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					                 Applanix POSPac Air 5.0

          A New GNSS-Aided INS Processing Method
          for Direct Georeferencing of Digital Airborne
                            Imagery




                       Thilanka Galappaththi
                       Applanix Corporation

                          March 26, 2008

March 26, 2008
  Outline

  • Current Airborne post processing
    technologies
  • What is POSPac Air 5.0?
        –   Software Features
        –   Applanix IN-Fusion ™ Technology
        –   Applanix SmartBase ™ Technology
        –   Robust Quality Check
        –   POSPac Air 5.0 Workflow
  • Performance Analysis


March 26, 2008                                2
  Current Airborne Post Processing
  Technologies
• Processing Software based
  on Loosely-Coupled                         IMU                    Inertial Navigator

                                                         Inertial
  Inertial Technology                                    data
                                                                                 Navigator
      – Utilizes Kinematic Ambiguity                                             Correction      Aided
                                                                                                 Navigation
        Resolution (KAR) differential                                                            Solution


        GNSS processing                                             Error Controller

      – GNSS Processing performed
        separately in independent                                                Estimated INS
                                                                                 errors
        Kalman filter
      – GNSS position used to aid                                    Kalman Filter
        the Inertial solution in a      Aiding Sensors


        GNSS/INS Kalman Filter


March 26, 2008                                                      3
  Limitation of Existing
  Technologies
  • Short Base Lines
        – For high accuracy solutions, short base lines (less
          than 30km) between rover and receiver required
        – Dense reference station infrastructure needed for
          large airborne missions
  • Flat Turns
        – To avoid loss of lock on satellites, aircraft must fly
          turns at bank angles less than 25 deg.
        – GNSS solution requires a minimum of 4 satellites
          at all times


March 26, 2008                                     4
  What is POSPac Air 5.0?
  • Powerful post-mission software for Direct Geo-
    referencing of airborne mapping sensors using GNSS
    and Inertial technology
  • Compatible with a variety of aerial sensors (Applanix
    DSS, large format film/digital cameras, LIDAR
    sensors)
  • New GNSS Aided Inertial Tools Set featuring:
        – Applanix IN-Fusion™ Technology : Tightly Integrated
          Inertial Technology
        – Applanix SmartBase ™ Technology: Post Processed
          VRS corrections based on a network of reference stations



March 26, 2008                                        5
  Software Features
  • Import, manage and assess the data from your POS
    AV system and GNSS reference stations
  • Produce highly accurate position and orientation
    solutions from the GNSS and Inertial data logged by
    your POS AV system
  • Generate direct exterior orientation of each image
    taken by your UltraCam, DMC, RMK Top, RC20/30,
    LMK 2000 and Applanix DSS cameras, and export it
    ready for third party photogrammetry software
  • Perform IMU to camera boresight and datum
    calibration


March 26, 2008                              6
  Software Features (Contd.)
  • Perform mission specific quality assessment and
    quality control of direct exterior orientation, camera
    calibration and datum transformations
  • Document and provide full reports pertaining to the
    solution performance of a given mission
  • Plan and manage complete DSS missions
  • Develop DSS imagery
  • Generate RapidOrtho products directly from DSS
    imager



March 26, 2008                                 7
  Software Features (Contd.)
  • Tool Sets
        – GNSS-Aided Inertial Tools
        – Photogrammetry Tools (POSEO, CalQC, ATG,
          STG)
        – LIDAR Tools (POSPC)
        – DSS Tools (MissionView, ImageView)




March 26, 2008                            8
  Applanix IN-Fusion™ Technology

  • Tightly-coupled Integration
        – Single, centralized Kalman Filter used to estimate inertial
          errors and GNSS ambiguities
  • Inertially Aided Kinematic Ambiguity Resolution
    (IAKAR)
        – Maintains solution accuracy during outages
        – aids in rapid ambiguity resolution after outages
        – Forward/backward processing
  • No restrictions on minimum number of satellites
    needed for solution
  • No limitations on banking angles


March 26, 2008                                           9
  Applanix IN-Fusion™ Technology

                 Primary Sensor
                                                  Inertial
                      IMU
                                                 Navigator
                                                                            Aided
                                                       Navigator            Navigation
                                                       Corrections          Solution

                                                   Error
                                                 Controller

                                        Filter                Estimated
                 Aiding Sensor    Corrections                 Errors
                 Primary GNSS               Kalman Filter
                    Receiver

                                     Floated                  Integer
                   GNSS Base
                                  Ambiguities                 Ambiguities
                    Receiver
                                             On the Fly
                                             Ambiguity
                                             Resolution



March 26, 2008                                                              10
  Applanix SmartBase™
  Technology
  • Based on Industry
    leading Trimble VRS
    Technology
  • Uses a network of
    reference stations to
    spatially model
    ionospheric/geometric
    errors
  • Network of 4-50
    reference stations can
    be used


