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					        Race, Ethnicity & Gender Issues
            in the Postdoc Process


Lisa M. Frehill, Ph.D.                   Nathan Bell
Executive Director                       Associate Director

                     Nicole Di Fabio
                    Research Assistant
     What is CPST?
      Founded in 1953
      Membership Research Organization
         Societies – all major scientific societies
         Corporations
         Academic Institutions
         Foundations
         Individuals
      Participating organization of AAAS
      Staff:
         Nathan Bell, Associate Director
         Nicole Di Fabio, Research Assistant


Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Mission
      Collect, analyze, and disseminate reliable
       information about U.S. STEM workforce
      Promote best programs of education and
       training of STEM workers
      Develop utilization policies for STEM
       workforce


     STEM = Science, Technology, Engineering and
      Mathematics

Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     CPST enacts this mission by
     collecting, correlating and
     interpreting:
      Supply data:
           Educational data
           Availability -- women and minorities in STEM
      Demand data:
           Salaries
           Employment projections




Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     CPST Comments
      Digest of information
       related to all aspects of
       STEM education and
       labor force.
      8x per year (currently)
      Likely to become
       bimonthly in print with
       weekly 5-6 item e-mail
       with weblinks




Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Professional Women and Minorities: A Total
     Human Resources Data Compendium
      Published in even-numbered years (16th
       edition available 11/06).
      Consolidates data from the most up-to-date
       sources including:
             National Science Foundation
             U.S. Census Bureau
             National Center for Education Statistics
             Engineering Workforce Commission
             Organization for Economic Cooperation and
              Development
             Disciplinary organizations (20 in the 2004 edition).
Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Salaries of Scientists, Engineers and
     Technicians: A Summary of Salary Surveys
      Published in odd-numbered years (21st edition:
       11/05)
      Full range of salary data
             Starting
             Experienced STEM personnel
             Faculty salaries
      80 public and private sources such as:
             23 disciplinary organizations
             National Science Foundation
             National Association of Manufacturers
             U.S. Department of Labor
             Office of Personnel Management
             Oklahoma State University’s annual Faculty Salary Survey


Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Other CPST Work
      Online database
      Developing a “Fact Finder” with funding from
       General Electric
      Research Studies – funded by the Alfred P.
       Sloan Foundation
             STEM Workforce Data Project
             Minorities and Non-Minorities in Academia: A
              Science and Engineering Career Path Comparison
             Career outcomes of science master’s degree
              holders (with AAAS)


Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Number of STEM doctoral degrees has grown since 1966 . . .
     fueled by increased numbers to women
     (from STEM Workforce Data Project Report #6)

                      Number of Doctorates in STEM Fields by Sex,
                                     1966 to 2004
          30,000
                                                                                 Total
          25,000

          20,000
                                                                                  Males
          15,000

          10,000
                                                                               Females
           5,000

               0
                   1966     1972       1978       1984       1990       1996       2002

          Source: CPST, derived from National Science Foundation WebCASPAR database.


Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Composition of doctorate recipients has changed . . . slightly
     higher URMs percentage but substantially larger proportion
     of temporary residents (from STEM Workforce Data Project Report #6)

              Percent Doctoral Degrees in STEM Fields by Race/Ethnicity and
                             Citizenship Status, 1980 and 2004

     100%                                                                                                       Temp. Resident

      80%

                                                                                                                Non-Hispanic White
      60%


      40%
                                                                                                                Asian

      20%

        0%                                                                                                      URM

               1980         2004    1980        2004    1980      2004    1980    2004      1980       2004

                  Biological &      Physical Sciences   Math & Computer    Engineering    Psychology & Social
                Agricultural Sci.                           Sciences                           Sciences

    URM, Under represented minority, includes African American, American Indians, and Hispanics (and Hawaiian and
    Other Pacific Islanders in 2004)
    Source: CPST, derived from the National Science Foundation Web CASPAR datab ase.


Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Since 1980 PhDs growth in number of PhDs
     to URMs in STEM fields – just about
     doubled in 24 years
        Number of PhDs Awarded to URMs in Selected STEM
                             Fields

        1,200
                                                               Psychology and social
        1,000                                                  sciences
                                                        952
         800                                                   Biological and agricultural
                                                               sciences

         600
                                                               Physical sciences
                                                        415
         400
                                                        254
                                                               Engineering
         200                                             188
           0                                             68    Mathematics and computer
                   1980          1990         2000    2004     sciences

       Source: CPST analysis of NSF WebCASPAR data.


Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Post-graduation plans differ by discipline . . . about
     30-34% of U.S. citizen and permanent resident
     doctorate recipients had no definite plans
   Social Sciences, 2004                      Engineering, 2004
              Other, 17.1%
                                                         Other, 14.4%
                                No plans,                                          No plans,
           Industry,             32.6%                                              33.6%
             4.5%
                                                      Industry,
                                                       23.6%

                                                                                 Postdoc,
              Academia,                                                           17.9%
                               Postdoc,                   Academia,
                36.4%
                                9.4%                        10.4%


   Computer Sciences, 2004                    Biological Sciences, 2004
                                                          Industry,     Other,
              Other, 10.0%
                                                            3.2%        8.4%
                                No plans,
            Industry,            31.3%              Academia,                       No plans,
             19.4%
                                                      5.6%                           30.4%




               Academia,       Postdoc,
                 25.9%          13.4%
                                                             Postdoc,
                                                              52.5%


Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     More than a third of social science PhDs
     were headed to academia

                             Social Sciences, 2004

                       Other, 17.1%
                                                         No plans,
                     Industry,                            32.6%
                       4.5%




                       Academia,
                         36.4%                         Postdoc,
                                                        9.4%



Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Just over a quarter of CS PhDs had academic
     jobs lined up with almost one in five planning
     to work in industry
                          Computer Sciences, 2004
                        Other, 10.0%
                                                          No plans,
                     Industry,                             31.3%
                      19.4%




                         Academia,                       Postdoc,
                           25.9%                          13.4%




Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     U.S. engineering PhDs with post-graduation plans
     were most likely to be taking jobs in industry with
     only one in ten planning an academic job
                                Engineering, 2004

                       Other, 14.4%
                                                             No plans,
                                                              33.6%

                    Industry,
                     23.6%

                                                         Postdoc,
                        Academia,                         17.9%
                          10.4%




Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Only about 1 in 20 BioSci PhDs were going
     to academia . . . More than half planned a
     postdoc.
                           Biological Sciences, 2004
                         Industry, Other, 8.4%
                           3.2%
                   Academia,                            No plans,
                     5.6%                                30.4%




                           Postdoc,
                            52.5%



Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Financing graduate education differs by field. Less
     sources of support for social sciences and
     humanities means more debt upon graduation.
                              Mean Debt by Field

    $25,000         Graduate
    $20,000         Undergraduate
    $15,000
    $10,000
     $5,000
          $0
                 Physical    Engineering   Life Sciences    Social    Humanities
                 Sciences                                  Sciences


    Source: CPST analysis of NSF Survey of Earned Doctorates data.

Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     URMs start post-PhD careers with
     higher levels of debt than non-URMs
                               Mean Debt by Demographic Group

    $30,000     $28,814

    $25,000                            $23,347
                           $22,607

    $20,000
                                                              $17,054
                                                                                    $15,974
                                                                                              $14,227
    $15,000                                       $13,009

    $10,000                                                              $7,947

     $5,000

          $0
                 African    Hispanic   American     Asian      White    Temporary   Women       Men
                American                Indian                          Residents



    Source: CPST analysis of NSF Survey of Earned Doctorates data.

Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Women start post-PhD careers with
     higher levels of debt than men
                               Mean Debt by Demographic Group

    $30,000     $28,814

    $25,000                            $23,347
                           $22,607

    $20,000
                                                              $17,054
                                                                                    $15,974
                                                                                              $14,227
    $15,000                                       $13,009

    $10,000                                                              $7,947

     $5,000

          $0
                 African    Hispanic   American     Asian      White    Temporary   Women       Men
                American                Indian                          Residents



    Source: CPST analysis of NSF Survey of Earned Doctorates data.

Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     URMs are less likely to be in the
     black when they earn a PhD than non-
     URMs
                                             Debt by Demographic Group

      80%
                                                                            69.6%
      70%

      60%                                             53.3%                                          51.4%
                                                                                         48.5%
      50%                                                        43.3%

      40%
               27.7%            31.6%
      30%         25.8%
                                           23.1%
                        17.7%
      20%                            14.0%
                                                                                 12.0%
                                                                                                  9.8%
                                                   7.4%                  6.1%
      10%
                                                              1.5%
       0%
              African     Hispanic      American     Asian     White     Temporary   Women           Men
             American                    Indian                          Residents

                          Percent with debt $50,000 or more                Percent with no debt
     Source: CPST analysis of NSF Survey of Earned Doctorates data.


Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     URMs are more deeply in the red
     when they earn a PhD than non-URMs
                                                  Debt by Demographic Group

          80%
                                                                                 69.6%
          70%

          60%                                              53.3%                                          51.4%
                                                                                               48.5%
          50%                                                         43.3%
          40%
                    27.7%            31.6%
          30%          25.8%
                                                23.1%
                             17.7%
          20%                             14.0%
                                                                                       12.0%
                                                                                                       9.8%
                                                        7.4%                  6.1%
          10%
                                                                   1.5%
           0%
                   African     Hispanic      American     Asian     White     Temporary    Women          Men
                  American                    Indian                           Residents

                               Percent with debt $50,000 or more                Percent with no debt
          Source: CPST analysis of NSF Survey of Earned Doctorates data.




Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Median salaries of PhDs as assistant
     professors vary by field with gender gaps
     only in some fields
                                     Median Annual Salaries, Assistant Professors
                                        Full time employed in universities and 4-year colleges
      $75,000                    $72,300                                                                                       $70,000
                                                 $72,000
                           $62,400
                 $57,000
      $60,000                                        $52,300                       $53,000         $55,000
                                                                         $51,000             $51,000         $50,000 $51,000
                                                               $50,000

      $45,000


      $30,000


      $15,000


            $0
                   Life sciences       Computer      Mathematics          Physical           Psychology        Social      Engineering
                                       sciences       & statistics        sciences                            sciences

                                                           Women                                    Men
      Source: CPST analysis derived from 2003 NSF Survey of Doctorate Recipients

Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Math PhDs’ earnings depend on work setting
     with highest salaries in business and industry
                                 Median Starting Salaries of Math PhDs
                                  by Employer/Activity and Sex, 2004

                                                   $48,700
      Teaching/Teaching & Research
                                                    $54,500                           Men
                                                 $44,000                              Women
                          Research
                                                 $44,000
                                                           $73,000
                        Government
                                                            $74,900
                                                              $81,300
              Business and Industry
                                                                $85,000

                                      $0       $20,000        $40,000     $60,000   $80,000   $100,000

     Source: CPST, data derived from American Mathematical Society


   Source: CPST Salaries of Scientists, Engineers and Technicians: A
   Summary of Salary Surveys, 21st Edition, November 2005.

Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
     Postdocs’ support levels vary by employer
     type: higher levels outside academic settings

                     Median Support Levels of Postdocs by Employer
                                       Type, 2004
                                    Chemistry                         Chemical Engineering
        $60,000

        $45,000

        $30,000

        $15,000

              $0
                    College/University      Medical School          Manufacturing      Federal Government


       Source: CPST, Salaries of Scientists, Engineers and Technicians: A Summary of Salary Surveys,
       21st Edition , data originally from American Chemical Society, Starting Salaries, 2004




Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org
   1200 New York Avenue
   Suite 113
   Washington, DC 20005

   Phone: 202-326-7080
   Fax: 202-842-1603

     Lisa M. Frehill, Ph.D.       Nathan Bell
     Executive Director           Associate Director

     Nicole Di Fabio
     Research Assistant




Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. . . . Your workforce data source
                                    www.cpst.org

				
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