UNIVERSITY OF WAIKATO RUGBY CLUB SEASON SQUAD CALENDAR January, February, March, April, May, June, July JANUARY Simple weekly program outline, Advanced outline, Representative outline Return to top Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Sevens Sevens Training Training 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Sevens Sevens Training Training 30 31 Sevens Training FEBRUARY Simple weekly program outline, Advanced outline, Representative outline Return to top Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesd Thursday Frid Saturday ay ay 1 2 3 4 5 Pre season Pre Training season Training 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sevens Pre season Pre Training Training season Training 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Sevens Pre season Pre Pre Training Training season season Training Training 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Pre season Pre Pre Training season season Training Game 1 27 28 29 Pre season Training MARCH Simple weekly program outline, Advanced outline, Representative outline Return to top Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Satu rday 1 2 3 4 Pre season Pre Training seas on Gam e2 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Pre season Possibility of Pre season Pre Training internal trial Training seas on Gam e3 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Senior team Pre season Pre season First announced Training Training Roun d Gam e1 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Training Training Gam e2 26 27 28 29 30 31 Training Training APRIL Simple weekly program outline, Advanced outline, Representative outline Return to top Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturda 1 Game 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Training Training Game 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Training Training Game 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Training Training Game 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Training Training Game 30 MAY Simple weekly program outline, Advanced outline, Representative outline Return to top Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturda 1 2 3 4 5 6 Training Training Game 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Training Training Game 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Training Training Game 1 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Training Training Game 1 28 29 30 Training JUNE Simple weekly program outline, Advanced outline, Representative outline Return to top Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturda 1 2 3 Training Second round Game 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Training Training Game 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Training Training Game 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Training Training Game 25 26 27 28 29 30 Training Training JULY Simple weekly program outline, Advanced outline, Representative outline Return to top Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturda 1 Game 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Training Training Game 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Training Training Game 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Training Training Finals Ro 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Training Training Finals 30 31 OVERVIEW OF YEARLY(PERIODISED) TRAINING PLAN (Component Oct Nov-dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July A S Aerobic Base Base Base & Base & Maint Maint Maint Maint Maint Tran Intensity Intensity Anaerobic Touch Touch Touch & Tolerance Production Maint - Devlpmt - Peaking Tran Fartlek - - Maint Devlpmt Tolerance Fartlek Tolerance Production Weights Intro Hypertrphy Hypertrphy Strength Strength Power Power Power Power Tran Strength Strength Strength Strength Maint Maint Maint Maint Power Intro Intro Dvlpmt Dvlpmt Dvlpmt Maint Maint Tran General Specific Speed Min Min Intro drills Basic Basic drills Specific Specific maint Maint Tran drills drills drills Stability Intro Dvlpmt Dvlpmt Dvlpmt Dvlpmt Maint Maint Maint Maint Tran Flexibility Intro Dvlpmt Dvlpmt Dvlpmt Dvlpmt Maint Maint Maint Maint Tran INTRODUCTION TO PERIODISATION Please note the following is taken from a series of notes I have made. Hence it probably doesn't read very well. Periodisation of training is a technique used by virtually all competitive athletes. It is a method of systematically planning training so as to optimise performance and reduce the likelihood of overtraining. The training period leading into competition is divided into different periods or cycles. Each cycle emphasises development of a particular component and the components are developed in a structured sequential progression until a peak is attained. Initially periodisation was developed in Eastern Europe to develop optimal strength for sports such as weight lifting and throwing events. The principle of periodisation was later modified and developed for a number of different sport events. This principle of training tended to be far more effective than replicating the same type of training day after day or altering training in an unplanned and irregular way. While a sport may only require optimal conditioning of a few components (eg aerobic, anaerobic, strength, speed, power etc) developing these components often requires good conditioning in other "pre requisite" components. Examples of this follow: While 400m performance may be predominantly due to anaerobic capabilities, aerobic conditioning is essential for anaerobic performance. A good aerobic base will lift anaerobic performance and enable a greater volume of anaerobic training to be performed. Similarily power performance requires a good strength base as power is strength at speed (ie strong movements performed quickly). Poor strength not only limits power development but it can also increase the risk of injury as strength training also strengthens joints and bones which are under tremendous strain during power activities. Development of strength in turn requires development of muscle size through a hypertrophy program. Many alterations have been made to the original periodisation model due to the various sports having many different timeframes and requirements. The traditional model was developed for Eastern Block athletes who trained full time, in an extremely disciplined environment with full time professional coaches and they peaked for one maybe two events per year. PERIODISATION AND RUGBY Rugby on the other hand has many difficulties for developing an effective periodisation model some of which are included below 1) Performance in rugby often requires the development of a large number of components which could be very time dependent. 