Safety Data Sheet Zinc Chromate Primer Green - DOC

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					Gerencia Técnica                                              Departamento de Ingeniería y Obras




                                          PIN ET 001

              GENERAL SPECIFICATION FOR SHIP, FIELD AND
                                     MAINTENANCE PAINTING




                                                            PREPARADO       APROBADO
REV.        FECHA                        DESCRIPCION
                                                               POR             POR




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     1. GENERAL

     1.1.       SCOPE

                This specification covers the general requirements for the painting of piping, vessels,
                tankage, buildings, structural steel, equipment and machinery used in the refineries and




                                                 SUMMARY



                             SECTION      PAGE           DESCRIPTION


                               1           2             General

                               2           5             Surface preparation

                               3           8             General description of paints

                               4           12            Painting procedures

                               5           21            Paint selection

                               6           32            Painting requirements for different systems

                               7           44            Inspection - Testing

                               8           45            Guarantee




         Rev.           Date                     Description                    Prepared             Checked
                petrochemical plants.
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               If any information in Project Specification conflicts with the requirement of this General
               Specification, Project Specification governs.

     1.2.      DEFINITIONS

     1.2.1.    Shop, field and maintenance painting is the series of operations that include the surface
               preparation, pretreating and application of paints to steel or other metal or concrete
               surfaces either in the shop or in the field.

     1.2.2.    The name paint or coating as used in this specification includes paints, enamels, varnishes,
               emulsions, bituminous coatings, and other organic coating. Inorganic coatings which are
               applied in the same manner as paints are included in this definitions.

     1.2.3.    Shop painting is the painting of equipment and its parts in a shop or in the plant before
               shipment to the site of erection.

     1.2.4.    Field painting is the painting at the place of erection either before or after erection.

     1.2.5.    Maintenance painting is the painting of the plant equipment and its parts that was
               previously completely painted and require repainting.

     1.2.6.    The term MDFT stands for minimum dry film thickness which is specified in micrometers
               or mils (10-3 inch).

     1.2.7.    The maximum temperature of equipment is considered the maximum operating
               temperature for determining the coating type.

     1.2.8.    The following items shall not be normally painted.
                    o      Corten steel
                    o      Brick work and tile
                    o      Glass, plastic
                    o      Aluminium, stainless steel, brass, bronze, cadmium, zinc
                    o      Machined parts of equipment (gasket surfaces, stafts, valve stems etc)
                    o      Equipment nameplates
                    o      Metal jackets over insulation
                    o      Coated and wrapped underground piping
                    o      Carbon steel, alloy steel component fireproofed with gunite or form poured
                          concrete

     1.2.9     Environment definitions


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                       a/    Normal Industrial - severe chemical fumes not present
                       b/    Corrosive Industrial - severe chemical fumes present
                       c/    Marine - salt air and ocean breezes present.

     1.3.      SAFETY

     1.3.1.    All necessary precautions shall be taken to insure the safety of personnel and property.
               Extreme caution shall be used when working with oil based paints, solvents cleaning
               fluids, etc. especially in close proximity to oxygen piping, oxygen equipment, heaters,
               electrical equipment. Heavy concentrations of volatile or toxic fumes must be avoided. In
               confined areas, blowers or exhaust fans shall be used. Inhalation of paint mists must be
               avoid.

     1.3.2.    Rags and other waste material spoiled with paints, thinners, or solvents shall be kept in
               tightly closed metal containers while on the jobsite and not in use.

     1.3.3.    All work shall be performed in accordance with applicable national, state or local codes
               and regulations.

     1.3.4.    The OSHA requirements for safety shall be followed

     1.3.5.    A safety precautions as recommended by the manufacturer of paint shall be followed.

     1.3.6.    Care shall be taken to protect equipment form spillage and spatter by use of adequate
               temporary covers for equipment.

     1.3.7.    Equipment and work shall be grounded. Particular care shall be exercised when working in
               closed spaces, especially when spraying. Smoking, sparks, or open flames shall not be
               permitted in such areas. When volatile solvents are flammable, the concentration in air
               shall be kept below the lower explosive limit. When working in closed spaces, adequate
               exhaust or ventilation facilities shall be provided.

     1.4.      REFERENCES

     1.4.1.    Steel Structures Paining Manual of Steel Structures Paining Counsil (SSPC-USA).

     1.4.2.    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standards. Title 29, Part 1910.
               (USA).

     1.4.3.    Swedish Standard SIS - 05 5900 - 1967.

     1.4.4.    Applicable Local Codes and Standards.

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     1.5.      FINAL COAT COLOURS

               The final coat colors shall be indicated in R.A.L. (DIN) or BS 5252 code numbers.

               Colour                                        DIN R.A.L.               BS 5252
               Light Grey                                    RAL 7035                 00 A 05
               Grey                                          RAL 7037                 00 A 09
               White                                         RAL 9010                 00 E 55
               Light Yellow                                  RAL 1018                 10 E 50
               Yellow                                        RAL 1021                 10 E 55
               Signal Yellow                                 RAL 1007                 08 E 53
               Light Green                                   RAL 6019                 14 E 50
               Green                                         RAL 6018                 14 E 51
               Dark Green                                    RAL 6016                 14 D 45
               Blue                                          RAL 5015                 18 E 53
               Dark Blue                                     RAL 5001                 18 E 53
               Orange                                        RAL 2003                 06 E 53
               Signal Red                                    RAL 3000                 04 E 55
               Black                                         RAL 9011                 00 E 53




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     2.        SURFACE PREPARATION

     2.1.      All surfaces to be painted shall be cleaned and prepared in accordance with the Steel
               Structures Painting Manual, Volume 2, Section II, "Surface Preparation Specifications" or
               Swedish Standard SIS - 05 5900.

     2.2.      Shop primed equipment and surfaces will only be "spot cleaned" in damaged areas by
               means of power tool brush cleaning or hand-tool cleaning and then "spot-primed", before
               applying a top coat, unless otherwise specified.

     2.3.      Concrete and masonry surfaces shall be brushed free of dust, dirt and other foreign matter
               and be completely dry prior to coating. Concrete surfaces having a glazed appearance, such
               as produced by steel troweling, shall be etched with a 10 percent solution of hydrochloric
               acid (or muriatic acid) followed by water rising. Allow a minimum of 3 days drying time
               for masonry surfaces. Moisture content should indicate less than 8 percent on a Delmhorst
               moisture meter (or equal) before coating. Surfaces which have pits or voids shall be filled
               with block filler prior to coating.

     2.4.      Wood surfaces shall be brushed free of dust and dirt and rough spots shall be sanded
               smooth. The wood surface shall be thoroughly dry at the time of priming. Wood surfaces
               shall be painted only if specifically recommended.

     2.5.      All cleaned surfaces shall be primed the same day that cleaning in performed. No blasted
               surface shall be allowed to remain uncoated overnight.

     2.6.      Surface preparation shall be done by one of the following methods in accordance with the
               SSPC Specification or 515-05 5900 1967 Specification.



                   SPECIFICATION           SUBJECT                       PURPOSE

               1. SSPC-SP-1-63            Solvent           Removal of oil, grease, dirt, soil,
                                          Cleaning          salts, and contaminants by cleaning
                                                            with solvents, vapor, alkali, emulsion
                                                            or steam.

               2. SSPC-SP-2-63            Hand Tool         Removal of loose rust, loose mill
                  SIS-05-59.00-St.2       Cleaning          scale, and loose paint to degree
                                                            specified, by hand chipping, scraping,
                                                            sanding and wire brushing.




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                   SPECIFICATION            SUBJECT                      PURPOSE

               3. SSPC-SP-3-63            Power Tool       Removal of loose rust, loose mill scale,
                  SIS-05-59.00-St.3       Cleaning         and loose paint to degree specified, by
                                                           power tool chipping, descaling,
                                                           sanding, wire brushing and grinding.

               4. SSPC-SP-4-63            Flame Cleaning Dehydrating and removal of rust, loose
                                          of New Steel   mill scale, and some tight mill scale by
                                                         use of flame, followed by wire
                                                         brushing.

               5. SSPC-SP-5-63            White Metal      Removal of all visible rust, mill scale,
                  SIS-05-59-SA 3          Blast Cleaning   paint and foreign mater, by blast
                                                           cleaning by wheel or nozzle (dry or
                                                           wet) using sand, grit or shot. (For very
                                                           corrosive atmosphere where high cost
                                                           of cleaning is warranted).

               6. SSPC-SP-6-63            Commercial       Blast cleaning of all except tightly
                  SIS-05-59.00-Sa 2       Blast Cleaning   adhering residues of mill scale, rust
                                                           and coatings, exposing numerous
                                                           evenly distributed flecks of underlying
                                                           metal.

               7. SSPC-SP-7-63            Brush-Off        Blast cleaning of all except tightly
                  SIS-05-59.00-Sa 1                        adhering residues of mill scale, rust
                                                           and coatings, exposing numerous
                                                           evenly distributed flecks of underlying
                                                           metal.

