uploads files ODS

Document Sample
uploads files ODS Powered By Docstoc
					ODS/GHG Reduction: Options in Foams
February 2011
                                                                                    Honeywell.com




                 Forces: commercializing new molecule(s)
     Environmental regulation or restriction . . . .
     • EU F-Gas Directive: restricts the use of materials with GWP > 150 in
       emissive applications
          – Restricts the use of HFC-134a in specific applications
          – EU one component foam industry regulation: 04 July 2008
          – EU novelty aerosol industry regulation: 04 July 2009
     • Kyoto Protocol: Developed countries reduce GHG emissions 5% (1990)
          – EU reduce GHG emissions by 8% (1990 levels)
          – Japan striving to meet Kyoto commitments
     • Industry concern with further GWP regulation
     • Taxation of raw materials basis GWP values
          – Economic impact on finished goods
     • Climate Change bills in U.S. Congress
     • Globally: reduction in ODS and climate change

                       Environmental regulation is now driving commercialization
India: February 2011                                                                       2
                                                                                    Honeywell.com




        Fluorine Products – a History of Innovation
  Markets Served: Mobile and Stationary Air conditioning, Refrigeration, Insulation
    Foam for Buildings and Electrical Appliances, Cleaning Solvents, Nuclear Power,
              Aerosols, Heat Pumps, Geothermal and Solar Renewables
                               MONTREAL PROTOCOL                EU LEGISLATION

                                CFC           HCFC              F-Gas Regulation
                              Phase-out     Phase-out



         CFCs                                 HFCs                     HFOs
                               HCFCs
   1900s                   1990s          2000s           2010s

                    Ozone Depleting       Non-Ozone Depleting     Low-Global-Warming
                  and Very High Global    but has High Global    Potentials and No Ozone
                   Warming Potential       Warming Potential         Depletion Effect

        Innovation Tied to Environmental Compliance
India: February 2011                                                                       3
                                                                                                Honeywell.com




      Montreal Protocol calls for HCFC-141b phase out
• Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
   Baseline average of 2009 and 2010
   Freeze 2013
   Reductions: 10%m : 2015 > 35% :2020 > 67.5% : 2025 > 2.5% per year reduction 2030 to 2040
   Complete phase out 2040
• HCFC-141b has been phased out in United States, Japan and Europe
       – HCFC transitioned the industries to environmentally improved materials
• Global pressure may accelerate the phase out date in other countries
       – example: India and UAE, as well as others
• HFC‟s are utilised where key needs demanded are:
       – insulation performance, and energy efficiency of finished products (refrigerators)
       – non-flammability property
• Hydrocarbons, and other non-HFC materials, while flammable, may be used:
    – where deficiencies in insulation performance and flammability can be tolerated
       – spray foam industry is particularly sensitive to flammability (application / equipment)



                       HCFC’s successfully phased out in many countries
India: February 2011                                                                                   4
                                                                                           Honeywell.com




                             Blowing Agent Attributes
 •   Phase out of ozone depleting substances: ODS
 •   Global warming potential: climate change impact reduction
 •   Ground level smog formation: limited contribution
 •   Low order of toxicity – safety in manufacturing use and finished products
 •   Non-flammable – safety in manufacturing use
 •   Insulation performance / energy efficiency: low lambda or k-factor
 •   Processing and equipment implications
      – Liquids: appliance (refrigerators); commercial refrigeration; spray foam; insulating panels
      – Gases: extruded polystyrene (thermoplastics); special applications
 • Compatible with formulations and processing equipment materials
      – Low conversion cost: equipment investment and reformulation
 • Economic valuation in use – translates into finished product economics
 • Commercially available on a global basis
                  Attributes support governments’ and industry’s preferences
India: February 2011                                                                              5
                                             Honeywell.com




                       What is HFC 245fa?