2) Different positions in rugby require different components. EG while all players need to be strong it is essential for a front row forward as they cannot compete if they are weak. On the other hand while backs need to be strong if they are not they could still play in these positions 3) The competition structure often features one or two qualification rounds to reach the final combined with a very long season. So when should you peak - for the final (and in doing so fail during the qualification rounds due to insufficient conditioning) or for the qualification round (and in doing so lose the final) 4) The lack of off-season conditioning and poor pre & in season training habits also make a training plan difficult to formulate (do you try and develop a little of everything or a lot of a couple of components - most teams I have dealt with tend to concentrate on aerobic-anaerobic endurance with no or little emphasis on strength, power, speed and flexibility) Therefore the traditional periodisation plan will not work for rugby and another model needs to be developed. Please note that an effective periodised model needs to be developed for each individual player taking into account their strengths and weaknesses, prior conditioning, genetic ability, time availability, motivation, season priorities (when and if a peak/s is required), injuries, goals, available finances (will effect training options), position played, age, stage of development (why spend hours training aerobic endurance of you are fit enough and your strength is poor) likes and dislikes etc. In the development of the training model the athlete and coach needs to evaluate what part of his or her training have worked or not in the past and the reason/s for this (an effective periodised program may take year to develop optimal conditioning therefore every years program should relate to an learn from the previous year/s). All these factors are important for developing an effective program and this process requires someone knowledgeable in this area to help out until the Athlete and Coach are familiar with the process. So what is an effective periodised model for a rugby season??? I have some ideas (see model above) but I believe that this question needs to be investigated further. To develop a good model the components need to prioritised for each position and the time frames needs to be determined. Eg Props: Strength, Power, Flexibility, Anaerobic endurance, Aerobic endurance, Speed Loose forwards: Anaerobic endurance, Power, Strength, Aerobic, flexibility …. Outside backs: Speed, Power, Anaerobic endurance ….. Etc etc. This is obviously difficult to do as in my own experience the nature of the game can be quite difficult from week to week (eg some games are seemingly continuous and free flowing resulting in moderate speed long duration running while other games are stop start affairs with extremely intensive bursts followed by very long rest periods). Two big questions before you start developing your periodised program- To peak or not to peak: Should you try for a couple of peaks in the season or a series of small peaks or try to maintain a reasonable level for the whole season (remember the higher the peak ie the closer to optimal conditioning, the less time the athlete can hold it) The answer to this depends on the individual and team Confident of cruising through the qualification rounds - set up for a short peak Not confident try to maintain a reasonable level for the whole season. How long should each component be developed How much hypertrophy before strength? How much strength before power? How long can you maintain strength gains for? How much aerobic work? How much anaerobic lactate tolerance and lactate production? For each position what is the optimal and mimimal level of Aerobic conditioning Anaerobic endurance (lactate tolerance) Anaerobic power (lactate production) Power (acceleration) Speed Strength Flexibility INTRODUCTION TO WEEKLY TRAINING PROGRAMS. It is important to develop a minimal level of physical conditioning. In the past teams used to train lightly on Thursday with nothing on Friday or Saturday morning to prepare for Saturdays game - the modern player should be fit enough to perform a comprehensive warm up (30-60 minutes) on the morning of the game (like all other athletes). My basic philosophy is to develop the program so that we have a single unload period in the week, which is the period leading into the Game. Therefore Game day is day one of the program and Sunday is not a day off (to much time is lost unloading into (Friday off) and out of the (Sunday off) game on Saturday). Sunday generally provides an opportunity for aerobic work (increases/maintains base and aids in recovery). Given Sunday is lightish Monday provides an opportunity for leg strength and/or power work. Tuesday is practise which is intensive (both upper and lower body). This may limit the recovery of the legs from weight training on Monday or Tuesdays practise may be compromised from Mondays strength/power work, however, there are limited options. Weights need to be done when the legs are "freshest" and given the cumulative effect of fatigue through the week until unloading starts on Thursday night /Friday morning, Monday seems to be the best time for leg strength / power / speed. Likewise power, speed and leg weights are done almost together due to limitations in time and the need to develop aerobic and anaerobic endurance. The cumulative fatigue of Monday and Tuesday means that Wednesday needs to be light on the legs which may provide opportunities to perform some upper body work (remember Tuesdays practise will also fatigue the upper body). Given the lighter day on the legs on Wednesday, Thursday is an opportunity to go hard on the legs again - leg weights /power /speed with a moderate practise on Thursday evening. Friday could be a day off if required but some light exercise can be beneficial in helping recovery from Thursday leg exercises while providing some advantages to the aerobic system. Most athletes in virtually all sports will tell you of the benefits of a comprehensive warm up in the morning before the game/event. This warm up should include 15-30 minutes of light aerobic activity, 10 minutes of "non-fatiguing" general body strength work followed by 15-20 minutes of flexibility work. This type of session prepares the body (and mind) for game day. Traditionally rugby players have complained that any exercise on Friday and/or Saturday would fatigue them for the game however if they are that unfit then it is unlikely that they will last 10 rather than 80 minutes For simplicity I have made a lot of assumptions and simplifications in the example training programs and overviews that are presented below. The biggest simplification I have made is not to develop position specific training programs although this is an important aspect of an advanced program which should be developed by the player in consultation with their trainer. The examples I present have been developed in three categories; simple, advanced and representative which are described below. Again please remember the following information are general guidelines only meant to stimulate thought and discussion rather than to be followed blindly. Return to top SIMPLE Should be the minimal that any senior player should undertake however it is my experience that this amount of training is often too much for