction and 69.76 %
          in Banking ). The mostly-male sector shows the highest percentage for
          this response, in the other two sectors, the unequal share of family
          duties obtains higher percentages. This can be due to the fact that in
          mostly-male sectors, management is mostly-male and men do not
          want to employ women. On the other hand, in the mostly-female and
          mixed sectors, in which the presence of women is greater, women
          have already gained access to the company and the obstacle they
          encounter is directly related to the difficulties in conciliating personal
          and professional life and an unequal share of family duties.

             Measures and/or strategies
             adopted to increase the           Construction       Banking       Education
             number of women in                    (%)              (%)            (%)
             management positions
             Quotas                                 0.00           7.69          17.65

             Reserved positions                     0.00          15.38          76.47

             Training on equality issues          100.00           0.00           5.88

             Training for women                    50.00           7.69          11.76

             Adaptation of meeting schedules        0.00           0.00           5.88

             Flexible hours                        50.00          15.38           0.00

             Crèches                                0.00           7.69           5.88

             Integrated gender approach            50.00          15.38           0.00


              The people polled point out that “ mostly-male company
          management ” is one of the most important obstacles that women

                                                                                          3
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

          encounter in gaining access to a management position in the
          company. Another of the difficulties that women encounter is the
          “ unequal share of family duties ”.

          Question 19
             In your opinion, what type of
             difficulties do women
                                                Construction      Banking       Education
             encounter in having access to
                                                    (%)             (%)            (%)
             management positions in the
             company?
             Lack of training                       6.06           2.82           3.17

             Lack of professional experience        9.09           3.63           6.35
             Women’s lack of confidence in
                                                   27.27          34.68          28.57
             their own abilities
             Difficulties due to a precarious
                                                    3.03           5.65          12.70
             job
             Difficulties due to unequal
                                                   48.48          70.97          66.67
             share of family duties
             Mostly-male company
                                                   72.73          69.76          58.73
             management
             Stereotypes and preconceived
                                                   33.33          36.29          52.38
             ideas
             Dissuasion and hostile reactions
                                                    6.06          36.29          14.29
             from colleagues

          4. ACCESS TO TRAINING
              In the last few decades, there have been role changes with regard
          to academic options and in all formal education, including vocational
          training. In spite of this, both horizontal and vertical segregation
          persist.
              Vertical segregation also has a negative influence on women with
          regard to their access to training. The majority of women concentrated
          in the lower levels of professional categories usually fall outside the
          scope of training plans. That is why we considered it important to
          learn whether companies provide training courses for women and men
          in order to promote equal opportunities and training for women, to
          enable them to have access to management, decision-making and
          control positions within a company.
          Question 20
             Does the company you work
             for provide training courses
                                          Construction            Banking       Education
             for women to enable them to
                                              (%)                   (%)            (%)
             take on management positions
             within the company?

             YES                                   14.71           43.24          36.62

             NO                                    41.18           24.71          43.66

             Don’t know/No answer                  44.12           32.05          19.72



                                                                                          4
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

             Banking is the sector in which more people polled ( 43.24 % ) say
          that their company provides training courses for women to enable
          them to take on management positions within the company. The
          people who give affirmative responses give the following evaluations:

                                           Construction                        Education
                                                              Banking (%)
                                               (%)                                (%)
                           Sufficient            40.00           33.04           65.38
           Content of
           the courses     Insufficient          40.00           27.68           15.38
                           Don’t
                           know/No               20.00           39.29           19.23
                           answer



                                           Construction                        Education
                                                              Banking (%)
           Course                              (%)                                (%)
           timetables
           compatible      YES                 20.00             9.82            46.15
           with family
           and             NO                  40.00            62.50            30.77
           personal        Don’t
           life?           know/No             40.00            27.68            23.08
                           answer

             The mostly-female sector ( Education ) reaches the highest
          percentage of people who think the contents of the courses are
          sufficient ( 65.38 % ) and that they are compatible with personal and
          professional life ( 46.15 % ).
             Likewise, the sector where more training courses are provided
          ( Banking, 43.24 %) has the lowest score when asked whether the
          courses are compatible with personal and professional life ( only
          9.82% say they are ).
             With regard to training on equal opportunities for men and women
          in the company, high percentages respond that their company does
          not provide such courses in all three sectors analysed.

          Question 21
             Are there training courses on
                                               Construction       Banking       Education
             equal opportunities for men
                                                   (%)              (%)            (%)
             and women?
             YES                                   11.76           13.90          39.44

             NO                                    64.71           55.98          47.89

             Don’t know/No answer                  23.53           30.12          12.68


             Out of the total number of people who say that there is training on
          equal opportunities for men and women in their company, we obtain

                                                                                           5
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

          the following results with regard to the contents of the courses and
          their compatibility with personal and professional life.

