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Rugby Training Guidelines - DOC

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					UNIVERSITY OF WAIKATO RUGBY CLUB SEASON SQUAD CALENDAR

January, February, March, April, May, June, July


JANUARY Simple weekly program outline, Advanced outline, Representative
outline Return to top

Sunday      Monday       Tuesday   Wednesday    Thursday   Friday      Saturday

                                                                          1

   2           3              4        5           6         7            8

   9          10              11       12          13       14           15

  16          17              18       19          20       21           22

            Sevens                              Sevens
            Training                            Training

  23          24              25       26          27       28           29

            Sevens                              Sevens
            Training                            Training

  30          31

            Sevens
            Training

FEBRUARY Simple weekly program outline, Advanced outline, Representative outline
Return to top

  Sunday           Monday           Tuesday     Wednesd    Thursday       Frid    Saturday
                                                  ay                       ay

                                       1           2             3            4      5

                                   Pre season                 Pre
                                    Training                season
                                                            Training

       6                  7            8           9             10        11       12

                       Sevens      Pre season                 Pre
                       Training     Training                season
                                                            Training

       13                14           15           16            17        18       19
                 Sevens       Pre season                        Pre                    Pre
                 Training      Training                       season                 season
                                                              Training               Training

    20             21             22            23              24            25         26

                              Pre season                        Pre                    Pre
                               Training                       season                 season
                                                              Training               Game 1

    27             28             29

                              Pre season
                               Training

MARCH Simple weekly program outline, Advanced outline, Representative outline Return to
top

  Sunday         Monday        Tuesday       Wednesday            Thursday         Friday     Satu
                                                                                              rday

                                                     1                   2           3          4

                                                                 Pre season                    Pre
                                                                  Training                    seas
                                                                                               on
                                                                                              Gam
                                                                                               e2

     5              6              7                 8                   9          10          11

                              Pre season     Possibility of      Pre season                    Pre
                               Training      internal trial       Training                    seas
                                                                                               on
                                                                                              Gam
                                                                                               e3

     12            13             14              15                 16             17          18

Senior team                   Pre season                         Pre season                   First
announced                      Training                           Training                    Roun
                                                                                               d

                                                                                              Gam
                                                                                               e1

     19            20             21              22                 23             24          25

                                Training                           Training                   Gam
                                                                                               e2
     26             27             28             29              30          31

                                 Training                      Training

APRIL Simple weekly program outline, Advanced outline, Representative outline Return to top

  Sunday         Monday         Tuesday       Wednesday       Thursday         Friday         Saturda

                                                                                                 1

                                                                                              Game

     2              3               4              5              6                7             8

                                 Training                      Training                       Game

     9              10             11             12              13               14           15

                                 Training                      Training                       Game

     16             17             18             19              20               21           22

                                 Training                      Training                       Game

     23             24             25             26              27               28           29

                                 Training                      Training                       Game

     30

MAY Simple weekly program outline, Advanced outline, Representative outline Return to top

  Sunday         Monday         Tuesday       Wednesday       Thursday         Friday         Saturda

                    1               2              3              4                5             6

                                 Training                      Training                       Game

     7              8               9             10              11               12           13

                                 Training                      Training                       Game

     14             15             16             17              18               19           20

                                 Training                      Training                       Game 1

     21             22             23             24              25               26           27

                                 Training                      Training                       Game 1
     28             29             30

                                 Training

JUNE Simple weekly program outline, Advanced outline, Representative outline Return to top

  Sunday         Monday         Tuesday       Wednesday       Thursday         Friday        Saturda

                                                                  1              2              3

                                                               Training                      Second
                                                                                              round

                                                                                             Game

     4              5               6              7              8              9             10

                                 Training                      Training                      Game

     11             12             13             14              15             16            17

                                 Training                      Training                      Game

     18             19             20             21              22             23            24

                                 Training                      Training                      Game

     25             26             27             28              29             30

                                 Training                      Training

JULY Simple weekly program outline, Advanced outline, Representative outline Return to top

  Sunday         Monday         Tuesday       Wednesday       Thursday         Friday        Saturda

                                                                                                1

                                                                                             Game

     2              3               4              5              6              7              8

                                 Training                      Training                      Game

     9              10             11             12              13             14            15

                                 Training                      Training                      Game

     16             17             18             19              20             21            22
                                      Training                           Training                         Finals Ro

     23                24                25                  26             27                28                 29

                                      Training                           Training                               Finals

     30                31




OVERVIEW OF YEARLY(PERIODISED) TRAINING PLAN

(Component Oct         Nov-dec       Jan           Feb        Mar        Apr        May       June      July    A
                                                                                                                S
  Aerobic      Base      Base       Base &        Base &      Maint     Maint       Maint    Maint      Maint Tran
                                                 Intensity
                                   Intensity
 Anaerobic Touch        Touch      Touch &          Tolerance Production Maint - Devlpmt - Peaking Tran
                                                 Fartlek
                                                        -       - Maint Devlpmt Tolerance
                                 Fartlek Tolerance Production
  Weights      Intro Hypertrphy Hypertrphy Strength Strength    Power    Power    Power     Power Tran

                                                                    Strength Strength Strength Strength
                                                                     Maint    Maint    Maint    Maint
   Power                             Intro        Intro  Dvlpmt      Dvlpmt Dvlpmt     Maint    Maint Tran
                                                                    General
                                                                             Specific
   Speed        Min      Min      Intro drills   Basic Basic drills Specific Specific maint     Maint Tran
                                                  drills              drills   drills
  Stability    Intro    Dvlpmt      Dvlpmt       Dvlpmt  Dvlpmt      Maint    Maint    Maint    Maint Tran
 Flexibility   Intro    Dvlpmt      Dvlpmt       Dvlpmt      Dvlpmt     Maint       Maint    Maint      Maint Tran


INTRODUCTION TO PERIODISATION

Please note the following is taken from a series of notes I have made. Hence it probably doesn't read very
well.

Periodisation of training is a technique used by virtually all competitive athletes. It is a method of
systematically planning training so as to optimise performance and reduce the likelihood of overtraining.
The training period leading into competition is divided into different periods or cycles. Each cycle
emphasises development of a particular component and the components are developed in a structured
sequential progression until a peak is attained.

Initially periodisation was developed in Eastern Europe to develop optimal strength for sports such as
weight lifting and throwing events. The principle of periodisation was later modified and developed for a
number of different sport events. This principle of training tended to be far more effective than replicating
the same type of training day after day or altering training in an unplanned and irregular way. While a sport
may only require optimal conditioning of a few components (eg aerobic, anaerobic, strength, speed, power
etc) developing these components often requires good conditioning in other "pre requisite" components.

Examples of this follow:

While 400m performance may be predominantly due to anaerobic capabilities, aerobic conditioning is
essential for anaerobic performance. A good aerobic base will lift anaerobic performance and enable a
greater volume of anaerobic training to be performed.

Similarily power performance requires a good strength base as power is strength at speed (ie strong
movements performed quickly). Poor strength not only limits power development but it can also increase
the risk of injury as strength training also strengthens joints and bones which are under tremendous strain
during power activities. Development of strength in turn requires development of muscle size through a
hypertrophy program.