many senior players. While the model may be limited in its construction it allows the player to fit training into their day. Remember this program is only an idea and you should seek professional advice so that your program will be modified for you as an individual Return to top ADVANCED This is the type of program that most senior rugby players should undertake which requires training twice a day for most of the season. While the model may be limited in its construction it allows the player to fit training into their day. Remember this program is only an idea and you should seek professional advice so that your program will be modified for you as an individual Return to top REPRESENTATIVE If you are serious about being a representative player then this is the type of commitment that you should undertake. Please note that the representative program is primarily structured for University students who can train more easily during the day People who have to work full time will need to modify training - the major modification being the performance of the speed / power work after work (maybe before leg weights). Remember speed / power training will not provide optimal results if performed to early in the morning. Remember this program is only an idea and you should seek professional advice so that your program will be modified for you as an individual EXAMPLE SIMPLE WEEKLY PROGRAMS February, March, April, May, June. July FEBRUARY SIMPLE Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM AM PM Power intro Practise Run Practise Weights Run (intensive) Base Strength Intensity PM Weights strength MARCH SIMPLE Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Either Run Weights Cycle Pre match Run preparation Aer Maint Strength Light 30 Aer Maint minutes? AM PM Speed basic Practise Or Run Practise GAME power- dvlpmt (intensive) Aer Maint PM Weights strength APRIL SIMPLE Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Either Run Weights Cycle Pre match Run preparation Aer Maint Maint & Light 30 Aer Maint power minutes? lower body AM PM Speed- Practise Or Run Practise GAME specific (intensive) Aer Maint Power- general PM Weights Maint Upper body MAY SIMPLE Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Either Run Weights Cycle Pre match Run preparation Aer Maint Maint Light 30 Aer Maint minutes? lower body AM PM Speed- Practise Or Run Practise GAME specific (intensive) Aer Maint Power- specific PM Weights Maint Upper body JUNE SIMPLE Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Either Run Weights Cycle Pre match Run preparation Aer Maint Maint Light 30 Aer Maint minutes? upper body AM PM Super Practise Or Run Practise GAME training (intensive) Aer Maint Lower body PM JULY SIMPLE Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Either Run Weights Cycle Pre match Run preparation Aer Maint Maint Light 30 Aer Maint minutes? upper body AM PM Super Practise Or Run Practise GAME training (intensive) Aer Maint Lower body PM EXAMPLE ADVANCED WEEKLY PROGRAMS February, March, April, May, June, July FEBRUARY ADVANCED Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Light 30-45 Run Power intro min - aerobic (run ,row, Aer Base Speed basic cycle etc) AM PM Power intro Practise Weights Weights Run Run Weights strength strength Speed basic (intensive) upper body Strength Easy Intensity upper body lower body PM Weights Practise Strength lower body MARCH ADVANCED Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Light 30-45 Run Power intro Cycle Pre match Run min - aerobic preparation (run ,row, Aer Base Speed basic Light 30-45 Aer Maint cycle etc) minutes? AM PM Power Practise Weights Weights GAME Weights dvlpmt strength strength (intensive) upper body Strength upper body Speed basic lower body PM Weights Practise Strength lower body APRIL ADVANCED Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Light 30-45 Run Power intro Cycle Pre match Run min - aerobic preparation (run ,row, Aer Maint Speed basic Light 30-45 Aer Maint cycle etc) minutes? AM PM Speed Practise Weights Weights GAME Weights specific strength strength Power (intensive) upper body Strength upper body General maint lower body PM Weights Practise Power lower body MAY ADVANCED Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Light 30-45 Run Speed Cycle Pre match Run min - aerobic specific preparation (run ,row, Aer Maint Power Light 30-45 Aer Maint cycle etc) specific minutes? AM PM Super Practise GAME Weights training strength (intensive) Maint upper body PM Practise JUNE ADVANCED Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Light 30-45 Run Speed and Cycle Pre match Run min - aerobic power maint preparation (run ,row, Aer Maint Light 30-45 Aer Maint cycle etc) minutes? AM PM Super Practise Extra Practise GAME Weights training practise?? strength (intensive) Maint upper (final round) body PM JULY ADVANCED Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Light 30-45 Run Speed and Cycle Pre match Run min - aerobic power maint preparation (run ,row, Aer Maint Light 30-45 Aer Maint cycle etc) minutes? AM PM Super Practise Extra Practise GAME Weights training practise?? strength (intensive) Maint upper (final round) body PM EXAMPLE REPRESENTATIVE WEEKLY PROGRAMS February, March, April, May, June, July. FEBRUARY REPRESENTATIVE Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Power intro Light 30-60 Run Power intro Weights Light 60 min - aerobic min aerobic Speed basic (run ,row, Aer Base Speed basic Strength (run ,row, cycle etc) lower body cycle etc) AM Weights strength Back & Bi PM Practise Weights Practise Light 30-45 Run Weights strength min aerobic strength (intensive) Chest Shldr (run ,row, Intensity Chest Shldr & Tri cycle etc) & Tri PM Weights Weights strength Strength Back & Bi lower body MARCH REPRESENTATIVE Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Power Light 30-60 Run Weights Weights Pre match Run dvlpmt, min - aerobic strength preparation (run ,row, Aer Base Back & Bi Strength Aer Maint Speed basic cycle etc) lower body AM Weights strength Back & Bi PM Practise Weights Power intro Light 30-45 GAME Weights strength min aerobic strength (intensive) Chest Shldr Speed basic (run ,row, Chest Shldr & Tri cycle etc)? & Tri PM Weights Practise Strength lower body APRIL REPRESENTATIVE Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Power Light 30-60 Run Power intro Light 30-45 Pre match Run general, min - aerobic min aerobic preparation (run ,row, Aer Base Speed basic (run ,row, Aer Maint Speed basic cycle etc) cycle etc)? AM Weights Weights strength Back & Bi Strength lower body PM Practise Weights Practise GAME Weights strength strength (intensive) Chest Shldr Chest Shldr & Tri & Tri PM Weights Weights strength Maint and Back & Bi power lower body MAY REPRESENTATIVE Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Power Light 30-60 Run Power Light 30-45 Pre match Run specific, min - aerobic specific, min aerobic preparation (run ,row, Aer Base (run ,row, Aer Maint Speed cycle etc) Speed cycle etc)? specific specific AM Weights Weights strength Back & Bi Maint lower body PM Practise Weights Practise GAME Weights