India: February 2011                                6
                                                                                                                              Honeywell.com




                   HBA-2: Liquid Low GWP Blowing Agent
Fluorochemical                                                                     500

• Liquid blowing agent                                                                       HBA-2

• Molecular weight: less than HFC-245fa                                                      c-C5




                                                            Vapor Pressure (kPa)
                                                                                             HFC-245fa



Environmental Properties
• Low global warming potential: GWP100 = 7
• Non-flammable: ASTM E-681
• Volatile Organic Compound: very low MIR
                                                                                    0
                                                                                         0               Temperature ( oC)               75

Toxicity Screening
• Preliminary stages: Results are very promising
• Assessments completed:
     –   Cardiac Sensitization
     –   Genetic Testing: Ames Assay & Mouse Micronucleus
     –   Acute Inhalation (Rat)
     –   Inhalation: 2 & 4 week
     –   Unscheduled DNA Synthesis


               Honeywell HBA-2 Blowing Agent promising low GWP molecule
India: February 2011                                                                                                                 7
                                                           Honeywell.com




              HFC-245fa & HBA-2 Insulation Applications

• Household refrigerators (appliances)
• Commercial refrigeration
     – food preservation
• Building construction (residential and
  commercial)
     – Sprayed foams
     – Roofing and sheathing (board stock)
     – Panels (faced panels, sandwich panels)




India: February 2011                                              8
                                                                                                                           Honeywell.com




                           HFO-1234ze(E) Blowing Agent
Hydrofluoroolefin (HFO)
   trans – 1,3,3,3 – tetrafluoropropene
        • CHF = CHCF3
        • Molecular Weight: 114
        • Gas: TBP = -19 °C (- 3 °F)

Environmental Properties
• Zero ozone depletion potential (ODP)
• Low global warming potential: GWP100 = 6                            1600
                                                                                            Vapor Pressure

• Non-flammable: U.S. Department of Transportation                    1400
                                                                                 HFC-134a    HFO-1234zeE


   – “Non-flammable Compressed Gas”                                   1200




                                                     Pressure (KPa)
                                                                      1000
   – No flame limits by ASTM E681                                     800

   – “Non-flammable”: EU Test Method A11                              600
                                                                      400
• Volatile Organic Compound Measure                                   200

   – Maximum Incremental Reactivity                                     0
                                                                             0      10       20          30          40      50       60

         • MIRHFO-1234zeE < MIREthane                                                                          o
                                                                                                  Temperature ( C)




                        Non-ODS / Low GWP / Non-Flammable / Low POCP
                            = Environmentally Sustainable Molecule =
 India: February 2011                                                                                                             9
                                                                Honeywell.com




                       HFO-1234ze(E) Insulation Applications

        • Extruded thermoplastics foams
              – Extruded polystyrene
        • One component foams
              – Sealing around doors and windows
              – Repairing damage
              – Adhesives
        • Two component „pressurized‟ foams




India: February 2011                                                  10
                                                                                      Honeywell.com




              Transition Strategy: Timeframe Dependent
                                        HFC-245fa ‘Bridge’
                                ·    ODS Reduction
                                ·    Environmental Compliance
                                ·    HCFC-141b Blends
                                ·    Low Capital Investment
                                ·    Non-Flammable


        HCFC-141b                                                           HBA-2
   ·   Appliance                                                  ·    ODS Reduction
   ·   Panels                                                     ·    GWP = 7
   ·   Spray Foam                                                 ·    Non-Flammable
                                                                  ·    Low Capital Investment


                 2011         2012                    2013      2014
  2010                                                                                   2015


         • HFC-245fa: Commercially available today – a transition solution
             – Widely utilised in NA. Specific applications: EU / Japan / China
             – HFC/HCFC-141b blend technology: „reduced cost‟ transition option
         • HBA-2: World-scale capacity target is mid-decade
             – Conversion to HFC-245fa „directly applicable‟ to HBA-2
       HFC-245fa: Low capital, medium term safe route to ODS management
India: February 2011                                                                        11
                                                                                                        Honeywell.com




               Blowing Agent Energy Efficiency (Lambda)
                                                        Blowing Agent Comparative PUR Lambda
                   Lambda: mW/m- o K at 24 o C


                                                 21.0
                                                          20.0
                                                 20.0                      19.6

                                                 19.0
                                                                                               18.2
                                                 18.0