                                           Construction                             Education
                                                               Banking (%)
                                           (%)                                         (%)

                           Sufficient           100.00             36.11             46.42
           Content of
           the courses     Insufficient          0.00              22.22             21.43
                           Don’t
                           know/No               0.00              41.67             32.14
                           answer



                                          Constructio
                                                            Banking (%)       Education (%)
           Course                           n (%)
           timetables
           compatible      YES               75.00             13.89                 32.14
           with family
           and             NO                25.00             55.56                 25.00
           personal        Don’t
           life?           know/No           0.00              30.56                 39.28
                           answer



          5. PAY

              Pay differences are another of the aspects that show off inequality
          between men and women with regard to employment. In this sense, it
          is relevant to know people’s perceptions with respect to their salary in
          comparison with the salary of another person in the same company
          carrying out equivalent or similar tasks to their own.
              Both horizontal and vertical segregation lead to lower pay for
          women. The fact that female jobs are concentrated in certain sectors
          of activity and professions entails a problem of pay discrimination due
          to traditionally paying lower salaries to female categories as opposed
          to male categories. On the other hand, the fact that women are
          concentrated on the lower part of the professional hierarchy due to
          the difficulties they encounter when trying to enter the sphere of
          employment and when trying to get promoted means that there is a
          pay undervaluation of jobs carried out by women.

          Question 22
           Has your pay been lower than that of
           another person in the company                Construction       Banking       Education
           carrying out tasks which are the                 (%)              (%)            (%)
           same, equivalent or similar to yours?
             YES                                           38.24            37.07            5.63
             NO                                            14.71            39.00            85.92
             Don’t know/No answer                          47.06            23.94            8.45

                                                                                                6
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


              In the mostly-male sector ( Construction ) is where most polled
          people have been paid a lower salary with respect to another person in
          the company carrying out tasks which are the same, equivalent or
          similar to theirs ( 38.24 % ). On the other hand, the mostly-female
          sector obtains the lowest percentage ( 5.63 % ) and it is the sector in
          which people have not perceived pay differences ( 85.92 % of people
          polled in the Education sector have not perceived pay inequality )

                                            Construction                       Education
                                                              Banking (%)
                                                (%)                               (%)
           Pay lower in A man                    84.61           59.55           25.00
           comparison A woman                    15.38           13.48           25.00
           to that of:
                           A man and a
                           woman                 0.00            26.97           50.00
                           equally

             In Construction, out of the total number of people who have been
          paid a lower salary, 84.61 % say it was lower in comparison to that of
          a man, whereas 15.38 % say it was lower in comparison to that of a
          woman. In Banking, where 37.07 % of the people polled have
          perceived pay differences, it was in comparison to that of men in
          59.55 % of the cases, in comparison to that of men and women in
          26.97 % of the cases and 13.48% in comparison to women.




          6. CONCILIATION OF PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL LIFE

             The incorporation of women into the labour market means double
          duties for women: at work and at home.

           Are work hours in the company
           you work flexible, allowing for     Construction       Banking       Education
           the conciliation of personal and        (%)              (%)            (%)
           professional life?
             YES                                   29.41           27.03          60.56

             NO                                    58.82           65.64          28.17

             Don’t know/No answer                   11.7            7.34          11.27




                                                                                           7
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

          CONSTRUCTION



                 11,76%                  SI
                             29,41%
                                         NO
                58,82%                   Ns/Nc
                                                            EDUCATION



          BANKING                                               11,27%                     SI
                                                            28,17%                         NO
                                                                               60,56%
                                                                                           Ns/Nc


                   7,34%     27,03%      SI
                                         NO
                65,64%                   Ns/Nc




          YES-NO-DK/NA
          (sustituir las comas por puntos en los decimales)

               The mostly-female sector ( Education ) reaches the highest
          percentage of responses that say that work hours are flexible, allowing
          for the conciliation of personal and professional life. However, in the
          Construction and Banking sectors, 58.82 % and 65.64 % say that
          their work hours are not flexible.




          7. FIGHTING AGAINST GENDER STEREOTYPES

              The main objective of our project, together with the research work,
          is to fight against gender stereotypes in order to move forward in
          achieving equal opportunities for men and women. That is why we
          have compiled a list of possible actions that can be launched to
          eliminate them.

           FIGHTING AGAINST GENDER               Construction        Banking        Education
           STEREOTYPES                               (%)               (%)             (%)
             1. Raise awareness on
             equality since childhood               76.47             74.52             95.52


                                                                                                8
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

             2. Organise public education
             campaigns against gender
                                                   17.65           26.25          37.31
             stereotypes

             3. Disseminate statistics on
             inequality broken down
                                                    8.82           11.58           7.46
             according to sex

             4. Create more care services
             for children and dependent
                                                   41.18           56.76          47.76
             persons

             5. Eliminate pay
             discrimination                        58.82           62.55          67.16

             6. Organise training on
             equality for workers                  14.71           13.90          22.39

             7. Training for women to
             stimulate them to take on
                                                   20.59           22.78          25.37
             responsibilities

