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									The Conservative Tide

          Ch. 25
A Conservative Movement

         Sec. 1
American conservatism had been gaining
support since Barry Goldwater’s run for the
presidency in 1964.

 Many people were
 questioning the
 power of the federal
Many Americans resented the cost of
entitlement programs.
 These are programs that guaranteed benefits to
  particular groups.
 By 1980, one out of every three households was
  receiving benefits from government programs.
 Americans were unhappy paying taxes to support these
Some people also became frustrated with
  the government’s civil right’s policies.
  The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was meant to end racial
  But over the years, some court decisions extended the
  Some people opposed laws that increased minority
   opportunities in employment or education.
During the 1970’s, right wing, grass-roots groups
       emerged to support single issues.

 Together, these groups were known as the New Right.
 Among the causes they supported were opposition to
 abortion & school busing, blocking the Equal Rights
 Amendment, & supporting school prayer
      Many in the New Right were critical of
               affirmative action.
 This was the policy that required employers to give
  special consideration to women, African Americans,
  and other minority groups.
 The New Right called this reverse discrimination,
  discrimination against white people and specifically
  white men.
Right-wing groups tended to vote for the same
     candidates. These voters formed the
           conservative coalition.

 This was an alliance of some intellectuals, business
 interests, & unhappy middle-class voters.
 Members of the conservative coalition shared
           some basic positions.
 They opposed big government, entitlement programs,
  & many civil rights programs.
 They also believed in a return to traditional moral
     Religious groups, especially Christian
fundamentalists, played an important role in the
            conservative coalition.

 Some of these groups were guided by television
 Some of them banded together by television
 Some of them banded together & formed the Moral
  Majority. It was founded by Rev. Jerry Falwell.
             The Moral Majority
 Interpreted the Bible literally.
 Believed in absolute standards of right and wrong.
 Criticized a decline in national morality.
 Wanted to bring back what they saw as traditional
  American values.
The conservatives found a
   strong presidential
                           Reagan won the 1980
  candidate in Ronald       nomination and chose
        Reagan.             George Bush as his
                            running mate.
   Reagan had been a movie actor & a
     spokesman for General Motors

 He won political fame with a
  speech for Barry Goldwater
  during the 1964 presidential
 In 1966, Reagan was elected
  governor of California.
 He was reelected in 1970.
 In the 1980 election, Reagan ran on a number of

 Supreme Court decisions on
  abortion, the teaching of
  evolution, and prayer in public
  schools all upset conservative
 Reagan also had a strong
  anticommunist policy
  Reagan was an extremely effective candidate.
 High inflation and the Iranian hostage crisis also
  helped Reagan.
 Reagan easily won the 1980 election.
 The election also gave Republicans control of the
1980 Presidential Election
Conservative Policies Under
    Reagan and Bush
           Sec. 2
 Reagan tried to reduce the size & power of the federal
 He wanted to make deep cuts in government spending
  on social programs.
 He convinced Congress to lower taxes.
 This approach is called Reaganomics
  Reaganomics depended on supply-side
              economics .
 This theory said that cutting
  taxes would motivate people to
  work, save, and invest.
 More investment would create
  more jobs.
 More workers would mean more
  taxpayers, which would cause
  government revenues to
         Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)

 Reagan also increased military spending.
 Between 1981 & 1984, the Defense Department budget
  almost doubled.
 In 1983, Reagan asked the country’s scientists to
  develop a defense system that would keep Americans
  safe from enemy missiles.
 This system became known as the SDI
 The economy grew. Interest rates & Inflation
              rates dropped.
 Government revenues, however didn’t increase as
  much as Reagan had hoped.
 So, the federal government ran up huge budget
 During the Reagan & Bush years, the size of the
  government debt more than doubled.
 Reagan nominated Antonin Scalia, Anthony M.
  Kennedy, & Sandra Day O’Connor to fill seats in the
  Supreme Court left by retiring judges.
 O’Connor was the 1st woman appointed to the Court.
 Reagan also nominated Justice William Rehnquist to
  the position of chief justice
  President George Bush later made the Court more
 conservative when he nominated David H. Souter to
     replace the retiring justice William Brennan.