               8. SSPC-SP-8-63            Pickling         Complete removal of rust and mill
                                                           scale by acid pickling, duplex pickling
                                                           or electrolytic pickling. (May reduce
                                                           the resistance of the surface to
                                                           corrosion, if not primed immediately).

               9. SSPC-SP-9-63T           Weathering       Weathering to remove all or part of
                                          Followed by      mill scale followed by blast cleaning to
                                          Blast Cleaning   one of the above standards.

               10.SSPC-SP-10-63T          Near White       Blast cleaning nearly to white metal
                  SIS-05-59.00-Sa 2½      Blast Cleaning   cleanliness, until at least 95 % of each
                                                           element of surface area is free of all
                                                           visible residues. (For high hymidity,

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                                                            chemical atmosphere, marine or other
                                                            corrosive environment).

     2.7.      Any oil, grease, soil, dust or foreign matter deposited on the surface after the surface
               preparation is completed shall be removed prior to painting. In the event that rusting occurs
               after completion of the surface preparation, the surface shall be again cleaned in
               accordance with the specified method.

     2.8.      Particular care shall be taken to prevent the contamination of cleaned surfaces with salt,
               acids, alkali, or other corrosive chemicals before the prime coat is applied and between
               applications of the remaining coats of paint. Such contaminants shall be removed from the
               surface. Under these circumstances, the pretreatments, or, in the absence of a pretreatment,
               the prime coat of paint shall be applied immediately after the surface has been cleaned.
               Succeding coats shall be applied before contamination of the under surface occurs.

     2.9.      In the event that no cleaning method has been specified by the paint manufacturer, it shall
               be understood that dirt, rust scale, loose rust, loose mill scale, welding flux and slag, oil
               and grease, and other detrimental foreign matter which may impair the adhesion of the
               coating to be applied shall be removed.

     2.10.     Cleaning and painting shall be so programmed that detrimental amounts of dust or ohter
               contaminants do not fall on wet, newly painted surfaces.

     2.11.     When chemical pretreatments are used, sufficient time shall elapse between pretreatment
               and application of the prime coat of paint to permit any chemical action to be completed
               and the surface to dry. Two compartment pretreatments shall be applied within the
               specified interval after mixing. When proprietary wetting oil pretreatments are used, the
               instructions of the manufacturer shall be followed.




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     3.        GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PAINTS

     3.1.      VYNILS

               1.   Vinyls are a broad class of coatings made by polymerizing compounds containing the
                    vinyl group. The resulting polymer is dissolved in a strong solvent. Upon application,
                    the vehicle solvents and other thinners volatilize, leaving a laminar deposit of vinyl on
                    the surface.

               2.   Vinyl coating are insoluble in oils, greases, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and alcohols. In
                    addition, they are resistant to water and aqueous salt solutions, and are not attacked at
                    room temperature by inorganic acids or alkalies. The resins have low toxicity and are
                    generally free from taste or odor. This makes them useful as coatings on potable water
                    and other sanitary equipement.

               3.    Vinyl coaings shall not be used on surfaces with temperatures of 65°C and above.

     3.2.      CHLORINATED RUBBERS

               Chlorinated rubber paints have excellent chemical resistance to both acids and alkalies,
               have low permeability to water vapor, and are quite abrasion resistant. They have low
               toxicity and do not support combustion. Chlorinated rubbers are extensively used in the
               marine field and, because of their excellent adhesion to concrete surfaces, are also widely
               used on buildings and masonry. The chlorinated rubber resin may begin to decompose at
               about 50°C and, therefore, should not be used above this temperature.

     3.3.      EPOXIES

               According to the hardening mechanism, epoxy coatings can be sub-grouped into five basic
               types, as follows :

               1.   Amine cured - These coatings consist of two components that are mixed prior to use.
                    The mixed coating will cure readily at ambient temperatures down to about 10°C to
                    yield a coating with excellent corrosion resistance. For resistance to acids, acidic salts,
                    and organic solvents the straigt amine cured compounds are the best of the epoxies.

               2.   Polyamide cured - These epoxy coating have acidic and organic chemical resistance
                    inferior to that of the straight amine cured epoxies. The polyamide epoxy has greater
                    resistance to moisture than other types, and gives more flexible, tougher paint film.

               3.   Epoxy ester - These coatings are the esterification product of an epoxy resin and an
                    acid, such as vegetable oil acids and resin. This product behaves more like oil-based
                    coating than chemical resistant coating and is generally used in less severe exposures.

               4.   These coatings are a combination of epoxy and phenolic resin. They are excellent
                    water immersion coatings and also have a wide chemical resistance to acids, alkalies,
                    salt and solvents.


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               5.   Epoxy mastic - These coatings are a high build platelet forming epoxy. They have a
                    high percent of solids by volume and are generally used for maintenance where only
                    hand tool surface preparation can be obtained.

               6.   Coal tar epoxy - These coatings contain 80 to 90 percent solids by weight and are
                    formulated from epoxy resins and coal tar pitch. They are usually applied directly to
                    clean, sand blasted steel without a primer, and one coat can have a dry film thickness
                    of 250 microns without sagging. Coal tar epoxy systems exhibit excellent resistnace to
                    fresh and salt water, and to a wide variety of chemicals including many inorganic acids.

     3.4.      OIL-BASED PAINTS

               1.   Oil-derived materials include all coating formulations in which drying or semidrying
                    oils are used as vehicles, either by themselves or in combination with other polymers.

               2.    Oil paints are inexpensive, easy to apply, and can be obtained in a variety of colors.

               3.   For industrial use, synthetic resins are combined with the drying oil to imporve water
                    and chemical resistance. These coatings are best suited for less severe chemical
                    environments. Many primers rely on the penetrating power of oil based coating. Those
                    pigmented with red lead, zinc chromate, or iron oxide are perhaps the best primers for
                    hand-cleanded or wire-brushed steel surfaces. Alkyd paints are the most widely used
                    resinous oil-base paints.

     3.5.      URETHANE COATINGS

               1.    Urethanes can be divided into one - and two-package systems.

               2.   Drying-oil-modified urethanes are one-package coatings sometimes called "uralkyds".
                    They have properties similar to those of oil base alkyds. Moisture cure urethanes are
                    prepolymerized so that they harden in thin films on exposure to moist air. These
                    coatings are relatively easily applied and dry quickly. They have outstanding touhness,
                    abrasive resistance, and are easily cleaned.

               3.   The two-package urethane systems are relatively new as an industrial paint. Field
                    evidence indicates that these coatings have excellent hardness, gloss, water resistance
                    and flexibility, and relatively good adhesion and chemical resistnce. Due to problems
                    of yellowing upon ultraviolet exposure and moisture sensitivity in the can, have limited
                    their widespread use.

     3.6.      SILICONES

               1.     Silicone formulations can be divided into two groups, those uses as high-temperature
                    coatings and those as water repellents. Silicones are stable to 650°C or more. High
                    silicone content vehicles require catalization and baking at relatibely hight
                    temperatures to achieve adequate cure and heat resistance. Silicone-aluminum coatings
                    provide particularly good resitance to temperuture (in the range of 540°C) and
                    weathering exposures at lower temperatures.

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               2.   Solvent-type silicone coatings are used as water repellents on siliceous masonry, such
                    as concrete block and brick. Water soluble alkaline silicone formulations should be
                    used on limestone and non siliceous materials.

     3.7.      WATRE BASE COATINGS

               1.   Emulsion or water base paints are characterized by the fact that the binder is dispersed
                    in water. They are noted for their ease of application, minimal odor, low cost, and easy
                    clean-up. The most common latex systems are polyvinyl acetates, acrylics, and
                    butadienestyrenes.

               2.   Water based epoxies have corrosion and water resistant properties approaching solvent
                    based epoxy coatings and can be used as a substitute in most cases.

     3.8.      POLYESTERS

               Polyesters coatings are usually of the 100 percent solids type and, as a result, can be
               applied in thick films with only one application. They have excellent acid and solvent
               resistance, high gloss, and good resistance to weathering. However, they are softened and
               swelled by alkalies and most aromatic solvents. Because of their short pot life, polyester
               coatings must be applied using specialized equipment. On the other hand, their inertness,
               and their adhesive and cohesive strenght are resulting in their increasingly widespread use
               in industry as lining materials.

     3.9.      ZINC-RICH COATINGS

               1.   Zinc-rich coaings consist of either an organic or inorganic vehicle that has been highly
                    loaded with zinc dust. After application and evaporation of volatile components, the
                    zinc in the dry paint film is approximately 90 percent or more by weight. Packing of
                    the zinc particles is sufficient to insure electrical conductivity between them and a
                    clean steel surface. Zinc will preferentially corrode and protect the underlying steel.

               2.   Inorganic zinc primers have excellent hardness and abrasion resistance, although their
                    flexibility is poor. They dry fast, resist heat at 370°C and make excellent shop coatings.