strength strength (intensive) Chest Shldr Chest Shldr & Tri & Tri PM Weights Weights strength power lower Back & Bi body JUNE REPRESENTATIVE Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Weights Light 30-60 Run Power & Light 30-45 Pre match Run Maint Back min - aerobic speed maint min aerobic preparation & Bi (run ,row, Aer Maint (run ,row, Aer Maint cycle etc) cycle etc)? AM PM Super Practise Extra Practise GAME Weights training practise?? Maint (intensive) Chest Shldr & Tri PM JULY REPRESENTATIVE Return to top Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday AM Weights Light 30-60 Run Power & Light 30-45 Pre match Run Maint Back min - aerobic speed maint min aerobic preparation & Bi (run ,row, Aer Maint (run ,row, Aer Maint cycle etc) cycle etc)? AM PM Super Practise Extra Practise GAME Weights training practise?? Maint (intensive) Chest Shldr (final round) & Tri PM BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON WEIGHT TRAINING FOR RUGBY Major muscle groups utilised in rugby: Recommended weights exercises for rugby Strength periodisation for rugby General weight training guidelines Principles of weight training Principles of programme design TYPES OF TRAINING SYSTEMS Injury prevention and safety INTRODUCTION TO PERIODISATION MAJOR MUSCLE GROUPS UTILISED IN RUGBY: POSITION Priority MUSCLE GROUPS MAJOR EXERCISE/S Tight Hip & Knee extension Squats, hamstring curls Forwards Back and abdominals Back extension, sit ups, swiss ball 1-5 Shoulder extension (horiz) Bench pulls, cable rows, chin ups Shoulder Flexion (horiz) Bench press, incline bench press Loose Forwards Hip & Knee extension Squats 6-8 Back and abdominals Back extension, sit ups, swiss ball Backs Shoulder flexion (horiz) Bench press, incline bench press 9-15 Shoulder extension (horiz) Bench pulls, cable rows, chin ups REASONS Tight Forwards High level of strength (and power) in the lower body is essential for driving (offensively and defensively) which are important abilities in the tight forward role i.e. scrums, mauls, rucks, close quarter driving play and creating an offensive defense. Effective forward driving is generally at moderate speed (due to limited run up distance and high levels of opposition resistance) and the physical requirements are leg and back strength with the ability to protect the ball while in possession. Defensively and offensively the role of the tight forward is primarily wrestling which requires good horizontal flexion strength to enable grappling, ripping, holding and turning. Given the limitations in space and the high players density pushing or holding players off with the upper body is not as prevalent as in the back or loose forward exchanges where one on one encounters with a lot more room and time are more common. Loose Forwards and Backs High level of power in the lower body is essential for acceleration and driving which are very important physical aspects of these positions. Offensively the role of the loose forward and backs is to get past the opposition completely or partially so as to create time, position and options. The ability to fend a player/s off requires upper body strength to push or hold the player off using (horizontal flexion) chest, shoulder and triceps strength (often with only one hand). Offensively and defensively these positions (especially the loose forwards) also require good horizontal flexion strength to enable grappling, ripping, holding and turning in mauls and rucks. Notes: Slightly different conditioning emphasis maybe required if a loose forward is required to play more as an extra tight forward likewise some tight forwards (eg hookers) may play in a more loose role. The differences between positions are often not so much in the muscle groups used as in the level of strength and/or power required in each position. It is my belief that rugby players do not spend enough time on fundamental leg and horizontal flexion strength. The legs are not conditioned effectively due to fear of the danger of squats, deadlifts, straight-legged deadlifts and power cleans combined with their intensive nature and high levels of flexibility. In my experience players who do weights will spend time on the beach muscle (chest, shoulder, triceps and biceps) with some attention to the Lats and minimal on the legs. This needs to be changed especially for the forwards. Core stability (torso, abdominal and lower back strength) is very important for rugby however it is only "part" of the physical conditioning for the sport. I believe that some players, trainers and coaches are becoming so overcome with swiss-ball exercises that they removing essential core weight training exercises and hence reducing strength and power development. Return to top RECOMMENDED WEIGHTS EXERCISES FOR RUGBY TIGHT FORWARDS LOOSE FORWARDS BACKS Major Back squats Back squats Back squats Strength Bench pulls Bench press Bench press Exercises Bench press Bench pulls Bench pulls Dead-lifts (Front row) Core stability Core stability Core stability Minor Hamstring curls - calf Hamstring curls - calf Hamstring curls - calf raises raises raises Strength Exercises Chin ups Chin ups Shoulder press Bicep curls Bicep curls Tricep press Shoulder press Shoulder press Bicep curls Neck work (pulleys) Tricep press Power Power cleans Power cleans Power cleans Exercises Lunges Lunges Power step ups Power step ups STRENGTH PERIODISATION FOR RUGBY Hypertrophy Strength Strength Maintenance Power SETS (working) 6-12 3-6 2-3 3-6 REPS 8-12 1/2-8 2-6 8-12 INTENSITY Very High Maximal Maximal Maximal REST Period 2-3 minutes 3-10 minutes 3-5 minutes 3-5 minutes Time frame Sept/Oct - Dec/Jan Jan - Mar Apr - July Feb/Mar - June Sessions / week 2-3 2 1 1-2 Change prog @ 6 weeks @ 6 weeks @ 3 weeks @ 4 weeks Notes: Sets (working) - don't include warm up sets Please note that all the sets may not necessarily be done on the same exercise - for example hypertrophy chest may be 4 sets flat bench, 2 sets inclined, 2 sets flyes & 2 sets cable cross overs Session / week is the number of sessions per week you should work ALL THE MAJOR MUSCLE GROUPS. Eg 3 sessions per week means 3 x legs per week, 3 x back per week, 3 x chest per week etc. Timeframe and change prog (the time after which you should change your program construction) is very approximate and differs remarkably with each individual Change program construction (not necessarily the type of program - strength, hypertrophy etc) is important to ensure continual development. The above is only "GENERALISED IDEAS" for weight training. Everyone undertaking weight training should see an appropriately qualified trainer to develop a specialised periodised training program for him or her. One identical program very rarely works for a team due to differences in; genetic capability, time availability, prior conditioning, motivation, facilities etc. Return to top GENERAL WEIGHT TRAINING GUIDELINES Based on: Carpinter, P. (1993) Introduction to Weight Training. University of Canterbury Sport Science Centre. Perform a 5-10 minute whole-body moderate aerobic warm up ideally on the concept II rowing ergometer. Other options include running, stepping or cycling. 