 He also nominated Clarence Thomas to take the place
  of Thurgood Marshall.
 In many decisions, the Court moved away from the
  more liberal rulings of the previous 40 years.
 The Court restricted a woman’s right to an abortion,
  put limits on civil rights laws, & narrowed the rights of
  arrested persons.
Clarence Thomas
 Reagan tried to reduce the power of the
federal government through deregulation
 Reagan removed price controls on oil & gas.
 He deregulated the airline industry & ended
 government regulation of the savings & loan industry.
Reagan also reduced environmental regulation.
 He cut the budget of the Environmental Protection
  Agency (EPA).
 He ignored requests from Canada to reduce acid rain.
 Reagan appointed opponents of environmental
  regulation to oversee the environment.
  James Watt, Reagan’s secretary of the interior
   took many actions that were questioned by

 He sold millions of acres of
  public lands to private
  developers, allowed
  drilling for oil & gas in the
  continental shelf, &
  encouraged timber cutting
  in national forests.
 Conservative Victories in 1984 & 1988!!!
 By 1984, Reagan had the support of conservative voters
  who approved of his polices.
 These voters helped Reagan win the 1984 election
 Reagan defeated Democrat Walter Mondale
 Mondale chose Representative Geraldine Ferraro of
  N.Y. as his running mate.
 Ferraro became the first woman on a major party’s
  presidential ticket.
In 1988, Vice-President George Bush ran for
              the presidency.
 He won the Republican nomination.
 The Democrats nominated Massachusetts governor
 Michael Dukakis.
George Bush won the election with 53%
  of the popular vote & 426 electoral
1988 Election
Social Concerns in the
        Sec. 3
A scary health issue that arose in the 1980’s
   was AIDS (acquired immune deficiency
 The disease is caused by a virus that destroys the
  immune system that protects people from illness.
 Most of the victims of AIDS were either homosexual
  men or intravenous drug users who shared needles.
 Many people also contracted AIDS through
  contaminated blood transfusions.
  AIDS began spreading throughout the
  world possibly as early as the 1960’s

 It quickly became an epidemic in the U.S. &
 threatened much of the public blood supply.
 Another issue that concerned Americans
              was abortion.
 In the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision, the Supreme Court
  said women had the right to have an abortion.
 Opponents of legalized abortion described themselves
  as “pro-life”.
 Supporters of legalized abortion called themselves
Battles over abortion rights often competed for
 attention w/concerns over rising drug abuse

 The Reagan
  administration declared
  a war on drugs.
 Reagan supported laws
  to catch drug users &
  Education remained an important issue.
 In 1983, a report entitled “A Nation at Risk” criticized
  the nation’s schools.
 The report showed that American students’ test scores
  lagged behind those of students in other nations.
 Many people agreed that the nation’s schools were not
  doing a good job, but they did not agree on solutions.
    The nation’s cities were also in crisis.
 Many poor & homeless people lived in cities.
 Budget cuts had eliminated earlier federal programs to
  aid the cities.
 Welfare payments to the poor had not kept up with
  rising prices.
          The Equal Rights Struggle
 Women continued to try to improve their lives.
 Women’s groups were unable to get the Equal Rights
  Amendment (ERA) ratified.
 But more women were elected to Congress.
 By 1992, nearly 58% of all women had entered
                 the work force.

 But women still earned only 76 cents for every dollar a
  man earned.
 New divorce laws & social conditions increased the #
  of single women heading a household.
 Many of these women lived in poverty.
   Women’s organizations & unions called for pay
 This was an idea to make sure that women would
  earn the same pay as men doing the same work.
 Under the pay equity system, jobs would be
  rated according to the skills & responsibilities
  they required.
 Employers would set pay rates to reflect each
  job’s requirements.
 Women also called for benefits to help working
   Members of many minority groups achieved
    greater political power during the 1980’s.

 Hundreds of communities had
  elected African Americans to
  serve in public offices.
 In 1990, L. Douglas Wilder of
  Virginia became the 1st African-
  American governor in the U.S.
The Reverend Jesse Jackson
  ran for the Democratic
presidential nomination in
     1984 & in 1988.
  The income gap, however, between white
 Americans & African Americans was larger in
          1988 than it was in 1968.

