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									    SADC PROGRESS REPORT ON THE
  IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21 AND
      SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT




A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE 2002 WORLD
 SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT




               Maseru
           September 2001
ABBREVIATIONS

ADB             African Development Bank
AIA             Advanced Information Agreement
ATO             African timber Organisation
BIOME           Biological Monitoring and Evaluation
CAMPFIRE        Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources
CBD             Convention on Biological Diversity
CBNRM           Community Based Natural resources Management
CCD             Convention to Combat Desertification
CDM             Clean Development Mechanism
CEP             Communicating the Environment Programme
CFCs            Chloroflourocarbons
CHM             Clearing House Mechanism
CIEL            Centre for International Environmental Law
CITES           Convention on Trade in Endangered Species
CO2             Carbon dioxide
COP             Conference of the Parties
CSD             Commission on Sustainable Development
DISS            Desertification Information Sharing System
DMC             Drought Monitoring Centre
DRC             Democratic Republic of Congo
DRFN            Desert Research Foundation of Namibia
ECA             Economic Commission for Africa
EE              Environmental Education
EEZ             Exclusive Economic Zone
EIA             Environmental Impact Assessment
ELMS            Environmental and Land Management Sector
ENSO            El Nino Southern Oscillation
ESKOM           Electricity Supply Commission
FAO             Food and Agricultural Organisation
FFPs            Food or Feed for Processing
FIELD           Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development
GAD             Gender and Development
GDP             Gross Domestic Product
GEF             Global Environmental Facility
GEMS            Global Monitoring Systems
GHGs            Greenhouse Gases
GIS             Geographical Information Systems
GM              Global Mechanism
GMO             Genetically Modified Organism
GRID            Global Resources Database
GWP             Global Water Partnership
ICLEI           International Council for Local Environmental Initiative
IDNDR           International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction
IMERSA          Musotokwane Environment Resource Centre
IPR             Intellectual Property Rights
IUCN            World Conservation Union
IULA            International Urban Local Authorities
LMOs            Living Modified Organisms
LUP             Land Use Planning

                                                                                 2
MW          Megawatt
NAP         National Action Plan
NESDA       Network for Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa
NGO         Non-Governmental Organisation
OAU         Organisation of African Union
ODS         Ozone Depleting Substances
OECD        Organisation for Economic Commission foe Development
RECONCILE   Resources Conflict Institute
REWU        Regional Early Warning Unit
SABSP       Southern African Biodiversity Support Programme
SACIM       Southern African Centre for Ivory Marketing
SACWM       Southern African Convention for Wildlife Management
SADC        Southern African Development Community
SAPP        Southern African Power Pool
SARCCUS     Southern African Regional Commission for the Conservation and Utilisation of
            the Soil
SARDC       Southern African Research and Documentation Centre
SIDA        Swedish International Development Authority
SOE         State of the Environment
SPF         Sub-regional Partnership Framework
SRAP        Sub-regional Action Programme
SSF         Sub-regional Support Facility
SWCLU       Soil and Water Conservation and Land Utilisation
TAC         Technical Advisory Committee
TESA        Traffic East/ Southern Africa
TRAFFIC     Trade Records Analysis for Flora and Fauna in Commerce
TRIPS       Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
UNCED       United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
UNFCC       United Nations Framework for Climate Change
UV          Ultra-violet (Rays)
WCMC        World Conservation Monitoring Centre
WMO         World Meteorological Organisation
WRI         World Resources Institute
WRTC        Water Resources Technical Committee
WTO         World Trade Organisation
WWF         World-Wide Fund
ZIMEA       Zimbabwe Impact of Multilateral Environmental Agreement
ZRA         Zambezi River Authority




                                                                                           3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  Executive Summary..................................................................................................................... 6

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ..................................................................12
  1.1        The SADC Sub-region ................................................................................................... 12
  1.2        Agenda 21 and Sustainable Development..................................................................... 12
  1.3        Sustainable Development .............................................................................................. 13
  1.4        The WSSD Assessment Process .................................................................................... 13
  1.5        Structure of the Report .................................................................................................. 14

CHAPTER 2: NATURAL RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT...........................................................................................15
  2.1        Introduction................................................................................................................... 15
  2.2 Land Resources.................................................................................................................. 15
  2.3        Water Resources ........................................................................................................... 18
  2.4 Forests................................................................................................................................. 22
  2.5 Coastal and Marine Resources ........................................................................................... 23
  2.6        Energy Resources.......................................................................................................... 24

CHAPTER 3: MULTI-LATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL.............................28
  3.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 28
  3.2 Key Multi-lateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs)....................................................... 28
  3.3        SADC Sub-regional Agreements................................................................................... 31

CHAPTER 4: SOCIAL ISSUES AND SUSTAINABLE................................34
  4.1        Introduction................................................................................................................... 34
  4.2        Health............................................................................................................................ 34
  4.3 Urbanization ....................................................................................................................... 35
  4.4        Natural Disaster and Social Problems ......................................................................... 36
  4.5 Education ............................................................................................................................ 37
  4.6 Gender................................................................................................................................. 38
  4.7        Non-Governmental Organizations ................................................................................ 38

                                                                                                                                                4
  4.8        Business and Industry ................................................................................................... 39
  4.9 Children .............................................................................................................................. 40

CHAPTER 5:                    ECONOMIC ISSUES AND SUSTAINABLE ....................41
  5.1        Introduction................................................................................................................... 41
  5.2        Pre-Conditions For Development ............................................................................... 42
  5.3        Key Economic Sectors................................................................................................... 44

Sources: Member States and www.sadcbankers.org ......................................46
  5.4         Market Access .............................................................................................................. 47
  5.5        Mobilizing Financial Resources ................................................................................... 48

CHAPTER 6:                   SADC PRIORITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE.........................49
  6.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 49
  6.2 Key SADC Priorities and Way Forward............................................................................. 49




                                                                                                                                              5
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Introduction
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is an intergovernmental legal entity
grouping fourteen southern African States (Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of
Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa,
Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe) committed to equitable economic integration and
sustainable development. Each member state coordinates the development and implementation
of policies and action programmes of one or two economic sectors.

In August 1996, the SADC Council of Ministers approved the SADC Policy and Strategy for
Environment and Sustainable Development - Towards Equity-led Growth and Sustainable
Development in Southern Africa. The SADC Policy and Strategy for Environment and
Sustainable Development provides the basis for implementing Agenda 21 - the global action plan
for environment adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit - in the southern African context.
Recognizing poverty as the main cause and consequence of environmental degradation, and
poverty alleviation as the SADC Community’s overriding goal and priority, it identifies equity as
a crucial element to be added to environment and development in order to make Agenda 21 more
applicable and operational in southern Africa.

Africa’s preparatory process for the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development is planned
to be achieved at three levels – national, sub-regional and regional. The national process will be
carried out under the supervision of natio nal governments. The national assessments prepare the
status of the implementation of Agenda 21, including the constraints encountered and will feed
into the sub-regional assessment report.

The sub-regional assessment takes stock of the main achievements in Southern Africa since
UNCED in the implementation of Agenda 21 and other outcomes of the Rio summit.

   Natural Resources
Countries of southern Africa cover a total land area of 6.8 million km2 of which 55% is under
crops and grazing. Grazing lands, covering 45% of the sub-region’s total land and woodlands,
are increasingly diminishing due to land pressures resulting from inequitable ownership of land
use technologies suitable for intensive production. As a result, the majority of southern Africa’s
rural people are vulnerable to food insecurity due to poor yields (Moyo 1998).

Issues of poverty and inequity in the region constitute major limitations to human development.
On average more than 40% of southern Africa’s population lives in abject poverty, while 40% of
the labour force is either unemployed or ekes out a living out of drought-prone peasant
agriculture (UNDP/SADC/SAPE 1998).

Since 1992 most countries in the SADC region have instituted measures to address the various
physical, social and economic problems and constraints associated with land use and agricultural
production. Physical land degradation has been met by a number of responses, with several

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countries having come up with environmental management programmes aimed at curbing,
controlling and rehabilitating land resources. Some of the programmes are in the form of
community based natural resources management projects (CBNRM), district and national
environmental as well as biodiversity strategy action plans under the auspices of regional and
internationals conventions such as CCD, CBD, Agenda 21 and CITES. The SADC sub-Regional
Action Programme (SRAP) to Combat Desertification in Southern Africa was also developed
and identified priority issues to combat desertification. Most countries of southern Africa are
developing new policies, through reorganization and transformation, to address the needs of
previously disadvantaged communities.

The region has a large number of dams for generating hydro-electricity including the Kariba,
Cabora Bassa, Kafue and several in DRC and Angola. Only about 1% of the region’s hydro-
electric power potential, outside South Africa has been developed. DRC and Angola have the
greatest potential. Only about 4% of existing capacity in Angola has been developed due to the
civil war there. The region is projected to record impressive growth and availability of
affordable power could be a strong impetus for that growth.

Recognizing the importance of water in the region, SADC Ministers responsible for water
resources, in 1995 made a decision to develop a regional strategic approach to integrate water
resources development and management (Regional Strategic Action Plan For Integrated Water
Resources Development and Management in the SADC Countries (1999–2004)). This decision
constituted a significant commitment towards the supply of adequate water in the region and the
protection of the environment. The signing of the Protocol on Shared Water-course systems in
1995, by the majority member states, and the setting up of the SADC Water Sector Coordination
Unit in 1996 are clear manifestations of SADC’s recognition of the need for regional integrated
water resources development and management in these shared waters. Alleviating poverty for
the majority of the over 145 million people in the region is the overriding SADC goal and
priority, reflected in numerous SADC initiatives in the health, nutrition, education and
agriculture sector.

The forest area of southern Africa amounts to 28.6% of the sub-regions total area, of which 0.2%
is made up of plantation forests (McCullum 2000). Forest products are a valuable source of
export earnings and revenue across the region, and the communities living in forest or woodland
areas are highly dependent on forest products for meeting everyday food and energy needs.

The southern African coastline spans a total distance of 9 600 kilometers, from the India Ocean
in the East to the Atlantic Ocean on the West Coast (Chenje and Johnson 1994). The countries
that have a sea coast in southern Africa are Angola, Namibia, South Africa, Mozambique and
Tanzania. Other member states are the island nations of Mauritius and Seychelles. These
countries each possess economic rights over natural resources within the Exclusive Economic
Zone (EEZ) that spans 200 nautical miles offshore (Chenje and Johnson 1994). The coastal zone
is experiencing degradation and marine resources are declining due to increased demand for
resources, improved transport networks opening up pristine areas, and migration of people and
industries to the coastal zone. Increasing tourism is also cause for concern in that if not properly
managed, the resources and revenue from tourism in Southern Africa will not be sustainable in
the medium to long term. There is need to forge agreements on technology transfer and access to

                                                                                                  7
and sharing of research, capacity and information; focus on capacity building for strengthening
policy, institutional, and regulatory frameworks; and strengthen and enforce international rules
and regulations.

Virtually all known, exploitable coal reserves for Malawi (three million tones); Mozambique
(2,422 million); Zambia (69 million); and Zimbabwe (1,187 million) are found in Zambezi Basin
(1988 estimates). Coal reserves are utilized mostly for thermal power generation, domestic uses
such as cooking and heating; industrial uses such as smelting and making chemicals; and
commercial uses such as tobacco curing and railway traction. Coke oven gas is also produced
from coal-burning and is used in industry, and of late, has replaced diesel as a start-up in thermal
power generation plants.

Sustainability in energy needs goes beyond the borders of the basin countries. Platforms for
SADC cooperation in energy have been set through the 1982 and 1992 policy documents entitled
“Towards an Energy Policy in Southern Africa” which was translated into the SADC Protocol on
Energy signed by all member states in 1996.

Multi-lateral Environmental Agreements
All SADC member states have ratified the UNCCD and have participated in all the sessions of
the Conference of Parties. SADC countries are at different stages of elaborating and
implementing their National Action Programmes (NAPs) and six have their NAPs approved by
Parliament. SADC countries have established National Desertification Fund (NDFs) or are in
the process of doing so. These countries have also developed a sub-regional action programme
(SRAP) to address issues of natural resources management in transboundary ecosystems. Since
the UNCCD is the convention that directly addresses sustainable development issues especially
land degradation and poverty eradication, there is need to mobilize adequate and predictable
resources to implement the various national and sub-regional (transboundary) programmes. To
this end SADC has established a sub-regional support facility. Financing UNCCD
implementation can be achieved through the reformed GEF new window on land degradation
and by making GEF a funding mechanism for UNCCD implementation.

In the SADC sub-region the Convention on Biological Diversity is and implemented through the
SADC Biodiversity Support Programme for Southern Africa. The programme aims to contribute
to the conservation of both plant and animal biodiversity and developing strategies for its
conservation. To this end a SADC Biodiversity Strategy has been adopted by all SADC member
states. The SADC Plant Genetic Resources Centre (SPGRC) based in Lusaka, Zambia is
actively participating in preservation of SADC germ plasm. CITES regulates the international
trade not only in live animals plants but also in parts such as hides, shells, ivory and other animal
and plant materials. All fourteen SADC member states have ratified the CITES. Many species
are declining in numbers because of loss of habitat and increased exp loitation as human
population grows. However, commercial trade often contributes to further decline in the
biodiversity of plants and animals.