               3.   Organic zinc-riches are based on chlorinated rubber, vinyl, epoxy, acrylic, urethane,
                    and other organic vehicles. They do not have the abrasion or heat resistance of
                    inorganics.

               4.   These primers should not be used in environment with a pH below 5 or above 11.
                    Zinc-rich coatings are used increasingly as they virtually eliminate corrosive pitting.

     3.10.     HOT DIP GALVANIZE

               1.   Galvanize, while not a paint coating, is an excellent way to provide good corrosion
                    protection to steel at a modest cost. Hot dip galvanizing consists of properly cleaning
                    the metal and then immersing in a bath of molten zinc. The resulting zinc coating is, in
                    many ways, superior to that obtained by zinc rich painting.

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               2.   Hot dip galvanizing shall conform to ASTM Spec. A 123. The use of hot dip
                    galvanized materials shall be limited to environments that have a pH not less than 5
                    and not greater than 11.

     3.11.     RED LEAD

               1.   An oxide of lead, red in color, used as a rust-inhibiting pigment. The vehicle is
                    generally a slow drying linseed oil type and is considered to be one of the best primers
                    for steel. Because of poor weathering characteristics it should be protected by high
                    quality finish coats. Red lead decomposes between 480°C and 530°C.

               2.   Quite often the world "modified" will appear in the generic type designation. This
                    means the supplier, starting with the basic resin, has incorporated other resins into the
                    formulation to improve the performance of the product. Improvement could include
                    better application properties, better chemical resistance, higher film build, etc.

     3.12.     GALVANIZED METAL PRIMER

               Galvanized metal primer is an acrylic emulsion type primer that has good adhesion when
               applied to new or weathered galvanized metal. It may also be used as a finish coat.

     3.13.     TEMPERATURE RANGE OF PAINTS
                                                                             °C max
                 Catalysed epoxy                                                90
                 Silicone - acrylic resins                                     200
                 Inorganic zinc, self cured                                    370
                 Aluminium pigmented silicone                                  200
                 Silicone resins - metallic pigment                            480




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     4.        PAINTING PROCEDURES

     4.1.      STORAGE OF PAINT AND THINNER

     4.1.1.    All paint and thinner shall be stored in an area that is well ventilated and protected from
               sparks, flame, direct rays of the sun or from excessive heat. Paint susceptible to damage by
               low temperatures shall be kept in a heated storage space when necessary. Preferably all
               paint and thinner should be stored in a separate building or room.

     4.1.2.    All containers of paint shall remain unopened until required for use.

     4.1.3.    Paint which has livered, gelled, or otherwise deteriorated during storage shall not be used.
               Thixotropic materials which may be stirred to attain normal consistency are satisfactory.

     4.1.4.    In closed or recirculating paint systems where gas under pressure is used over the liquid,
               the gas shall be an inert one, such as nitrogen.

     4.1.5.    All containers of paint shall be clearly marked or labelled to show paint identification, date
               of manufacture, batch number, order number and special instructions, all legible at the time
               of use.

     4.2.      MIXING AND THINNING

     4.2.1.    Where a skin has formed in the container, the skin shall be cut loose from the sides of the
               container, removed, and discarded. If such skins are thick enough to have a practical effect
               on the composition and quality of the paint, the paint shall not be used.

     4.2.2.    All ingredients in any container of paint shall be thoroughly mixed before use and shall be
               agitated often during application to keep the paint in a uniform condition.

     4.2.3.    Paint mixed in the original container shall not be transferred until all the settled pigment is
               incorporated into the vehicle. This does not imply that part of the vehicle cannot be poured
               off temporarily to simplify the mixing.

     4.2.4.    Mixing shall be mechanical methods, except that hand mixing shall be permitted for
               containers up to 20 liters in size.

     4.2.6.    Paint shall not be mixed or kept in suspension by means of an air stream bubbling under
               the paint surface.

     4.2.7.    The paint shall be mixed in a manner which will insure braking-up of all lumps, complete
               dispersion of settled pigment, and a uniform composition. If mixing is done by hand, most
               of the vehicle shall be poured off into a clean container. The pigment in the paint shall be

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               lifted from the bottom of the container with a broad, flat paddle, lumps shall be broken up,
               and the pigment thoroughly mixed with the vehicle. The poured off vehicle shall be
               returned to the paint with simultaneous stirring, or pouring repeatedly from one container
               to another until the composition is uniform. The bottom of the container shall be inspected
               for unmixed pigment.

               Mechanical paint shakers or mixers will usually give better mixing in a much shorter time
               than mixing by hand. Paint shall be carefully examined for uniformity after mixing.

     4.2.8.    All pigmented paint shall be strained after mixing except where application equipment is
               provided with adequate strainers. Strainers shall be of a type to remove only skins and
               undesirable matter but not to remove the pigment.

     4.2.9.    Dry pigments which are separately packaged shall be mixed into paints in such a manner
               that they are uniformly blended and all particles of the dry powder are wetted by the
               vehicle.

     4.2.10. Pastes shall be made into paints in such a manner that the paste shall be uniformly blended
             and all lumps and particles broken up to form a homogenous paint.

     4.2.11. Tinting pastes or colours shall be wetted with a small amount of thinner, vehicle or paint
             and thoroughly mixed. The thinned mixture shall be strained and then be added to the large
             container of paint and mixed until the colour is uniform.

     4.2.12. Paint which does not have a limited pot life, or does not deteriorate on standing may be
             mixed at any time before use, but if settling has occurred it must be remixed immediately
             before use. Paint shall not remain in spray pots, painters buckets, etc., overnight, but shall
             be gathered into a container and remixed before use.

     4.2.13. Catalyst, curing agents or hardeners which are separately packaged shall be added to the
             base paint only after the latter has been thoroughly mixed. The proper volume of the
             catalyst shall then be slowly poured into the required volume of base with constant
             agitation. Do not pour off the liquid which has been separated from the pigment and then
             add the catalyst to the settled pigment to aid mixing. The mixture shall be used within the
             time interval specified by the manufacturer. (For example, more than 20 minutes and less
             than 8 hours after mixing are the limits for some chemically cured paints).

               Therefore only enough paint should be catalysed for prompt use. Mixed catalysed paints
               cannot be stored and unused portions must usually be discarded at the end of each working
               day. When specified, especial continuous mixing equipment shall be used according to
               manufacturers directions.

     4.2.14. No thinner shall be added to the paint unless necessary for proper application. Paints to be
             applied by brush will usually require no thinning. Paints to be sprayed, if not specifically
             formulated for spraying, may require thinning when proper adjustment of the spray
             equipment and air pressure does not result in satisfactory paint application. In no case shall


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               more than 0.5 litters of thinner be added per 4 litters unless the paint is intentionally
               formulated for greater thinning. This shall also apply when painting in cold weather.

     4.2.15    The type of thinner shall comply with the paint specification or manufacturer's instructions.

     4.2.16    When the use of thinner is permissible, thinner shall be added to paint during the mixing
               process. Painters shall not add thinner to paint after it has been thinned to the correct
               consistency. All thinning shall be done under supervision of one acquainted with the
               correct amount and type of thinner to be added to the paint.

     4.3.      APPLICATION OF PAINT - GENERAL PROVISIONS

     4.3.1.    Application Methods

               Paint may be applied by brushing or spraying. Roller coat applicatin may be used on flat or
               slightly curved surfaces or over primed or striped portions of surfaces. Unless specifically
               authorised, or unless the paint over such areas is subsequently brushed out, roller coat
               application shall not be used in application of primer over hand tool cleaned or power tool
               cleaned surfaces such as rivets, bolts, crevices, welds, corners or edges. Dipping or flow
               coating shall be used only when specifically required.

     4.3.2.    Temperature

               Paint shall not be applied when the temperature of the steel, or paint is below 5°C, except
               that paints which dry solely by the evaporation of the solvent may be applied as long as the
               temperature is not below 2°C.

               Paint shall not be applied when the surface temperature is expected to drop to 0°C before
               the paint has dried. paint shall not be applied to steel which is at a temperature that will
               cause blistering or porosity or otherwise will be detrimental to the life of the paint. When
               paint is applied in hot weather, or thinned in cold weather, precautions must be taken to
               insure that the specified thickness of paint is obtained.

               With chemically cured coatings particular care shall be exercised to follow manufacturer's
               special temperature requirements.

     4.3.3.    Moisture

               Paint shall not be applied in rain, wind, snow, fog or mist, or when the steel surface
               temperature is below the dew point, resulting in condensation of moisture. Paint shall not
               be applied to wet or damp surfaces unless the paint of is of the water thinned type. Paint
               shall not be applied on frosted or ice coated surfaces. Water or ice on the surface must be
               visible to prevent painting under this provision.

     4.3.4.    Cover


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               When paint must be applied in damp or cold weather, the steel must be painted under
               cover, or protected, or sheltered, or the surrounding air and the steel heated to a satisfactory
               temperature. In all such cases, the temperature and humidity conditions must be met. Such
               steel shall remain under cover or be protected until dry or until weather conditions permit
               its exposure.

