NHS by qingyunliuliu


									National Health System
National Health Service (NHS)
   Publicly funded healthcare system

   Consists of:
    ◦    National Health Service (England)
    ◦    NHS Scotland
    ◦    NHS Wales
    ◦    Health and Social Care in Northern
NHS – provides healthcare
to whom ?
   The NHS provides the majority of
    healthcare in England

   Private health care is used by about
    8% of the population, generally as an
    add-on to NHS services.

   The NHS provides healthcare to
    anyone normally resident in the
    United Kingdom
   Primary care

   In-patient care

   Long-term healthcare

   Ophthalmology

   Dentistry
NHS - funding
   The NHS is largely funded from
    general taxation (including a
    proportion from National Insurance
   NHS Trusts commission healthcare
    from hospitals and disburse funds to
    them on an agreed tariff or contract
    basis, on guidelines set out by the
    Department of Health
NHS - funding
   Charitable Funds from over 300
    official NHS charities (£ 2 billions)

   Car park charges (more than 1 per
    cent of hospitals budget)
NHS Trusts
 National Health Service trust
  provides services on behalf of the
 The NHS Trusts are not trusts in the
  legal sense but are in effect public
  sector corporations.
 Required to "break even" - they
  must not show a deficit on their
  budgets at the end of the financial
NHS Trusts - Types
 Primary care trusts
 Hospital trusts
 Foundation trusts
 Ambulance services trust
 Mental health services trusts

 NHS Direct (provides telephone and
  online support services)
 special health authority („arm’s length
  body" of the Department Of Health)
NHS – budget
   The total budget of Department of
    Health in 2008/9 was £94bn

   Over 98% of that was accounted by
NHS – patient charges
   The NHS is free for all patients
    "ordinarily resident„ in the UK

   Other people are liable to charges
    for services other than that given in
    Accident and Emergency
NHS – patient charges

   Prescription charge:
    ◦ England £7.20

    ◦ Scotland £4.00

    ◦ Northern Ireland £3.00

    ◦ Wales £0.00
NHS – patient charges

   Exempt from paying
    ◦ People over sixty
    ◦ Children under sixteen (or under nineteen if
      the child is still in full time education)
    ◦ Patients with certain medical conditions
    ◦ Patients with low incomes

   Single-charge pre-payment certificate for
    those who require repeated prescriptions
NHS – dentistry charges

   £16.50 for an examination

   £45.60 if a filling is needed

   £198 for more complex procedures such
    as crowns, dentures or bridges
NHS - Criticism
   Waiting lists
   „Paying twice” (Taxpayers who choose
    to pay for private healthcare must
    nonetheless still contribute to the NHS
    via taxation)
   „Superbugs” (Fatal outbreaks of
    antibiotic-resistant bacterias)
   Scandals (i.e. Alder Hey organs scandal)

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