Many alterations have been made to the original periodisation model due to the various sports having
many different timeframes and requirements. The traditional model was developed for Eastern Block
athletes who trained full time, in an extremely disciplined environment with full time professional coaches
and they peaked for one maybe two events per year.

PERIODISATION AND RUGBY

Rugby on the other hand has many difficulties for developing an effective periodisation model some of
which are included below

1) Performance in rugby often requires the development of a large number of components which could be
very time dependent.

2) Different positions in rugby require different components. EG while all players need to be strong it is
essential for a front row forward as they cannot compete if they are weak. On the other hand while backs
need to be strong if they are not they could still play in these positions

3) The competition structure often features one or two qualification rounds to reach the final combined with
a very long season. So when should you peak - for the final (and in doing so fail during the qualification
rounds due to insufficient conditioning) or for the qualification round (and in doing so lose the final)

4) The lack of off-season conditioning and poor pre & in season training habits also make a training plan
difficult to formulate (do you try and develop a little of everything or a lot of a couple of components - most
teams I have dealt with tend to concentrate on aerobic-anaerobic endurance with no or little emphasis on
strength, power, speed and flexibility)

Therefore the traditional periodisation plan will not work for rugby and another model needs to be
developed. Please note that an effective periodised model needs to be developed for each individual
player taking into account their strengths and weaknesses, prior conditioning, genetic ability, time
availability, motivation, season priorities (when and if a peak/s is required), injuries, goals, available
finances (will effect training options), position played, age, stage of development (why spend hours training
aerobic endurance of you are fit enough and your strength is poor) likes and dislikes etc. In the
development of the training model the athlete and coach needs to evaluate what part of his or her training
have worked or not in the past and the reason/s for this (an effective periodised program may take year to
develop optimal conditioning therefore every years program should relate to an learn from the previous
year/s). All these factors are important for developing an effective program and this process requires
someone knowledgeable in this area to help out until the Athlete and Coach are familiar with the process.
So what is an effective periodised model for a rugby season??? I have some ideas (see model above) but I
believe that this question needs to be investigated further.

To develop a good model the components need to prioritised for each position and the time frames needs
to be determined.

Eg Props: Strength, Power, Flexibility, Anaerobic endurance, Aerobic endurance, Speed

Loose forwards: Anaerobic endurance, Power, Strength, Aerobic, flexibility ….

Outside backs: Speed, Power, Anaerobic endurance …..

Etc etc.

This is obviously difficult to do as in my own experience the nature of the game can be quite difficult from
week to week (eg some games are seemingly continuous and free flowing resulting in moderate speed
long duration running while other games are stop start affairs with extremely intensive bursts followed by
very long rest periods).

Two big questions before you start developing your periodised program-

To peak or not to peak: Should you try for a couple of peaks in the season or a series of small peaks or try
to maintain a reasonable level for the whole season (remember the higher the peak ie the closer to optimal
conditioning, the less time the athlete can hold it)

              The answer to this depends on the individual and team

              Confident of cruising through the qualification rounds - set up for a short peak

              Not confident try to maintain a reasonable level for the whole season.

How long should each component be developed How much hypertrophy before strength?

              How much strength before power?

              How long can you maintain strength gains for?

              How much aerobic work?

              How much anaerobic lactate tolerance and lactate production?

For each position what is the optimal and mimimal level of Aerobic conditioning

              Anaerobic endurance (lactate tolerance)

              Anaerobic power (lactate production)

              Power (acceleration)

              Speed

              Strength
                Flexibility



INTRODUCTION TO WEEKLY TRAINING PROGRAMS.

It is important to develop a minimal level of physical conditioning. In the past teams used to train lightly on
Thursday with nothing on Friday or Saturday morning to prepare for Saturdays game - the modern player
should be fit enough to perform a comprehensive warm up (30-60 minutes) on the morning of the game
(like all other athletes). My basic philosophy is to develop the program so that we have a single unload
period in the week, which is the period leading into the Game. Therefore Game day is day one of the
program and Sunday is not a day off (to much time is lost unloading into (Friday off) and out of the (Sunday
off) game on Saturday).

Sunday generally provides an opportunity for aerobic work (increases/maintains base and aids in
recovery). Given Sunday is lightish Monday provides an opportunity for leg strength and/or power work.
Tuesday is practise which is intensive (both upper and lower body). This may limit the recovery of the legs
from weight training on Monday or Tuesdays practise may be compromised from Mondays strength/power
work, however, there are limited options. Weights need to be done when the legs are "freshest" and given
the cumulative effect of fatigue through the week until unloading starts on Thursday night /Friday morning,
Monday seems to be the best time for leg strength / power / speed. Likewise power, speed and leg weights
are done almost together due to limitations in time and the need to develop aerobic and anaerobic
endurance.

The cumulative fatigue of Monday and Tuesday means that Wednesday needs to be light on the legs
which may provide opportunities to perform some upper body work (remember Tuesdays practise will also
fatigue the upper body). Given the lighter day on the legs on Wednesday, Thursday is an opportunity to go
hard on the legs again - leg weights /power /speed with a moderate practise on Thursday evening. Friday
could be a day off if required but some light exercise can be beneficial in helping recovery from Thursday
leg exercises while providing some advantages to the aerobic system.

Most athletes in virtually all sports will tell you of the benefits of a comprehensive warm up in the morning
before the game/event. This warm up should include 15-30 minutes of light aerobic activity, 10 minutes of
"non-fatiguing" general body strength work followed by 15-20 minutes of flexibility work. This type of
session prepares the body (and mind) for game day. Traditionally rugby players have complained that any
exercise on Friday and/or Saturday would fatigue them for the game however if they are that unfit then it is
unlikely that they will last 10 rather than 80 minutes

For simplicity I have made a lot of assumptions and simplifications in the example training programs and
overviews that are presented below. The biggest simplification I have made is not to develop position
specific training programs although this is an important aspect of an advanced program which should be
developed by the player in consultation with their trainer. The examples I present have been developed in
three categories; simple, advanced and representative which are described below. Again please remember
the following information are general guidelines only meant to stimulate thought and discussion rather than
to be followed blindly.

Return to top

SIMPLE

      Should be the minimal that any senior player should undertake however it is my experience that this
       amount of training is often too much for many senior players.
      While the model may be limited in its construction it allows the player to fit training into their day.
      Remember this program is only an idea and you should seek professional advice so that your
       program will be modified for you as an individual

Return to top

ADVANCED

      This is the type of program that most senior rugby players should undertake which requires training
       twice a day for most of the season.
      While the model may be limited in its construction it allows the player to fit training into their day.
      Remember this program is only an idea and you should seek professional advice so that your
       program will be modified for you as an individual

Return to top

REPRESENTATIVE

      If you are serious about being a representative player then this is the type of commitment that you
       should undertake.
      Please note that the representative program is primarily structured for University students who can
       train more easily during the day
      People who have to work full time will need to modify training - the major modification being the
       performance of the speed / power work after work (maybe before leg weights). Remember speed /
       power training will not provide optimal results if performed to early in the morning.