     4.3.5.    Damage

               Any wet paint exposed to freezing, excess humidity, rain, snow, or condensation shall be
               permitted to dry. Damaged areas of paint shall then be removed, the surface again prepared
               and then repainted with the same number of coats or paint of the same kind as the
               undamaged areas.

     4.3.6.    Striping

               If stripe painting is specified in the agreement covering the work or if the fabricator
               chooses to do so at his option, all edges, corners, crevices, rivets, bolts, welds, and sharp
               edges shall be stripe painted with the priming paint before the steel receives its first full
               prime coat of paint. Such striping shall extend for at least one inch from the edge. When
               practicable, this stripe coat shall be permitted to dry before the prime coat is applied.
               Otherwise, the stripe coat shall be set to touch before the full prime coat is applied.
               However, the stripe coat shall not be permitted to dry for a period long enough to allow
               rusting of the unprimed steel.

     4.3.7.    Continuity

               To the maximum extent practical, each coat of paint shall be applied as a continuous film
               of uniform thickness free of pores. Any thin spots or areas missed in the application shall
               be repainted and permitted to dry before the next coat of paint is applied.

     4.3.8.    Thickness

               Unless otherwise specified by paint manufacturer the prime coat(s) of paint and the first
               field coat of primer (when specified) shall be at least 25 to 50 microns thick when dry.

               Each intermediate and finish coat of paint shall be at least 25 to 40 microns thick when dry.
               No portion of the paint films shall be less than these specified film thickness. The film
               thickness shall not be so great that either the appearance or service life of the paint will be
               detrimentally affected. Vinyls, lacquers, emulsions, and bituminous coatings usually
               deviate from this thickness. These shall be applied at the specified thickness for the
               individual material.

               When the manufacturer's specification for a paint system requires a thickness other than
               that stipulated herein, manufacturer's specification shall govern.

               In the event that required thickness is not achieved, as specified, additional coats shall be
               applied until the required thickness is obtained.



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     4.3.9.    Reciting

               Each coat of paint shall be in a proper state of cure or dryness before the application of the
               succeeding coat. paint shall be considered dry for recoating when an additional coat can be
               applied without the development of any detrimental film irregularities, such as lifting or
               loss of adhesion of the undercoat.

     4.3.10. Tinting

               When successive coats of paint of the same colour have been specified, alternate coats of
               paint shall be tinted, when practical, sufficiently to produce enough contrast to indicate
               complete coverage of the surface. When the paint is the colour of the steel, or when the
               tinting of the final coat is objectionable, the first coat to be applied shall be tinted. The
               tinting material shall be compatible with the paint and not detrimental to its service life.

     4.3.11. Intercoat Adhesion

               Undercoats having a glossy surface which detrimentally affects the adhesion of the
               subsequent coat shall be treated by mild surface abrasion, solvent treatment or other
               suitable processes which will not cut through or detract from the performance of the paint.

     4.4.      BRUSH APPLICATION OF PAINT

     4.4.1.    Brushes shall be of a style and quality that will enable proper application of paint. Round
               or oval brushes are generally considered most suitable for rivets, bolts, irregular surfaces
               and rough or pitted steel. Wide, flat brushes are suitable for large flat areas, but they should
               not have a width over five inches.

     4.4.2.    The brushing shall be done so that a smooth coat as nearly uniform in thickness as possible
               is obtained. This usually may best be accomplished by applying the paint in short strokes,
               depositing uniform amounts of paint in each stroke, brushing the paint into all surface
               irregularities, and finally smoothing or levelling the paint film with longer strokes at about
               right angles to the direction of the first strokes, allowing only enough of the tip of the
               bristles to drag in the paint film, to smooth the film without leaving deep or detrimental
               brush marks.

     4.4.3.    Paint shall be worked into all crevices and corners where possible.

     4.4.4.    Any runs or sags shall be brushed out.

     4.4.5.    There shall be a minimum of brush marks left in the applied paint.

     4.4.6.    Surfaces not accessible to brushes shall be painted by spray.

     4.5.      SPRAY APPLICATIONS OF PAINT

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     4.5.1.    The equipment used shall be suitable for the intended purposes, shall be capable of
               properly atomising the paint to be applied and shall be equipped with suitable pressure
               regulators and gauges. The equipment shall be kept in satisfactory condition to permit
               proper paint application.

     4.5.2.    Paint ingredients shall be kept properly mixed in the spray pots or containers during paint
               application either by continuous mechanical agitation or by intermittent agitation as
               frequently as necessary.

     4.5.3.    Spray equipment shall be kept sufficiently clean so that dirt, dried paint, and other foreign
               materials are not deposited in the paint film. Any solvents left in the equipment shall be
               completely removed before applying paint to the surface being painted.

     4.5.4.    Paint shall be applied in a uniform layer, with overlapping at the edge of the spray pattern.
               The spray pattern shall be adjusted so that the paint is deposited uniformly. During
               application, the gun shall be held perpendicular to the surface and at a distance which will
               ensure that a wet layer of paint is deposited on the surface. The trigger of the gun should be
               released at the end of each stroke.

     4.5.5.    All runs and sags should be brushed out immediately or the paint shall be removed and the
               surface repainted.

     4.5.6.    Paint shall be suitable for the application method used.

     4.5.7.    Particular care shall be observed with respect to type of thinner, amount of thinner, paint
               temperatures and operating techniques in order to avoid deposition of paint which is too
               viscous, too dry or too thin when it reaches the receiving surfaces. In some cases, the paint
               may have to be reformulated to suit the application method.

     4.6.      ROLLER APPLICATION

               May be used on flat or slightly curved surfaces. This method shall meet requirements of
               brush type application of paint.

     4.7.      SHOP PAINTING

     4.7.1.    The number of coats and the type of paint shall be specified in the Project specifications.
               Unless otherwise specified, all steel shall be painted with at least one coat of primer in the
               shop where such fabrication in done. This painting shall be done during of after fabrication
               and before any damage to the surface occurs from weather or other exposure. If the
               shopcoat is damaged in fabrication, it shall be repaired before leaving the shop.

     4.7.2.    The steel shall not be painted within 50 mm of the edges to be welded.



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     4.7.3.    Unless otherwise provided, shop welds and areas within 50 mm of welds shall be cleaned
               in the shop before painting (either be blast cleaned or thorough power wire brushed).

     4.7.4.    Machine finished or similar surfaces that shall not be painted, but do require protection,
               shall be protected with a coating of rust inhibitive.




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     4.8.      FIELD PAINTING

     4.8.1.    Shop coated steel shall preferably be field painted after erection is completed. Steel may be
               field painted on the ground before erection, provided such painting is touched up where
               damaged with the same number of coats and kinds of paint after erection and provided that
               last complete coat of paint is applied after erection.

     4.8.2.    Steel which has been shop coated shall be touched up with the same type of paint as the
               shop coat. This touch-up shall include cleaning and painting of all damaged or defective
               paint and rusted areas. As alternate it is also acceptable to clean and apply one overall coat
               of primer for each shop coat in place of touch up or spot painting.

     4.8.3.    Steel which has not been coated shall be cleaned and primed before application of
               intermediate and finish coats and before any damage occurs to the surface from weather or
               other exposure.

     4.8.4.    The first field coat of paint shall be applied within a reasonable period after the shop coat,
               and in any event before the weathering (and required touch-up) of the shopcoat becomes
               excessive (this is usually within 3-7 months for a single shop coat in normal atmospheric
               environment and sooner in moist or corrosive exposure).

     4.8.5.    Surfaces which are accessible before erection but which will not be accessible after
               erection shall receive all field coats of paint before erection.

     4.8.6.    Wet paint shall be protected against damage from dust or other detrimental foreign matter
               as much as is practical.

     4.8.7.    Steel stored pending erections shall be kept free from the ground and so positioned as to
               minimise water-holding pockets, soiling, contamination and deterioration of the paint film.
               Such steel shall be cleaned and repainted or touched-up from time to time with the
               specified paint, whenever it becomes necessary to maintain the integrity of the film.

     4.8.8.    All fields welds and all areas within 50 mm of welds shall be cleaned before painting. This
               requires either blast cleaning or thorough power wire brushing.

     4.9.      MAINTENANCE PAINTING

     4.9.1.    Only loose, cracked, brittle or non-adherent paint shall be removed in cleaning unless it is
               otherwise specified. Where the remaining paint is thick, all exposed edges shall be
               feathered. Spot cleaning shall be conducted in a manner which will minimise damage to
               sound paint. Rust spots shall be thoroughly cleaned and the edges of all old paint shall be
               scraped back to sound material.




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     4.9.2.    When oil paint is to be removed by flame cleaning, the equipment chosen shall be
               satisfactory to burn or soften the paint sufficiently for its removal of burnt or softened paint
               shall be continued until the surface is free of old paint and rust. The new priming coat of
               paint shall be applied while the steel is still warm. Caution shall be exercised to prevent
               overheating of the steel or setting fire to flammable materials.