             8. Promote women’s
             economic activities                   23.53           17.76          13.43



             9. Implement measures to
             promote the share of family           44.12           60.23          65.67
             duties


             10. Reinforce social rights of
             people with precarious jobs           14.71           20.46          35.82




               In the three sectors analysed, the greatest percentages are
          obtained for “ raise awareness on equality since childhood ”
          ( Construction: 76.47 %, Banking: 74.52 % and Education: 95.52 % )
               The second most valued option in all three sectors is “ eliminate
          pay discrimination ” ( Construction: 58.82 %, Banking: 62.55 % and
          Education: 67.16 % )
               The third option is “ implement measures to promote the share
          of family duties ” ( Construction: 44.12 %, Banking: 60.23 % and
          Education: 65.67 % ).




                                                                                          9
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

          CONSTRUCTION

                 80,00

                 60,00

                 40,00
                                                                                              %

                 20,00

                  0,00
                          1       2       3   4   5   6   7    8    9    10   11




          BANKING

                 80,00

                 60,00

                 40,00                                                                        %

                 20,00

                  0,00
                          1       2       3   4   5   6   7   8    9    10    11



          EDUCATION

                 100,00
                  80,00
                  60,00
                  40,00                                                                       %

                  20,00
                   0,00
                              1       2   3   4   5   6   7   8    9    10    11


          (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)




                                                                                         10
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


          8. ANALYSIS OF STATEMENTS SAID ABOUT MEN AND WOMEN

             The questionnaire includes a question                    that refers to very
          stereotypical statements, statements that are               said about men and
          women. In order to identify gender stereotypes              we consider that it is
          important to know how they are perceive in                   the different sectors
          analysed.

           Statements said                                       Banking            Education
           about men and              Construction (%)
                                                                   (%)                 (%)
           women
           (Only veracity
           percentages shown)            H         M         H             M       H           M

           1. Women are
           naturally inclined to       60.00     36.84     58.33      58.88      58.33        45.45
           take care of others
           2. Women are skilled
           and experienced in          60.00     47.37     58.33      42.79      54.17        40.91
           household chores
           3. Women are more
                                       50.00     21.05     75.00      12.56      4.17         9.09
           honest

           4. Women are more
                                       80.00     21.05     18.18      17.70      54.17        11.36
           physically attractive
           5. Women tend to fail
           to supervise others’        20.00     10.53     90.91       7.55      8.33         6.82
           work
           6. Women are not as
           strong physically         100.00      84.21      8.33      81.28      75.00        79.55
           (muscular)
           7. Women are less
           able in science and         20.00     5.26      41.67       2.29      0.00         2.27
           mathematics
           8. Women are better
           inclined to receive         20.00     10.53     37.50      12.44      12.50        4.55
           orders
           9. Women are more
           docile, they tend to
           complain less about         0.00      5.26      16.67      24.88      25.00        22.73
           work and work
           conditions
           10. Women are more
           willing to accept a low     20.00     42.11     20.83      28.57      25.00        34.09
           salary




                                                                                         11
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

                                                                CONSTRUCTION

           Men                                                              Women
   90,00                                                                  90,00
   80,00                                                                  80,00
   70,00                                                                  70,00
   60,00
                                                                          60,00
   50,00
                                                                          50,00
   40,00
                                                                          40,00
   30,00
                                                                          30,00
   20,00
                                                                          20,00
   10,00
                                                                          10,00
    0,00
            1   2   3   4   5       6       7       8       9    10        0,00
                                                                                    1       2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9    10




                                                                BANKING

           Men                                                              Women


   100,00                                                                 90,00
                                                                          80,00
    80,00                                                                 70,00
                                                                          60,00
    60,00                                                                 50,00
                                                                          40,00
    40,00
                                                                          30,00
                                                                          20,00
    20,00
                                                                          10,00
     0,00                                                                  0,00
            1   2   3   4   5   6       7       8       9       10                  1       2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9    10




                                                                EDUCATION

           Men                                                              Women
   80,00                                                                    80,00
   70,00                                                                    70,00
   60,00                                                                    60,00
   50,00                                                                    50,00
   40,00
                                                                            40,00
   30,00
                                                                            30,00
   20,00
                                                                            20,00
   10,00
                                                                            10,00
    0,00
            1   2   3   4   5   6       7       8       9       10           0,00
                                                                                        1       2       3       4       5       6       7       8   9    10



           (sustituir comas por puntos en los decimales)

                                                                                                                                                        12
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

            In all three sectors, percentages over 75 % of both men and women
        ( except men in Banking ) consider that the statement “women are not
        as strong physically ( muscular ) ” is true.
            Over half of the polled men in Construction, Banking and Education
        consider that the following statements are true: “ women are naturally
        inclined to take care of others ” and “ women are skilled and experienced
        in household chores ”. With regard to these statements, women consider
        that they are true, but not in such great proportion as men.
            In the Banking sector it is significant that a very high percentage of
        men polled ( 90.90 % ) think that it is true that “ women tend to fail to
        supervise others’ work ”.
            In the Banking sector, 80 % of men think that “ women are more
        physically attractive ” and 54.17 % in Education agree.
            It is significant that in all three sectors analysed the percentage of
        women who think that “ women are more willing to accept a low salary ”
        is higher than that of men.