The Montreal Protocol provides for the phasing out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other
chemicals damaging the ozone in the stratosphere. The SADC member states face different

                                                                                                   8
constraints and challenges including the following: non- fulfilment of financial obligations by
developed country parties; lack of flow of financial resources from the international financial
institutions e.g. World Bank to support projects and initiatives by the developing country parties.


All SADC member states have signed the UNFCCC but only a few have signed the Kyoto
Protocol. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto seeks to assist developing
countries in achieving sustainable development. The adequate technological transfer by
developed countries to the SADC sub-region remains a major constraint to the implementation of
the UNFCCC. While it is important to focus on reducing greenhouse gases in the SADC sub-
region it is even more important to develop strategies for adapting the climate change and natural
disasters such as floods, drought and other phenomena. Early Warning for natural disasters is
very important as a way of addressing these climatic changes.


The 1992 Treaty establishing SADC aims to give practical effect to community building and
market integration. Article 22(1) provides for member states to conclude a series of protocols to
spell out the objectives and scope of, and institutional mechanisms for cooperation and
integration. These protocols are to be negotiated by all relevant stakeholders and, after approval
by the Summit, become an integral part of the Treaty. Article 21(3) identifies the following
areas in which cooperation towards integration would be pursued: food security, land and
agriculture; infrastructure and services; industry, trade and investment; human resources
development, science and technology; natural resources and environment; social welfare
information and culture; and politics, diplomacy, international relations, peach and security.


SADC Sub-regional Agreements
Five SADC protocols namely: Protocol on Shared Water Course Systems; Protocol on Trade;
Protocol on Transport, Communication and Meteorology; Protocol on Mining; and Protocol on
Energy came into between 1998 and 2000 and are at different levels of implementation.

Four SADC protocols namely: Protocol on Health; Protocol on Education and Training; and
Protocol on Tourism; and Protocol on Wildlife Conservation and Law Enforcement are open for
ratification and the process of ratification has begun.

Social Issues and Sustainable Development
At the sub-regional level, a framework for cooperation in the area of health, the SADC Health
Protocol has been drafted and approved by Heads of state. A Task Force on HIV/AIDS was
established in 1999 with the following Sectors: Culture, Information and Sport, Education and
Training, Employment and Labour, Health, Mining, Tourism and Transport, Communication and
meteorology. The Task Force on HIV/AIDS developed a SADC Strategic Framework on
HIV/AIDS for 2000 - 2004, which was approved by the Council of Ministers in August 2000.
The Task Force has been expanded to include the economic sectors (Trade, Finance and
Investment and Agriculture). A few cooperating partners have shown interest in supporting the
strategy.

                                                                                                 9
Drought preparedness is of high priority in southern Africa countries and measures include
advising farmers to grow drought tolerant crops, and to reduce and cull livestock in the face of
drought. The sub-region also has a standing task force, comprised of the SADC Regional Early
Warning Unit, the Regional Remote Sensing Project, the Drought Monitoring Centre and the
Famine Early Warning System all of which advise governments on drought preparedness. A
drought fund is also in place to mitigating the effects of poor rainfall.

SADC acknowledges that gender is an integral part of equity- led growth and sustainable
development. SADC has incorporated gender into its policies and programmes and put in place
an institutional framework for advancing gender equality with that established for other areas of
cooperation . National gender policies are in place in all states.

There are several NGOs increasingly operating at the SADC Sub-regional level. There is the
SADC Council of NGOs based in Gaborone – the umbrella for national NGO associations.
NGOs at both national and SADC Sub-regional levels have done much to meet the objectives of
Agenda 21, particularly on poverty reduction.

Economic Issues and Sustainable Development

There has been an increasing awareness of the need to integrate economic, social and
environmental components of sustainable development, increased understanding of the fragility
of the natural resources, improved access to education especially women, increasing role that
women are playing as agents of change in development, increased
market liberalization and privatization and increased regional and sub-regional economic
integration and cooperation.

Agriculture is the economic heart of most countries in the region and contributes significantly to
high percentages of Gross Domestic Product. It is the heart of the economies of poor people, 75
to 80% of them who basically depend on it for their livelihoods. Agriculture has great potential
for the region in terms of diversified exports. However, there is need for governments to ensure
water supply to small-scale growers for irrigation; improve land tenure systems under traditional
and modern farming systems; foster regional and sub-regional food security through increased
production and crop diversification; and develop new partnerships internationally for trade
purposes. Developed countries should assist the region’s networking with external partners in
the areas of agricultural technology and rural infrastructure, and support researchers for small-
scale farming.

Mining has been one of the sources of foreign exchange for most SADC countries resulting in
the transformation of the countries wealth particularly South Africa, Namibia, Botswana,
Angola, Zambia, DRC and Zimbabwe. Mining has been a major source of employment for poor
rural communities who move into mining towns in large numbers. Mining has raised revenue for
governments to introduce industrialization, improve roads, railways, schools , hospitals and other
public facilities.




                                                                                               10
Priorities for industrialization in the sub-region include: increasing the productive
competitiveness especially in the agro- industrial, mining and manufacturing sub-sectors with
potential for exports and employment creation; support small to medium manufacturing projects
in both urban and rural areas such as processing mills; develop new industries or up- grade
existing ones, where SADC countries have comparative advantage; acquire membership of
relevant international standards organizations.

Tourism earns the SADC region billions US Dollars annually. This sector has promoted the rise
in hotel accommodation, created employment ranging from simple unskilled semi-skilled to
skilled employees. To develop our tourism industry further we need to: develop better sub-
regional marketing strategy; create research capacity for tourism; and extend partnership to sub-
regional bodies such as the Regional Tourism Organization for Southern Africa (RETOSA);
prioritize consumer safety and security issues; and market African products especially in
adventure tourism, eco-tourism and cultural tourism

Currently all SADC states are members of the WTO, and therefore sho uld benefit from tariff
reductions and access to world markets.




                                                                                              11
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

   1.1          The SADC Sub-region
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is an intergovernmental legal entity
grouping fourteen southern African States (Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of
Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa,
Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe) committed to equitable economic integration and
sustainable development. Each member state coordinates the development and implementation
of policies and action programmes of one or two economic sectors.

In August 1996, the SADC Council of Ministers approved the SADC Policy and Strategy for
Environment and Sustainable Development - Towards Equity-led Growth and Sustainable
Development in Southern Africa. The SADC Policy and Strategy for Environment and
Sustainable Development provides the basis for implementing Agenda 21 - the global action plan
for environment adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit - in the southern African context.
Recognizing poverty as the main cause and consequence of environmental degradation, and
poverty alleviation as the SADC Community’s overriding goal and priority, it identifies equity as
a crucial element to be added to environment and development in order to make Agenda 21 more
applicable and operational in southern Africa.

The most important resources are land and water. In the SADC region only 7.6% of the land is
arable. The productivity of that limited arable land, and of the less fertile and vulnerable
rangelands covering 41% of the SADC region, must be protected and improved to feed the fast
growing regional population. Water is needed to support that food production and for industrial
and household use. Without adequate access clean water, people and especially children get sick
and die sooner and more often of dehydration or waterborne diseases than from lack of food.
Agricultural production and water resources are both crucial to support regional industrial and
energy development.

   1.2          Agenda 21 and Sustainable Development
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development (UNCED)
marked an unprecedented endorsement of an environmental and development agenda for the
twenty-first century and beyond – Agenda 21. This agenda represents a global consensus and
political commitment, to sustainable development at the highest level of governments (World
Bank).

Agenda 21 was not produced at the June 1992 Rio Earth Summit in isolation but was closely
linked to other agreements and conventions, that may be divided into two categories, those that
were adopted at the summit and those that were initiated by the process but adopted later. In the
first category are:

   •     The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development: Its 27 principles define the rights
         and responsibilities of nations as they pursue human development and well-being;

                                                                                              12
   •      Agenda 21, which is a blue-print on how to make development socially, economically
          and environmentally sustainable;
   •      A statement of principles to guide the management, conservation and sustainable
          development of all types of forests, which are essential to economic development and the
          maintenance of all forms of life;
   •      The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) whic h aims
          at stabilizing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at levels that will not dangerously upset
          the climate system, and
   •      The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) that requires countries to adopt ways and
          means to conserve the variety of living species and ensure that benefits from using
          biological diversity are equitably shared.

In the second category is the International Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) in
countries affected by desertification/drought particularly in Africa. Negotiations for this
convention ended with the adoption by governments in October 1994.

Agenda refers to the Agenda for Environment and Development for the 21st century and beyond.
It is also referred to as a blue-print for global partnership aimed at reconciling the twin
requirements of high quality environment and healthy economy for all people in the world. The
Agenda 21 Action Plan covers aspects from oceans, atmosphere. Living resources, shared
territories, land users, trade poverty alleviation and eradication, energy, human rights to future
developments. In other words, Agenda 21 is about sustainable development. Each of the 40
chapters covers critical to achieving sustainable development.

   1.3           Sustainable Development
It is clear form the coverage and objectives of Agenda 21 that the critical concern is that of
achieving sustainable development. The term “sustainable development” was brought to
common use by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) also known
as the Brundtland Commission. In this report, the commission defined sustainable development
as “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the
future generations to meet their own needs”.

The definition underlies three critical/key concepts:

   i)        The issue of needs, in particular the needs for the poor;
   ii)       The second factor is that of resource limitations; and
   iii)      The third concept is that of inter- generation equity.

   1.4           The WSSD Assessment Process
Africa’s preparatory process for the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development is planned
to be achieved at three levels – national, sub-regional and regional. The national process will be
carried out under the supervision of national governments. The national assessments prepare the



                                                                                                  13
status of the implementation of Agenda 21, including the constraints encountered and will feed
into the sub-regional assessment report.

The sub-regional assessment takes stock of the main achievements in Southern Africa since
UNCED in the implementation of Agenda 21 and other outcomes of the Rio summit. It
highlights the major constraints hindering implementation of Agenda 21. The assessment also
touches on the impacts of globalization and changing conditions on implementation of Agenda
21 and related conventions. In addition the assessment looks into the impact of Agenda 21 on
sustainable livelihoods. Furthermore the assessment identifies new initiatives and commitments
to overcome the constraints at both regional and global levels; international cooperation
arrangements for accelerating sustainable development; extent of integration of economic, social
and environment policies/programmes to ensure sustainable livelihoods; institutional
framework/arrangements and extent of equitable use of world resources. The sustainable
development issues requiring priority global action, new commitments at the global level. See
Annex 1.

The outcomes of the sub-regional preparatory process are sub-regional assessment report and
common perspectives and position to be submitted to an African Regional High level meeting
will agree on a common position for the Africa region.

   1.5         Structure of the Report
This report is divided into six main parts: the introduction which introduces the SADC sub-
region; the context within which Agenda 21 is implemented in the SADC sub-region; the
Agenda 21 implementation assessment process; and the terms of references for the sub-regional
assessment.

Natural Resources for Sustainable Development, which covers the natural resources which form
the basis for economic growth in the SADC sub-region; with emphasis on problems associated
with each of the resources, achievements, gaps, constraints and way forward.

Social Issues in Sustainable Development covering issues of health, education, gender,
urbanization and disasters, also looking critically at the achievements since Rio, gaps, constraints
and the way forward.

Economic Issues in Sustainable Development addressing, with reference to environment as a
basis for economic development and poverty eradication, the precondition in economic
development; financing flows; market access/trade; debt/ODA; agriculture, industrialization,
infrastructure and capacity building; and

A concluding chapter which presents SADC priorities for the future.




                                                                                                 14
CHAPTER 2: NATURAL RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT

   2.1         Introduction
The Southern Africa sub-region is well endowed with natural resources that form the basis for
economic development and on which the majority of the population depend. The natural
resources include land, water, mineral and energy resources, forests, and marine and coastal
resources. Agenda 21 calls for the development, utilization and protection of these resources,
“without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.

Inspite of the abundance of natural resources, most people in southern Africa, especially in rural
areas continue to live under grinding poverty for various reasons, including low levels or lack of
technical and financial resources and inputs, weak institutional and legal frame works for
resource management, low prices and unfair or unfavourable terms of trade for primary products,
increasing population pressure, and impacts of climate change.

To address the problem of natural resources management, the sub-region has in the past ten years
recorded some achievements and proposes various strategies for moving forward in the next
decade.

   2.2 Land Resources

   2.2.1       Problems and Constraints
Countries of southern Africa cover a total land area of 6.8 million km2 of which 55% is under
crops and grazing.