     4.9.3.    All old paint from areas where the amount of damaged or loose paint is excessive, shall be
               removed before maintenance painting.

     4.9.4.    Paint that curls or lifts after application of the spot or priming paint shall be removed and
               the area shall be repainted.

     4.10.     DRYING OF PAINTED STEEL

     4.10.1. No coat of paint shall be applied until the preceding coat has dried. The paint shall be
             considered dry for repainting when another coat can be applied without the development of
             any film irregularities such as lifting or loss of adhesion of undercoats, and the drying time
             of the applied coat does not exceed the maximum specified for it as a first coat.

     4.10.2. The maximum practicable time shall be allowed for paint to dry before recoating or
             exposure. Some paints may dry too hard for good adhesion of subsequent coats. These shall
             be recoated as soon as practicable after they dry sufficiently for recoating. No paint shall be
             subjected to immersion before it is dried through.

     4.10.3. No paint shall be forced dried conditions which will cause checking, wrinkling, blistering,
             formation of pores or detrimentally affecting the condition of the paint.

     4.10.4. No drier shall be added to paint on the job unless specifically called for in the specificaiton
             for the paint.

     4.10.5. Paint shall be protected from rain, condensation, contamination, snow, and freezing until
             dry to the fullest extent practicable.

     4.11.     HANDLING OF PAINTED SURFACES

     4.11.1. Painted surfaces shall not be handled until the paint has dried except for necessary handling
             in turning for painting - or stacking for drying.

     4.11.2. Paint which is damaged in handling shall be scraped off and touched up with the same
             number of coats and kinds of paint as were previously applied to the steel.

     4.11.3. Painted steel shall not be loaded for shipment or shipped until it is dry.


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     4.11.4. Precautions shall be taken to minimize damage to paint films resulting from stacking
             members.




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     4.12.     INSULATED EQUIPMENT AND PIPING

     4.12.1. All surfaces shall be painted with primer rustproof paint.

     4.12.2. Painting with inorganic zinc primer is required for corrosive industrial and marine
             environment.




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     5.        PAINT SELECTION

     5.1.      PAINTS FOR GENERAL INDUSTRIAL SERVICE

     5.1.1.    Vinyl and aluminium pigmented alkyd resins.

               Primarily for steel structures, pipelines, and equipment in industrial atmosphere for
               temperatures up to 65°C. It is resistant to industrial gases, hydrogen sulphide fumes, high
               humidity, and spillage of gasoline. Not for immersion or continuous wetting services.

     5.1.2.    Minimum Dry Film Thickness

               Inorganic zinc primer :            80 microns
               Vinyl top coat :                   50 microns
               Zinc chromate primer :             80 microns
               Vinyl top coat :                   50 microns

               Description                  Application method                 Typical DFT per coat
               Primer                       Brush or spray                     40 microns
               Top coat                     Brush or spray                     25 microns

     5.2.      COATING FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SERVICE

     5.2.1.    Silicone resins containing zinc dust or aluminium pigments

               Steel in atmosphere service at temperatures between 65°C and 540°C. Resistance to
               industrial atmosphere and normal weather depends on operating temperature.

     5.2.2.    Minimum Dry Film Thickness

               Primer :                           25 microns
               Top coat :                         25 microns



               Description                  Application method                 Typical DFT per coat
               Primer                       Brush or spray                     40 microns
               Top coat                     Spray                              25 microns

     5.2.3.    Remarks

               a/    The maximum coating thickness shall not exceed 60 microns, because thicker coatings
                     are brittle and spall of during heating up to operating temperature.
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               b/ Most paint failures with this system are attributable to poor surface preparation.

     5.3.      EPOXY AND EPOXY-PHENOLIC COATINGS FOR ATMOSPHERIC SERVICE

     5.3.1.    Catalytically cured epoxy or epoxy-phenolic resins, including primers pigmented for
               corrosion resistance.

               Primarily for marine, industrial, or other severe atmospheric service up to 65°C. Resistant
               to many acids, alkalies, and salts (see manufacturer's literature for specific environments).
               Also suitable for immersion service in tanks and vessels containing light petroleum
               products such as kerosene and diesel.

     5.3.2.    Minimum Dry Film Thickness

               Primer :                             80 microns
               Top coat :                           300 microns

               Description                    Application method                      Typical DFT per coat
               Primer                         Brush                                   40 microns
                                              Spray                                   80 microns
               Top coat                       Brush                                   50 microns
                                              Spray                                   150 microns

     5.4.      PHENOLIC EPOXY COATINGS FOR IMMERSION SERVICE

     5.4.1.    Catalytically cured epoxy-phenolic

               Primer :                             100 microns
               Top coat                             200 microns

               Description                    Application method                      Typical DFT per coat
               Primer                         Brush                                   50 microns
                                              Spray                                   100 microns
               Top coat                       Brush                                   50 microns
                                              Spray                                   100 microns

     5.5.      INORGANIC ZINC SILICATE PRIMER FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SERVICE

     5.5.1.    Metallic zinc in either a water-base silicate vehicle, selfcuring.

               This primer is to be used on new construction using the epoxy-epoxy phenolic paint
               system. It can also be used a substitute for the epoxy primer for maintenance painting an in


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               addition as a substitute for the high temperature coating system primer up to a temperature
               of 400°C.




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     5.5.2.    Minimum Dry Film Thickness

               Primer :                                 80 microns

               Description                      Application method                  Typical DFT per coat
               Zinc-silicate                    Spray                               80 microns
               (water-based)
               Zinc-silicate                    Spray                               80 microns
               (ethyl-based)

     5.5.3.    Remarks

               a/      Ethyl-based zinc silicates should be used when application is made under conditions
                       of high humidity. The service performance of the fully cured ethyl-based or water-
                       based coatings are similar.

               b/      Surface preparation is critical.

               c/      Inorganic zinc silicate cannot be used over zinc-chromate.

               d/      Paint cannot be top coated by alkyd paint systems such as, aluminium pigmented
                       alkyd resins, graphite pigmented oil modified alkyd resins and pigmented oil
                       modified alkyd resins.

     5.6.      HIGH GLOSS ENAMEL SYSTEM FOR METALLIC SURFACES

     5.6.1.    Pigmented oil-modified alkyd resin.

               Structural steel, machinery, and equipment industrial, rural and marine atmosphere for
               temperatures up to 65°C where high and gloss retention are desired. Resistant to hydrogen
               sulfide and other industrial fumes and to high humidity. Not for immersion or continuous
               wetting services.

     5.6.2.    Minimum Dry Film thickness

               Zinc chromate Primer :                   80 microns
               Topcoat :                                50 microns

               Description                      Application method                  Typical DFT per coat
               Zinc chromate primer             Brush or spray                      40 microns
               High gloss enamel                Brush or spray                      25 microns
               (various colours)




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     5.7.      SEMI-GLOSS BLACK ALKYD SYSTEM FOR METALLIC SURFACES

     5.7.1.    Graphite pigmented oil-modified alkyd resin.

               Structural steel and equipment in industrial, rural, or marine atmospheres at temperatures
               up to 90°C where high gloss retention are not necessary. Resistant to hydrogen sulfide and
               other industrial fumes and to high humidity. Not for immersion or continuous wetting
               services.

     5.7.2.    Minimum Dry Film Thickness

               Zinc Chromate Primer :                80 microns
               Top coating :                         80 microns

               Description                   Application method                  Typical DFT per coat
               Zinc chromate primer          Brush or spray                      40 microns
               Top coat, black               Brush or spray                      40 microns

     5.8.      COAL-TAR EPOXY COATINGS

     5.8.1.    Catalytically cured blend of coal tar and epoxy resins.

               Primarily for tank and vessel bottoms containing petroleum-brine solutions at temperatures
               below 65°C. Suitable for immersion in sea water, fresh water, brine, and most alkalies.
               Resistant to splash and spillage of many acids as well as aliphatic and aromatic
               hydrocarbon solvents.

               Temperature limitation :              - Immersion :        65°C
                                                     - Atmospheric :     150°C

     5.8.2.    Minimum Dry Film Thickness

               Per coat :          minimum           200 microns
                                   maximum           400 microns

               Total :             minimum           400 microns
                                   maximum           800 microns

               Description                   Application method                  Typical DFT per coat
               Primer / Top coat             Spray                               200 microns




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     5.9.      MARINE SPLASH ZONE SYSTEMS

     5.9.1.    Catalytically-cured, high solids content epoxy.

               Primarily for maintenance coating of all steel surfaces in the splash zone area of marine
               structures that are not otherwise protected. Typical applications are on pier supports,
               secondary structural bracing, piping, pipeline risers, hangers, ladders, and other
               appurtenances and attachments. It can be applied underwater and to concrete. The
               recommended coating for onshore, buried pipe at above and below ground transitions
               (including road crossings and berm walls) in areas of drifting sand. The recommended
               coating for above ground pipe subjected to direct sea water splash and spray in beach areas.