10 minutes mobilising major muscle joints: moderate stretching - moving to full range of motion Always exhale while lifting (inhale during recovery). Good technique is essential. The development of the muscle is dependent on the work done. Lifting too large a weight with poor technique will result in time lost due to injury. The correct weight with good form will result in the same amount of muscular work being done with a reduced risk of injury thereby increasing the overall training time and development. Contract - control; Lift the weight smoothly with balance. Control the weight as you return it to the starting point. It is very common for lifters to get injuries through not controlling the descent of the weight, instead they try and "bounce" the weight "back up". Exercise over the full range of movement; No short, sharp movements over a limited range, developing short inflexible muscles. Remember to keep your back straight while lifting. When doing leg exercises don't bend the knee past 90 degrees, always keep your knees in a straight line over your feet ie. don't perform exercises with your feet apart and knees together or vice versa. Don't lock your knees out at the end of the movement, always have a slight bend in your knees at full extension. When lifting free weights make sure that there are collars on the ends of the bars to stop the weights falling off and damaging something or someone. Good flexibility is essential for safety and to develop effective full range strength. The benefits of weight training is the isolation of the muscles involved. This allows a muscle group to be exercised to it's fullest potential rather than being limited by the weakness or fatigue in another muscle group. For the beginner the intensity of training created by the muscle group being worked under load and in isolation can cause a lot of initial aches and pains. To overcome this training must start off slowly with a low intensity and moderate volume. Return to top PRINCIPLES OF WEIGHT TRAINING Based on: Carpinter, P. (1993) Introduction to Weight Training. University of Canterbury Sport Science Centre. Through manipulation of the training methods weight training can be used to develop; 1. Maximal Strength: the maximum force that can be exerted in a single all out effort of unrestricted duration. The competitive weight lifter is concerned about maximal strength. 2. Power: the ability of the muscle to exert force with speed. This implies explosive action. Power is important to the volleyball player and high jumper. 3. Muscular Endurance: the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly or sustain a contraction against a moderate resistance. Muscular Endurance is important in activities like rowing and cross country skiing. Note; By definition strength is the amount of variable force that a muscle or homogeneous muscle group can exert at a specified velocity. 1. Overload. In order to receive continuing benefit from your programme you must follow an approach of progressive overload. That is, as your body adapts to the demands placed upon it you must progressively increase those demands if you wish continued improvement to occur. There are four variables that can be changed in order to make the programme progressively more difficult. These are: (a) Load: the weight or resistance against which a muscle works. b. Repetitions (Reps): the single complete action of an exercise from the starting position to completion and back to the starting position. c. Repetition Maximum (RM): the maximum weight able to be lifted for a particular repetition eg 10RM is the maximal weight able to be lifted for 10 repetitions. (c) Sets: a given number of complete and continuous repetitions of an exercise. (d) Rest Interval: the amount of rest/recovery taken between sets of an exercise or between different exercises in a programme. There are many different ways to change the load/reps/sets/rest interval combination in order to increase the demands of your programme. In general, increasing the load or the number of reps or sets, or decreasing the rest interval, all make a routine more demanding. 2. Specificity. The ideal combination of the variables listed above for the development of strength, power and muscular endurance are different. Generally, a low repetition, high load programme is used to develop muscular size and strength; a high repetition, low load routine improves muscle definition and muscular endurance. These programmes are outlined in this chart: VARIABLE IN PROGRAM DESIGN Hypertrophy Strength Strength Maintenance Power SETS (working) 6-12 3-6 2-3 3-6 REPS 6-12 1/2-6/8 2-6 8-12 INTENSITY Very High Maximal Maximal 30-50% 1RM REST Period 2-3 minutes 3-10 minutes 3-5 minutes 3-5 minutes Time frame Sept/Oct - Dec/Jan Jan - Mar Apr - July Feb/Mar - June Sessions / week 2-3 2 1 1-2 Change prog @ 6 weeks @ 6 weeks @ 3 weeks @ 4 weeks Notes: Sets (working) - don't include warm up sets Please note that all the sets may not necessarily be done on the same exercise - for example hypertrophy chest may be 4 sets flat bench, 2 sets inclined, 2 sets flyes & 2 sets cable cross overs Session / week is the number of sessions per week you should work ALL THE MAJOR MUSCLE GROUPS. Eg 3 sessions per week means 3 x legs per week, 3 x back per week, 3 x chest per week etc. Timeframe and change prog (the time after which you should change your program construction) is very approximate and differs remarkably with each individual Change program construction (not necessarily the type of program - strength, hypertrophy etc) is important to ensure continual development. It must be emphasized that the programmes suggested above are approaches achieved after a minimum of 3 to 4 months of regular and progressive work. During the first eight weeks a low load, high repetition programme with an emphasis on technique and safety is recommended even if your ultimate objective is the development of strength or power. Return to top Principles of Programme Design 1. Frequency and Duration Greater progress is realized with a three-times-a-week programme for 45-60 minutes each session, although twice-a-week may be more desirable when weight training is used to complement other current activity. There is no significant training benefits gained from high intensity exercise of a muscle or muscle groups more than 3 times per week. In addition, a muscle normally requires a minimum of 24-36 hours to fully recover from a heavy training session; therefore, any combination of three non- consecutive training days each week is the most acceptable approach. Experienced body builders, weight lifters and some athletes may eventually train 6 times per week for 2-3 hours each session. However, they still follow the above principles and split their training routine, thus working a particular muscle or muscle group on alternate days and generally no more than 3 times per week. Return to top 2. TYPES OF TRAINING SYSTEMS (Reference, Fleck,S.J. & Kraemer,W.J. (1997) Designing Resistance Training Programs. Champaign: Human Kinetics.) Triangle