Data collected covering wildlife, forest, land and water shows that agricultural growth and
efficient management of natural resources are dependent the political, legal and administrative
capabilities of rural communities to determine their own future and to protect their natural
resources and other economic interests. The lack of this power is translated into insecure tenure
rights, abuse of common property and resources, environmental degradation, disenfranchisement
of rural people, particularly women, and the breakdown or weakening of rural economic
institutions.

Currently Southern Africa’s mixed land tenure systems, give women varying extents of access of
land. Under the private freehold system, women have rights to access land but very few of them
have the resources to purchase such land on the open market. Communal land held under the
traditional or customary system allows women secondary access through marriage, but as soon
as the marriage breaks they lose the right to cultivate lineage land (SARDC-WIDSAA 2000). In
general, however, women are slowly beginning to control a sizeable proportion of rented,
purchased and allocated land.



                                                                                               15
Land tenure issues in southern Africa are manifested in increasing pressure on the land resource
base, rural development and land reform. Land-based conflicts and issues pertain to regional
cooperation in land reforms. In countries like Lesotho and Malawi with extremely high
population densities (640 people per 1000 hectares and 1118 people per 1000 hectares
respectively), problems of productivity and food security are growing (Matowanyika and
Marongwe, 1998), and pressure to open up land to markets and other forces in increasing across
the sub-region (Appendix-Fig. 1).

Issues of poverty and inequity in the region constitute major limitations to human development.
On average more than 40% of southern Africa’s population lives in abject poverty, while 40% of
the labour force is either unemployed or ekes out a living out of drought-prone peasant
agriculture (UNDP/SADC/SAPE 1998).

The available literature on tenure places emphasis on the need for tenure security as the basis of
sustainable management of resources. It notes that various types of tenure (including common
property and title) can be secure or insecure depending on social, legal and administrative
institutions in a given society.

The studies show the need and rationale for giving natural resources back to the people. Some
guiding principles that have emerged from several case studies in the sub-region and other parts
of Africa include the following:

   •   Tenure security essentially builds on a clear legal, regulatory and administrative structure
       that guides relationships, rules, roles, rights and responsibilities between the state, local
       government, communities and individuals.
   •   A basic pre-condition for success seems also to be that establishment of secure tenure is
       mutually and officially negotiated and agreed by both state and community,
       simultaneously defining their respective rights and responsibilities. Possibly, most
       important here is acknowledgement by the state that the community is a legitimate social
       entity with rights over resources and ability to carry responsibilities.
   •   Recognition of a community’s right to define itself and its membership, the establishment
       of clear boundaries and an agreed exclusiveness in relation to outsiders have also
       contributed to successful cases.

   However, whether tenure systems are predominantly communal or individual does not seem
   decisive, as long as they mostly adhere to these principles. Most reported cases include both.

   Grazing lands, covering 45% of the sub-region’s total land and woodlands, are increasingly
   diminishing due to land pressures resulting from inequitable ownership of land use
   technologies suitable for intensive production. As a result, the majority of southern Africa’s
   rural people are vulnerable to food insecurity due to poor yields (Moyo 1998).

   The issues of land degradation linked up with resettlement efforts indicate that more than
   50% of southern Africa’s land degradation is caused by overgrazing from cattle, sheep and
   goats owned by farmers, some of which are bred in unsuitable areas for settlement – range or
   grazing land. Cultivation of unsuitable land for arable farming is said to cover the rest. Some

                                                                                                 16
   of the visible manifestations of land degradation in southern Africa include worsening soil
   erosion, declining crop yields, siltation of rivers and reservoirs, and deterioration of
   rangelands. Southern Africa’s arable land has expanded by as much as 19%, 22%, and 35%
   since 1983 in Tanzania, Malawi and Swaziland respectively (Matowanyika and Marongwe,
   1998) (See Appendix- Table 1).

   In Zambia, it is estimated that the country loses 3 million tones of topsoil from cultivated
   land each year, while in Swaziland the rate of soil loss is 50000 tones per year. Soil loss is
   much higher in Zimbabwe where the Save Catchment area is estimated to be losing 96
   million tones of soil annually, while in South Africa it is estimated that between 300 – 400
   million tones of soil are lost annually (Chenje and Johnson 1994). Vegetation and soil loss
   lowers productivity and soil biodiversity and restricts capacity of soils to recycle nutrients.

   2.2.2 Achievements
Since 1992 most countries in the SADC region have instituted measures to address the various
physical, social and economic problems and consultants associated with land use and agricultural
production.

Physical land degradation has been met by a number of responses, with several countries having
come up with environmental management programmes aimed at curbing, controlling and
rehabilitating land resources. Some of the programmes are in the form of community based
natural resources management projects (CBNRM), district and national environmental as well as
biodiversity strategy action plans under the auspices of regional and internationals conventions
such as CCD, CBD, Agenda 21 and CITES. The SADC sub-Regional Action Programme
(SRAP) to Combat Desertification in Southern Africa was also developed and identified priority
issues to combat desertification.

The sub-region has seen food aid cereals grow by 56% since 1980 (World Bank 2000), mainly
due to the war in Angola and Mozambique as well as recurrent flood and drought disasters. For
example, over half a million people in Mozambique required food aid in 2000 due to the
devastating floods caused by clone Eline.

In response to land degradation in the sub-region SADC ELMS in 1992 set up an Integrated
Land Use Planning Programme that prepared Guidelines which is guided by the strategic
framework that is now used by SADC member states. This programme which was concluded in
1998 has been the framework for dialogue on Land Use Planning (LUP) within the region,
during the last ten years.

   2.2.3 Way Forward

Most countries of southern Africa are developing new policies, through reorganization and
transformation, to address the needs of previously disadvantaged communities. Land reforms in
southern Africa are aimed at achieving the following fundamental objectives:

   •   Redressing the inequities in access and control of land;

                                                                                               17
   •   Improving the base for productive agriculture;
   •   Alleviating population pressure in communal areas; and
   •   Improving living standards and achieving national stability.

A number of strategies were adopted in order to achieve the above objectives. Land
redistribution was one major approach. Governments had to cater for the land needs of millions
of people displaced by colonial settlers and liberation wars soon after independence and in some
cases after dealing with legal constraints that did not permit compulsory acquisition of land
especially the Commonwealth countries. Land reform discriminates in favour of identified
previously disadvantaged groups and as such by their nature. Other policy instruments include
credit, infrastructure and marketing facilities.

The Convention to Combat Desertification addresses issues of land degradation and poverty
eradication. SADC member states have formulated national action programmes (NAPs) and
sub-regional action programmes (SRAP) whose implementation is constrained by lack of
resources. There is need therefore for increased financing of the CCD activities, through the
reformed GEF and through multilateral and bilateral partnerships with the SADC member states
to mobilize adequate and predictable resources to implement the NAPs and SRAP.

   2.3     Water Resources
   2.3.1 Issues and Constraints
Southern Africa suffers recurrent drought cycles which necessitate improved planning and
management of water to reduce dependence on drought relief. The impact of drought extends
beyond food shortages and negatively affects national economies and reduces SADC states’
ability to export crops and generate foreign currency. Drought also affects the availability of
water particularly in rural areas where the majority of the people live.

Due to droughts, rainfall variability and, urgent measures need to be taken to better manage
water resources. This calls for a new water ethic in Southern Africa that is based on equitable
and fair distribution of this scarce key resource.

The biggest supplier of surface water in the region is the Zambezi River which stretches and
flows for 3000 kilometres, through gorges, rapids and cataracts, uniting eight countries in the
SADC region. It is the source of food, water, electricity, transport, communications and
recreation for millions of people in Southern Africa (Appendix-Fig. 2).

Regional estimates put renewable freshwater resources at an annual average of 650 million cu.
metres, distributed in rivers, lakes and groundwater bodies in the region (IUCN-ROSA 1996).

Increasing water demand is a matter of current concerns in the region because of increasing
human population and economic activity. In water-scarce Namibia for example, demand f r      o
state supplied water increased from 37 million cu. metres in 1970 to 95 million cu. metres in
1993, that is, an average increase of 4.2% per annum and above population growth rate of 3%.


                                                                                             18
Seasonal variations and unreliability of precipitation make irrigation much more important in the
region that might otherwise be the case. Irrigation is of particular concern when considering the
region’s future planning. Irrigation is regarded as a way of increasing agricultural productivity
to meet increased livelihood demand from population growth. For example, in South Africa, the
region’s biggest irrigator, only 1% of the agricultural land is irrigated, but it produces 30% of the
value of agricultural production in the country. Of the total amount of water available in South
Africa, 51% is used for irrigation, 15.5% for ecological conservation, 12% municipal and
domestic needs, 7.6% for industry, 7.5% for forestry, 2.7% mining, 2.3% hydro-electricity and
1.5% to water stock.

The region has a large number of dams for generating hydro-electricity including the Kariba,
Cabora Bassa, Kafue and several in DRC and Angola. Only about 1% of the region’s hydro-
electric power potential, outside South Africa has been developed. DRC and Angola have the
greatest potential. Only about 4% of existing capacity in Angola has been developed due to the
civil war there. The region is projected to record impressive growth and availability of
affordable power could be a strong impetus for that growth.

Box: Fisheries


The region’s inland water bodies also support a thriving inland fisheries industry. The lakes such as
Tanganyika, Victoria and Malawi provide almost all the inland commercial and subsistence catches in the
region totaling 500 000 tones per year. According to SADC, about 200 000 people are already directly
employed in the SADC inland fisheries industry. Between 600 000-800 000 more are indirectly dependent
on this industry, and fish are often a large part of the diet of people living in the region.

In addition to freshwater, there are also marine fisheries. More than half of the SADC states have coastal
areas, Tanzania, Mauritius, Mozambque, South Africa, Namibia, Angola, DRC and Seychelles. For
example, Namibia is poised to be a major world player in the marine fishing industry, benefiting, as it does,
from the Benguela Cold current.

The country’s total landings from its waters were 850 000 metric tones in 1994 and government estimates
such output creates 15 000 new jobs yearly over a 5-year period. The Namibian fisheries sector contributes
more than 35% annually to the GDP and jobs have more than doubled to 12 000 since independence in
1990.

Fisheries in the region include traditional artisanal and commercial. On the Mozambique Island
of Inhaca, about 1000 me n use boats to fish and their annual catch is 400-500 tones. Tanzania’s
artisanal fisheries employ 2.5 million people. These coastal areas have an enormous influence
on trade, use of marine resources and recreation.

Water pollution in southern Africa is a serious problem that needs to be addressed. As demands
for potable water have increased worldwide over the years so have human impacts on freshwater
systems, according to UNEP. Water used for domestic purposes, industry or agriculture is
frequently returned to its original source polluted or contaminated with chemicals or other
harmful substances, thus reducing the amount of good quality water e.g. the Mukuwisi River in
Harare contains high amounts of nutrients, such as phosphorus nitrogen sulphate, calcium,
magnesium and fluoride, aluminium and iron, largely from industrial dumps along the river


                                                                                                                19
banks. Pollution also arises from mining products and agricultural chemicals. The result is
water borne diseases, cholera and cancer.

Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers pollutes the soil resulting in acidification which releases
toxic substances, impairing the growth of crops. About 5000 sq. kms of land in South Africa are
acidified – some 10% of the country’s cultivated lands. A large proportion of fertilizers either
washes off the soil into rivers or leaches through the soil into ground water and then into rivers.
These nutrients are as effective in increasing plant pollution) resulting in floating vegetation
reaching pest propositions.

Manufacturing and service industries are the primary source of pollution in Southern Africa,
producing tones of effluents, solid waste and air pollutants. Major polluters include thermal
power stations which burn coal and petroleum products, fertilizer factories, textile mills,
chemical manufacturing plants, pulp and paper plants, slaughter houses and tanneries. Water is
the usual recipient of industrial pollution because disposal of wastes into water bodies is cheap
and convenient. Eventually these wastes can accumulate to a point where they become toxic and
health hazards.

In coastal areas, industries dispose of their untreated wastes directly into streams or rivers
running to the oceans. Industrial wastes are found in ocean waters, near major centres along the
entire coastline from Dar-es-Salaam, Maputo and Durban on the east coast to Cape Town in the
South to Walvis Bay up to Baiado Cacuaco, 15 kms north to Luanda in Angola.

Marine pollution due to human activity, in and around major cities e.g. Beira, Maputo and
Luanda has sometimes reached toxic levels. Maputo had three times more people by 1922 than
it could support, resulting in sewage and pollution problems. In Angola, untreated industrial
wastes are being pumped into the bay of Luanda resulting in bacteria l contamination. Rapid and
unplanned settlements have created a city with virtually no sanitation, sewage system and refuse
collection facilities! Only 13% of Luanda’s population is estimated to have sewage connections
and 16% has septic tanks. Oil tankers can also be a major contributor to pollution in the marine
environment. Some 650 large vessels transport more than 150 million tones of oil along the
region’s coast annually. There have been at least 6 major oil spills affecting southern Africa
since 1965.

