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					AP Biology
Chp 40-43, 45 Homework

Chp 40: Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function

1.   Describe at least two obstacles and solutions that animals have experienced/developed in their move onto land and the
     world of multicellularity in a dry environment.

2.   Create a table that categorizes the four main types of tissues, provides examples of each and describe for each at least one
     example of how the tissue’s structure relates directly to its function in an animal.

3.   Relate Figures 40.7 & 40.10 to the concepts of ectotherm vs. endotherm & to basal metabolic rate (BMR) vs. standard
     metabolic rate (SMR).

4.   Describe the difference between positive and negative feedback and their relationship to homeostasis using examples from
     animal systems throughout the chapter.


Chp 41: Animal Nutrition

1.   Compare the 4 types of feeders and 3 main diet types.

2.   How does figure 41.3 demonstrate feedback? Is it positive or negative?

3.   How do hormones regulate appetite (fig 41. 5)? How may this relate to obesity?

4.   a. What are the 6 main nutrient needs of the body (3 are described – what are the other 3) & what are they used for?
     b. What are essential amino acids?
     c. Know the importance of vitamins: B1, folic acid, C, A, D
     d. Know the importance of minerals: Ca, P, S, K, Fe, I

5.   Complete the chart below – use it as a study guide for the process of enzymatic digestion and the respective enzymes.
6.   What are the accessory glands of the digestive system and why are they considered “accessory” organs? Describe their
     functions (check out fig. 41.19)

7.   Explain the roles of the hormones listed below on digestive activity – note whether each are a case of stimulation or
     inhibition. Why is this level of control an advantage to the organism? (see fig. 41.22)

               a.   Enterogastrone
               b.   Gastrin
               c.   Secretin
               d.   Cholecystokinin

8. Compare the digestive tracts of herbivores and carnivores – what adaptations, symbiotic relationships, etc. account for their
       specific types of digestion?

9. Describe two structure function relationships of the digestive systems of animals – ie. The brush border of small intestine,
         stomach folds/secretions/smooth muscle, teeth, etc.

Chp 42: Circulatory & Gas Exchange

1.   a. Compare and contrast open and closed circulatory systems. Be certain to focus on advantages of each.
     b. In looking at the various designs of closed circulatory systems shown in Figure 42.4, describe one advantage and one
           disadvantage of each.

2.   Create a visual to show the path a red blood cell would take through the mammalian circulatory system starting at the
     capillaries in the body tissue. (include structures and describe what the RBC is experiencing at each point that you feel is
     important to note).

3.   Explain the role of the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes in maintaining heart rate. (see Figure 42.8)

4.   How does the law of continuity relate to the velocity of blood flow and what is the relationship between blood pressure,
     velocity and total cross-sectional area? This is a key concept – why would blood flow slow in a capillary just when you think
     it will speed up because the capillary is narrow? Look at Figure 42.11 for help.

5.   How are capillaries able to perform their function of fluid/nutrient exchange (see Fig. 42.14)? How about O2/CO2 exchange
     (see figure 42.27)?

6.   a. What are the major components of plasma and what are their functions?
     b. What are the three cell types in blood and what are their relative amounts and functions?
     c. Describe the process of blood clotting.
     d. What are pluripotent stem cells and where do they come from? What role does erythropoietin play?

7.   What is the difference between the LDL’s and HDL’s? How do these relate to cardiovascular diseases?

8.   Compare the methods of breathing – gills, tracheal systems and lungs – what advantages and limitations do each posses?

9.   Using Figures 42.29 - What is the relationship between oxygen releasing from hemoglobin and the pH of the blood – why
     does this make it critical that humans maintain pH within a very strict range?

10. How is carbon dioxide transported? Write the equation of respiration that should be ingrained in your head and relate figure
    42.30 to this.

11. How would the concepts of oxygen release and CO2 transport relate to the control of breathing described in figure 42.26?
Chp 43: The Immune System

    1.   Use your reading and figure 43.2, 43.4, 43.6 and 43.14 to compare:
             a. Innate vs. Acquired Immunity
             b. External vs. Internal defenses
             c. Humoral vs. Cell-mediated responses (look at 43.16 & 43.17 too)

    2.   Consider the process of clonal selection of B cells (43.12) and immunological memory (43.13). How does this relate to
         both the specificity and memory of acquired immunity?

    3.   Describe the relationship of antigens/antibodies and how this relates to figures 43.8 & 43.18.

    4.   Compare active to passive immunity.

    5.   What is an allergy? An autoimmune disorder? Describe how HIV affects the body from infection to AIDS.

Chp 45: Hormones & the Endocrine System

    1.   The nervous and endocrine systems work in conjunction to maintain homeostasis with the body.
             a. compare and contrast their actions/functions
             b. describe their interrelationship – figure 45.2, 45.7, 45.8 & 45.9, 45.13 provide insight into this.

    2.   Develop a system to remember all the glands, hormones, functions and targets in table 45.1 (figure 45.6 will provide a
         visual of the glands as well that you should know!) the reading provides greater explanation and should be understood!

    3.   Discuss tropic vs. non-tropic hormones and provide examples of each in y our discussion.

    4.   Feedback is a major concept of biology and especially prevalent within the endocrine system. Describe positive vs.
         negative feedback – which is the most common and why? Explain feedback using figure 45.11 as a basis of this
         concept.

				
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