of pyramid system: Progression from light to heavy weights with a drop in reps until 1-4 RM followed by a progression from heavy to light weights with a corresponding increase reps. EG starts with 10-12 reps (set 1), 8-10 reps (set 2), 6-8 reps (set 3), 4-6 reps (set 4), 2-4 reps (set 5), 1-2 reps (set 6), 2-4 reps (set 7), 4-6 reps (set 8), 6-8 reps (set 9), 8-10 reps (set 10) & 10-12 reps (set 11) Light to Heavy System Progression from light to heavy resistances with a decrease in reps until 1-4 RM. EG starts with 10-12 reps (set 1), 8-10 reps (set 2), 6-8 reps (set 3), 4-6 reps (set 4), 2-4 reps (set 5), 1-2 reps (set 6). Heavy to light system Progression from heavy to light resistances with a increase in reps until 8-12 RM. EG 1-2 reps (set 1), 2-4 reps (set 2), 4-6 reps (set 3), 6-8 reps (set 4), 8-10 reps (set 5) & 10-12 reps (set 6). Very good method of training for strength as the heavy weights - low reps are performed when the lifter is fresh enabling maximal work output while performing strength exercises. Multiple set system Consists of 2-3 sets of increasing resistance followed by several sets at the same resistance. This system can be performed at any resistance to develop strength (low reps - low sets) or hypertrophy (high reps - high sets). Multi poundage system Requires spotters to quickly strip 10-15 kg off the bar after 1st set. The 2nd set follows immediately after which another 10-15 Kg is quickly removed. Followed immediately by the 3rd set. The reps are 4-5 RM and the number of sets is 3 (Hypertrophy program) to 7 (muscle endurance). Cheat system This involves breaking strict form or cheating of an exercise near the maximal reps. This is to enable extra reps to be performed so that the stress on the muscle can be increased. Care must be taken that injuries do not occur due to the cheating. Only an extra 1-2 reps should be forced. Forced repetition system Spotters help the lifter perform 1-2 extra repetitions after the lifter is near complete failure. This enables the stress on the muscle to be increased. Ideal method for both strength and hypertrophy programs. Compound set system Involves performing an exercise for one muscle group followed by an exercise for another muscle group from a different body part. The alternating of muscle groups continues until the required sets are completed. This method enables the alternated muscle group to recover while the other muscle group is being exercised. This method is ideal for endurance weight training and weight training when time is limited. Double progressive system Both the resistance and repetitions are changed in a progressive manner. Initially the resistance is held constant until the reps have increased to a certain number (6-8 RM for strength & 10-12 for hypertrophy). Then the resistance is increased and held constant while the lifter tries to build the reps back up again. This process is continued until the weight no longer increases. Flushing A system used by body builders to improve hypertrophy and vascularisation (can also be used in muscle endurance program. This system involves combining in quick succession a major muscle group exercise with a minor exercise for the same muscle group. Functional isometrics A system where the lifter pushes the weight to the "sticking point" where the support bars on the power rack are positioned. The weight cannot be lifted past this sticking point which causes the lifter to push isometrically for 5-7 seconds. Usually performs only 1 reps. Negative system Once the lifter is nearly completely fatigued spotters help lift the weights so that the lifter can perform an extra 1-2 controlled unassisted lowering (eccentric contractions) movements. Super overload system Similar to negative weight training system however only 1RM is performed. The weights are loaded to greater than 1RM and spotter help lift the weight and the lifter controls the lowering (eccentric contraction) unassisted. Split routine system A common method of training for hypertrophy where the lifter performs many exercises for the same body part in one session. As not all body part can be trained in one session the various body parts are trained on alternative days. Super setting system Two types 1. Exercise are alternated between agonist and antagonist eg biceps curls followed by tricep press followed by bicep curls etc. The problem with this system is that often the antagonist works as a stabiliser and therefore will become fatigued when the agonist exercises. Eg the triceps will become a little fatigued during biceps curls etc. This system may be used in hypertrophy program where time is limited? 2. Uses on set of several exercise for the same muscle group in rapid succession. This system is used for muscle endurance and hypertrophy program What is the best system???? Depends on the stage of development of the player, time available and goals etc. I recommend the multiple set system as a simple method for both strength and hypertrophy. You can include the cheat, forced repetition or negative system for adding intensity to the workout. Other options are the triangle, light to heavy and heavy to light system. The heavy to light system is a good method for strength training. There are many, many options promoted by the big and the famous. Once you are in the groove and have developed good strength and size then you should look at modifying and experimenting with your program. However you should stick to the basics until sufficient development has been achieved as continual change can slow progress. Return to top 3. Selection of Exercises Your programme can include a wide variety of exercises, but should definitely: (a) Include some exercises that are specific to the actions of the activities or sport in which you are involved. (b) Provide adequate overall development of the shoulders, arms chest, torso and legs. (c) Strengthen the muscles opposing those which are most involved in activity and thus help maintain a proper balance of strength. 4. Order of Exercises The exercises should be ordered to provide a work/rest effect for muscles or body parts. Be sure that two exercises for the same muscle group are not done one after another. When following a regular routine, exercise using larger muscles or muscle groups or exercises requiring balance and co-ordination should be done early in a session before fatigue builds 5. Finding Your Starting Weights Starting weights can be estimated as a percentage of the maximum weight that you can lift in each exercise or a percentage of the maximum number of repetitions that you can do in a given time. These approaches are not recommended as it takes some time to learn the proper technique in the various exercises. Thus, maximum efforts on the first day pose a risk of injury to less fit individuals and undue stiffness and soreness in all those unaccustomed to weight training. It is more sensible to start with the lightest possible load. Systematically increase the resistance until you find the load that challenges you for a certain number of repetitions, but is not uncomfortable nor encourages you to use improper technique. 