                                                                                         13
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

    6. EXPERIENCES AND/OR MEASURES IMPLEMENTED IN OUR
       COUNTRY AND WITHIN THE TRADE UNION IN ORDER TO
       ELIMINATE GENDER STEREOTYPES AND SEGREGATION IN THE
       LABOUR SPHERE
          Occupational segregation contributes to perpetuating inequalities
    between men and women, both in the labour market and in social life, and
    has serious discriminatory effects for women.
            In this research project we have gathered measures and experiences
    developed in Spain and within our Trade Union aimed at eliminating gender
    stereotypes. To this effect, we have analysed the Spanish legal framework and
    specific legal measures, measures adopted by Collective Agreements and
    experiences and measures carried out in our Trade Union to fight against
    segregation in the labour market.
            In Spain, most of the measures against occupational segregation are legal
    and conventional.
            Within the Spanish legal framework, there are regulations which forbid
    discrimination, both direct and indirect, and others which legitimise, foster and
    allow for the adoption of measures, included positive action measures, in order to
    attain de facto equality and equal opportunities for men and women.

            GENERAL LEGISLATION

        In this sense, general legislation includes the following:

              Article 14 of the Spanish Constitution states, amongst other
        fundamental rights, the right to equality and non-discrimination based
        on sex.

               Article 4.2c in the Workers’ Statute, establishes that workers
        have the right not to suffer discrimination in their access to
        employment or once employed on the basis of sex, marital status or age
        within the limits established by this Law, race, social condition,
        religious or political ideas, being a member or not of a trade union or
        language, within the Spanish State.

               Likewise, article 17 of the Workers’ Statute on non-discrimination
        in labour relationships, states that:

        1. Regulatory precepts, clauses in collective agreements, individual
        agreements and unilateral employer decisions which contain
        unfavourable discriminations based on age or whenever they contain
        favourable or adverse discriminations in employment or with regard to
        pay, working day and other work conditions, based on sex, origin,
        marital status, race, social condition, religious or political ideas, being a
        member or not of trade unions or adhering or not to their agreements,
        family ties with other workers in the company or language within the
        Spanish State will be considered null and void.
                                                                                          1
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

        2. The law can establish exclusions, reservations and preferences to be
        freely employed.

        3. Notwithstanding what is established in the previous section, the
        Government can regulate reserve, duration or preference measures for
        employment so as to make it easier for job seekers to find a job.

         Likewise, the Government can grant subsidies, tax deductions and
    other measures to promote employment of specific groups of workers that
    find it particularly difficult to get a job. These will be regulated with prior
    consultation with the most representative trade union organisations and
    employer associations.

          The measures referred to in the previous paragraphs will be mainly
    aimed at promoting stable employment for unemployed workers and at
    turning temporary contracts into indefinite-period contracts.”

            Article 9.2 of the Constitution established that it is the responsibility
    of the public powers to promote the conditions necessary for freedom and
    equality of the individual and of the groups they form to be real and
    effective, as well as to remove obstacles that prevent or hinder their
    fulfilment and to foster the participation of all citizens in political,
    economic, cultural and social life.

           So as to promote equal opportunities for men and women in their
    access to employment and eliminate existing segregation in the access to
    different occupations, the Spanish legislation has regulated a specific
    measure aimed at granting certain advantages to employers, which
    mainly consists of a cut in Social Security costs, when they employ women
    in occupations and professions in which they are underrepresented.

           This intends to encourage employers to employ women in mostly-
    male sectors of activity and in occupations that have been traditionally
    carried out by men, which are particularly difficult for women to enter.

           This measure has been in effect in Spain for over a decade. However,
    the persisting and strong reluctance of the labour market structure to
    decidedly break up with sexist division of labour shows that this positive
    measure is not enough to make steady progress towards the elimination of
    occupational segregation. Thus, the serious consequences it has for women
    in the labour, socio-economic and personal spheres, still remain.
           Recently, the Spanish Council of Ministers has adopted another type
    of specific measures which are applicable in the field of the General
    State Administration.




                                                                                          2
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

           These measures are aimed at promoting gender equality in access
    and promotion for public employment, by means of certain actions, mostly
    related to information and training.
           On their part, collective agreements include both general
    measures declaring the principle of equality and non-discrimination based
    on sex, and specific measures aimed at eliminating occupational
    segregation. Amongst the latter, the most interesting to highlight are those
    that refer to the preference given with regard to access to employment and
    promotion to people of the less represented sex within a professional group,
    whenever people of both sexes who are equally suitable apply for these
    vacancies. In some cases clauses have been included reserving a
    percentage of employment for women.