   2.3.2 Achievements

To develop sustainable and integrated water management, SADC countries need to build a strong
partnership involving different sectors of society. People should be empowered to make
decisions and manage their problems and find solutions for them. Efforts should be made to
exploit to advantage, the many positive aspects of indigenous water uses. Principle 10 of
Agenda 21 states:

“Environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all concerned citizens at the
relevant le vel.”



                                                                                                20
Recognizing the importance of water in the region, SADC Ministers responsible for water
resources, in 1995 made a decision to develop a regional strategic approach to integrate water
resources development and management (Regional Strategic Action Plan For Integrated Water
Resources Development and Management in the SADC Countries (1999–2004)). This decision
constituted a significant commitment towards the supply of adequate water in the region and the
protection of the environment.

With the exception of Mauritius and Seychelles, all the other continental SADC countries share
international drainage basins with one or more neighbouring countries. Competition for the use
of these transboundary waters is increasing among some of the riparian states. SADC has thus
recognized that in the absence of balanced cross-boundary and cross-sectoral integration riparian
countries may easily get into conflicts over shared waters. As such the development and
management of regional water resources in a holistic manner provides an opportunity to prevent
possible occurrence of such conflicts. The signing of the Protocol on Shared Water-course
systems in 1995, by the majority of member states, and the creation of the SADC Water Sector
Coordination Unit in 1996 are clear manifestations of SADC’s recognition of the need for
regional integrated water resources development and management in these shared waters.
Alleviating poverty for the majority of the over 145 million people in the region is the overriding
SADC goal and priority, reflected in numerous SADC initiatives in the health, nutrition,
education and agriculture sector.

There has also been a significant increase in the proportion of the population with access to clean
water, and all countries in the region are undertaking policy, institutional and legislative reforms
for sustainable management of water resources.

   2.3.3 Way Forward

Regional integration of water development and management requires a multidimensional
planning and implementation approach that fosters interventions directly at changing constraints
at both the national and transboundary levels. Many opportunities exist in the region that will be
built upon. The identification of these interventions is associated with several major issues noted
below.

The current progress by SADC countries to strengthen cooperation among themselves is a
significant foundation for improving management of the region’s water resources. The key
opportunities for improved regional water resources management include the following:

   •   A political environment and level of awareness to promoting and implementing regional
       opportunities for integrated water resources management, and with priority to access to
       clear potable water especially in rural areas;
   •   Political stability in the region, a precondition for co-operation and development;
   •   Institutional, legislative and policy reforms in all countries towards integrated water
       management approaches that include environment management;
   •   Reforms in line with international consensus on integrated water resources management,
       already started in a number of countries;

                                                                                                 21
   •   SADC Protocol which forms a basis for the management of shared watercourses systems
       and the establishment of the SADC Water Sector;
   •   Need for the international community to increase flow of financial resources.

   2.4 Forests
   2.4.1 Pressures on Forest Resources

The forest area of southern Africa amounts to 28.6% of the sub-regions total area, of which 0.2%
is made up of plantation forests (McCullum 2000). The sub-region has 4 broad forest and
woodland zones, namely lowland tropical forests, afro- montane and temperate forest, grassland,
savannah woodlands, and fynbos (Booth 1994). In addition, southern Africa, has six regions of
exceptional plant species diversity, and forest species are abundant in many of these (White
1983). Forest products are a valuable source of export earnings and revenue across the region,
and the communities living in forest or woodland areas are highly dependent on forest products
for meeting everyday food and energy needs.

For example, about 80% of Mozambique’s population lives in the rural areas and depends on
wood for cooking as well and heating water for domestic use, room heating and drying of
foodstuff. Every year, about 25 million cu.m of woodfuel is consumed in Tanzania with 97% of
this being used as firewood in rural areas. Charcoal is also used widely, especially in urban areas
where the population uses charcoal for domestic energy generation (Chenje 2000).

Southern African has one of the fastest growing populations in the world and faces the challenge
of trying to increase food supplies by some 3% per annum. This challenge has up to now, been
addressed by bringing large areas of wooded land under cultivation. The sub-region is therefore
witnessing an increasingly high rate of deforestation, mainly due to human activities. The annual
rate of deforestation in the member states range from 0.75 to 2.2% with Angola and Malawi
having the lowest and the highest rates of deforestation respectively (www.sadcreview.net). This
means that it is a worse situation than a decade ago when average deforestation was 0.7%
(UNEP/SADC/SAPES Trust 1998).

In Malawi, forest cover declined by 41% between 1972-90. In Za mbia, around the principal
towns in the Copperbelt, Lusaka Province, and Southern Province, tree cutting for charcoal
production, coupled with agricultural land clearing, have worsening problems of local
deforestation (Chenje, 2000). Botswana, which is an arid country with very little forest,
nonetheless has abundant energy resources in the form of wood. However due to low population
density pressures in Botswana, only 1.8 million tones of the country’s annual biomass increment
of 50 million tones is harvested (EDG Government of Botswana and GTZ 1996) (Appendix-
Fig. 3).

While existing statistics of forest resources have to be updated, they nevertheless, highlight the
serious threat looming over the region’s forest resources through deforestation, forest
degradation and desertification. The results of deforestation are increased soil erosion,
sedimentation and siltation and induced flooding at points far away from the deforested areas.

                                                                                                22
Soil erosion is probably the most important factor in the decline in agricultural productivity,
degrading about 15% of SADC lands.

   2.4.2 Way Forward

The failure to involve local people and have tangible benefits accrue to them has continued to
dissociate people from forests and even made them co-exploiters and co-destroye rs of their own
forests. Although the concept of popular participation in forest management is gaining
prominence throughout the sub-region it is treated more as a novelty than strategy to be pursued
vigorously. With growing democratic governance and rapid spread of the environmental
awareness many groups especially NGOs, are emphasizing rights of people to access their
resources and participate in the management so that they can ensure a healthy environment.

Sub-regional organizations have been formed to enhance sustainable forestry management.
These include the African Timber Organization (ATO), which has its headquarters in Libreville,
Gabon and incorporates the southern African countries of Angola, DRC and Tanzania. Efforts to
promote sustainable regional self-sufficiency in forest/wood products, enhance the productive
and environmental value of trees, and protect, manage and control forest resources are being
pursued through functions of SADC forestry sector. The sector developed the Forest Policy and
Development strategy, approved in September 1997, and efforts are underway to finalize and
implement a SADC Forestry Protocol.

   2.5 Coastal and Marine Resources
   2.5.1 Pressures and Constraints

The southern African coastline spans a total distance of 9 600 kilometers, from the India Ocean
in the East to the Atlantic Ocean on the West Coast (Chenje and Johnson 1994). The countries
that have a sea coast in southern Africa are Angola, Namibia, South Africa, Mozambique and
Tanzania. Other member states are the island nations of Mauritius and Seychelles. These
countries each possess economic rights over natural resources within the Exclusive Economic
Zone (EEZ) that spans 200 nautical miles offshore (Chenje and Johnson 1994). The coastal zone
is experienc ing degradation and marine resources are declining due to increased demand for
resources, improved transport networks opening up pristine areas, and migration of people and
industries to the coastal zone. Increasing tourism is also cause for concern in that if not properly
managed, the resources and revenue from tourism in Southern Africa will not be sustainable in
the medium to long term.

Mangrove species such as Avicennia marina have a very high socio-economic importance, as
they are used for the construction of furniture, firewood, building dugout canoes, and the leaves
are collected for animal fodder. Bruguiera gymnorhiza and ceriops tagal are harvested for poles
used in house building, boats and for firewood. The bark of Rhizophora mucronata is used for
dying nets, firewood and fish traps. Other important species include Sonneratia alba which
contains floral nectar sucked by children and can also be used for firewood and boat building;


                                                                                                 23
Xylocarpus granatum is a medicinal species where a concoction made from its fruit and taken is
said to cure stomach problems and hernia (Sousa 1998).

On the east coast in Mozambique, there are approximately 400 000 hectares of mangrove forest.
The Sofala bank, which fringes the coast of these provinces, is a highly productive fishing
ground for shallow-water shrimp. The fishing sector contributes about 40% to net foreign
exchange earnings of Mozambique, and this is almost exclusively from shrimp catch (Sousa
1997). Scientific studies from other countries show a high positive correlation between
mangrove vegetation on the one hand and shrimps and other commercially important marine
organisms, on the other. The mangrove forests also protect the coastline from storm surges and
other natural hydrological influences, suc h as high amplitude tidal ranges and current
disturbances (Tinley 1971). However, mangrove resources are being over-harvested to meet a
rising demand. There are no known measures to conserve these resources being taken.

In South Africa, catches in the commercial line fishery peaked at 18 000 – 20 000 tones in the
late 1960’s and early 1970’s, but then declined steadily to an estimated 7 300 tones in 1985
(http://www.gov.za/oldfri). This was despite an increase in fishing effort where fish were
available and to follow migratory species along the coast, so effectively increased pressure on
the declining resources (http://www.gov.za/oldfri). The dropping catches, 1984 the South Africa
Marine Line Fish Management measures include minimum size limits, bag limits, closed seasons
and closed areas (marine resources).

Other constraints include:

   •   Inadequate technology
   •   Inadequate international rules and regulations and enforcement
   •   Lack of capacity for integrated coastal management
   •   Lack of financial resources
   •   Problems in coping with the impact of climate change

   2.5.2 Way Forward

   •   Forge agreements on technology transfer and access to and sharing of research, capacity
       and information
   •   Focus on capacity building for strengthening policy, institutional, and regulatory
       frameworks
   •   Strengthen and enforce international rules and regulations.

   2.6     Energy Resources
       2.6.1 Issues

The importance of energy in sustainable development clearly emerged at Rio. However, no
integrated action programme in the field of energy was agreed upon at that conference in 1992.

                                                                                            24
The essential linkages between energy and socio-economic development were not approached in
an integrated fashion. As a result the recommendations concerning energy and development
remain dispersed.

In developing countries including those in the SADC region, energy production and consumption
patterns increasingly impede national development processes, and will continue to do so, unless
new approaches are adopted. UNDP, through its initiative on Sustainable Energy is assisting
country programmes to reflect Agenda 21 objectives in systematic national energy policies,
investment plans and sustainable development.

        2.6.2 Renewable Energy
About 74 percent of the total energy requirements of the eight Zambezi River Basin countries
comes from biomass; fuelwood, charcoal, and plant residues. Biomass is used for domestic
purposes (cooking and lighting) and in agriculture for curing tobacco (especially in Malawi,
Mozambique, Tanzania and Zimbabwe). It is also used for brick manufacturing; lime
production; fish smoking; and coffee and tea-drying.

Box: Hydropower Generation


Hydro-electrical power accounts for 65% of the total commercial energy supply to SADC countries
compared to thermal general – 29%. South Africa generates 40 000 MW, mostly through thermal
generation. The estimated hydropower potential of the Zambezi River is 20 000 megawatts (MW) of which
about 4,620MW has been developed. Of the 4,620MW available, about 5% is in Malawi, 45% in
Mozambique, 35% in Zambia and 14% in Zimbabwe.

The Cahora Bassa hydropower plant, with an existing installed capacity of 2,075MW, is the largest in
SADC, followed by the Inga in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with 1,771MW. Under current
arrangements, Zimbabwe can import up to 400MW per month and the remainder is consumed by both
South Africa and Mozambique.

Potential hydropower plants with a total installation capacity of 12,892MW have also been identified in the
basin as follows: nine in Angola; seven in Malawi; 12 in Mozambique, including the giants, Cahora Bassa
II, Mepanda Uncua and Chemba which have installation capacities exceeding 1,600MW each; 10 in
Zambia including the giants, Batoka (1,600MW), Devil’s (1,240MW) and Mupata (1,000MW) gorges; and
four in Zimbabwe, also including Batoka, Devil’s and Mupata gorges.

Malawi is the only country utilizing the basin’s resources to produce ethanol, which is used to
blend petrol. Ethanol is produced from sugar molasses at Dwangwa Estate Plant on the
lakeshore. However, other basin countries, for example, Zimbabwe, produce ethanol outside the
basin. Molasses, from ethanol production, threatens the environment in that it is sometimes
disposed of into watercourse sys tems and destroy fish and other aquatic life.

    2.6.3 Environmental Impacts

Deforestation, one of the factors that lead to soil erosion, siltation and ultimately land
degradation, is the main problem associated with biomass energy utilization in the basin. As


                                                                                                              25
such, more environmentally friendly energy alternatives such as hydropower (at micro level),
wind and solar should be promoted, especially for the rural communities, need to be used.

Depending on location and size, damming rivers for hydropower plants has widespread negative
environmental impacts. These include the depletion of wetland habitats and aquatic life;
increases in water-borne diseases; sedimentation, siltation and siltation- induced flooding; and
loss of irrigation water downstream.

To minimize the negative impacts, legislation binding developers to undertaken environmental
Impact Assessments (EIAs) are important. In addition, remedial measures outlined in EIA
reports must be fulfilled. The basin countries have made great strides towards establishing
national EIA laws.