6. Progressing Change the load/reps/sets/rest interval combination in order to increase the demands of your programme. In doing so adhere to the following guidelines: (a) Be systematic in your overload approach. (b) Increase only one variable at a time, otherwise the immediate increase in the total volume of your work-out could be substantial. (c) Decrease the weight by an appropriate amount if you have a significant break in your training due to illness, injury, etc.. 7. Training Record Write down what you do. The department provides record cards for this purpose. They can be purchased from the Reception Office and left after each session on the filing shelves in the weight room. Keeping a record will assist your progress by helping remind you when it's time to change your load, etc. It will also provide a tangible record of overall improvement. Return to top Injury Prevention and Safety 1. Warm-up Prior to all physical activity a warm-up is desirable. Done properly it should increase heart rate and body temperature, stretch connective tissue at the ends of muscle, and help lubricate joints. This in turn will give greater ease and freedom of movement and reduce the risk of injury. For weight training the warm up should consist of a minimum of 5 minutes of continuous general body activity. This may be either one or a combination of: riding the bicycle ergometer, rope skipping, jogging laps of the track or jogging lengths of the gymnasium. This should be followed by a series of exercises to stretch the major muscle groups and mobilize the joints. 2. Correct Technique Perform the exercises as demonstrated to you and as described in the handouts. By using proper techniques and light weights in the first instance you will get maximum benefit from the exercise and lessen the chance of injury. Protect your lower back -- always try to position your hips directly below your shoulders (on a line to the floor) when you are lifting, moving or lowering weight. This position ensures that your spine is near-vertical, and you are better equipped to handle the forces on it than if your back is "straight" but angled toward the floor (as in "using your back like a crane "). 3. Proper Breathing Holding your breath during exertion should be strictly avoided as it can cause dizziness, faintness, headache and even short periods of blackout. Be sure to inhale and exhale on every repetition, inhaling on the preparation phase and exhaling on the effort phase. 4. Spotters In free weight exercises where the load is lifted around or above your head, you must have at least one person positioned to "spot" the weight in case anything unexpected occurs -- this rule should be practised for any amount of weight! The "spotter" should be positioned with their hands between you and the weight at all times -- a person standing one step back with hands on their hips is just as ineffective as a person standing across the room. 5. Back Care The pelvic tilt/flat-back position would be assumed in all exercises done seated or standing where there is a possibility of the spine getting out of proper alignment. By keeping the back flat and not hyperextending or arching the back during lifting, (as discussed in Correct Technique above) undue stresses on the lower back are minimized or eliminated. 6. Controversial Exercises You should avoid any exercise in which there is an inherent risk of injury, even when the exercise is done correctly. This includes: (a) Exercises which induce hyperextension of the back, since they result in uneven weight bearing on the spine and put undue stress on the lower back. This includes supine straight-leg lifts and straight-leg sit ups. (b) Leg exercises which go beyond a half squat position. More extreme low-squat positions put excessive stress on the knee joint as well as stretching the ligaments that are meant to stabilize the joint. (c) Exercises which force the knee out of line during lifting. Always keep your knees in a straight line over your feet ie. don't perform exercises with your feet apart and knees together or vice versa. Don't lock your knees out at the end of the movement, always have a slight bend in your knees at full extension. (d) Competitive weight lifting or power lifting exercises. These multi-joint, multi-degree of freedom exercises require very precise technique even when using relatively light weights. For this reason they are not recommended for the beginning stages of a training programme, and if included later in a programme should be done only under strict supervision and with appropriate spotters. The specific movement and strength requirements of some sports (for example, gymnastics or weightlifting) mean that some competitive athletes may have to include examples of these higher risk exercises in their advanced training programmes. However, young athletes, those new to weight training, and those conditioning for fitness or recreational activities are wise to avoid these risks. 7. Rate of Progress Progress slowly and systematically. Start with light weights and concentrate on technique. Use your own schedule, understand it, and don't be tempted to progress too rapidly. 8. Pre-Exercise Medical Clearance Weight training places significant demands on the heart and may be inappropriate to those who are habitually inactive, or, those with heart problems or high blood pressure. A medical clearance from your personal doctor is advisable in such cases. 9. Miscellaneous (a) Training with a partner can be very helpful. They can help you get the weight to the starting position, "spot" during the execution of an exercise, check that your technique is correct, ensure that you are breathing properly and motivate or assist you to perform a maximum number of repetitions. (b) Wear good indoor training shoes such as squash, basketball or aerobic type shoes that provide ample traction and protection. (c) When using free weights ensure that the collars are in place and secure on the bar. Be sure that the support pin is properly in place when using the multi-gym. INTRODUCTORY WEIGHT TRAINING PROGRAM Introduction Exercises and Exercise Order Progressions INTRODUCTION What follows is a very generalised weight training program. OVERVIEW: The exercises are the PRIMARY exercises from above The exercises are initially performed on machines so that the novice weight lifter can get used to lifting weight. Advanced lifter should use free weights whenever possible and practical. 3 sets of 20 reps of each exercise for the first four weeks. Followed by 3 sets of 12 reps of each exercise for the last four weeks Rest Interval of 2-3 minutes between sets (of the same exercise) After 1st fortnight weight training should be performed 3 times per week (no less than two time per week) with the weight training sessions placed at equal intervals throughout the week (e.g. Monday, Wednesday & Friday or alternatively Tuesday, Thursday & Saturday). The enables the muscle to recover during the rest day. The 20 reps was chosen as it places less stress (intensity) on the joints and developing musculature until the body has strengthened a bit and technique has developed. It is more likely that excessive load = excessive intensity will cause damage rather than the volume at this stage. The 12 reps were chosen as it is the maximal reps recommended in a hypertrophy (growth) program which should keep the loading (intensity) as low as possible. EXERCISES AND EXERCISE ORDER. 