March 26, 2008               11
  Applanix SmartBase™
  Technology
  • Higher accuracy solution over longer base
    lines
        – Distance to nearest base station can exceed 30
          km
  • Use of existing reference station networks
        – Eliminates need for setting up dedicated base
          stations
  • Automatic Download of reference station data
        – Software will automatically search for publicly
          available base stations (CORS, IGS, EUREF)


March 26, 2008                                  12
  Robust Quality Check
  • Quality Assurance and Control
        – Accurate network adjustment on all base lines and
          reference station coordinates
        – Uses 18-24 hrs. of continuous data
        – Integrity of reference stations in the network
          determined before GNSS Inertial Processing
        – Brings the concept of “best survey practice” to
          Airborne Surveying – increases robustness of
          solution



March 26, 2008                                13
  Applanix SmartBase ™ and IN-
  Fusion™
  • When the two technologies are combined together:
        – Users can fly up to 70 km away from the nearest base
          station in a SmartBase™ network and maintain centimeter
          level accuracy
        – Base stations can be up to 100 km apart and still produce a
          high accuracy solution
        – Banking angles can be greater than 20 deg within the
          SmartBase ™ network
        – Increase operational efficiency and aid in reducing
          expenditures associated with setting up dedicated base
          stations



March 26, 2008                                        14
  POSPac Air 5.0 Workflow
   Inputs        POSPac Air 5.0                                                                  Outputs

                                        Mission                            Image                 Developed
Raw Images
                                         View                               View                  Images


                                       SmartBase                       Camera
                                        Quality                       Calibration
                                        Check                          and QC


                           Find Base                Applanix
                            Stations               SmartBase
 Raw POS                                                                            Exterior
   Data                                                                                           Exterior
                                                                                   Orientation
                  Import                                        GNSS-                            Orientation
                                                                                   Processor
 Raw Base                                                       Inertial
Station Data                           POSGNSS                 Processor
                                                                                   Point Cloud   Point Cloud
                                                                                   Generator




March 26, 2008                                                                       15
  POSPac Air 5 Performance
  Analysis
  • Two different scenarios
        – Sparse Reference Station network
        – Simulated GNSS outages during turns
  • Comparisons made between POSPac 4.4
    (loosely-coupled) and POSPac Air 5.0




March 26, 2008                              16
  Performance Analysis – Sparse
  Reference Station Network
  •      Used a lower accuracy inertial system
  •      Contained turns with Bank Angles up to 40
         deg
  •      Many CORS reference stations available in
         the region
  •      Loosely-Coupled Solution
        – Processed with a single base station (max.
          baseline of 45 km)
        – Integer ambiguity resolution


March 26, 2008                               17
  Performance Analysis – Sparse
  Reference Station Network
• POSPac Air 5.0
     – SmartBase network with
       reference station separation
       between 80 km to 200 km
     – Distance to nearest
       reference station between
       77 km to 95 km
     – IAKAR processing in Fixed
       Integer mode




March 26, 2008                        18
  Performance Analysis – Sparse
  Reference Station Network
  • Comparative Analysis
        – Loosely coupled results with a single base station and
          POSPac 5 results have virtually same RMS



                                      Difference   RMS    Sigma   68%    95%    100%


                                                   0.03   0.02    0.04   0.06   0.08
                                      North (m)


                                                   0.05   0.04    0.05   0.11   0.13
                                      East (m)


                                                   0.08   0.04    0.08   0.13   0.17
                                      Down (m)




March 26, 2008                                               19
  Performance Analysis – Sparse
  Reference Station Network
  • Same data set
    processed with
    POSGNSS multi-base
    solution:
        – “Float” solution
        – Unreliable ambiguity
          resolution
        – Greater differences
          between solutions




March 26, 2008                   20
  Performance Analysis – Simulated
  GNSS Outages
  • Two scenarios tested
        – Full outages (zero SVs tracked) of up to 30 seconds
        – Partial outages (total SVs tracked dropping to 3-4) of up to 60
          seconds
  • Four reference stations (max. baseline distance less than 63
    km)

                 Partial Outages                           Full Outages




March 26, 2008                                               21
  Performance Analysis – Simulated
  GNSS Outages
  • Partial Outages
        – Quick ambiguity recovery after partial outages
        – Similar accuracy level as a standard KAR solution using a
          dedicated base station and NO outages




March 26, 2008                                        22
  Performance Analysis – Simulated
  GNSS Outages
  • Full Outages
        – Quick ambiguity recovery
        – Level of accuracy not diminished even with full outages




March 26, 2008                                        23
  Performance Analysis – Simulated
  GNSS Outages
                 Partial Outages       Full Outages




  • Same data sets run through POSPac 4.4 using
    POSGNSS multi-base solution mode
  • Solution accuracy degraded
  • Solution status in Float mode


March 26, 2008                           24
  Performance Analysis
  • Results show that POSPac Air 5 delivers a
    highly accurate solution even in less than
    ideal conditions
        – Traditional restrictions are no longer a limiting
          factor
  • POSPac Air 5 will improve user productivity,
    robustness and accuracy of airborne
    missions



March 26, 2008                                    25
                 Questions??




March 26, 2008                 26

				
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