        SPECIFIC LEGAL MEASURES

        I. - Incentives for companies to give indefinite-period contracts to
        women in professions and occupations in which they are
        underrepresented.

            Law 22/1992 of July 30th, on Urgent Measures for the
            Promotion of Employment and Unemployment Protection. It was
            the first to establish the regulatory base for the granting of aid to
            employers in order to promote indefinite-period contracts for women
            in professions and trades in which they were underrepresented.

            Decree of August 6th 1992, which developed the previous
            regulation and included in annex III, the list of professions and
            trades in which women were considered to be underrepresented.

            Law 64/1997 of December 26th. It regulated Social Security and
            tax incentives so as to promote indefinite-period contracts and
            stable employment, establishing a bonus of 60 % on company Social
            Security contributions for common eventualities in the new
            contracts for women in professions or trades in which women are
            considered to be underrepresented, as well as for the transformation
            of temporary and limited-period contracts into indefinite-period
            contracts.

            Decree of September 16th 1998. Taking into account the changes
            that have taken place in the labour market, their incidence on
            female employment and the modification of the National Occupation
            Classification in 1994, it was necessary to elaborate a new annex
            with regard to professions and occupations in which women were
            underrepresented.

               The new annex, which is currently in effect, appeared in the
            Decree of September 16th 1998. This Decree considers that women
                                                                                          3
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

            are underrepresented in all professions and trades in the National
            Classification of Occupations, except in those that appear in the
            annex.

            Programmes for Employment Promotion. Since 1998, annual
            Employment       Promotion      Programmes      have systematically
            registered the incentives with regard to Social Security contributions
            paid by companies granted for the promotion of indefinite-period
            contracts for unemployed women whenever they are employed for
            services or in professions or occupations which have lower levels of
            female employment.

                    The Employment Promotion Programme of 2005 envisages a
            bonus of company Social Security contributions for common
            eventualities of 70 % during the first year of the contract and 60%
            during the second year, whenever women are employed with
            indefinite-period contracts for services in professions and
            occupations listed in the Decree of September 16th 1998. The
            women in question must have been registered with no interruptions
            in the job centre for a minimum of six months or be over 45 years
            old. If either of these two conditions is not fulfilled, the bonus will be
            of 35 % during the 24 month period starting when the contract
            comes into effect.

        II. - Applicable measures in the General State Administration

               The Council of Ministers, in the cabinet meeting of March 4th
        2005, adopted an Agreement according to which the Plan for gender
        equality within the General State Administration was approved.
               Amongst other measures, the Plan for Equality establishes the
        following reference points:
        1. Measures to promote gender equality in access to public
        employment
               So as to promote the access of women to public employment in
        conditions of equality, merit and capacity, particularly in bodies or
        categories in which they are underrepresented, the following measures
        are adopted:
        1.1. The Administrative Information Centre of the Public
               Administrations Ministry will have an information, advice and
               assistance unit by means of which those interested in opting for
               public employment will have access to information about the
               requirements for the different vacancy announcements, training,
               or aid and scholarships available to promote the access of women
               to public employment.
        1.2. All announcements for selection processes for public employment
               made by the General State Administration, both in general and
               special bodies, will include a paragraph stating whether there is

                                                                                          4
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

                under-representation of people of either sex in that particular
                body. Likewise, the conditions of entry will include reference to
                the obligation that selection boards and commissions have of
                defending, in accordance with article 14 of the Spanish
                Constitution, the strict compliance with the principle of equal
                opportunities for both sexes.
        1.3.    Permanent boards and commissions selecting applicants for
                public employment will work according to the criterion of parity
                between both sexes. This year, this provision is stated in article
                4.f of Royal Decree 121/2005 of February 4th, which approves the
                offer of public employment for 2005.


        2. Measures to encourage professional promotion of female public
        employees.
               In order to encourage the professional promotion of female public
        employees and their access to pre-management and management
        positions in the General State Administration, in which women are
        underrepresented, the following measures and actions are established:
        2.1. The General Directorate for Public Functions will update the
               database of people belonging to higher bodies including their
               curriculum data, training and professional profile. When directive
               bodies request candidates for management or pre-management
               positions from the aforementioned General Directorate to be
               obtained by means of the free-designation system, the proposals
               of the General Directorate will include four possible candidates,
               out of which, at least two must be women.
        2.2. The Public Employment Observatory which the Agreement of
               September 21st 2004 refers to, adopted by the Social Dialogue
               Table, will include a section in charge of defending strict
               compliance with the principle of gender equality, settling non-
               compliance complaints which could be raised by the General
               State Administration staff and making recommendations and
               suggestions for development.
        2.3. Manager training courses provided by the National Institute for
               Public Administration or other training centres for General State
               Administration staff will reserve at least 40% places for female
               public employees who fulfil the requirements established for the
               courses, unless there are not enough women in the
               corresponding body or enough female applicants to cover such
               percentage.
        2.4. Ministry departments, through prior agreement with trade union
               organisations, will establish, within their yearly training plan,
               activities aimed at the internal promotion of their male and
               female employees, particularly from grades C and D to the higher
               levels. These courses must be given within the ordinary working
               day in order to ensure the conciliation of personal and


                                                                                          5
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

                professional life for male and female employees who follow them
                with a view to professional promotion.