Remember this program is only an idea and you should seek professional advice so that your program will
be modified for you as an individual

EXAMPLE SIMPLE WEEKLY PROGRAMS

February, March, April, May, June. July

FEBRUARY SIMPLE Return to top

           Monday       Tuesday       Wednesday     Thursday        Friday       Saturday       Sunday
  AM
  AM
  PM     Power intro     Practise         Run        Practise      Weights         Run

                        (intensive)     Base                       Strength      Intensity
  PM       Weights

           strength

MARCH SIMPLE Return to top

           Monday       Tuesday       Wednesday     Thursday        Friday       Saturday       Sunday
  AM                                  Either Run    Weights         Cycle       Pre match        Run
                                                                                preparation
                                      Aer Maint      Strength      Light 30                    Aer Maint
                                                            minutes?
 AM
 PM    Speed basic Practise        Or Run       Practise                 GAME
         power-
         dvlpmt    (intensive)    Aer Maint
 PM      Weights

         strength

APRIL SIMPLE Return to top

         Monday      Tuesday      Wednesday    Thursday      Friday     Saturday     Sunday
 AM                               Either Run   Weights       Cycle     Pre match      Run
                                                                       preparation
                                  Aer Maint     Maint &     Light 30                 Aer Maint
                                                power       minutes?

                                               lower body
 AM
 PM      Speed-      Practise      Or Run       Practise                 GAME
         specific
                    (intensive)   Aer Maint
         Power-
         general
 PM      Weights

          Maint

       Upper body

MAY SIMPLE Return to top

         Monday      Tuesday      Wednesday    Thursday      Friday     Saturday     Sunday
 AM                               Either Run   Weights       Cycle     Pre match      Run
                                                                       preparation
                                  Aer Maint      Maint      Light 30                 Aer Maint
                                                            minutes?
                                               lower body
 AM
 PM      Speed-      Practise      Or Run       Practise                 GAME
         specific
                    (intensive)   Aer Maint
         Power-
         specific
 PM      Weights

          Maint
        Upper body

JUNE SIMPLE Return to top

          Monday      Tuesday        Wednesday      Thursday       Friday       Saturday       Sunday
 AM                                  Either Run     Weights        Cycle       Pre match        Run
                                                                               preparation
                                      Aer Maint      Maint        Light 30                     Aer Maint
                                                                  minutes?
                                                   upper body
 AM
 PM        Super       Practise        Or Run       Practise                     GAME
          training
                      (intensive)     Aer Maint
        Lower body
 PM

JULY SIMPLE Return to top

          Monday      Tuesday        Wednesday      Thursday       Friday       Saturday       Sunday
 AM                                  Either Run     Weights        Cycle       Pre match        Run
                                                                               preparation
                                      Aer Maint      Maint        Light 30                     Aer Maint
                                                                  minutes?
                                                   upper body
 AM
 PM        Super       Practise        Or Run       Practise                     GAME
          training
                      (intensive)     Aer Maint
        Lower body
 PM

EXAMPLE ADVANCED WEEKLY PROGRAMS

February, March, April, May, June, July

FEBRUARY ADVANCED Return to top

          Monday        Tuesday        Wednesday Thursday             Friday       Saturday       Sunday
  AM                  Light 30-45        Run     Power intro
                      min - aerobic
                       (run ,row,       Aer Base     Speed basic
                       cycle etc)
  AM
  PM    Power intro     Practise        Weights        Weights         Run           Run          Weights
                                        strength                                                  strength
        Speed basic    (intensive)     upper body      Strength       Easy         Intensity     upper body
                                                     lower body
 PM     Weights                                    Practise

         Strength
       lower body

MARCH ADVANCED Return to top

        Monday         Tuesday       Wednesday Thursday           Friday       Saturday      Sunday
 AM                  Light 30-45       Run     Power intro        Cycle       Pre match       Run
                     min - aerobic                                            preparation
                      (run ,row,      Aer Base    Speed basic Light 30-45                   Aer Maint
                      cycle etc)                               minutes?
 AM
 PM      Power         Practise       Weights      Weights                      GAME         Weights
         dvlpmt                       strength                                               strength
                      (intensive)    upper body     Strength                                upper body
       Speed basic                                lower body
 PM     Weights                                     Practise

         Strength
       lower body

APRIL ADVANCED Return to top

        Monday         Tuesday       Wednesday Thursday           Friday       Saturday      Sunday
 AM                  Light 30-45       Run     Power intro        Cycle       Pre match       Run
                     min - aerobic                                            preparation
                      (run ,row,     Aer Maint    Speed basic Light 30-45                   Aer Maint
                      cycle etc)                               minutes?
 AM
 PM     Speed          Practise       Weights      Weights                      GAME         Weights
        specific                      strength                                               strength
         Power        (intensive)    upper body    Strength                                 upper body
        General                                   maint lower
                                                     body
 PM     Weights                                    Practise

         Power

       lower body

MAY ADVANCED Return to top

        Monday         Tuesday       Wednesday     Thursday       Friday       Saturday      Sunday
 AM                  Light 30-45       Run          Speed         Cycle       Pre match       Run
                     min - aerobic                  specific                  preparation
                      (run ,row,     Aer Maint       Power      Light 30-45                 Aer Maint
                      cycle etc)                    specific     minutes?
  AM
  PM       Super        Practise                                                    GAME         Weights
          training                                                                               strength
                       (intensive)                                                              Maint upper
                                                                                                   body
  PM                                                   Practise

JUNE ADVANCED Return to top

          Monday        Tuesday       Wednesday         Thursday      Friday       Saturday      Sunday
  AM                  Light 30-45       Run            Speed and      Cycle       Pre match       Run
                      min - aerobic                   power maint                 preparation
                       (run ,row,      Aer Maint                    Light 30-45                  Aer Maint
                       cycle etc)                                    minutes?
  AM
  PM       Super        Practise        Extra          Practise                     GAME         Weights
          training                    practise??                                                 strength
                       (intensive)                                                              Maint upper
                                      (final round)                                                body
  PM

JULY ADVANCED Return to top

          Monday        Tuesday       Wednesday         Thursday      Friday       Saturday      Sunday
  AM                  Light 30-45       Run            Speed and      Cycle       Pre match       Run
                      min - aerobic                   power maint                 preparation
                       (run ,row,      Aer Maint                    Light 30-45                  Aer Maint
                       cycle etc)                                    minutes?
  AM
  PM       Super        Practise        Extra          Practise                     GAME         Weights
          training                    practise??                                                 strength
                       (intensive)                                                              Maint upper
                                      (final round)                                                body
  PM

EXAMPLE REPRESENTATIVE WEEKLY PROGRAMS

February, March, April, May, June, July.