                                                 17.0
                                                        HCFC-141b        HFC-245fa             HBA-2


    • Lambda is the measure of heat transfer through a material in a given time and temperature
    • Lower lambda is better: significant energy efficiency driven by insulation characteristics
    • When compared to HCFC-141b insulation performance:
        – HFC-245fa is equal to slightly better
        – HBA-2 has shown improvement over HFC-245fa
        – HFC-245fa/HCFC-141b blends should exhibit similar insulation performance
Transitioning: HCFC-141b  HFC-245fa  HBA-2 maintains energy efficiency
India: February 2011                                                                                          12
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Honeywell.com




                                          Sprayed Foam Comparison: HFC-245fa & HBA-2
                               25.0                                                                                                                25.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                         HFC-245fa
Thermal Conductivity (mW/nK)




                               24.0




                                                                                                                   Thermal Conductivity (mW/n K)
                                          Low water formulation                                                                                    24.0
                                                                                                                                                              High water formulation
                               23.0                                                 HFC-245fa                                                      23.0
                               22.0                                                                                                                22.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                             HBA-2
                               21.0                                                                                                                21.0
                               20.0                                                     HBA-2                                                      20.0
                               19.0                                                                                                                19.0
                               18.0                                                                                                                18.0
                               17.0                                                                                                                17.0
                               16.0                                                                                                                16.0
                                      4     9   14    19      24       29      34       39        44                                                      4               14           24           34               44
                                                      Mean Temperature, °C                                                                                                     Mean Temperature, °C

                                                                   Spray Foam Properties
                                                                   Physical Properties                    Low Water Content                                        High Water Content
                                                                   Blowing Agent                        HFC-245fa     HBA-2                                      HFC-245fa     HBA-2
                                                                   Density, kg/m3 (pcf)                 32.2(2.01)  29.6 (1.85)                                  35.7 (2.26) 42.6 (2.66)

                                                                   Dimensional stability, vol %
                                                                   Hot (90 °C)                             21.6                                         *           21.3           21.6
                                                                   Hot Humid (70°C, 95RH)                  15.6                                         *           14.9           18.4
                                                                   Cold (-29 °C)                            0.4                                       -0.7          -0.4           -0.3

                                                                   Compressive Strength, kPa (psi ) @
                                                                   10%
                                                                   Parallel                              138-172                                    138-172       138-172        138-172
                                                                                                         (20-25)                                    (20-25)       (20-25)         (20-25)
                                                                   Perpendicular                          90-110                                     90-110        90-110         90-110
                                                                                                         (13-16)                                    (13-16)       (13-16)        (13-16)

                                                                   % Closed Cell Content                   >90                                        >90           >90            >90


                               India: February 2011                                                                                                                                                             13
                                                                                           Honeywell.com




             Capital Investment: HFC versus non-HFC
 Why are HFC-245fa and HBA-2 blowing agents low capital investment?
 • They are non-flammable  none to limited capital requirement
      – Low risk – technology, workplace safety, environmental
 • HCFC-141b PUR equipment  little to no equipment modifications required
 • Both are liquid blowing agents with moderate vapour pressure
      – May require storage vessel up-grade  low capital investment
 • HFC-245fa conversion from HCFC-141b in US: Cost ≈ Minor

 Why are Non-HFC (hydrocarbon & methyl formate) blowing agents challenging?
 • Generally flammable  significant investment in flammability mitigation
      – Blending operations; foaming equipment; storage vessels
      – Consequences of miss-operations  inherent risk of fire / explosions
 • Factory emissions  probable ground level smog formation
 • Non-HFC PUR foams typically exhibit deficiency in insulation performance
 • Non-HFC conversion in US: Cost ≈ $500 K USD to $ 5 M+ USD
                                            (small asset)        (refrigerator factory)

 HBA-2 is a LOW capital investment, near ‘drop-in’ transition from HFC-245fa
India: February 2011                                                                             14
                                                                                                                                     Honeywell.com




                                                   Operational Cost: Implications
                                               Operational Cost: Energy Efficiency Recovery w/ non-HFC PUR
            Cost Relative to HCFC-141b




                                          2
                                         1.5
                                          1
                                         0.5
                                          0
                                                          HFC                   non-HFC: Panels            non-HFC: Refrigerators