   2.6.4 Non-renewable Energy

Thermal power is electricity produced by burning fossil- fuels, including coal, coal-bed methane,
natural gas and diesel to produce steam to turn turbines. However, it is coal that is mostly
utilized by the basin countries in thermal power production. As such once coal is exhausted, the
thermal plant seizes to produce electricity. The major thermal plants in the Zambezi river basin
are located in Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Virtually all known, exploitable coal reserves for Malawi (three million tones); Mozambique
(2,422 million); Zambia (69 million); and Zimbabwe (1,187 million) are found in Zambezi Basin
(1988 estimates). Coal reserves are utilized mostly for thermal power generation, domestic uses
       s
such a cooking and heating; industrial uses such as smelting and making chemicals; and
commercial uses such as tobacco curing and railway traction. Coke oven gas is also produced
from coal-burning and is used in industry, and of late, has replaced diesel as a start-up in thermal
power generation plants.

Although there are no petroleum plants in the basin, indications are that the thick extensive
sedimentary rocks in the basin have a potential for petroleum deposits and natural gas. This had
led to extensive exploration by oil companies in Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe.


   2.6.5 Way Forward

Sustainability in energy needs goes beyond the borders of the basin countries. Platforms for
SADC cooperation in energy have been set through the 1982 and 1992 policy documents entitled
“Towards an Energy Policy in Southern Africa” which was translated into the SADC Protocol on
Energy signed by all member states in 1996.

Given the central role energy plays in the socio-economic development of our region, and the
possible negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels and use of biogas, there is need to
continue to explore opportunities in research and development of alternative sources of energy
including solar power, wind power, pumped storage and hydropower schemes, as well as for

                                                                                                 26
cleaner coal technologies, efficiency of energy supply and usage and indigenous technologies.
These new efforts will require partnerships and financial resources and capacity building.




                                                                                           27
CHAPTER 3: MULTI-LATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL
           AGREEMENTS

   3.1 Introduction
All SADC countries actively participated in the negotiations before and at the 1992 United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCCD) and Earth Summit. SADC
member states, produced UNCED national report and contributed to a special regional report for
UNCED on “Sustaining Our Common Future”.

At the Earth Summit the SADC member states joined 156 other countries in adopting Agenda 21
which integrated environment and development issues in a new policy framework. All SADC
member states have either signed or ratified all Multi- lateral Environmental Agreements
especially those that emanated from the 1992 Earth Summit. These include:

   3.2 Key Multi-lateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs)
   3.2.1 United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

The UNCCD is one of the international Conventions that emanated from the Rio Earth Summit
to address land degradation and desertification in the arid and semi-arid areas especially in
Africa. This Convention was adopted in June 1994. All SADC member states have ratified the
UNCCD and have participated in all the sessions of the Conference of Parties.

The UNCCD is participatory and seeks to address land degradation and desertification through a
bottom- up approach. SADC countries are at different stages of elaborating and implementing
their National Action Programmes (NAPs) and six have their NAPs approved by Parliament.
SADC countries have established National Desertification Fund (NDFs) or are in the process of
doing so.

In spite of these achievements implementation of UNCCD is constrained by insufficient financial
resources from the developed country parties. SADC sub-region has prepared a resource
mobilization strategy to support SADC Sub-regional Action Programme (SRAP). The process
of developing programmes and projects on the seven priority areas namely Capacity Building
and Institutional Strengthening; Strengthening of Early Warning Systems; Cooperation in the
Sustainable Management of Shared Natural Resources and Ecosys tems; Information Collection,
Management and Exchange; Development of Alternative Source of Energy; Development and
Transfer of Appropriate Technology to Community Level; and Socio-Economic Issues, is
continuing.

SADC Environment and Land Management Sector (SADC ELMS) which coordinates
implementation of all MEAs has developed “Land Degradation and Desertification Control
Programme” to address priority area number one which supports the National Action Programme
(NAP) process and to facilitate the exchange of knowledge among SADC countries.

                                                                                            28
Since the CCD is the convention that directly addresses sustainable development issues
especially land degradation and poverty eradication, there is need to mobilize adequate and
predictable resources to implement the various national and sub-regional (transboundary)
programmes. Financing CCD implementation can be achieved through the reformed GEF new
window on land degradation and by making GEF a funding mechanism for CCD
implementation.

   3.2.2 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity – (CBD)

The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity seeks to address conservation and
preservation of both flora and fauna especially the rare and endangered species.

In the SADC sub-region the Convention on Biological Diversity is coordinated by the Forestry
Sector hosted by the Government of Republic of Malawi and implemented through the SADC
Biodiversity Support Programme for Southern Africa. The programme aims to contribute to the
conservation of both plant and animal biodiversity and developing strategies for its conservation.
To this end a SADC Biodiversity Strategy has been adopted by all SADC member states. The
SADC Plant Genetic Resources Centre (SPGRC) based in Lusaka, Zambia is actively
participating in preservation of SADC germ plasm.

The SADC Biodiversity resources are being threatened by increasing population, land
degradation due to agricultural expansion, deforestation and infrastructural development.

   3.2.3 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)

CITES regulates the international trade not only in live animals plants but also in parts such as
hides, shells, ivory and other animal and plant materials.

All fourteen SADC member states have ratified the CITES. Many species are declining in
numbers because of loss of habitat and increased exploitation as human population grows.
However, commercial trade often contributes to further decline in the biodiversity of plants and
animals.

The SADC Regional Rhino Conservation Programme has on overall objective of contributing to
the long term conservation of the regions biodiversity by targeting two key species – the Black
Rhino and the White Rhino. The programme include public and private sector participation.

In 1989, the CITES Convention Conference of Parties listed the African elephants by banning
trade in ivory. This resolution was based on the demand for ivory which was an incentive for
poachers to slaughter elephants. Large populations of elephants were killed. Some SADC
member states were not happy with the outcome of the conference and therefore formed the
Southern African Centre for Ivory Marketing in June 1991.

Since the banning of trade in ivory in 1989, the elephant populations in some SADC countries
such as South Africa, Zimbabwe and Botswana rapidly grew. These countries argued that the

                                                                                               29
success of their programmes of elephant management depends on the animals having a financial
value and therefore went for regulated culling. The listing was subsequently lifted to enable
these countries to cull their stock.

   3.2.4       The Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol provides for the phasing out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other
chemicals damaging the ozone in the stratosphere.

As in the case of other global environmental agreements the developed country parties are to
ensure and facilitate “every practicable step” to ensure transfer of technology. A multilateral
fund was established to assist the developed country parties to meet their obligations to phase out
ozone depleting substances (ODS). The Multilateral Fund was also meant to assist developing
country parties to covert or retire unsuitable production facilities and establish new ones for
manufacturing substitute chemicals and meet costs resulting from the elimination of controlled
substances in the manufacturing of goods.

The SADC member states face different constraints and challenges including the following:

       •   Non-fulfillment of financial obligations by developed country parties
       •   Lack of flow of financial resources from the international financial institutions e.g.
           World Bank to support projects and initiatives by the developing country parties.

   3.2.5 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
   (UNFCCC)

The UNFCCC has an overall objective of addressing climate change through reduction of
emissions of greenhouse gases.

All SADC member states have signed the UNFCCC but only a few have signed the Kyoto
Protocol. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto seeks to assist developing
countries in achieving sustainable development. The adequate technological transfer by
developed countries to the SADC sub-region remains a major constraint to the implementation of
the UNFCCC.

There is also the need to reach agreement at the global level on the final details of the Kyoto
Protocol and have all parties ratify it.

While it is important to focus on reducing greenhouse gases in the SADC sub-region it is even
more important to develop strategies for adapting the climate change and natural disasters such
as floods, drought and other phenomena. Early Warning for natural disasters is very important
as a way of addressing these climatic changes.



                                                                                                30
The mandate of SADC Environment and Land Management Sector (SADC ELMS) has been
expanded to include amongst others developing synergies between all Multilateral
Environmental Conventions to which SADC member states are parties to. The intersectoral
coordination role by SADC ELMS ensures synergy between the MEAs and SADC regional
protocols.

   3.3         SADC Sub-regional Agreements
   3.3.1 Introduction

The 1992 Treaty establishing SADC aims to give practical effect to community building and
market integration. Article 22(1) provides for member states to conclude a series of protocols to
spell out the objectives and scope of, and institutional mechanisms for cooperation and
integration. These protocols are to be negotiated by all relevant stakeholders and, after approval
by the Summit, become an integral part of the Treaty. Article 21(3) identifies the following
areas in which cooperation towards integration would be pursued

   •   food security, land and agriculture
   •   infrastructure and services
   •   industry, trade and investment
   •   human resources development, science and technology
   •   natural resources and environment
   •   social welfare information and culture and
   •   politics, diplomacy, international relations, peach and security.

Different protocols are at different level of preparation and implementation.

   3.3.2 SADC Protocols in Force and Under Implementation
   •   The SADC Protocol on Shared Watercourse Systems came into force in 1998. Following
       the directive by the SADC Council of Ministers the SADC Secretariat and the Water
       Sector Coordinating Unit compiled amendments to the Protocol. Two Workshops were
       held in Swaziland in April 1997 and August 1998 and one in Zimbabwe in April 1999 to
       agree on the proposed amendments to the protocol. The “Revised Protocol on Shared
       Watercourse Systems” is now under implementation.

   •   The SADC Protocol on Trade has an overall objective of establishing a SADC Free Trade
       Area. The Protocol Implementation Phase of the Protocol was launched on 1 September
       2000. Negotiations for Tariff reduction have been conducted on the basis of offers and
       counter-offers by the 14 member states. The work towards elimination of non-tariff
       barriers is being operated through the Sub – Committee on Customs; Sub-Committee on
       Trade Facilitation; the Coordinating Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS)
       Measures and Technical Barriers to Trade; and the SubCommittee on Standardization,
       Quality Assurance and Accreditation and Metrology (SQAM).


                                                                                                31
•   The SADC Protocol on Transport, Communications and Meteorology entered into force
    in 1998. In 1999 three annexes were incorporated as integral part of the Protocol and are
    uniformly binding on the 14 SADC member States. Furthermore, ten model legislative
    provisions (MLPs) and model agreements were adopted to serve as regional guidelines
    for national reform processes.

•   The SADC Protocol on Mining came into force in February 2000 and provides a legal
    basis for SADC Countries’ cooperation in the Sector of Mining. A workshop for
    stakeholders was held to draw a new strategy and put in place both short and long-term
    implementation plans. The first SADC-EU Mining Investment Forum was held in
    December 1994 and participants included project promoters and investors from Europe,
    North America, Australia, South Africa and Japan. The Second Forum was held in 2000.

•   The SADC Protocol on Energy provide a legal basis for cooperation of SADC member
    States on all matters relating to energy such as solar energy for electricity generation and
    heating; wind energy for water pumping and electricity generation; and mini and micro–
    hydro power for electricity generation. The Protocol on Energy entered into force in
    February 2000.

3.3.3 SADC Protocols open for Ratification

•   The SADC Protocols on Health was signed at the Heads of State Summit in Maputo,
    Mozambique, in August 1999. It is hoped that by the end of 2001 two – thirds of
    member States will have deposited their instruments of ratification facilitating the
    protocol entering into force. The SADC Health Sector Coordinating Unit organized the
    Protocol Implementation Planning Workshop to agree on the implementation schedule.

•   The SADC protocol on Education and Training has been signed by most member States
    will hopefully enter into force by the end of 2001 after ratification by two – thirds of
    member States. Of the seven technical Committees provided for by the Protocol for its
    implementation, four have now been established namely: Technical Committee on
    Scholarships and Training Awards; Accreditation and Certification; Basic Education; and
    Distance Teaching. Other Technical Committees namely on: Education and Training;
    Higher Education and Training; and Special Needs Education will soon be set up.

•   The SADC Protocol on Tourism was signed in September 1998 and has four main
    objectives namely:

•   Use of tourism to achieve sustainable social and economic development.

•   Promote tourism in the SADC region.

•   Improve the standards of safety and security for tourists and

•   Facilitate intra-regional travel for development of tourism.

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The introduction of a Univisa in SADC member States has in principle, been accepted by all
member States.

    •   The SADC Protocol on Wildlife Conservation and Law Enforcement was signed by
        SADC Heads of State in Maputo, Mozambique in August 1999. The Protocol seeks to
        establish common approaches to the Conservation and sustainable use of Wildlife
        resources in the SADC region. The Protocol is yet to come into force pending
        ratification by two-thirds of member States.

   3.3.4     SADC Protocol under negotiation/development

    •   The SADC Protocol on Forestry is intended to provide a legal basis for cooperation by
        SADC member States on common approach on sustainable use of forests and forestry
        products in the SADC region. The first draft of the Protocol is being discussed by
        different regional stakeholders. The Protocol will hopefully be open for signature early
        2002.