        2.5.    When positions are covered by means of the free-designation
                system, the heads of the directive bodies will try to cover them in
                proportion to the representation that each gender has in each
                department or body within the qualification group demanded by
                the corresponding position.
        2.6.    The General State Administration will try to obtain parity
                between men and women in the make up of its professional
                association bodies and expert committees.

        MEASURES IN COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS

        Collective Agreement for “ Cleaning, buffing and polishing of
        buildings and premises ” (Salamanca). 02/04

        Article 32. Equal opportunities.
                “ Clause of non-discrimination: the parts signing this Agreement
        commit themselves to guaranteeing non-discrimination based on sex,
        race, age, origin, nationality, ethnic origin, sexual orientation, disability
        or illness and, on the other hand, to ensuring that the application of
        labour regulations does not incur in any infringement that could in any
        way breach constitutional precepts.

        Equal access to and maintenance of a job:
        1- The recruitment of female and male workers will take place according
        to general legal regulations on employment and to specific regulations
        for those belonging to groups of people over 45, youth, disabled people,
        women, etc. 2- In the case of equal merits, skills and conditions, those
        who have carried out or carry out functions in the company in a casual
        or temporary fashion, part-time, as apprentices or during placement will
        be given priority. 3- In order to efficiently contribute to the application
        of the principle of non-discrimination and to its development according
        to the concepts of equal conditions for work of equal value, it is
        necessary to develop positive action, particularly in contracting, training
        and promotion conditions, so that, in equal opportunities, priority will
        be given to people of the underrepresented gender in that particular
        professional group.

        General Collective Agreement of the Chemical Industry. State.
        21.07.04
        Article 18. Positive action
                “ In order to efficiently contribute to the application of the
        principle of non-discrimination and to its development according to the
        concepts of equal conditions for work of equal value, it is necessary to
        develop positive action, particularly in contracting, training and
                                                                                          6
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

        promotion conditions, so that, in equal opportunities, priority will be
        given to people of the underrepresented gender in that particular
        professional group .”

        Collective Agreement for Agriculture and Livestock (Guadalajara)
        02/03
        Article 16. Positive Action
                “ From January 1st 2000, companies with more than twenty
        workers will award 5 % of their employment to women. In companies
        with less than twenty workers, an attempt will be made at employing
        women so as to gradually balance the percentages of men and women
        employed .”

        Collective Agreement for Graphic Arts (Navarra) 03/05
        Article 28. Positive Action to employ women
        “ Access to a job: during a recruitment process in a company, whenever
        qualifications are similar, two women will be employed for every man.
                Internal promotion: within the company, male and female
        workers must not be discriminated against on the basis of ideology,
        religion, race, sex, political or trade union affiliation, etc. The principle
        of equal access to all jobs in a company will be respected.
                To this effect, training in work centres will be encouraged to
        favour internal promotion for those positions and/or lower categories in
        which the presence of women is greater than in upper categories, so as
        to achieve internal promotion that can eliminate category classification
        according to sex. ”

        National Collective Agreement for Pasta Industries (State) 02/04
        Article 7. Declarations of principles
         7.3. “ In order to promote equal opportunities in employment, the
        companies in this sector commit themselves to promoting the
        employment of women, favouring selection and promotion in equal
        conditions and merits, so as to achieve greater social balance. To this
        effect, companies, together with the legal representatives of workers,
        can draw up equality plans ”

        Collective Agreement for Cleaning in Son Dureta Hospital
        (Mallorca) 02/03
        Article 31. Promotion
        “ The promotion of women in higher categories ( detailed in this
        agreement ) will be favoured, so that vacancies for positions
        traditionally covered by male workers will be offered to female members
        of staff first. ”

MEASURES ADOPTED WITHIN THE TRADE UNION

        Quota System and Proportionality


                                                                                          7
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

                The organisational structure of our Trade Union reflects the
        sectorial division of the labour market. As we have seen in section three
        of this Research Project, our organisation is made up of eight State
        Federations according to a sectorial division.
                The State Federations are:
                       Metal, Construction and Related Industries (MCA)
                       Related Industries (FIA)
                       Food and Agriculture (FTA)
                       Transports, Communications and Sea (FTCM)
                       Trade, Catering, Tourism and Gambling (FTCHTJ)
                       Services (FES)
                       Public Services (FSP)
                       Education (FETE)
                Therefore, the existence of professional segregation in the labour
        market can be clearly seen by looking at the membership percentages
        for men and women in each of the State Federations ( sectorial divisions
        of the Trade Union ) which make up our organisation.
                As is the case in the labour market, women in the Trade Union
        are more present in Education, where female membership is 65.48 %;
        Services, where female membership is 58.25 % and Trade, Catering,
        Tourism and Gambling, where female membership is 53.62 %. It is
        significant that these federations share characteristics which are closely
        related to stereotypes about women which operate in our society. On
        the contrary, the highest percentages of men are found particularly in
        sectors in which industrial and transport activities are carried out.