                                               PUR Cost    Cost of Energy Efficiency Restoration: Panels & Refrigerators

  • HFC = lowest total cost path to high performance for regulatory compliance
  • Non-HFC solutions have inherent energy efficiency penalty
       – Cost to restore energy efficiency: panels – low cost; refrigerators – high cost
  • Non-HFC solutions exhibit deficiencies in density, dimensional stability, LTTR*
* LTTR: Long Term Thermal Resistance

       Non-HFC PUR requires additional costs to achieve equal performance
India: February 2011                                                                                                                       15
                                                                                  Honeywell.com




                           HFC Solutions Summary
• ODS and GWP reduction is imperative on a global basis
• HFC solutions: thru HFC-245fa „bridge‟ route . . .
      –   Provides a balanced, technology neutral / low capital investment pathway
      –   Positions the industry for future HBA-2 adoption
      –   HFC-245fa and HBA-2 do not contribute to ground level smog formation
      –   Non-flammable: inherently safer utilisation in applications
• HFC‟s allow for orderly industrial transition:
      – Frees up ODS rights under an ODS Cap
      – Accommodates industrial and economy growth
• HCFC-141b / HFC blends  possible attractive solution
      – ODS reduction on an interim basis
      – Energy efficiency neutral with respect to operational costs
      – Economic valuation: low capital investment & raw materials cost reduction



India: February 2011                                                                    16
                                                                                                   Honeywell.com




                  Blowing Agent Commercialization Status
        • HFC-245fa
              – Registered for use globally
              – Commercially available globally
              – Commercial manufacturing site: 2002 in U.S.
        • 1234ze(E)
              –   U.S.: SNAP listed / PMN pending EPA approval
              –   EU: Registered under REACH (article 24): 1000+ tonnes/year
              –   Japan: Registration complete
              –   Commercial capacity: 2008 in U.S.
              –   Commercialized in EU and Japan
        • HBA-2
              – Toxicity assessment underway: completion 1Q 2011
              – Global notifications/registrations
                       • U.S.: SNAP / PMN applications are in progress
                       • EU: REACH inquiry stage
                       • Japan: Filed for compliance with Japan Chemical Substances Control Law


          Environmental solutions have/will meet regulatory needs timing
India: February 2011                                                                                     17
                                                                                                                                                                 Honeywell.com




                                                        www.honeywell.com




      DISCLAIMER
      Although all statements and information contained herein are believed to be accurate and reliable, they are presented without guarantee or warranty of any kind,
      expressed or implied. Information provided herein does not relieve the user from the responsibility of carrying out its own tests and experiments, and the user
      assumes all risks and liability for use of the information and results obtained. Statements or suggestions concerning the use of materials and processes are made
      without representation or warranty that any such use is free of patent infringement and are not recommendations to infringe on any patents. The user should not
      assume that all toxicity data and safety measures are indicated herein or that other measures may not be required.




India: February 2011                                                                                                                                                      18
                                                                                         Honeywell.com




 Specific Innovation Requiring Regulatory Approval
   – Excellent Environmental / Physical / Economic Properties
        •   GWP of 7                            • Very Low POCP
        •   ODP < 0.0005
        •   Non-flammable                       • Compatibility (Plastics and Most Elastomers)
        •   Atmospheric Life < 50 days          • Similar Economics to Current HFC

   – Tremendous Potential as HFC / HCFC Replacement
        •   Low GWP Material Designed for “Traditional” Applications
        •   Foam Blowing Agent: Insulation Performance 3-5% Better vs.HFC-245fa
        •   Solvent: Exhibits Very Attractive Solvent Performance Properties
        •   Refrigerant for Chillers: Applications Testing by Major OEMs

   – Hurdle to Overcome: Lack of Environmental / Legal Certainty
        • ODP Lower Than Many Non-regulated Chlorinated Solvents
           – Methylene Chloride:     ODP: 0.0047        Atmospheric Life: ~ 180 days
           – Perchloroethylene:      ODP: 0.006         Atmospheric Life: ~ 110 days


No Certainty in Status Quo – Threshold Value Needed
India: February 2011

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:23
posted:7/22/2011
language:English
pages:19