FEBRUARY REPRESENTATIVE Return to top

         Monday       Tuesday         Wednesday Thursday             Friday        Saturday       Sunday
  AM    Power intro Light 30-60         Run     Power intro          Weights                      Light 60
                    min - aerobic                                                               min aerobic
        Speed basic  (run ,row,        Aer Base       Speed basic     Strength                   (run ,row,
                     cycle etc)                                     lower body                   cycle etc)
  AM     Weights
         strength
        Back & Bi
 PM                   Practise      Weights       Practise    Light 30-45      Run         Weights
                                    strength                  min aerobic                  strength
                     (intensive)   Chest Shldr                 (run ,row,    Intensity    Chest Shldr
                                      & Tri                    cycle etc)                    & Tri
 PM     Weights                                    Weights
                                                   strength
         Strength                                 Back & Bi
       lower body

MARCH REPRESENTATIVE Return to top

        Monday       Tuesday       Wednesday      Thursday     Friday        Saturday      Sunday
 AM     Power      Light 30-60       Run           Weights     Weights      Pre match       Run
        dvlpmt,    min - aerobic                   strength                 preparation
                    (run ,row,      Aer Base      Back & Bi     Strength                  Aer Maint
       Speed basic  cycle etc)                                lower body
 AM      Weights
         strength
        Back & Bi
 PM                  Practise       Weights    Power intro Light 30-45        GAME         Weights
                                    strength               min aerobic                     strength
                     (intensive)   Chest Shldr Speed basic (run ,row,                     Chest Shldr
                                      & Tri                cycle etc)?                       & Tri
 PM     Weights                                 Practise

         Strength
       lower body

APRIL REPRESENTATIVE Return to top

        Monday       Tuesday       Wednesday Thursday           Friday    Saturday         Sunday
 AM      Power     Light 30-60       Run     Power intro     Light 30-45 Pre match          Run
        general,   min - aerobic                             min aerobic preparation
                    (run ,row,      Aer Base     Speed basic (run ,row,                   Aer Maint
       Speed basic  cycle etc)                               cycle etc)?
 AM      Weights                                  Weights
         strength
        Back & Bi                                  Strength
                                                 lower body
 PM                   Practise      Weights        Practise                   GAME         Weights
                                    strength                                               strength
                     (intensive)   Chest Shldr                                            Chest Shldr
                                      & Tri                                                  & Tri
 PM     Weights                                    Weights
                                                   strength
        Maint and                                 Back & Bi
       power lower
          body
MAY REPRESENTATIVE Return to top

        Monday         Tuesday       Wednesday        Thursday        Friday    Saturday      Sunday
 AM      Power       Light 30-60       Run             Power       Light 30-45 Pre match       Run
        specific,    min - aerobic                    specific,    min aerobic preparation
                      (run ,row,      Aer Base                      (run ,row,                Aer Maint
          Speed       cycle etc)                      Speed        cycle etc)?
         specific                                     specific
 AM      Weights                                      Weights
         strength
        Back & Bi                                    Maint lower
                                                       body
 PM                    Practise       Weights         Practise                   GAME         Weights
                                      strength                                                strength
                      (intensive)    Chest Shldr                                             Chest Shldr
                                        & Tri                                                   & Tri
 PM     Weights                                        Weights
                                                       strength
       power lower                                    Back & Bi
          body

JUNE REPRESENTATIVE Return to top

        Monday         Tuesday       Wednesday        Thursday      Friday    Saturday        Sunday
 AM     Weights      Light 30-60       Run             Power &   Light 30-45 Pre match         Run
       Maint Back    min - aerobic                   speed maint min aerobic preparation
          & Bi        (run ,row,      Aer Maint                   (run ,row,                  Aer Maint
                      cycle etc)                                 cycle etc)?
 AM
 PM       Super        Practise        Extra          Practise                   GAME         Weights
         training                    practise??                                                Maint
                      (intensive)                                                            Chest Shldr
                                                                                                & Tri
 PM

JULY REPRESENTATIVE Return to top

        Monday         Tuesday       Wednesday        Thursday      Friday    Saturday        Sunday
 AM     Weights      Light 30-60       Run             Power &   Light 30-45 Pre match         Run
       Maint Back    min - aerobic                   speed maint min aerobic preparation
          & Bi        (run ,row,      Aer Maint                   (run ,row,                  Aer Maint
                      cycle etc)                                 cycle etc)?
 AM
 PM       Super        Practise        Extra          Practise                   GAME         Weights
         training                    practise??                                                Maint
                      (intensive)                                                            Chest Shldr
                                     (final round)                                              & Tri
 PM
BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON WEIGHT TRAINING FOR RUGBY

       Major muscle groups utilised in rugby:
       Recommended weights exercises for rugby
       Strength periodisation for rugby
       General weight training guidelines
       Principles of weight training
       Principles of programme design
       TYPES OF TRAINING SYSTEMS
       Injury prevention and safety
       INTRODUCTION TO PERIODISATION

MAJOR MUSCLE GROUPS UTILISED IN RUGBY:

    POSITION          Priority       MUSCLE GROUPS                         MAJOR EXERCISE/S
        Tight                       Hip & Knee extension                  Squats, hamstring curls
       Forwards                     Back and abdominals              Back extension, sit ups, swiss ball
         1-5                      Shoulder extension (horiz)         Bench pulls, cable rows, chin ups
                                   Shoulder Flexion (horiz)          Bench press, incline bench press
 Loose Forwards                     Hip & Knee extension                           Squats
         6-8                        Back and abdominals              Back extension, sit ups, swiss ball
        Backs                       Shoulder flexion (horiz)         Bench press, incline bench press
         9-15                     Shoulder extension (horiz)         Bench pulls, cable rows, chin ups




REASONS

                                  Tight Forwards

High level of strength (and power) in the lower body is essential for driving (offensively and defensively)
which are important abilities in the tight forward role i.e. scrums, mauls, rucks, close quarter driving play
and creating an offensive defense. Effective forward driving is generally at moderate speed (due to limited
run up distance and high levels of opposition resistance) and the physical requirements are leg and back
strength with the ability to protect the ball while in possession. Defensively and offensively the role of the
tight forward is primarily wrestling which requires good horizontal flexion strength to enable grappling,
ripping, holding and turning. Given the limitations in space and the high players density pushing or holding
players off with the upper body is not as prevalent as in the back or loose forward exchanges where one on
one encounters with a lot more room and time are more common.

                                  Loose Forwards and Backs

High level of power in the lower body is essential for acceleration and driving which are very important
physical aspects of these positions. Offensively the role of the loose forward and backs is to get past the
opposition completely or partially so as to create time, position and options. The ability to fend a player/s
off requires upper body strength to push or hold the player off using (horizontal flexion) chest, shoulder and
triceps strength (often with only one hand). Offensively and defensively these positions (especially the
loose forwards) also require good horizontal flexion strength to enable grappling, ripping, holding and
turning in mauls and rucks.