    •   The SADC Protocol on Environment is an overarching legal framework for cooperation
        by SADC member States on all issues and priorities relating to environment in its
        entirety. This Framework Protocol will bind member States on key environmental
        priorities namely: Land Degradation and Desertification control; Climate Change;
        Biodiversity; Pollution and Waste Management; Water resource management; and
        agriculture.

The SADC Council of Ministers has approved the programme of work and Budget for the
Protocol development.




                                                                                             33
CHAPTER 4: SOCIAL ISSUES AND SUSTAINABLE
            DEVELOPMENT

   4.1         Introduction
Social factors in the sub-region as occurs in most developing counties can play either positive
and negative roles in sustainable development programmes. The poor have been highly
associated with environmental degradation in their attempt to eke out a living and have been
associated with deforestation and soil erosion in their attempt to produce crops, build shelter or
acquire fuel wood.

The raising of living standards, through economic development, employment and environmental
awareness has proved to be critical in changing life styles along lines of sustainable
development. Even in times of serious crisis such as droughts, the poor tend to suffer more than
the richer citizens. Thus a combination of environmental, social and economic development is
the appropriate approach to sustainable development. The following social factors social
institution need more detailed analysis.

   4.2         Health
   4.2.1       Status

The health status of the region can either promote or retard development as it affects work
outputs and levels of absenteesm from work. The major environmentally related diseases
include respiratory infections resulting from atmospheric pollution, diarrhea, and gastro-
intestinal diseases and parasites and infectious diseases such as malaria have always been
prevalent in Southern Africa resulting in millions of deaths of poor people. Besides the above
preventable diseases Southern Africa has also been hit badly by a new disease HIV/AIDS
resulting in declining life expectancy. The sub-region has the highest levels of HIV/AIDS
infection in the world. Life expectancy dropped from 52.8 years from in 1985 to 46.8 years in
1998 (ADB 2000).

   4.2.2 Achievements

There have been successful efforts to improve human health conditions at the national level
through investments in the health sector, the introduction of health levies, awareness and
education campaigns especially against sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS. At
the sub-regional level, a framework for cooperation in the area of health, the SADC Health
Protocol has been drafted and approved by heads of state. A Task Force on HIV/AIDS was
established in 1999 with the following Sectors: Culture, Information and Sport, Education and
Training, Employment and Labour, Health, Mining, Tourism and Transport, Communication and
meteorology. The Task Force on HIV/AIDS developed a SADC Strategic Framework on
HIV/AIDS for 2000 - 2004, which was approved by the Council of Ministers in August 2000.

                                                                                               34
The Task Force has been expanded to include the economic sectors (Trade, Finance and
Investment and Agriculture). A few cooperating partners have shown interest in supporting the
strategy.

   4.2.3 Constraints

The principal constraint in the sub-region is the continuous decline in government funding for
health. Health expenditure in the sub-region averages about US$ 109 capita/year (World Bank
1998). There is, as a consequence diminishing equity, efficiency and sustainability of health
systems and status of the population.

   4.2.4 Way Forward

The sub-region plans to strengthen anti-communicable disease programmes; to impact
effectively on the disease burden of the poorest people in the sub-region. To strengthen the sub-
regional efforts to secure affordable drugs including those involving the international
pharmaceutical companies to fight HIV/AIDS and other diseases. Mobilize resources for
capacity building.

   4.3 Urbanization
   4.3.1      Status

Over 38% of Southern Africa’s population currently lives in urban areas compared to 11.2% 30
years ago (UNDP UNEP 2000). The rate of urbanization is 5% per annum but varies between
countries. South Africa has the biggest and most numerous urban areas.

The region still remains comparatively much less urbanized compared to other regions of the
world.

The high rates of urbanization and rapid expansion of urban areas are causing an unprecedented
level of localized depletion of natural resources, discharged unprocessed wastes into the
environment and massive demands for urban services.

   4.3.2 Achievements

The sub-region is attempting to solve its problems relating to settlement through policy and
strategy formulation and reviews; but at national level. These policies relate to accelerated low
cost housing schemes, found in Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. There are policies on
decentralization of industry and housing schemes so that there is a better urban population
distribution. There are deregulation policies which allow informal employment activities in
areas formally restricted to modern employment. Organizations such as UCLEI have been


                                                                                              35
invited to assist in urban planning that is environmentally friendly and to assist create
employment.

   4.3.3 Constraints

All efforts to improve housing, manage wastes and create more low- level employment are
frustrated by limited financial resources. There is also limited capacity as well as lack of
effective awareness programmes.

   4.3.4 Way forward

The urban areas intend to work more closely with UCLEI as well as Urban Agenda 21 through
the UNDP country offices. More empowerment of local people would encourage tem to form
local groups such as credit unions for employment, social and environmental management.

   4.4     Natural Disaster and Social Problems
   4.4.1       Status

Southern Africa is prone to frequent climatic disasters. The sub-region is predominantly semi-
arid to arid. During the period 1983-5 only Angola did not suffer drought, most other countries
experienced 2 to 3 drought episodes and Botswana 7 drought years. Drought disrupts the normal
routine of life and causes loss of life, homes and untold suffering.

The cyclone eline caused torrential rains and river burst their banks releasing water to settlement
areas, Mozambique was hit hardest. In Zimbabwe 250 000 people were rendered homeless and
90 000 people in Botswana were seriously affected.

   4.4.2 Achievements

Although natural disaster threats are increasing in frequency in southern Africa, both local
people and the international community are much more effectively managing them. The fact that
drought-related mortality has been almost non-existent in southern Africa speaks for the success
of international and local efforts to manage drought. However, quantification of the costs of
disasters on southern Africa has not been systematically undertaken.

Drought preparedness is thus of high priority in most southern African countries and measures
include advising farmers to grow drought tolerant crops, and to reduce and cull livestock in the
face of drought. The sub-region also has a standing task force, comprised of the SADC Regional
Early Warning Unit, the Regional Remote Sensing Project, the Drought Monitoring Centre and
the Famine Early Warning System all of which advise governments on drought preparedness. A
drought fund is also in place to mitigating the effects of poor rainfall.


                                                                                                36
Preparedness strategies have been made feasible for international response organizations,
national governments and at times affected populations. For example, the USAID Famine Early
Warning System and the SADC Regional Early Warning System were prepared to provide
assistance prior to the 1994/95 drought disaster in southern Africa.

   4.4.3 Constraint

Some of the sub-region’s early warning systems are poorly maintained and not all disasters are
detected in time to implement adequate mitigation or evacuation measures.

   4.4.4 Way Forward

The SADC should work more closely with international experts donors agencies and
governments to improve the disaster management in the sub-region.

   4.5 Education
   4.5.1 Status and Achievements

The level of education has been rising sharply in the SADC region. The increases particularly
affect girl-children who have had the highest levels of illiteracy for long. Governments have
opened new schools in remote areas including primary and secondary schools. Parent attitude
towards children’s education continues to be positive.

   4.5.2 Constraints

The quality of education is however constrained by lack of sound educational materials and
equipment. The establishment of science laboratories and computers in secondary schools is
limited due to lack of finance including foreign currency.

   4.5.3 Way Forward

Whilst the number of students has risen in schools much remains to be done to ensure that IDG
achieving universal primary education by 2015 is realized. There is need to improve curricula
development and provide access to ICT. The regions need to work more closely with UNESCO
to improve the standard of education. Governments need to spend more on education
particularly science and technology education. There is need to support development oriented
research at universities.




                                                                                           37
   4.6 Gender
   4.6.1       Status and Achievements

SADC acknowledges that gender is an integral part of equity- led growth and sustainable
development. SADC has incorporated gender into its policies and programmes and put in place
an institutional framework for advancing gender equality with that established for other areas of
cooperation . National gender policies are in place in all states.

   4.6.2 Constraints
Cultural attitudes continue to limit the extend to which women can participate in decision-
making bodies of government, private sector and local administration. There are limited
financial resources for awareness and capacity building.


   4.6.3 Way Forward

SADC will continue to implement vigorously its Gender Strategy and call for more legislation
where it does not cover critical aspects. Funding for gender programmes continue to be critical
and require vigorous pursuit.

   4.7         Non-Governmental Organizations
   4.7.1       Status

NGO involvement is stressed in Agenda 21 Chapter 27. NGOs play a significant role in the
SADC region as advocacy bodies, service deliveries and government watchdogs. Governments
increasingly work together with NGOs as partners in various sustainable development activities.
These include those basically supporting hunger and food security – drought relief, social
services and economic development activities such as agriculture, small scale industry water
supply and wildlife management.

There are several NGOs increasingly operating at the SADC Sub-regional level. There is the
Africa Resources Trust that has coordinated the community based natural resources management
(CBNRM) based in Harare. Pelum – Participatory Ecological land use management operating in
all 14 SADC States. Its focused activity is the use of natural fertility resources for sustainable
soil and crop management. Third is Mwengo in 14 SADC states, operates a regional land
network and assists workers, and the Southern Africa Human Rights NGO based in Lusaka.
There is also – SATUC – Southern African Trade Union Congress that coordinates SADC Trade


                                                                                               38
Unions and has 3 seats on the SADC Council. ZERO operates in 12 countries and has interests
in land reform and tenure.

Finally, the re is the SADC Council of NGOs based in Gaborone – the umbrella for national
NGO associations.

   4.7.2       Achievements

NGOs at both national and SADC Sub-regional levels have done much to meet the objectives of
Agenda 21, particularly on poverty reduction. The Campfire programme of Zimbabwe was
implemented and largely funded through NGO support - Zimbabwe Trust, WWF, Africa
Resources Trust and Campfire Association.

Several food relief and irrigation schemes were supported by NGOs in the region. The success
of NGOs lies in their flexibility and unbureaucratic approaches. They operate basically from a
bottom- up basis and have promoted project participation, decision- making and empowerment
especially in rural areas.

   4.7.3       Constraints

However, NGO face constraints, some of them serious. NGOs lack capacity to do high
technology work which may be necessary for large numbers of poor people such as dam
construction. Whilst their funds are easier to draw down compared to government, the source of
funding is unreliable or could disappear without much warning.

   4.7.4       Way Forward
There is need for closer relations between government and NGOs particularly in the face of
greater poverty occurrence in the region. Both government and NGOs appear to realize that
neither have the capacity and resources to eradicate poverty without the other. With greater trust
between them the priority could be joint strategy, planning and implementation of projects or
activities.

   4.8         Business and Industry
   4.8.1       Achievements

Despite the initial resistance to privatization many SADC states can point out to privatization as
one of their key successes. Inefficient public enterprises have been replaced by comparatively
efficient private ones, thereby increasing the goods available to the people. The production
sector has been delinked from the public sector with encouraging results.

Privatization has reduced state bureaucracy because of reduced state tasks. There was structural
adjustment, which was inevitable. Jobs in the private sector demand the holder to produce or be

                                                                                               39
dismissed unlike the public sector where job security was often the cause of inertia and lack of
creativity. Concomitant with the privatization initiative has been the promotion of direct foreign
private investment. In the past 10 years several states have enacted new investment codes which
offer generous incentives to attract investors and protect investments.

   4.8.2       Constraints

There is still widespread suspicion between the private sector and government, on policy and
legislation, taxation and regulatory frameworks.

The private sector does not always consider the poor but rather the rich who ensure them of good
business and high profits.

   4.8.3       Future Priorities and Actions

Because the private sector constitute the major polluters of the environment, governments must
work closer, with the sector. Closer working relations can include policy and legislative
formulation, awareness research and funding of certain environmental activities.

   4.9 Children
Several governments have ratified the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the African
Child. These governments are obliged to participate and report to the African Union (AU) on the
implementation of the Charter. Agenda 21 also refers to children and the yo uth.

   4.9.1       Achievements

Most states have strong laws against child abuse. Many more children are going to school and
relieved of child labour in farms and domestic work.

   4.9.2       Constraints

Due to cultural forces, some of the laws in favour of children are not enforceable such as girl
marriage under 16. Children are scared to report cases of child abuse.

   4.9.3       Way Forward

More awareness and education on the rights of children. Enforcement of
the laws relating to child abuse.


                                                                                                  40
CHAPTER 5: ECONOMIC ISSUES AND SUSTAINABLE
           DEVELOPMENT

     5.1            Introduction
Almost 10 years after Rio the sub-region still faces a number of critical challenges that will need
to be met if the sub-region is to have a sustainable future. Poverty, low economic growth, lack
of financial resources, severe degradation of natural resources, wars and civil unrest and major
health problems remain in the sub-region.

Despite these difficulties the sub-region has made some clear achievements. The sub-region
operates on the principle of self-reliance. There has been an increasing awareness of the need to
integrate economic, social and environmental components of sustainable development, increased
understanding of the fragility of the natural resources, improved access to education especially
women, increasing role that women are playing as agents of change in development, increased
market liberalization and privatization and increased regional and sub-regional economic
integration and cooperation.