 In addition, Supreme Court rulings further limited
 affirmative action.
Latinos became the fastest growing minority
          group during the 1980’s.
 Like African Americans, Latinos gained political power
 during the 1980’s
In 1988, President Reagan
appointed Lauro Cavazos
  Secretary of Education.
In 1990, President
Bush named Dr.
Antonia Coello
Novello, to the post
of Surgeon General
Native Americans faced cuts in federal aid.
 Some opened casinos on their reservations to earn $.
 Asian Americans made economic advances but did not
 gain much political power.
 Asian Americans were the 2nd fastest growing
     minority in the U.S. during the 1980’s.

 In 1976, an organization called Asian Women United
 (AWU) was founded to help Asian American women.
 During the 1970’s & 1980’s, homosexuals worked
          for laws to protect their rights.

 By 1993, seven states and 110 communities had
 outlawed discrimination against homosexuals.
           Sec. 4

Foreign Policy After the Cold
In March 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev became
      the leader of the Soviet Union.
  Gorbachev started talks with the U.S. to
        lessen Cold War tensions.

 He thought this would allow the Soviets to cut their
  military spending.
 It would also let them reform their economy.
     Gorbachev supported glasnost and
      perestroika in the Soviet Union.

 Glasnost = Openness in discussing social problems.

 Perestroika = Economic restructuring.
  Gorbachev let private citizens own land.

 He also allowed more free speech and held free
        Talks led to the INF Treaty
(Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty)
 Reagan and Gorbachev signed the treaty in December
 The Senate ratified it in May 1988.
  The weakness of the economy & Gorbachev’s
 reforms led to the collapse of the Soviet Union.
 All the republics that were in the Soviet Union became
  independent nations.
 Then they formed a loose confederation called the
  Commonwealth of Independent States.
The Collapse of the Soviet Union ended the Cold
 In January 1993, Russia & the U.S. signed the START II
 This treaty cut both nations’ nuclear weapons by 75%
President Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin
sign the Start II Treaty at a Ceremony in Vladimir
Hall, The Kremlin in Moscow, Russia , 01/03/1993
     Communists were knocked from power
         throughout Eastern Europe.

 Germany reunited.
 Other Eastern European nations enacted democratic
The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
Students in China demanded freedom of speech.
 In April 1989, protesters held marches to voice their
   The marches grew into large demonstrations in
    Beijing's Tiananmen Square.
   The Chinese military crushed the protesters.
   Soldiers killed hundreds of them & arrested others.
   People all over the world watched these actions.
   They were upset by what they saw.
         In 1979, Sandinista rebels overthrew the
                 Nicaraguan government.

 President Carter sent aid, as did the Soviet Union &
 In 1981, President Reagan charged that the Sandinista
  government was Communist.
 He supported the Contras, a group trying to defeat the
 After years of conflict, a peace agreement was signed
  & free elections were held in 1990.
Reagan sent U.S. troops to Grenada in 1983

 He feared its government had ties w/Cuba.
 The U.S. troops overthrew the pro-Cuban government.
 They set up a pro-American government in its place.
 In 1989, President Bush sent more than 20,000
             U.S. troops to Panama.
 He wanted to overthrow Panamanian dictator Manuel
   He also wanted to arrest him for drug trafficking.
   Noriega was taken by the American military.
   They took him to Miami.
   He was tried, convicted, & sentenced to 40 years in
   In 1983, terrorists linked to Iran took some
         Americans hostage in Lebanon.
 President Reagan condemned Iran.
 He called on U.S. allies not to sell Iran weapons for its
  war against Iraq.

Three years later, the American people found out
    that Reagan was breaking his own policy.
 Some of his staff had sold missiles to Iran.
 They were trying to free the hostages in Lebanon.
 Also, some of the profits from the sale were sent to the
  Contras in Nicaragua.
 These illegal activities were called the Iran-Contra
 In the summer of 1987, Congress investigated
 Some of Reagan’s staff were convicted of crimes in the
 In 1992, President Bush pardoned some of these
    In 1990, Iraq invaded
On January 16th, 1991, with the support of Congress &
    the United Nations, President Bush launched
Operation Desert Storm to fight Iraq and to free Kuwait
H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. and President George H. W. Bush
visit U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990
The U.S. & its allies staged air strikes against Iraq.

 On February 23, they also launched a ground attack.
 On February 28, President Bush announced a cease-
 The Persian Gulf War was over.
 Kuwait was freed.
Coming Next……Chapter 26

    The United States in
     Today’s World

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