Notes:

        Slightly different conditioning emphasis maybe required if a loose forward is required to play more
         as an extra tight forward likewise some tight forwards (eg hookers) may play in a more loose role.
        The differences between positions are often not so much in the muscle groups used as in the level
         of strength and/or power required in each position.
        It is my belief that rugby players do not spend enough time on fundamental leg and horizontal
         flexion strength. The legs are not conditioned effectively due to fear of the danger of squats,
         deadlifts, straight-legged deadlifts and power cleans combined with their intensive nature and high
         levels of flexibility. In my experience players who do weights will spend time on the beach muscle
         (chest, shoulder, triceps and biceps) with some attention to the Lats and minimal on the legs. This
         needs to be changed especially for the forwards.
        Core stability (torso, abdominal and lower back strength) is very important for rugby however it is
         only "part" of the physical conditioning for the sport. I believe that some players, trainers and
         coaches are becoming so overcome with swiss-ball exercises that they removing essential core
         weight training exercises and hence reducing strength and power development.

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RECOMMENDED WEIGHTS EXERCISES FOR RUGBY

                      TIGHT FORWARDS              LOOSE FORWARDS                      BACKS
       Major              Back squats                 Back squats                  Back squats
   Strength               Bench pulls                 Bench press                  Bench press
  Exercises               Bench press                  Bench pulls                 Bench pulls
                     Dead-lifts (Front row)
                         Core stability               Core stability               Core stability
       Minor         Hamstring curls - calf       Hamstring curls - calf       Hamstring curls - calf
                            raises                       raises                       raises
   Strength
  Exercises                 Chin ups                    Chin ups                  Shoulder press
                          Bicep curls                  Bicep curls                 Tricep press
                        Shoulder press               Shoulder press                 Bicep curls
                      Neck work (pulleys)             Tricep press


       Power             Power cleans                 Power cleans                Power cleans
  Exercises                                              Lunges                       Lunges
                                                     Power step ups              Power step ups




STRENGTH PERIODISATION FOR RUGBY
                            Hypertrophy            Strength         Strength Maintenance            Power
 SETS (working)                 6-12                  3-6                     2-3                     3-6
         REPS                   8-12                1/2-8                     2-6                    8-12
   INTENSITY                 Very High             Maximal                 Maximal                 Maximal
   REST Period              2-3 minutes          3-10 minutes            3-5 minutes              3-5 minutes
   Time frame           Sept/Oct - Dec/Jan         Jan - Mar              Apr - July            Feb/Mar - June
 Sessions / week                2-3                    2                       1                      1-2
   Change prog              @ 6 weeks             @ 6 weeks               @ 3 weeks               @ 4 weeks

Notes:

        Sets (working) - don't include warm up sets
        Please note that all the sets may not necessarily be done on the same exercise - for example
         hypertrophy chest may be 4 sets flat bench, 2 sets inclined, 2 sets flyes & 2 sets cable cross overs
        Session / week is the number of sessions per week you should work ALL THE MAJOR MUSCLE
         GROUPS. Eg 3 sessions per week means 3 x legs per week, 3 x back per week, 3 x chest per week
         etc.
        Timeframe and change prog (the time after which you should change your program construction) is
         very approximate and differs remarkably with each individual
        Change program construction (not necessarily the type of program - strength, hypertrophy etc) is
         important to ensure continual development.
        The above is only "GENERALISED IDEAS" for weight training. Everyone undertaking weight training
         should see an appropriately qualified trainer to develop a specialised periodised training program for
         him or her. One identical program very rarely works for a team due to differences in; genetic
         capability, time availability, prior conditioning, motivation, facilities etc.

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GENERAL WEIGHT TRAINING GUIDELINES

Based on: Carpinter, P. (1993) Introduction to Weight Training. University of Canterbury Sport Science
Centre.

        Perform a 5-10 minute whole-body moderate aerobic warm up ideally on the concept II rowing
         ergometer. Other options include running, stepping or cycling.

        10 minutes mobilising major muscle joints: moderate stretching - moving to full range of motion

        Always exhale while lifting (inhale during recovery).
        Good technique is essential. The development of the muscle is dependent on the work done. Lifting
         too large a weight with poor technique will result in time lost due to injury. The correct weight with
         good form will result in the same amount of muscular work being done with a reduced risk of injury
         thereby increasing the overall training time and development.
        Contract - control; Lift the weight smoothly with balance. Control the weight as you return it to the
         starting point. It is very common for lifters to get injuries through not controlling the descent of the
         weight, instead they try and "bounce" the weight "back up".
        Exercise over the full range of movement; No short, sharp movements over a limited range,
         developing short inflexible muscles.
        Remember to keep your back straight while lifting.
      When doing leg exercises don't bend the knee past 90 degrees, always keep your knees in a
       straight line over your feet ie. don't perform exercises with your feet apart and knees together or vice
       versa. Don't lock your knees out at the end of the movement, always have a slight bend in your
       knees at full extension.
      When lifting free weights make sure that there are collars on the ends of the bars to stop the weights
       falling off and damaging something or someone.
      Good flexibility is essential for safety and to develop effective full range strength.
      The benefits of weight training is the isolation of the muscles involved. This allows a muscle group to
       be exercised to it's fullest potential rather than being limited by the weakness or fatigue in another
       muscle group. For the beginner the intensity of training created by the muscle group being worked
       under load and in isolation can cause a lot of initial aches and pains. To overcome this training must
       start off slowly with a low intensity and moderate volume.

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PRINCIPLES OF WEIGHT TRAINING

Based on: Carpinter, P. (1993) Introduction to Weight Training. University of Canterbury Sport Science
Centre.

Through manipulation of the training methods weight training can be used to develop;

       1. Maximal Strength: the maximum force that can be exerted in a single all out effort of unrestricted
       duration. The competitive weight lifter is concerned about maximal strength.

       2. Power: the ability of the muscle to exert force with speed. This implies explosive action. Power is
       important to the volleyball player and high jumper.

       3. Muscular Endurance: the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly or sustain a contraction
       against a moderate resistance. Muscular Endurance is important in activities like rowing and cross
       country skiing.

Note; By definition strength is the amount of variable force that a muscle or homogeneous muscle group
can exert at a specified velocity.

1. Overload. In order to receive continuing benefit from your programme you must follow an approach of
progressive overload. That is, as your body adapts to the demands placed upon it you must progressively
increase those demands if you wish continued improvement to occur.

There are four variables that can be changed in order to make the programme progressively more difficult.
These are:

              (a) Load: the weight or resistance against which a muscle works.

   b. Repetitions (Reps): the single complete action of an exercise from the starting position to completion
      and back to the starting position.
   c. Repetition Maximum (RM): the maximum weight able to be lifted for a particular repetition eg 10RM
      is the maximal weight able to be lifted for 10 repetitions.

              (c) Sets: a given number of complete and continuous repetitions of an exercise.

              (d) Rest Interval: the amount of rest/recovery taken between sets of an exercise or between
              different exercises in a programme.
There are many different ways to change the load/reps/sets/rest interval combination in order to increase
the demands of your programme. In general, increasing the load or the number of reps or sets, or
decreasing the rest interval, all make a routine more demanding.