Over the past five years, since 1995, SADC economies have been significantly transformed.
Most SADC countries experienced recovery in their respective economic growth rates, investor
confidence improved and capital flows resumed, particularly in Angola, South Africa, Mauritius,
Mozambique and Botswana. The down-side of this period is marked by the East Asian crisis of
1998-1999 which led to deep declines in economic activity in several emerging economies. The
resulting financial market volatility led to a slowdown in growth rates of SADC economies,
thereby forcing member countries to address its negative impact though prudent fiscal and
monetary policies. However, the SADC region is now beginning to enjoy a strong economic
recovery and the average economic growth rate is estimated at 5 percent during 1999/2000.

Economic Growth Rates in the SADC Region (average annual growth rates)

                                                     1991-94   1995-98   1991-98
Angola                                                -7.0        7.9       0.5
Botswana                                                3.7       6.4       5.0
DRC                                                    -9.0      -3.0      -6.0
Lesotho                                                 5.1       4.2       4.7
Malawi                                                  0.2       8.5       4.3
Mauritius                                               5.4       5.7       5.5
Mozambique                                              7.0       8.3       7.6
Namibia                                                 5.1       2.7       3.9
Seychelles                                              3.7       2.8       3.3
South Africa                                            0.2       2.1       2.3
Swaziland                                               2.7       3.3       3.0
Tanzania                                                3.2       3.7       3.4
Zambia                                                  0.2       1.4       1.6
Zimbabwe                                                0.9       2.4       3.3
SADC                                                    1.5       4.0       3.0

Source: SADC Finance and Investment Sector Report.




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Globalisation poses new and major challenges for the sub-region which has more adverse
impacts than the case in other regions of the world. However, the sub-region recognizes that
globalisation offers opportunities if countries prepare themselves for them. Africa realizes that it
should draw upon its resources but still requires additional resources from foreign resources.

The SADC region intends to build and consolidate sustainable development achievements since
Rio. Key identifiable priority issues and action proposals for the region become an active partner
in a globalising world including greater regional integration, infrastructural development,
manufacturing, science and technology, fostering education and learning, engendering a culture
of discipline and enhancing ability for policy analysis of emerging issues. The region has to
move from being primarily a producer of raw materials for industry to a manufacturing value
added economy.

Feeding growing populations and affording energy needs is achievable in the region out of the
regional natural resources. However, conservation and sustainable utilization of resources and
application of scientific production methods are necessary. Energy development is critical not
only for domestic needs but for industry, information and communication systems need to be
modernized. Implementation production demand access to bigger markets and demand tariff
reduction through economic communities or associate memberships.

   5.2         Pre-Conditions For Development
The SADC region accepts that its economic development can only take place on a sustainable
basis if certain critical preconditions are met. These are basically peace security and political
governance.


   5.2.1       Peace and Security

The peace and security initiative consists of three elements: promoting long-term conditions for
development and security, building the capacity of the regions institutions to manage and resolve
conflict, and institutionalizing commitment to the core values of the regions development

Efforts to build capacity to manage all aspects of conflict focus on the means necessary to
strengthen the region and regional institutions especially in four areas:

       •       Prevention, management and resolution of conflict
       •       Peacemaking, peacekeeping and peace enforcement
       •       Pose conflict reconciliation, rehabilitation and reconstruction
       •       Combating the illicit proliferation of small arms, light weapons and landmines.

   5.2.2       Democracy and Governance

Democracy and governance strengthen the political and administrative framework of

                                                                                                  42
participating countries, in line with the principles of democracy, transparency, accountability,
integrity, respect for human rights and promotion of the rule of law. SADC states have
committed themselves to these pre-conditions.

      5.2.3      Infrastructure

(a)       Status and Objectives and Achievements

Infrastructure is fundamental to growth with equity in the region.

The objectives of such development include:

      •   To improve access affordability and reliability of infrastructure services for both firms
          and households.
      •   To enhance regional cooperation and trade through expanded cross border connectivity
          infrastructure
      •   To build adequate knowledge and skills in technology and engineering with a view to
          install, operate and maintain “hard” infrastructure.

SADC generally has basic infrastructure for the sub-region’s development. Railways were
established at the turn of the 20th Century from Beira in Mozambique to Zimbabwe and
Botswana and back to South Africa where they were established much earlier. Railways form
the backbone of infrastructural development in all SADC states as they are maintained under
sound management. Railways are supported by a network of roads found in all states. These
supplement and complete the railways in the transportation of goods. A key communication
system in the region is the telephone and telegraph systems that have served the region from pre-
independence times. Today communication efficiency has been strengthened by the fax, email
and internet as well as the mobile telephones. In addition are other forms of infrastructure such
as dams for development and drinking water.

(b)       Constraints

Infrastructural development needs expansion to remote areas particularly the construction of
strong road surfaces that can with stand heavy vehicles that need to transport rural inputs such as
fertilizers and carry produce to urban markets. Due to inadequate transport and poor roads much
of rural perishable produce continues to be lost. Governments fail to raise funds to repair and
build new feeder and trunk road. The cost of road construction has risen sharply in recent years
due to the package of tools, vehicles, foreign currency and materials needed for road making.
Skills for modern road making are also limited.

(c)       Way Forward

There is great need to build more roads, and other basic development in infrastructure.
Governments need to introduce policy that allows healthy competition to encourage efficiency of
transport services, telecommunications and other such infrastructure. To serve the public

                                                                                                   43
particularly the poor, governments need to introduce regulations for safer public transport. There
is need to develop and produce high skill technicians and engineers in all infrastructural sectors.
All these changes require high government budgetary allocation for the sector.

With reference to energy, increases from 10 to 35% access to reliable and affordable commercial
energy to be achieved within 20 years. With reference to water and sanitation, ensure
sustainable access to safe water and adequate clean supply and sanitation for the poor
communities.

      5.3        Key Economic Sectors

      5.3.1      Agriculture

(a)     Status

Agriculture is the economic heart of most countries in the region and contributes significantly to
high percentages of Gross Domestic Product. It is the heart of the economies of poor people, 75
to 80% of them who basically depend on it for their livelihoods. Developing agriculture means
developing the greater part of the SADC population. Governments are currently involved in land
reforms, irrigation scheme development of credit facilitation, extension work and marketing
provisions or assistance. The region has thriving commercial a farming sector in South Africa,
Zimbabwe and gradually in Mozambique and Zambia. The range of agricultural produce is
almost any important agricultural product found in the world - tropical, mediterranean and
temperate products. Agriculture has great potential for the region in terms of diversified exports.

(b)     Constraints

Agricultural productivity is constrained by physical factors particularly the high incidence of
drought and limited areas under good soils. Socially, political decisions related to unclear land
tenures also affect the farmers in long term investment decisions.

A third constraint is the limited research and capacity in irrigation areas where farmers often find
a decline in productivity for reasons they cannot understood. One reason which limits
diversification is the relative slowness to change to new crops by small farmers. In addition, to
that credit facilities are often restrictive in small-scale farming areas in part due to their failure to
repay loans.

(c)     Way forward

Governments should ensure water supply to small-scale growers for irrigation. Improve land
tenure systems under traditional and modern farming systems. Foster regional and sub-regional
food security through increased production and crop diversification. Develop new partnerships
internationally for trade purposes. Developed countries should assist the region’s networking
with external partners in the areas of agricultural technology and rural infrastructure, and support
researchers for small-scale farming.

                                                                                                      44
      5.3.2 Mining

(a)     Status

The region is endowed with reach mineral resources ranging from gold and diamond to strategic
industrial metals such as copper, lead, tungsten, tin, iron ore to fossil minerals such as coal.
Virtually every country has minerals of economic importance except probably for one country.

(b)     Achievements

Mining has been one of the sources of foreign exchange for most SADC countries resulting in
the transformation of the countries wealth particularly South Africa, Namibia, Angola, Zambia,
DRC and Zimbabwe. Mining has been a major source of employment for poor rural
communities who move into mining towns in large numbers. Mining has raised revenue for
governments to introduce industrialization, improve roads, railways, schools , hospitals and other
public facilities.

(c)     Constraints

Due to lack of domestic technology and mining capacity, a very large proportion of the financial
output of the region has been repatriated to Europe and America. The proportion left in the
country particularly for wages, remaining so low that mining employees are poor and often go on
strikes for higher wages. Mining is an industry with a limited life period. Several mines have
closed down leaving workers unemployed. Mining has for long been the preserve of large capital
owners and government regulations on mining do not sufficiently support small- scale miners.
Opportunities for low level educated persons in mining is limited.

(d)     Way Forward

Harmonize policies and regulations to produce basic agreed minimum levels and operational
practices and information on mining. Assist in the reduction of risks such as avoiding ill-
conceived nationalization. Develop an information and capacity development framework that
can also benefit small- scale miners.

      5.3.3 Manufacturing

(a)     Achievement

The SADC region is one of the most important industrialized regions on the African continent.
Its range of manufacturing rises from the simple crop processing and milling to mineral
processing then up to iron and steel works. Manufacturing occupies a high proportion of GDP in
some countries such as South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia. For the poor, industry is the
largest employer after agriculture, and earns the worker higher than most economic sectors.
Industry often promotes the worker by promoting transport allowances, medical aid group

                                                                                               45
insurance and sometimes housing and burial allowances. These benefits do upgrade poor citizens
to acceptable living standards.

                Share of Manufacturing Sector to GDP (%)
Country        1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998                    1999
Angola         12.5   5.7   4.9    4.0    3.4     4.4  6.5           -
Botswana       4.0    4.9    4.5    4.9     5.0        4.9    4.8    -
Lesotho        12.5   14.6   13.8   15.2    15.3       15.7   17.0   16.6
Malawi         15.0   11.8   17.4   16.1    14.2       13.6   13.2   -
Mauritius      12.5   23.2   23.3   23.7    24.2       24.4   24.7   25.0
Mozambique     11.3   15.5   11.2   13.3    14.5       15.4   14.7   9.8
Namibia        7.4    13.2   12.5   12.4    10.1       14.2   …      16.5
South Africa   25.0   23.5   23.4   24.3    23.7       23.9   23.7   18.2
Swaziland      -      27.4   27.6   27.8    25.8       25.9   …      -
Tanzania       8.1    7.5    7.4    7.2     7.4        6.9    …      8.3
Zambia         36.0   26.4   24.7   9.9     11.8       11.8   12.0   10.7
Zimbabwe       20.1   21.0   19.1   19.2    15.7       15.4   15.2   -


Note: … figures not available; - between 0 and +0.5.
Sources: Member States and www.sadcbankers.org
(b)         Constraints

The cost of producing one job in industry is very high due to the imported capital equipment, the
cost of the workplace, the high cost of skilled labour and the appropriate transport for the
industry. This means that most countries will not find it easy to industrialize as fast as they wish
to do. If governments lack policy on the balance between capital intensive and labour intensive
industries, industry could fail to produce many jobs.

(c)         Way forward

Increase the productive competitiveness especially in the agro- industrial, mining and
manufacturing sub-sectors with potential for exports and employment creation. Support small to
medium manufacturing projects in both urban and rural areas such as processing mills. Develop
new industries or up- grade existing ones, where SADC countries have comparative advantage.
Acquire membership of relevant international standards organizations. Active membership gives
the region a stronger voice in international bodies. Support business development institutions,
financially. Facilitate training and financial support of small business ventures.




                                                                                                 46
      5.3.4 Tourism

(a)     Status

The SADC region is endowed with abundant tourism resources from South Africa to Tanzania,
especially game and scenic land forms ideal for recreation and holiday making.

(b)     Achievements

State revenue earned through tourism has been rising sharply in recent years. Tourism growth
has been overtaking other key sectors, such as mining, agriculture, industry or construction.
Tourism earns the SADC region billions US Dollars annually in a manner relatively easier than
agriculture or industry in terms of investment and management. Tourism brings foreign
exchange to the doorstep of SADC states. This sector has promoted the rise in hotel
accommodation, created employment ranging from simple unskilled semi- skilled to skilled
                                       andicrafts produced by simple rural and urban people
employees. It has created a market for h
including women. Tourism has been an ambassadorial symbol of SADC countries to countries
that knew nothing about this region.

(c)     Constraints

The industry is extremely sensitive to tourist safety and security. Countries at war, with weak
security situations, political strive and uncertainty suffer the loss of tourism patronage. Tourists
are often associated with the pollution of local cultures, through increased prostitution, taking of
drugs and destruction of certain forms of the environment.

(d)     Way forward

Develop better sub-regional marketing strategy, create research capacity for tourism, and extend
partnership to sub-regional bodies such as the Regional Tourism Organization for Southern
Africa (RETOSA). Prioritize consumer safety and security issues. Market African products
especially in adventure tourism, eco-tourism and cultural tourism

      5.4        Market Access
SADC states must participate in WTO trade activities to ensure understanding ways of
penetrating into world markets. Currently all SADC states are members of the WTO.
Participation in the world trading system enhances open, predictable and geographically
diversified market access for exports from the SADC region.