     5.9.2.    Minimum Dry Film Thickness (DFT)

               Total minimum thickness : 2500 microns.

               Description                   Application method                  Typical DFT per coat
               Splash Zone                   Rubber gloves or trowel             2500 microns

     5.9.3.    Remarks

               a/ Power mixing is required. Mixing must continue until the colour is uniform.

               b/ Previously applied splash zone coating which is tightly adhering can be over coated
                  after thorough sandblasting to remove loose coating and roughen the remaining surface.

     5.10.     FIBREGLASS REINFORCED EPOXY COATINGS

     5.10.1. Epoxy or polyester resins reinforced with embedded fibreglass mats.

               For coating steel surfaces where the additional strength, flexibility, and abrasion resistance
               of fibreglass - reinforced epoxies is desirable. Primary use is for repairs to tank bottoms,
               sides, and roofs that are severely corroded and require either large-scale repair or
               replacement.

     5.10.2. Minimum Dry Film Thickness (DFT)

               Total minimum thickness : 2500 microns

               Description                                  Application method
               Primer                                       Brush
               Laminating-coat and flood coat               Roller or spray
               Fibreglass mats                              Hand

     5.10.3. Remarks


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               Any necessary mechanical repairs to the tank shall be completed before sand-blasting and
               priming are started.

     5.11.     COLD-APPLIED BITUMASTIC COATINGS

     5.11.1. Solvent cut-back of coal tar pitch.

               Primarily for corrosion protection of burried or immersed steel at temperatures below
               60°C. Resistant to water and acidic fumes. Not recommended for exposure to sunlight. Not
               resistant to hydrocarbon solvents.

     5.11.2. Minimum Dry Film thickness

               Buried :               750 microns
               Immersed :            1125 microns

     5.11.3. Approved Material

               Description                    Application method              Typical DFT Per coat

               Coal tar base                  Brush or spray                  375 microns

     5.11.4. Remarks

               a/    Material is thixotropic. Do not add solvents to thin. When stirred vigorously the
                     bitumastics become free flowing. Correct viscosity for application is similar to that of
                     molasses.

               b/ Use power stirrers. Hand stirring is totally inadequate.

               c/    Stir from time to time during application as required to maintain the desired viscosity.


     5.12.     CHLORINATED RUBBER PAINT SYSTEM

     5.12.1. Synthetic resin made by chlorinating natural rubber and adding inert, acid and alkali
             resistant pigments.

               Metallic and concrete surfaces at temperatures less than 60°C. Resistant to many acids,
               alkalies, and salts, immersion, high humidity, and mechanical abrasion. Fire retardant. Not
               resistant to vegetable oils and aromatic or chlorinated solvents.

     5.12.2. Minimum Dry film Thickness (DFT)

               On steel        - Primer :                       50 microns
                               - Top coat :                     50 microns

               On non-metallic surfaces-top coat :             120 microns

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               Description                        Application method             Typical DFT Per coat

               Primer                             Brush                                 25 microns
               Top coats (various colours)        Brush or spray                        40 microns

               Primer is used only for steel surfaces. There is no special primer for non-metallic surfaces.
               The top coats should be applied directly to the cleaned surface.

     5.13.     LATEX EMULSION SYSTEM

     5.13.1. Water base latex emulsion

               Decorative, for interior and exterior non-metallic surfaces in mild atmospheric service at
               ambient temperatures. Not recommended for industrial fumes, marine atmospheres, or
               frequent wetting.

     5.13.2. Minimum Dry Film Thickness (DFT)

               Not applicable.

               Description                        Application method
               Primer-sealer                      Brush
               Top coats                          Roller or spray

     5.14.     HIGH GLOSS ENAMEL SYSTEM FOR NON-METALLIC SURFACES

     5.14.1. Pigmented oil-modified alkyd resin

               Decorative, for interior and exterior non-metallic surfaces in atmospheric exposure for
               temperatures up to 65°C.

     5.14.2. Minimum Dry Film Thickness (DFT)

               Not applicable

               Description                        Application method
               Primer-sealer                      Brush or roller
               Undercoater                        Brush, roller or spray
               High gloss top coats               Roller, brush or spray

     5.14.3. Remarks

               For interiors : Apply one coat primer-sealer, one coat enamel undercoat and one or more
               coats enamel as necessary.

               For exteriors : Apply one coat primer-sealer and one or more coats of enamel as necessary.


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     5.15.     SPAR VARNISH SYSTEM

     5.15.1. Phenolic resin modified oil varnish.

               Primarily for exterior woodwork. Resistant to normal weathering, high humidity and
               occasional wetting at ambient temperatures.

     5.15.2. Minimum Dry Film Thickness (DFT)

               Not critical.

     5.15.3. Approved material

               Description                          Application method
               Spar varnish                         Brush
               Wood stains                          For modifying the colour of the wood before
                                                    applying varnish
               Wood filler paste                    To fill large pores or openings

     5.15.4. Remarks

               a/      If wood stain or filler paste has been used, allow them to dry hard before applying
                       varnish.

               b/      On very absorptive wood, the first coat can be thinned with turpentine or mineral
                       spirits.

               c/      For durability, three coats are recommended.

               d/      For maximum gloss, each dried coating should be lightly sanded with fine sand paper
                       or steel wood prior the application of the next coat.


     5.16.     INTERIOR LACQUER SYSTEM

     5.16.1. Solution of nitrocellulose, resins, and plasticizers, with or without coloured pigments.

     5.16.2. Use

               Decorative for interior wood and metal under mild service conditions at normal ambient
               temperatures. Not resistant to exterior weathering or corrosive environments.

     5.16.3. Minimum acceptable Dry Film Thickness (DFT)

               Not critical.


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               Description                         Application method

               Sealer, lacquer                     Spray

               Lacquer                             Spray

     5.16.4. Additional remarks

               a/      Sand down the seal coat with fine sandpaper. On coarse grained woods apply a
                       second coat of sealer and repeat sanding.

               b/      Alloy each coat to dry hard before applying the next coat. Typical application
                       consists of one or two coats of sealer and two or more coats of lacquer.


     5.17.     FLUORESCENT ENAMEL SYSTEM

     5.17.1. Type of coating

               Alkyl resins containing fluorescent dyes.

     5.17.2. Use

               For improved visibility at dawn or dusk, on metallic and non-metallic surfaces. Do not use
               for traffic signs. Do not use on barricades or obstructions unless a reflective paint system is
               also provided.

     5.17.2. Minimum Acceptable Dry Film Thickness (DFT)

               Description                Application method                 Typical DFT per
                                                                             coat, microns

               White enamel               Brush, spray                                    40

               Fluorescent paint          Brush, spray                                    40
               (various colours)

               Protective topcoat         Spray, brush                                    40

     5.17.4. Additional remarks

               Composition of the fluorescent paints is critical. No pigments will be added. These wil
               destroy the fluorescent capability of the paint.


     5.17.3. Remarks


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               Composition of the fluorescent paints is critical. No pigments will be added. These will
               destroy the fluorescent capability of the paint.


     5.18.     NON-SKID FLOOR PAINT

     5.18.1. Phenolic or alkyd-phenolic resins with sand, alumina, or crushed flint or garnet added for
             skid resistance.

               A topcoat applied over a fully dried and cured chlorinated rubber paint system. For use on
               such areas as decks, walkways, steps, and floors, where slipper conditions are undesirable.

     5.18.2. Minimum Dry Film Thickness (DFT)

               Not critical.

               Description                          Application method
               Non-skid floor paint                 Brush
               (various colours)

     5.18.3. Surface preparation requirements

               The chlorinated rubber undercoat will be fully cured, dry, clean, and free of oily or greasy
               contaminants.

     5.18.4. Remarks

               Coating systems other than chlorinated rubber can be used as the undercoating as long as
               they are suitable for the service environment, are compatible with non-skid paint, are fully
               cured, and have been spot tested to assure that the solvents in the non-skid paint are not
               detrimental to their adhesion.


     5.19.     INTERIOR FIRE RETARDANT PAINT SYSTEM

     5.19.1. Generally, alkyd and chlorinated rubber resins pigmented for various colours, but water
             based systems are also found.

               Interiors of buildings or other enclosures where fire resistance is desirable.

     5.19.2. Minimum Dry Film thickness (DFT)

               Not critical.

               Description                          Application method
               Primer-sealer                        Brush, roller or spray
               Top coat                             Spray, roller or brush

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     5.19.3. Surface Preparation Requirements

               a/      Non-metallic surfaces : As per section 3.3. above.
               b/      Metallic surfaces : As per section 2.6. above plus one coat zinc chromate primer.
               c/      Previously painted surfaces : Dry and free of surface contaminants.


     5.20.     TRAFFIC AND ZONE MARKING PAINT SYSTEMS

     5.20.1. Generally based on alkyd and chlorinated rubber resins. Lacquers and epoxies are also
             used. Traffic and zone marking on concrete or bituminous surfaces. Typical uses are for
             road lines, designating parking and no-parking areas, and marking pedestrian crosswalks.