                 STATE FEDERATIONS                         % MEN             % WOMEN
           Metal,     Construction    and
                                                            92.20                7.80
           Related Industries
           Related Industries                               81.94               18.06
           Food and Agriculture                             70.29               29.71
           Transports,     Communications
                                                            83.95               16.05
           and Sea
           Trade, Catering, Tourism and
                                                            50.46               49.54
           Gambling
           Services                                         58.46               41.54
           Public Services                                  53.92               46.08
           Education                                        36.71               63.29

                The trade union model of our Trade Union is not possible without
        women and it considers that half of our society still encounters
        difficulties to find and maintain a job; only due to the role they have
        been traditionally assigned. UGT highlights the need to pay more
        attention to increasing the access of women to employment, female
        membership to the Trade Union and fostering their access to
        management, decision-making and control bodies, while promoting
        female presence in labour representation bodies, offering greater
                                                                                          8
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

        participation in Collective Bargaining and in tasks of institutional
        representation
               To this effect, the 37th Confederal Congress of our Trade Union
        established a System of Quotas and Proportionality according to which
        the presence of men and women at all levels of the Trade Union would
        tend to be proportional to the number of male and female members in
        each Federation and Union. The text reads as follows:
               “ UGT will develop positive actions in favour of equality between
               sexes at all levels of the Confederation. The active participation of
               women in the decision-making process is one of the most efficient
               ways of attaining equal opportunities for women and men ”
               “ The Confederation will establish in its Congresses a system
               of participation in Congresses, Committees and Executive
               Commissions at all levels which will guarantee a presence of
               women and men in these bodies that is more in line with the
               real membership of UGT. This presence will tend to be
               proportional to the number of male and female members in
               each Federation and Union. As a guideline, it will not be
               greater than eighty percent or lower than twenty percent for
               each sex.
               As has been mentioned before, this system guarantees the
        participation of women in the internal structure of UGT and guarantees
        a minimum presence of twenty percent for each sex in those
        organisations which exceed or fall short of that percentage. It is a
        positive action in favour of equality between women and men at all
        levels of the Organisation. This supports women’s vindications and
        protects their rights. The system of quotas must be transversal across
        the trade union.
               The expression “ as a guideline ” which appears in the Congress
        Resolutions meant that the Quota System was interpreted as a
        guideline rather than as a compulsory requirement that Federations
        and Unions had to fulfil. In the 38th Confederal Congress the
        expression “as a guideline” was substituted by “ a minimum presence of
        twenty percent for each sex will be guaranteed in all cases in
        organisations that reach or exceed such percentage .”
               The 39th Confederal Congress has established that the minimum
        presence has to be thirty percent, which has meant another step
        forward in favour of equality between men and women in all Trade
        Union structures.
               The increased presence of women in decision-making,
        management and control bodies in the trade union is closely related to
        the Quota System established in the 37th Confederal Congress and its
        later modifications, as the representation of female proportionality was
        even exceeded. Women in the Executive Commissions of Autonomous
        Communities evaluate the action positively. However, although the
        representation of women in State Federations has increased, it is still
        below the percentage of female members of UGT.


                                                                                          9
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

               This change will have a direct influence on the participation of women in
        trade union Bodies, which will result in a considerable increase in
        representation. This ensures that women’s vindications will be present in all
        trade union spheres.




                                                                                         10
European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations””
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

    1. PROPOSALS FOR CHANGES THAT MUST BE UNDERTAKEN BY
       BODIES, INSTITUTIONS AND TRADE UNION AND EMPLOYER
       ORGANISATIONS    IN  ORDER  TO   ELIMINATE GENDER
       STEREOTYPES

         Once gender stereotypes that affect the labour sphere and trade union
    organisations resulting in occupational segregation are identified and
    analysed, we consider it highly important that bodies, institutions and
    trade union and employer organisations undertake the necessary changes
    to eliminate these stereotypes. To this effect we make the following
    proposals:

                 PREVENTION
                   Visualising the potential that women represent in those fields
                   of education and professional areas in which they are
                   underrepresented in order to avoid horizontal segregation in
                   education and in the labour market.
                   Broadening educational and professional choices for women
                   and men so they can enter educational and professional fields
                   in which they are underrepresented.
                   Improving educational and professional opportunities for
                   women.
                   Fighting against the difficulties that women encounter when
                   trying to get to positions in which they are underrepresented
                   and/or which are traditionally considered male.