1) Leg press - to be replaced by squats as soon as possible (3-4 weeks) 2) Bench press (machine progressing to free flat bench) 2) Leg curls (hamstring curls) 3) Bench pulls or Lat pulldowns 3) Calf raises 4) Shoulder press (machine progressing to free weights) 4) Crunch sit ups 5) Bicep curls (machine progressing to free weights) 5) Back raises 6) Tricep press 6) Neck exercises Ideally you should do the exercises in the order presented above, if possible you could try and alternate between the exercises in the pairs stated above ie 1 set of 20 bench press followed by 1 set of 20 leg curls followed by 1 set of 20 bench press followed by 1 set of 20 leg curls until the 3 sets of each are completed. The rest period between sets of the same exercise stays the same (2-3 minutes), however the second exercise can be done during the recovery period of the first exercise. RECOMMENDED PROGRESSION week Session / Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 Comments week 1 1-2 20 reps 20 reps 20 reps Familiarisation with weight training. 2 2-3 20 reps 20 reps Max Increase weight only if > 20 reps in Set 3 3 3 20 reps Max Max Increase weight only if > 20 reps in Set 2 or 3 4 3 Max Max Max Increase weight only if > 20 reps in any set 5 3 12 reps 12 reps Max Increase weight only if > 12 reps in Set 3 6 3 12 reps Max Max Increase weight only if > 12 reps in Set 2 or 3 7 3 Max Max Max Increase weight only if > 12 reps in any set 8 3 Max Max Max Increase weight only if > 12 reps in any set ANAEROBIC TRAINING NOTES ANAEROBIC TOUCH ANAEROBIC FARTLEK ANAEROBIC LACTATE TOLERANCE (AND/OR UPPER BODY EXERCISE) ANAEROBIC LACTATE PRODUCTION ANAEROBIC MAINTENANCE NOTES Running is used to develop the legs anaerobic ability as these types of developments are muscle specific hence cycling or rowing is not nearly as good as running. High carbohydrate levels are essential for performance in anaerobic sessions - low or minimal carbohydrate levels means no lactic acid which means no anaerobic work capability which means no anaerobic training adaptations. Rugby players generally have the worst dietary habits of any sports groups I have ever worked with (see section on nutrition). Total number of complete anaerobic training sessions is a maximum of 3 per week. This means that only a total of three anaerobic sessions of any type can be undertaken each week. The major training session is Tuesdays team training. The best anaerobic session should be the game. If a third anaerobic session is to be undertaken then it is held on Thursday practise It is important to place anaerobic training within the competitive team training sessions as it is hard to motivate players to perform the required intensity if they do these sessions alone. This can be achieved by splitting the team so that the various team positions compete against each other. To foster competition we include the A&B teams in Tuesday fitness training. It is very important (but uncommon) that players develop upper body anaerobic endurance (especially the forwards - they are supposed to be mobile wrestlers) to enable repetitive upper body strength movements (commonly found in the game - tackling, mauling, rucking etc). A simple method is to perform upper body exercises during the rest period from running and vice versa - the maximal work period for the upper body is usually no more than a minute. The ratio of lower body (running) anaerobic endurance work to upper body (weights, dynabands, wrestling drills, pushing and torso etc) exercises that I use is approximately 3-5:1 Initially anaerobic training involves some fun team activities, the next stage involves simple running and exercise drills. At a later stage game specific drills are included. Anaerobic maintenance involves a predominance of game specific anaerobic drills. As always the periodised plan is revised and altered depending on the coaches and team requirements and perceptions combined with performance and fitness testing results ANAEROBIC TOUCH Touch is an ideal fun introduction to anaerobic interval training Players should try and spend as much time as possible on the field Games should ideally be of a high standard (fast, continuous, technical and tactically demanding) ANAEROBIC FARTLEK Introduction to anaerobic training Total initial training time 10 minutes Total final training time 20-30 minutes Work period 10-800 meters Rest period as long as player wishes ideally work to rest ratio between 1:1 - 1:4 Intensity ~90-95% maximum heart rate (>Anaerobic threshold) Sessions per week - maximum 2 ANAEROBIC LACTATE TOLERANCE (AND/OR UPPER BODY EXERCISE) Interval running or upper body exercise Total initial training time 10 minutes Total final training time 20-30? minutes Work period: ~ 1 minute (400m) Work to rest ratio 1:1 - 1:1/2, eg 1 minute on : 1 minute - 30 second off. Intensity ~95% maximum heart rate (>Anaerobic threshold>maximal pace) Sessions per week - maximum 2-3 Session one is usually on Tuesday, Session two is the game & third session would be the second team training session. Comments: This is the most common form of rugby training - beware you can train to long in this zone which will result in players waddling (dropping training intensity significantly below the anaerobic threshold) therefore you are no longer achieving the correct training stimulus. ANAEROBIC LACTATE PRODUCTION Interval running (and/or upper body exercise) Total initial training time 10 minutes Total final training time 20 minutes Work period: less than 1 minute (20-400m) Work to rest ratio 1:4 - 1:10, eg 1 minute on : 4 - 10 minutes off. Intensity maximum Sessions per week - maximum 2-3 Session one is usually on Tuesday, Session two is the game & third session would be the second team training session. Comments: highly competitive environment is essential to maintain maximal performance levels. ANAEROBIC MAINTENANCE Interval running (and/or upper body exercise) Total initial training time 10 minutes Total final training time 20-30 minutes Work period: 3 seconds - 2 minutes Work to rest ratio 1:1/2 - 1:10, Intensity 90-100% Sessions per week - maximum 2-3 Session one is usually on Tuesday, Session two is the game & third session would be the second team training session. Comments: This is a combination of lactate tolerance and production and is often made up of game specific scenarios (eg wrestling, ball support drills, simple technique drills, mauling, scrimmaging, games etc). The technique and tactical requirements are usually higher which I have found reduces physical intensity = eventually may lead to reduction in conditioning. It is hard to motivate the older more experienced players to be work hard as their technical and tactical superiority often allows them to take shortcuts.