     5.20.2. Minimum Dry Film Thickness (DFT)

               Not critical.

               Description                          Application method
               White                                Roller, brush or spray
               Yellow                               Roller, brush or spray

     5.20.3. Remarks

               These are non multiple coat systems. The thickness required will usually depend on the
               roughness of the surface being coated, rougher surfaces requiring thicker coats.




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     6.        PAINTING REQUIREMENTS FOR DIFFERENT SYSTEMS

     6.1.      GENERAL

               The following tables show the recommended type of painting for process equipment and
               piping, tankage, mechanical equipment and buildings in different environmental
               conditions.

               A.      Structural steel, piping and process equipment
                          Table 1                 Normal industrial environment
                          Table 2                 Corrosive industrial environment
                          Table 3                 Marine environment

               B.      Tankage External Surfaces
                         Table 4              Normal industrial environment
                         Table 5              Corrosive industrial environment
                         Table 6              Corrosive and marine environment

               C.      Tankage Internal surfaces
                         Table 7               Normal industrial, corrosive and marine environment
                         Table 8               Water interior surface

               D.      Mechanical Equipment
                         Table 9            Normal, corrosive industrial environment

               E.      Refinery Buildings
                         Table 10                Building interiors
                         Table 11                Building exteriors




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                                                     Table 1

                                 Structural steel, piping and process equipment
                                        Normal Industrial Environment

                                                                           Paint system (c)

           Exterior           Temp            SSPC             Primer           Inter               Finish
           Surface           range °C     surface prep.
                                               n°
      Steel                  Below 65         6 (d)       Inorganic zinc           -                 Vinyl

      Steel                   62-250           10         Inorganic zinc           -               Silicone

      Steel                  250-540           10         Inorganic zinc           -               Silicone

      Galvanized             Below 65           2          Galvanized           -                      -
      jacketing (a)                                        metal primer
      Mastic coated             -               -           Does Not Require Painting

      Valve bodies (b)       Below 65        2.3 or 6     Zinc chromate            -                Alkyd

      Valve bodies (b)        65-250           10         Inorganic zinc           -               Silicone

      Valve bodies (b)       250-540           10         Inorganic zinc           -               Silicone

      Metals to be                              6         Inorganic zinc           -                   -
      insulated
      Metals to be fire         -              (e)              (e)                -                   -
      proofed

     (a)       Stainless steel, aluminium and vinyl coated jacketing do not require painting.
     (b)       Shall be painted only at discretion of owner.
     (c)       Maintenance painting is not considered.
     (d)       Use of surface preparation SSPC n°2 or 3 and application of 2 coats of zinc chromate with
               an alkyd finish may be substituted on maintenance jobs where sand blasting is not
               permitted.
     (e)       The surface preparation and primer shall be in accordance with the fireproofing
               manufacturer's requirements.
     (f)       Vinyl can be substituted by aluminium pigmented alkyd resins. The primer for this coating
               must be zinc chromate.




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                                                        Table 2

                                 Structural steel, piping and process equipment
                                       Corrosive Industrial Environment



                                                                              Paint system (c)

      Exterior Surface         Temp           SSPC                Primer           Inter               Finish
                              range °C    surface prep.
                                               n°
      Steel                   Below 65        6 (d)          Inorganic zinc           -                 Epoxy
                                                                                                      polyamide
      Steel                    65-250          10            Inorganic zinc           -                Silicone

      Steel                   250-540          10            Inorganic zinc           -               Silicone

      Galvanized              Below 65          2             Galvanized           -                  Epoxy
      jacketing (a)                                             metal                              polyamide or
                                                                primer                                 vinyl
      Insulated           &      -                             Does Not Require Painting
      mastic coated
      Valve                   Below 65       2.3 or 6        Zinc chromate            -               Epoxy
                                                                                                   polyamide or
                                                                                                       vinyl
      Valve bodies (b)         65-250          10            Inorganic zinc           -              Silicone

      Valve bodies (b)        250-540          10            Inorganic zinc           -               Silicone

      Metals to be               -              6            Inorganic zinc           -                   -
      insulated
      Metals to be fire          -             (e)                 (e)                -                   -
      proofed

     (a)       Stainless steel, aluminium and vinyl coated jacketing do not require painting.
     (b)       Shall be painted only at discretion of owner.
     (c)       Maintenance painting is not considered.
     (d)       Use of surface preparation SSPC n°2 or 3 and application of 2 coats of zinc chromate with
               an alkyd finish may be substituted on maintenance jobs where sand blasting is not
               permitted.
     (e)       The surface preparation and primer shall be in accordance with the fireproofing
               manufacturer's requirements.

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                                                      Table 3

                                  Structural steel, piping and process equipment
                                               Marine Environment


                                                                            Paint system (c)

           Exterior            Temp            SSPC             Primer           Inter               Finish
           Surface            range °C      Surface prep
                                                 n°
      Steel                   Below 65           10        Inorganic zinc           -                 Epoxy
                                                                                                    polyamide
      Steel (alternate)      Below 65 (b)        2         Epoxy mastic             -                 vinyl

      Steel                    65-250           10         Inorganic zinc           -                Silicone
                                                                                                    aluminium
      Steel                    250-540          10         Inorganic zinc                            Silicone

      Galvanized              Below 65           2          Galvanized            -                 Epoxy
      jacketing (a)                                           metal                              polyamide or
                                                              primer                                 vinyl
      Insulated     &             -           2.3 or 6         Painting not required
      mastic coated
      Valve bodies            Below 65           6         Inorganic zinc           -               Epoxy
                                                                                                 polyamide or
                                                                                                     vinyl
      Valve bodies             65-250            6         Inorganic zinc           -              Silicone
                                                                                                  aluminium
      Valve bodies             250-540           6         Inorganic zinc           -              Silicone

      Metals to be                -                        Inorganic zinc           -                   -
      insulated
      Metals to be fire           -             (c)              (c)                -                   -
      proofed


     (a)       Stainless steel, aluminium and vinyl coated jacketing do not require painting.
     (b)       This alternate shall only be used when sandblasting is not permitted.
     (c)       The surface preparation and primer shall be in accordance with the fireproofing
               manufacturer's requirements.


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                                                            Table 4

                                                  Tankage Exterior Surfaces
                                                Normal Industrial Environment

                                                                    Paint system (c)

      Exterior Surface            SSPC                Primer             Inter             Finish
                               Surface prep.
                                    n°
      Shell & fixed              6, 8 or 9         Inorganic zinc          -           Vinyl or alkyd
      roof new (a)                                       or
                                                   zinc chromate
      Repaint (b)                2, 3, 6 or 7      Zinc chromate         Zinc          Vinyl or alkyd
                                                    or inorganic       chromate
                                                        zinc
      Floating roof                   6            Inorganic zinc          -           Vinyl or alkyd
                                                         or
                                                   zinc chromate

     (a)         Use of surface preparation SSPC n°2 or 3 and application of 2 coats of zinc chromate with
                 an alkyd finish may be substituted where sand blasting is not permitted.
     (b)         Maintenance paint system to be used.
     (c)         Painting as per Table 6 is recommended.

                                                            Table 5

                                               Tankage Exterior Surfaces
                                            Corrosive Industrial Environment

                                                                        Paint system (c)

        Exterior                  SSPC                   Primer           Inter                  Finish
        Surface              Surface prep. n°
      Shell      &               5, or 10                Epoxy            Epoxy            Polyurethane
      fixed roof                                       Polyamide        Polyamide
                                   wet                                                 (2 coats of 40 µ mini.
                                                      (100 µ mini.)    (150 µ mini.)         each one)
      Repaint          Rust area 5, or 10 wet            Epoxy            Epoxy            Polyurethane
                                                       Polyamide        Polyamide
                           Other areas 7                                               (2 coats of 40 µ mini.
                                                      (100 µ mini.)    (150 µ mini.)
                                                                                             each one)
      Floating                   5, or 10            Inorganic zinc       Vinyl                Vinyl
      roof


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     (a)       Painting as per Table 6 is recommended.

                                                         Table 6

                                              Tankage Exterior Surfaces
                                          Corrosive and Marine Environment


                                                                                   Paint system (c)

      Exterior Surface                             SSPC              Primer              Inter                Finish
                                               Surface prep.
                                                     n°
      Shell & fixed                               5, or 10            Epoxy             Epoxy              Polyurethane
      roof new                                                      Polyamide       Polyamide (150
                                                    wet                                                   (2 coats of 40 µ
                                                                   (100 µ mini.)       µ mini.)           mini. each one)
      Repaint (b)             Rust area           5, or 10            Epoxy             Epoxy              Polyurethane
                                                                    Polyamide       Polyamide (150
                                                    wet                                                   (2 coats of 40 µ
                                                                   (100 µ mini.)       µ mini.)           mini. each one)
                             Other areas             7                   -              Epoxy              Polyurethane
                                                                                    Polyamide (150        (2 coats of 40 µ
                                                                                       µ mini.)           mini. each one)
      Shell and floating                          5, or 10            Epoxy             Epoxy              Polyurethane
      roof, new                                                     Polyamide       Polyamide (150
                                                    wet                                                   (2 coats of 40 µ
                                                                   (100 µ mini.)       µ mini.)           mini. each one)
      Repaint (b)             Rust area           5, or 10            Epoxy             Epoxy              Polyurethane
                                                                    Polyamide       Polyamide (150
                                                    wet                                                   (2 coats of 40 µ
                                                                   (100 µ mini.)       µ mini.)           mini. each one)
                             Other areas             7                   -              Epoxy              Polyurethane
                                                                                    Polyamide (150        (2 coats of 40 µ
                                                                                       µ mini.)           mini. each one)

     (a)       Application per manufacturer's recommendation.
     (b)       All edges must be feathered.