                AWARENESS
                  Developing awareness actions and campaigns aimed at
                  educators, social, political, trade union and economic agents
                  in order to avoid educational and professional segregation.
                  Raising awareness amongst people involved in collective
                  bargaining processes ( employers, trade unions, trade union
                  representatives ) in order to avoid segregation.

                EDUCATION
                  Developing actions for educational diversity.
                  Broadening the choice of educational options.
                  Promoting the access or integration of women in educational
                  options that have traditionally been considered male ( and
                  vice versa ).
                  Giving women information, guidance and motivation towards
                  educational options in which they are underrepresented or
                  which are traditionally considered male (and vice versa) so as
                  to multiply their opportunities when entering the labour
                  market.




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

                MEDIA AND PUBLICITY
                  Avoiding sexist images and stereotypical values and attitudes
                  which pigeonhole men and women by showing them carrying
                  out certain activities and/or in certain professions.
                  Showing images of men and women participating together in
                  all areas of life.


                LABOUR SPHERE
                  Developing actions for professional diversity.
                  Broadening the choice of professional options.
                  Fostering access or integration of women in professional
                  options that have traditionally been considered male ( and
                  vice versa ).
                  Giving women information, guidance and motivation towards
                  professional options in which they are underrepresented or
                  which are considered traditionally male ( and vice versa ) so
                  as to multiply their opportunities in the labour market.
                  Developing shadowing, mentoring and/or monitoring actions
                  for the labour insertion of women in professions which are
                  traditionally considered male.
                  Designing strategies to promote the access of women to
                  management, decision-making and control positions.
                  Developing women’s careers, particularly from the point of
                  view of their access to management, decision-making and
                  control positions.
                  Increasing the measures applicable in the General State
                  Administration to promote gender equality in access to
                  bodies, institutions and trade union and employer
                  organisations such as:

                            ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT:
                              Including a paragraph in recruitment process
                              announcements stating whether either of the sexes
                              is underrepresented.
                              Adjusting the make up of the team in charge of
                              recruitment processes to the criterion of parity
                              between the sexes.

                            JOB PROMOTION:
                              Compiling and periodically updating data bases of
                              workers including information on their curriculum,
                              training and professional profile.
                              Putting forward at least 50% women out of the
                              existing data base as candidates for management or
                              pre-management jobs.



European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT

                                Saving a minimum of 40 % of places in manager
                                training for women, unless there are not enough
                                women in a certain workplace or the number of
                                female applicants is insufficient to cover such
                                percentage.
                                Offering training courses aimed at promotion within
                                normal work hours, to ensure that male and female
                                employees who take them with a view to
                                professional promotion can conciliate personal and
                                professional life.
                                Trying to ensure that heads of management bodies
                                bring management positions in line with the
                                representation     of  each   gender   within   the
                                qualification group required by the positions
                                announced.

                COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
                   POSITIVE ACTION MEASURES
                Establishing as a priority in collective bargaining the elimination
                of differences in the awarding of jobs, access to training, job
                promotion, pay and work conditions in general, introducing
                positive action measures aimed at correcting differences between
                men and women and the elimination of segregation in the labour
                market:
                              When candidates are equally suitable, priority will
                              be given to people of the underrepresented gender
                              in that particular professional group.
                              Saving a percentage of jobs for people of the
                              underrepresented gender in that particular sector
                              or activity and/or company.
                              Respecting a percentage (establish a percentage) of
                              women to be employed in companies with x number
                              of employees.
                              Making an attempt at contracting women with the
                              criterion of balancing the percentages of men and
                              women employed.
                              In similar conditions of professional qualification,
                              employing two women for every man.
                              Promoting training in those work centres in which
                              internal promotion is favoured in lower positions
                              and/or categories in which the presence of women
                              is greater than in higher levels so as to achieve
                              internal promotion that will eliminate category
                              classification according to sex.

                                Favouring the promotion of women to higher
                                categories by first offering vacancies for positions
                                traditionally covered by men to female staff

European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005
Secretariat for Equality
Confederal Department for Working Women– UGT


                    INCLUDING      EQUAL      OPPORTUNITIES         AND      NON-
                    DISCRIMINATION CLAUSES:
                            The parts signing this Agreement commit
                            themselves to guaranteeing non-discrimination
                            based on sex, race, age, origin, nationality, ethnic
                            origin, sexual orientation, disability or illness and,
                            on the other hand, to ensuring that the application
                            of labour regulations does not incur in any
                            infringement that could in any way              breach
                            constitutional precepts.
                            The recruitment of female and male workers will
                            take place according to general legal regulations on
                            employment and to specific regulations for those
                            belonging to groups of people over 45, youth,
                            disabled people, women, etc.




European Project “Elimination of gender stereotypes in the labour sphere and in trade union and
employer organisations”
Research Project. UGT-Spain
Madrid, October 2005

								
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