2. Specificity. The ideal combination of the variables listed above for the development of strength, power
and muscular endurance are different. Generally, a low repetition, high load programme is used to develop
muscular size and strength; a high repetition, low load routine improves muscle definition and muscular
endurance. These programmes are outlined in this chart:

VARIABLE IN PROGRAM DESIGN

                           Hypertrophy           Strength        Strength Maintenance           Power
 SETS (working)                6-12                 3-6                    2-3                    3-6
         REPS                  6-12             1/2-6/8                    2-6                   8-12
   INTENSITY                Very High            Maximal                Maximal              30-50% 1RM
   REST Period             2-3 minutes         3-10 minutes           3-5 minutes            3-5 minutes
    Time frame         Sept/Oct - Dec/Jan        Jan - Mar             Apr - July           Feb/Mar - June
 Sessions / week               2-3                   2                      1                     1-2
   Change prog             @ 6 weeks            @ 6 weeks              @ 3 weeks              @ 4 weeks

Notes:

        Sets (working) - don't include warm up sets
        Please note that all the sets may not necessarily be done on the same exercise - for example
         hypertrophy chest may be 4 sets flat bench, 2 sets inclined, 2 sets flyes & 2 sets cable cross overs
        Session / week is the number of sessions per week you should work ALL THE MAJOR MUSCLE
         GROUPS. Eg 3 sessions per week means 3 x legs per week, 3 x back per week, 3 x chest per week
         etc.
        Timeframe and change prog (the time after which you should change your program construction) is
         very approximate and differs remarkably with each individual
        Change program construction (not necessarily the type of program - strength, hypertrophy etc) is
         important to ensure continual development.

It must be emphasized that the programmes suggested above are approaches achieved after a minimum
of 3 to 4 months of regular and progressive work. During the first eight weeks a low load, high repetition
programme with an emphasis on technique and safety is recommended even if your ultimate objective is
the development of strength or power.

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Principles of Programme Design



1. Frequency and Duration

Greater progress is realized with a three-times-a-week programme for 45-60 minutes each session,
although twice-a-week may be more desirable when weight training is used to complement other current
activity. There
is no significant training benefits gained from high intensity exercise of a muscle or muscle groups more
than 3 times per week. In addition, a muscle normally requires a minimum of 24-36 hours to fully recover
from a heavy training session; therefore, any combination of three non-

consecutive training days each week is the most acceptable approach.

Experienced body builders, weight lifters and some athletes may eventually train 6 times per week for 2-3
hours each session. However, they still follow the above principles and split their training routine,

thus working a particular muscle or muscle group on alternate days and generally no more than 3 times per
week.

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   2. TYPES OF TRAINING SYSTEMS

(Reference, Fleck,S.J. & Kraemer,W.J. (1997) Designing Resistance Training Programs. Champaign:
Human Kinetics.)

Triangle of pyramid system:

Progression from light to heavy weights with a drop in reps until 1-4 RM followed by a progression from
heavy to light weights with a corresponding increase reps. EG starts with 10-12 reps (set 1), 8-10 reps (set
2), 6-8 reps (set 3), 4-6 reps (set 4), 2-4 reps (set 5), 1-2 reps (set 6), 2-4 reps (set 7), 4-6 reps (set 8), 6-8
reps (set 9), 8-10 reps (set 10) & 10-12 reps (set 11)

Light to Heavy System

Progression from light to heavy resistances with a decrease in reps until 1-4 RM. EG starts with 10-12 reps
(set 1), 8-10 reps (set 2), 6-8 reps (set 3), 4-6 reps (set 4), 2-4 reps (set 5), 1-2 reps (set 6).

Heavy to light system

Progression from heavy to light resistances with a increase in reps until 8-12 RM. EG 1-2 reps (set 1), 2-4
reps (set 2), 4-6 reps (set 3), 6-8 reps (set 4), 8-10 reps (set 5) & 10-12 reps (set 6). Very good method of
training for strength as the heavy weights - low reps are performed when the lifter is fresh enabling
maximal work output while performing strength exercises.

Multiple set system

Consists of 2-3 sets of increasing resistance followed by several sets at the same resistance. This system
can be performed at any resistance to develop strength (low reps - low sets) or hypertrophy (high reps -
high sets).

Multi poundage system

Requires spotters to quickly strip 10-15 kg off the bar after 1st set. The 2nd set follows immediately after
which another 10-15 Kg is quickly removed. Followed immediately by the 3rd set. The reps are 4-5 RM and
the number of sets is 3 (Hypertrophy program) to 7 (muscle endurance).

Cheat system
This involves breaking strict form or cheating of an exercise near the maximal reps. This is to enable extra
reps to be performed so that the stress on the muscle can be increased. Care must be taken that injuries
do not occur due to the cheating. Only an extra 1-2 reps should be forced.

Forced repetition system

Spotters help the lifter perform 1-2 extra repetitions after the lifter is near complete failure. This enables the
stress on the muscle to be increased. Ideal method for both strength and hypertrophy programs.

Compound set system

Involves performing an exercise for one muscle group followed by an exercise for another muscle group
from a different body part. The alternating of muscle groups continues until the required sets are
completed. This method enables the alternated muscle group to recover while the other muscle group is
being exercised. This method is ideal for endurance weight training and weight training when time is
limited.

Double progressive system

Both the resistance and repetitions are changed in a progressive manner. Initially the resistance is held
constant until the reps have increased to a certain number (6-8 RM for strength & 10-12 for hypertrophy).
Then the resistance is increased and held constant while the lifter tries to build the reps back up again.
This process is continued until the weight no longer increases.

Flushing

A system used by body builders to improve hypertrophy and vascularisation (can also be used in muscle
endurance program. This system involves combining in quick succession a major muscle group exercise
with a minor exercise for the same muscle group.

Functional isometrics

A system where the lifter pushes the weight to the "sticking point" where the support bars on the power
rack are positioned. The weight cannot be lifted past this sticking point which causes the lifter to push
isometrically for 5-7 seconds. Usually performs only 1 reps.

Negative system

Once the lifter is nearly completely fatigued spotters help lift the weights so that the lifter can perform an
extra 1-2 controlled unassisted lowering (eccentric contractions) movements.

Super overload system

Similar to negative weight training system however only 1RM is performed. The weights are loaded to
greater than 1RM and spotter help lift the weight and the lifter controls the lowering (eccentric contraction)
unassisted.

Split routine system

A common method of training for hypertrophy where the lifter performs many exercises for the same body
part in one session. As not all body part can be trained in one session the various body parts are trained on
alternative days.
Super setting system

Two types

   1. Exercise are alternated between agonist and antagonist eg biceps curls followed by tricep press
      followed by bicep curls etc. The problem with this system is that often the antagonist works as a
      stabiliser and therefore will become fatigued when the agonist exercises. Eg the triceps will become
      a little fatigued during biceps curls etc. This system may be used in hypertrophy program where time
      is limited?
   2. Uses on set of several exercise for the same muscle group in rapid succession. This system is used
      for muscle endurance and hypertrophy program

What is the best system????

Depends on the stage of development of the player, time available and goals etc. I recommend the multiple
set system as a simple method for both strength and hypertrophy. You can include the cheat, forced
repetition or negative system for adding intensity to the workout. Other options are the triangle, light to
heavy and heavy to light system. The heavy to light system is a good method for strength training.