      5.4.1 Achievements

With the joining of SADC states in WTO the advantages of membership associated with tariff
reduction and elimination prevail states can also fight unfair trade practices through the WTO

                                                                                                 47
dispute settlement panel. Furthermore, SADC relates to other international trading organizations
such as the EU and NAFTA, these are trade regions with huge markets for any products of value.

      5.4.2 Constraints

Very often small producers lack the capacity and capital to export their goods to the best
international buyer. Very often they sell products at sub-price level. WTO however, has certain
trade disadvantages to producers and exporters from developing countries especially genetic
resources. Until Article 27 .3 (b) recognizes indigenous knowledge and technology, local
communities and Third World countries will continue to suffer loses of their products such as
medicinal and agricultural genetic materials.

      5.5        Mobilizing Financial Resources

      5.5.1 Capital Flow Initiative

(a)     Status

To achieve the estimated 7% of growth needed to meet IDG by the year 2015, the greater part of
the finance required to meet the target would have to come from outside. The African region
wished to see a reduction in debt and ODA as complimentary external resources required in the
short to medium term. The planned intervention is to address private sector capital flows as a
longer term concern. Capital flows into SADC should be accompanied by improved governance
that allows participation.

(b)     Constraint

The debt burden is a major constraint to new capital flows. The SADC countries have a of
medium to heavy indebtedness and therefore seek to extend debt repayments beyond due dates.
SADC states wish to benefit from debt cancellation mutually agreed with the creditor countries.

(c)     Way Forward

Heads of state will seek to secure an agreement negotiated with the international community to
provide further debt relief for countries in the region. The region wishes to increase private
capital flows from outside Africa as an essential component of a sustainable long term approach
to filling the resource gap. A task team needs to be requested to carry out audits of investment of
related legislation and regulations, with a view to reducing the feeling that the region is “high
risk”. It is recognized that a healthy and productive environment is a prerequisite enhancing a
positive economic growth and development climate. A combination of investment issues needs
to be gathered and managed together in harmony. The hosting of WSSD in the sub-region should
be used to improve the image of Southern Africa in terms of providing a congenial investment
climate.


                                                                                                48
CHAPTER 6: SADC PRIORITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE
           DEVELOPMENT

   6.1 Introduction
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development (UNCED) was
convened in 1992 to discuss the central problems that every nation and community faces. These
include how to cater for human needs, how to improve the quality of life of the millions who
endure poverty and face uncertainty, and how to do so without jeopardizing the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs.

Equity-led growth strategies which put and keep the focus of development on the poor majority
of people and countries are the top priority and essential first step for moving toward sustainable
development in the SADC region and globally. The SADC sub-region reaffirms the New Africa
Initiative (NAI) as a cornerstone for sustainable development in Africa. The following are key
SADC priorities for sustainable development and the way forward for addressing the priorities
in the new millennium.

   6.2 Key SADC Priorities and Way Forward

   6.2.1       Environmental Issues

Land

Most countries of southern Africa are developing new policies, through reorganization and
transformation, to address the needs of previously disadvantaged masses. Land reforms in
southern Africa are aimed at achieving the following fundamental objectives:

   •   Redressing the inequities in access and control of land;
   •   Improving the base for productive agriculture;
   •   Alleviating population pressure in communal areas; and
   •   Improving living standards and achieving national stability.

A number of strategies were adopted in order to achieve the above objectives. Land
redistribution was one major approach. Governments had to cater for the la nd needs of millions
of people displaced by colonial settlers and liberation wars soon after independence and in some
cases after dealing with legal constraints that did not permit compulsory acquisition of land
especially the Commonwealth countries. Land reform discriminates in favour of identified
previously disadvantaged groups and as such by their nature. Other policy instruments include
credit, infrastructure and marketing facilities.

The Convention to Combat Desertification addresses issues of land degradation and poverty
eradication. SADC member states have formulated national action programmes (NAPs) and
sub-regional action programmes (SRAP) whose implementation is constrained by lack of
                                                                                                49
resources. There is need therefore for increased financing of the CCD activities, working in
partnership with the Global Mechanism of UNCCD, and through the reformed GEF and through
multilateral and bilateral partnerships with the SADC member states to mobilize adequate and
predictable resources to implement the NAPs and SRAP.

Water

Regional integration of water development and management requires a multidimensional
planning and implementation approach that fosters interventions directly at changing constraints
at both the national and transboundary levels. Many opportunities exist in the region that will be
built upon. The identification of these interventions is associated with several major issues noted
below.

The current progress by SADC countries to strengthen cooperation among themselves is a
significant foundation for improving management of the region’s water resources. The key
opportunities for improved regional water resources management include the following:

   •    A political environment and level of awareness to promoting and implementing regional
        opportunities for integrated water resources management, and with priority to access to
        clear potable water especially in rural areas;
   •    Political stability in the region, a precondition for co-operation and development;
   •    Institutional, legislative and policy reforms in all countries towards integrated water
        management approaches that include environment management;
   •    Reforms in line with international consensus on integrated water resources management,
        already started in a number of countries;
   •    SADC Protocol which forms a basis for the management of shared watercourses systems
        and the establishment of the SADC Water Sector;
   •    Need for the international community to increase flow of financial resources.

Forests

The failure to involve local people and have tangible benefits accrue to them has continued to
dissociate people from forests and even made them co-exploiters and co-destroyers of their own
forests. Although the concept of popular participation in forest management is gaining
prominence throughout the sub-region it is treated more as a novelty than strategy to be pursued
vigorously. With growing democratic governance and rapid spread of the environmental
awareness, many groups especially NGOs, are emphasizing rights of people to access their
resources and participate in the management so that they can ensure a healthy environment.

Sub-regional organizations have been formed to enhance sustainable forestry management.
These include the African Timber Organization (ATO), which has its headquarters in Libreville,
Gabon and incorporates the southern African countries of Angola, DRC and Tanzania. Efforts to
promote sustainable regional self-sufficiency in forest/wood products, enhance the productive
and environmental value of trees, and protect, manage and control forest resources are being
pursued through functions of SADC forestry sector. The sector developed the Forest Policy and


                                                                                                50
Development strategy, approved in September 1997, and efforts are underway to finalize and
implement a SADC Forestry Protocol.
Coastal and Marine Resources

Coastal communities and some national economies, particularly small island states, are highly
dependent on their coastal and marine resources. The integrity of coasts and oceans is under
threat from unsustainable development and overexploitation. The impact of climate change on
coastlines and especially on small island states is of great concern. The sub-region therefore
calls for:

   •     Forging of agreements on technology transfer and access to and sharing of research,
         capacity and information
   •     Focus on capacity building for strengthening policy, institutional, and regulatory
         frameworks
   •     Strengthening and enforcement of international rules and regulations.

Energy
Sustainability in energy needs is by and large transboundary. Platforms for SADC cooperation
in energy have been set through the 1982 and 1992 policy documents entitled “Towards an
Energy Policy in Southern Africa” which was translated into the SADC Protocol on Energy
signed by all member states in 1996.

Given the central role energy plays in the socio-economic development of our region, and the
possible negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels and use of biomass, there is need to
continue to explore opportunities in research and development of alternative sources of energy
including solar power, wind power, pumped storage and hydropower schemes, as well as for
cleaner coal technologies, efficiency of energy supply and usage and indigenous technologies.
These new efforts will require partnerships and financial resources and capacity building.

   6.2.2 Social Issues

Health

The SADC sub-region and indeed the developing world is currently straining under the burden of
communicable diseases which are disabling our economies. HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria are
exacerbated by our poor socio-economic conditions. The sub-region plans to strengthen anti-
communicable disease programmes to impact effectively on the disease burden of the poorest
people in the sub-region. The international community should invest in efforts to ensure access
to affordable preventive and curative health care and medical technology, the improvement of
the environment and environmental conditions which contribute to these diseases and the
building of appropriate capacity of local communities to deal with this crisis.




                                                                                            51
Urbanization

The urban areas intend to work more closely with UCLEI as well as Urban Agenda 21 through
the UNDP country offices. More empowerment of local people would encourage tem to form
local groups such as credit unions for employment, socia l and environmental management.
Disaster Management

Programmes for SADC should be linked more closely with international experts donors agencies
and governments to strengthen the mechanisms in place in order to improve the disaster
management in the sub-region.

Education

Whilst the number of students have risen in schools much remains to be done to ensure that IDG
achieving universal primary education by 2015 is realized. There is need to improve curricula
development and provide access to ICT. The region need to work more closely with UNESCO
to improve the standard of education. Governments need to spend more on education
particularly science and technology education. There is need to support development oriented
research at universities.

Gender

SADC will continue to implement vigorously its Gender Strategy and call for more legislation
where it does not cover critical aspects. Funding for gender programmes continue to be critical
and require vigorous pursuit.

   6.2.3       Economic Issues

There is great need to build more roads, and other basic development in infrastructure.
Governments need to introduce policy that allows healthy competition to encourage efficiency of
transport services, telecommunications and other such infrastructure. To serve the public
particularly the poor, governments need to introduce regulations for safer public transport. There
is need to develop and produce high skill technicians and engineers in all infrastructural sectors.
All these changes require high government budgetary allocation complemented by development
partner support.

With reference to energy, priority is for increases from 10 to 35%, and access to reliable and
affordable commercial energy to be achieved within 20 years. With reference to water and
sanitation, there is need to ensure sustainable access to safe water and adequate clean supply and
sanitation for the poor communities

Agriculture

Governments should ensure water supply to small-scale growers for irrigation; improve land
tenure systems under traditional and modern farming systems; and foster regional and sub-

                                                                                                52
regional food security through increased production and crop diversification. Develop new
partnerships internationally for trade purposes. Developed countries should assist the region’s
networking with external partners in the areas of agricultural technology and rural infrastructure,
and support researchers for small-scale farming.


Mining

In mining the priorities are: harmonize policies and regulations to produce basic agreed
minimum levels and operational practices and information on mining; assist in the reduction of
risks such as avoiding ill-conceived nationalization; and develop an information and capacity
development framework that can also benefit small- scale miners.

Manufacturing

There is need to increase the productive competitiveness especially in the agro- industrial, mining
and manufacturing sub-sectors with potential for exports and employment creation; support
small to medium manufacturing projects in both urban and rural areas such as processing mills;
develop new industries or up- grade existing ones, where SADC countries have comparative
advantage; and acquire membership of relevant international standards organizations. Active
membership gives the region a stronger voice in international bodies. The international
community is called upon to support business development institutions, financially, and facilitate
training and financial support of small business ventures.

Market Access/Trade

Priority is to develop better sub-regional marketing strategy, create research capacity for tourism,
and extend partnership to sub-regional bodies such as the Regional Tourism Organization for
Southern Africa (RETOSA); and prioritize consumer safety and security issues. The marketing
of African products especially in adventure tourism, eco-tourism and cultural tourism is to be
encouraged.

Financial Flows

Heads of state will seek to secure an agreement negotiated with the international community to
provide further debt relief for countries in the region. The region wishes to increase private
capital flows from outside Africa as an essential component of a sustainable long term approach
to filling the resource gap. A task team needs to be requested to carry out audits of investment of
          e
related l gislation and regulations, with a view to reducing the feeling that the region is “high
risk”. There is need to re-visit conditionalities to meet national needs and ensure effectiveness. It
is recognized that a healthy and productive environment is a prerequisite enhancing a positive
economic growth and development climate. A combination of investment issues needs to be
gathered and managed together in harmony. The hosting of WSSD in the sub-region should be
used to improve the image of Southern Africa in terms of providing a congenial investment
climate.



                                                                                                  53
Fig.1: Area under cropland in Southern Africa (thousands of hectares)



       18000
       16000
       14000
       12000
       10000                                                            1985
        8000                                                            1996
        6000
        4000
        2000
            0




                                        Country


Source: Africa Development Bank, 2000




                                                                        54
Fig. 2 : Map of the SADC Region Showing Major Systems




                              Congo R iver
                                                                                              W
   Democratic Republic                                   Tanzania
     of Congo



                                                Zambia

     Angola
                                                         Malawi               Islands
                                               Zambezi     Mozambique
    Zam
     bez
        i




                                             Zimbabwe

                                                                        Madagascar
 Namibia        Botswana
                                       er
                                     iv
                           p       oR                                                   Reunion
                         po
                       im
                      L
                                               Swaziland
                        ver
                      Ri
                   ge
                 an
               Or               Lesotho


              South Africa

                                                                                                  Rivers




                                                                                                           55
   Fig. 3: Change in Forest Cover, 1990-1995


       40000
       35000
       30000
       25000                                    Total forest in 1990
                                                (000' ha)
       20000                                    Total forest in 1995
                                                (000' ha)
       15000                                    Total change 1990-95
                                                (000' ha)
                                                Annual change (000'
       10000                                    ha)
                                                Annual change (%)
        5000
          0
       -5000


                                    Country


Sources: WRI, UNEP, UNDP and World Bank, 1998




                                                               56

								
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