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                                                     Table 7

                                   Tankage Hydrocarbon Interior Surfaces
                             Normal Industrial, Corrosive and Marine Environment



                                                                            Paint system (c)

      Exterior Surface                        SSPC             Primer            Inter                Finish
                                           Surface prep.
                                                n°
      Crude-bottom                              10         Epoxy phenolic   Epoxy phenolic       Epoxy phenolic
      including bottom                                         amine            amine                amine
      and at least 1m of
      shell
                              Rust area         10         Epoxy phenolic   Epoxy phenolic       Epoxy phenolic
                                                               amine            amine                amine
      Repaint (b)            Other areas        7                -                -              Epoxy phenolic
                                                                                                     amine
      Jet     fuel-shell,                       5          Epoxy phenolic   Epoxy phenolic       Epoxy phenolic
      floor, roof and                                          amine            amine                amine
      supports
      Repaint (b)             Rust area         5          Epoxy phenolic           -            Epoxy phenolic
                                                               amine                                 amine
                             Other areas        7                -                  -            Epoxy phenolic
                                                                                                     amine

     (a)       Application per manufacturer's recommendation.
     (b)       All edges must be feathered.




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                                                           Table 8

                                        Tankage Hydrocarbon Interior Surfaces
                                               Water Interior Surface

                                                                                    Paint system (c)

       Exterior Surface                              SSPC              Primer             Inter                Finish
                                                Surface prep n°

      Fresh or raw water-shell, roof bottom           10          Epoxy polyamide    Epoxy polyamide     Epoxy polyamide
      and supports
                                 Rust area            10          Epoxy polyamide    Epoxy polyamide     Epoxy polyamide
      Repaint
          (2)                   Other areas           7                  -                   -           Epoxy polyamide

      Treated water shell, roof, bottom and           5           Epoxy polyamide   2 coats polyamide    Epoxy polyamide
      supports, new                                                                       epoxy
                                  Rust area           5           Epoxy polyamide   2 coats polyamide    Epoxy polyamide
      Repaint                                                                             epoxy
         (2)                     Other areas          7                  -                   -           Epoxy polyamide

      Potable water shell, bottom roof and            5              AWWA epoxy      AWWA coal tar         AWWA coal tar
      supports, new                                                    primer          epoxy                   epoxy
                                 Rust area            5              AWWA epoxy      AWWA coal tar         AWWA coal tar
      Repaint                                                          primer          epoxy                   epoxy
         (2)                    Other areas           7                   -              -                 AWWA coal tar
                                                                                                               epoxy
      Sea water shell, roof bottom and                5           Epoxy phenolic     Epoxy phenolic        Epoxy phenolic
      supports, new                                                   amine              amine                 amine
                                  Rust area           5           Epoxy phenolic     Epoxy phenolic        Epoxy phenolic
      Repaint                                                         amine              amine                 amine
         (2)                     Other areas          7                  -                   -             Epoxy phenolic
                                                                                                               amine
     (a)         Application per manufacturer's recommendation.
     (b)         All edges must be feathered.
     AWWA        American Water Works Association




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                                                           Table 9

                                                Mechanical Equipment
                                       Normal, Corrosive Industrial Environment


                                                                                    Paint system (c)

           Exterior             Temp               SSPC                  Primer               Inter                Finish
           Surface             range °C       Surface prep n°
      Bowers                  Below 65                 2              Zinc chromate           Alkyd        Gloss enamel plant
                              Above 65                 2                 Red lead                            heat resistant
      Bus       boxes             -                    2             Zinc chromate or             -              Enamel (b)
      exterior                                                           red lead
      Bus       boxes              -                   2             Zinc chromate or             -          Match background
      interior                                                           red lead
      Compressor                   -                   2             Zinc chromate or         Alkyd              Enamel (b)
                                                                         red lead
      Instrument                   -                   2             Zinc chromate or      Semi-gloss            Enamel (b)
      panels                                                             red lead           Enamel
      Instrument cases                                 2                                          Manufacturer's Paint

      Pump cases              Below 65                 2             Zinc chromate or         Alkyd              Enamel (b)
                                                                         red lead
                                65-540                 2                     -                    -          Plant heat resistant

      Pump & Motors                -                   2             Zinc chromate or             -            Gloss enamel
                                                                         red lead
      Starters                     -                   2             Zinc chromate or             -              Enamel (b)
                                                                         red lead
      Equipment                    -               2, 6 or 7          Zinc chromate               -           Anti-sweat coat
      subject
      to sweating
      Turbines                Below 65                 2             Zinc chromate or         Alkyd              Enamel (b)
                                                                         red lead
                                65-540                 2                     -                    -          Plant heat resistant



     (a)         For equipment not listed and for equipment located in marine and highly corrosive atmospheres, and
                 appropriate paint system, as recommended by the paint manufacturer, shall be followed.
     (b)         Manufacturers recommended painting is acceptable.




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                                                       Table 10

                                            Refinery Building Interiors



                                                             Paint system (a)

           Surface              SSPC            Primer              Inter            Finish
                             Surface prep
                                  n°
      Ceilings-plastered        1 or 2             -               Interior         Mat. finish
                                                                  undercoat      (latex) or semi-
                                                                                   gloss enamel
      Roofs concrete            1 or 2        Cement &                -             Mat. finish
                                            masonry primer                       (latex) or semi-
                                                                                   gloss enamel
      Structural-trusses        1 or 2       Zinc chromate                          Semi-gloss
                                               or red lead                            enamel
      Walls-plastered           1 or 2       Primer sealer            -             Mat finish
                                                                                      (latex)
      Masonry                   1 or 2        Block filler            -             Mat finish

      Galvanized sheet          1 or 2        Galvanized              -            Semi-gloss
      metal                                   metal primer                          enamel
      Trim       doors,         1 or 2       Zinc chromate            -          Interior gloss or
      Frames sashes (a)                        or red lead                          semi-gloss
                                                                                      enamel
      Metal lockers, etc        1 or 2       Zinc chromate            -           Gloss enamel
                                               or red lead
      Lavatory                  1 or 2       Zinc chromate            -          Interior gloss or
      partitions                               or red lead                          semi-gloss
                                                                                      enamel
      Water plants             2, 6 or 7     Zinc chromate            -          Anti-sweat coat

      Equipment                2, 6 or 7     Zinc chromate            -          Anti-sweat coat
      subject           to
      sweating

      Concrete floors                                        (not to be paint)


     (a)       Aluminium and stainless slut do not require painting.



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                                                     Table 11

                                             Refinery Building Exterior

                                                                 Paint system (a)

              Surface              SSPC             Primer            Inter                 Finish
                                  Surface
                                  prep.n°
      Steel-structural,              2           Zinc chromate    Zinc chromate          Oil gloss
      doors, windows                               or red lead      or red leat
      Galvanized      roofing       2 or 3        Galvanized             -                  Alkyd
      siding (Weathered)                          metal primer



     7.        INSPECTION - TESTING

               Thickness shall be checked at site with an Elcometer thickness gauge as per ASTM D 1186
               by the inspector defined in the Project Specification. Should the thickness be insufficient,
               the vendor shall perform the necessary additional work at his own expense. The thickness
               shall be measured in accordance with specification of SSPC — PA 2 — 73 T.

               The accuracy of dry film thickness shall be o 10 microns.

               At all times for purposes of analysis, the owner or his representative may take paint
               samples before and during application.

               The composition and characteristics of the products shall conform to the data sheets.

               Adhesion test shall be performed after the finishing coat has dried using a scraper comb
               with 1 mm between teeth. Adhesion shall exceed 80%.

     8.        GUARANTEE

               After 3 years, the 100% of the surface shall comply with the 8 Re 2 print of European scale
               of degree of rusting for anticorrosive paints.

               After 4 years, the 80% of the surface shall comply with the 8 Re 2 print.

               After 5 years the 60% of the surface shall comply with the 8 Re 2 print.

               Should the work prove defective during this guarantee period, the Vendor shall perform the
               necessary repairs at his own expense.




     ANCAP – División Industrialización

				
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posted:7/22/2011
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Description: Safety Data Sheet Zinc Chromate Primer Green document sample