There are many, many options promoted by the big and the famous. Once you are in the groove and have
developed good strength and size then you should look at modifying and experimenting with your program.
However you should stick to the basics until sufficient development has been achieved as continual
change can slow progress.

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3. Selection of Exercises

Your programme can include a wide variety of exercises, but should definitely:

                (a) Include some exercises that are specific to the actions of the activities or sport in which
                you are involved.

                (b) Provide adequate overall development of the shoulders, arms chest, torso and legs.

                (c) Strengthen the muscles opposing those which are most involved in activity and thus help
                maintain a proper balance of strength.

4. Order of Exercises

The exercises should be ordered to provide a work/rest effect for muscles or body parts. Be sure that two
exercises for the same muscle group are not done one after another. When following a regular routine,
exercise using larger muscles or muscle groups or exercises requiring balance and co-ordination should be
done early in a session before fatigue builds

5. Finding Your Starting Weights

Starting weights can be estimated as a percentage of the maximum weight that you can lift in each
exercise or a percentage of the maximum number of repetitions that you can do in a given time. These
approaches are not recommended as it takes some time to learn the proper technique in the various
exercises. Thus, maximum efforts on the first day pose a risk of injury to less fit individuals and undue
stiffness and soreness in all those unaccustomed to weight training. It is more sensible to start with the
lightest possible load. Systematically increase the resistance until you find the load that challenges you for
a certain number of repetitions, but is not uncomfortable nor encourages you to use improper technique.

6. Progressing

Change the load/reps/sets/rest interval combination in order to increase the demands of your programme.
In doing so adhere to the following guidelines:

                (a) Be systematic in your overload approach.

                (b) Increase only one variable at a time, otherwise the immediate increase in the total volume
                of your work-out could be substantial.

                (c) Decrease the weight by an appropriate amount if you have a significant break in your
                training due to illness, injury, etc..

7. Training Record

Write down what you do. The department provides record cards for this purpose. They can be purchased
from the Reception Office and left after each session on the filing shelves in the weight room. Keeping a
record will assist your progress by helping remind you when it's time to change your load, etc. It will also
provide a tangible record of overall improvement.


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Injury Prevention and Safety



1. Warm-up

Prior to all physical activity a warm-up is desirable. Done properly it should increase heart rate and body
temperature, stretch connective tissue at the ends of muscle, and help lubricate joints. This in turn will give
greater ease and freedom of movement and reduce the risk of injury.

For weight training the warm up should consist of a minimum of 5 minutes of continuous general body
activity. This may be either one or a combination of: riding the bicycle ergometer, rope skipping, jogging
laps of the track or jogging lengths of the gymnasium. This should be followed by a series of exercises to
stretch the major muscle groups and mobilize the joints.

2. Correct Technique

Perform the exercises as demonstrated to you and as described in the handouts. By using proper
techniques and light weights in the first instance you will get maximum benefit from the exercise and lessen
the chance of injury.

Protect your lower back -- always try to position your hips directly below your shoulders (on a line to the
floor) when you are lifting, moving or lowering weight. This position ensures that your spine is near-vertical,
and you are better equipped to handle the forces on it than if your back is "straight" but angled toward the
floor (as in "using your back like a crane ").
3. Proper Breathing

Holding your breath during exertion should be strictly avoided as it can cause dizziness, faintness,
headache and even short periods of blackout.

Be sure to inhale and exhale on every repetition, inhaling on the preparation phase and exhaling on the
effort phase.

4. Spotters

In free weight exercises where the load is lifted around or above your head, you must have at least one
person positioned to "spot" the weight in case anything unexpected occurs -- this rule should be practised
for any amount of weight! The "spotter" should be positioned with their hands between you and the weight
at all times -- a person standing one step back with hands on their hips is just as ineffective as a person
standing across the room.

5. Back Care

The pelvic tilt/flat-back position would be assumed in all exercises done seated or standing where there is
a possibility of the spine getting out of proper alignment. By keeping the back flat and not hyperextending
or arching the back during lifting, (as discussed in Correct Technique above) undue stresses on the lower
back are minimized or eliminated.

6. Controversial Exercises

You should avoid any exercise in which there is an inherent risk of injury, even when the exercise is done
correctly. This includes:

      (a) Exercises which induce hyperextension of the back, since they result in uneven weight bearing
      on the spine and put undue stress on the lower back. This includes supine straight-leg lifts and
      straight-leg sit ups.

      (b) Leg exercises which go beyond a half squat position. More extreme low-squat positions put
      excessive stress on the knee joint as well as stretching the ligaments that are meant to stabilize the
      joint.

      (c) Exercises which force the knee out of line during lifting. Always keep your knees in a straight line
      over your feet ie. don't perform exercises with your feet apart and knees together or vice versa.
      Don't lock your knees out at the end of the movement, always have a slight bend in your knees at
      full extension.

      (d) Competitive weight lifting or power lifting exercises. These multi-joint, multi-degree of freedom
      exercises require very precise technique even when using relatively light weights. For this reason
      they are not recommended for the beginning stages of a training programme, and if included later in
      a programme should be done only under strict supervision and with appropriate spotters.

The specific movement and strength requirements of some sports (for example, gymnastics or
weightlifting) mean that some competitive athletes may have to include examples of these higher risk
exercises in their advanced training programmes. However, young athletes, those new to weight training,
and those conditioning for fitness or recreational activities are wise to avoid these risks.

7. Rate of Progress
Progress slowly and systematically. Start with light weights and concentrate on technique. Use your own
schedule, understand it, and don't be tempted to progress too rapidly.

8. Pre-Exercise Medical Clearance

Weight training places significant demands on the heart and may be inappropriate to those who are
habitually inactive, or, those with heart problems or high blood pressure. A medical clearance from your
personal doctor is advisable in such cases.

9. Miscellaneous

       (a) Training with a partner can be very helpful. They can help you get the weight to the starting
       position, "spot" during the execution of an exercise, check that your technique is correct, ensure that
       you are breathing properly and motivate or assist you to perform a maximum number of repetitions.

       (b) Wear good indoor training shoes such as squash, basketball or aerobic type shoes that provide
       ample traction and protection.

       (c) When using free weights ensure that the collars are in place and secure on the bar. Be sure that
       the support pin is properly in place when using the multi-gym.

INTRODUCTORY WEIGHT TRAINING PROGRAM

      Introduction
      Exercises and Exercise Order
      Progressions

INTRODUCTION

What follows is a very generalised weight training program.

OVERVIEW:

      The exercises are the PRIMARY exercises from above
      The exercises are initially performed on machines so that the novice weight lifter can get used to
       lifting weight. Advanced lifter should use free weights whenever possible and practical.
      3 sets of 20 reps of each exercise for the first four weeks.
      Followed by 3 sets of 12 reps of each exercise for the last four weeks
      Rest Interval of 2-3 minutes between sets (of the same exercise)
      After 1st fortnight weight training should be performed 3 times per week (no less than two time per
       week) with the weight training sessions placed at equal intervals throughout the week (e.g. Monday,
       Wednesday & Friday or alternatively Tuesday, Thursday & Saturday). The enables the muscle to
       recover during the rest day.
      The 20 reps was chosen as it places less stress (intensity) on the joints and developing musculature
       until the body has strengthened a bit and technique has developed. It is more likely that excessive
       load = excessive intensity will cause damage rather than the volume at this stage.
      The 12 reps were chosen as it is the maximal reps recommended in a hypertrophy (growth) program
       which should keep the loading (intensity) as low as possible.

EXERCISES AND EXERCISE ORDER.

1) Leg press - to be replaced by squats as soon as possible (3-4 weeks)
2) Bench press (machine progressing to free flat bench)

2) Leg curls (hamstring curls)

3) Bench pulls or Lat pulldowns

3) Calf raises

4) Shoulder press (machine progressing to free weights)

4) Crunch sit ups

5) Bicep curls (machine progressing to free weights)

5) Back raises

6) Tricep press

6) Neck exercises

Ideally you should do the exercises in the order presented above, if possible you could try and alternate
between the exercises in the pairs stated above ie 1 set of 20 bench press followed by 1 set of 20 leg curls
followed by 1 set of 20 bench press followed by 1 set of 20 leg curls until the 3 sets of each are completed.
The rest period between sets of the same exercise stays the same (2-3 minutes), however the second
exercise can be done during the recovery period of the first exercise.

RECOMMENDED PROGRESSION

week Session / Set 1           Set 2     Set 3                         Comments
      week
 1     1-2     20 reps        20 reps   20 reps           Familiarisation with weight training.
  2        2-3      20 reps   20 reps    Max            Increase weight only if > 20 reps in Set 3
  3         3       20 reps      Max     Max        Increase weight only if > 20 reps in Set 2 or 3
  4         3        Max         Max     Max           Increase weight only if > 20 reps in any set
  5         3       12 reps   12 reps    Max            Increase weight only if > 12 reps in Set 3
  6         3       12 reps      Max     Max        Increase weight only if > 12 reps in Set 2 or 3
  7         3        Max         Max     Max           Increase weight only if > 12 reps in any set
  8         3        Max         Max     Max           Increase weight only if > 12 reps in any set


ANAEROBIC TRAINING

         NOTES
         ANAEROBIC TOUCH
         ANAEROBIC FARTLEK
         ANAEROBIC LACTATE TOLERANCE (AND/OR UPPER BODY EXERCISE)
         ANAEROBIC LACTATE PRODUCTION
         ANAEROBIC MAINTENANCE
NOTES

     Running is used to develop the legs anaerobic ability as these types of developments are muscle
      specific hence cycling or rowing is not nearly as good as running.
     High carbohydrate levels are essential for performance in anaerobic sessions - low or minimal
      carbohydrate levels means no lactic acid which means no anaerobic work capability which means
      no anaerobic training adaptations. Rugby players generally have the worst dietary habits of any
      sports groups I have ever worked with (see section on nutrition).
     Total number of complete anaerobic training sessions is a maximum of 3 per week. This means that
      only a total of three anaerobic sessions of any type can be undertaken each week.
     The major training session is Tuesdays team training.
     The best anaerobic session should be the game.
     If a third anaerobic session is to be undertaken then it is held on Thursday practise
     It is important to place anaerobic training within the competitive team training sessions as it is hard
      to motivate players to perform the required intensity if they do these sessions alone. This can be
      achieved by splitting the team so that the various team positions compete against each other. To
      foster competition we include the A&B teams in Tuesday fitness training.
     It is very important (but uncommon) that players develop upper body anaerobic endurance
      (especially the forwards - they are supposed to be mobile wrestlers) to enable repetitive upper body
      strength movements (commonly found in the game - tackling, mauling, rucking etc). A simple
      method is to perform upper body exercises during the rest period from running and vice versa - the
      maximal work period for the upper body is usually no more than a minute.
     The ratio of lower body (running) anaerobic endurance work to upper body (weights, dynabands,
      wrestling drills, pushing and torso etc) exercises that I use is approximately 3-5:1
     Initially anaerobic training involves some fun team activities, the next stage involves simple running
      and exercise drills. At a later stage game specific drills are included. Anaerobic maintenance
      involves a predominance of game specific anaerobic drills.
     As always the periodised plan is revised and altered depending on the coaches and team
      requirements and perceptions combined with performance and fitness testing results

ANAEROBIC TOUCH

     Touch is an ideal fun introduction to anaerobic interval training
     Players should try and spend as much time as possible on the field
     Games should ideally be of a high standard (fast, continuous, technical and tactically demanding)

ANAEROBIC FARTLEK

     Introduction to anaerobic training
     Total initial training time 10 minutes
     Total final training time 20-30 minutes
     Work period 10-800 meters
     Rest period as long as player wishes ideally work to rest ratio between 1:1 - 1:4
     Intensity ~90-95% maximum heart rate (>Anaerobic threshold)
     Sessions per week - maximum 2

ANAEROBIC LACTATE TOLERANCE (AND/OR UPPER BODY EXERCISE)

     Interval running or upper body exercise
     Total initial training time 10 minutes
     Total final training time 20-30? minutes
     Work period: ~ 1 minute (400m)
     Work to rest ratio 1:1 - 1:1/2, eg 1 minute on : 1 minute - 30 second off.
     Intensity ~95% maximum heart rate (>Anaerobic threshold>maximal pace)
     Sessions per week - maximum 2-3
     Session one is usually on Tuesday, Session two is the game & third session would be the second
      team training session.
     Comments: This is the most common form of rugby training - beware you can train to long in this
      zone which will result in players waddling (dropping training intensity significantly below the
      anaerobic threshold) therefore you are no longer achieving the correct training stimulus.

ANAEROBIC LACTATE PRODUCTION

     Interval running (and/or upper body exercise)
     Total initial training time 10 minutes
     Total final training time 20 minutes
     Work period: less than 1 minute (20-400m)
     Work to rest ratio 1:4 - 1:10, eg 1 minute on : 4 - 10 minutes off.
     Intensity maximum
     Sessions per week - maximum 2-3
     Session one is usually on Tuesday, Session two is the game & third session would be the second
      team training session.
     Comments: highly competitive environment is essential to maintain maximal performance levels.

ANAEROBIC MAINTENANCE

     Interval running (and/or upper body exercise)
     Total initial training time 10 minutes
     Total final training time 20-30 minutes
     Work period: 3 seconds - 2 minutes
     Work to rest ratio 1:1/2 - 1:10,
     Intensity 90-100%
     Sessions per week - maximum 2-3
     Session one is usually on Tuesday, Session two is the game & third session would be the second
      team training session.
     Comments: This is a combination of lactate tolerance and production and is often made up of game
      specific scenarios (eg wrestling, ball support drills, simple technique drills, mauling, scrimmaging,
      games etc).
     The technique and tactical requirements are usually higher which I have found reduces physical
      intensity = eventually may lead to reduction in conditioning. It is hard to motivate the older more
      experienced players to be work hard as their technical and tactical superiority often allows them to
      take shortcuts.

				
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posted:7/22/2011
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Description: Rugby Training Guidelines document sample