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					OGT Intervention

    Social Studies
(History Benchmarks)
   Guide for Answering Historical Questions (1)
• WHEN THE QUESTION ASKS:
  – WHAT: Answer with specific examples to support the question, including
    people, events, ideas, laws, etc.
  – WHY: Answer with a list of causes, or explain the reasons that
    something happened.
  – HOW: Answer by describing the process, methods used, steps, or
    procedures.
  – WHICH: Answer with a ranking of examples in order of importance with
    reasons for the ranking.
  – EXPLAIN SIGNIFICANCE: Answer by giving
    the effects of something OR what did it cause
    to happen afterward (DO NOT give the results
    only—address why the results were important).
   Guide for Answering Historical Questions (2)
• WHAT TO DO WHEN THE QUESTION SAYS:
  – Cite or Define or Identify—show that you have memorized the basic
    facts, terms, & concepts by recalling them.
  – Explain or Outline or Illustrate or Summarize—show that you
    understand the meaning of the material by stating the main ideas,
    providing supporting details, presenting evidence about the topic, or
    interpreting what you have read.
  – Apply or Present or Develop—use the facts in a new or different way
    or show that you know the method for solving a problem using past
    learning in a new situation.
  – Analyze or Examine or Compare/Contrast or Draw Conclusions—
    break the information down into is parts, motives, or causes. Remember
    that COMPARE means to give both similarities and differences, while
    CONTRAST means give only differences.
  – Synthesize or Develop or Design or Predict or Propose—these
    questions require you to take the facts and other pieces of information to
    form a generalization or solution based on those facts.
  – Assess or Critique or Evaluate—present and defend an opinion based
    on a set of criteria that you determine and explain using facts not
    generalizations (make judgments).
History A: Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and
changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments.     PAGE 1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• The Enlightenment: social, philosophical, and literary
   movement that took place during the 18th century.
    – Known as the ―Age of Reason‖ because scientific observation began to
      replace tradition & superstition.
    – Traditional authority (the Church) was
      challenged.

• Key Concepts:
    – Individualism: the importance of the individual
      & inborn rights.
    – Relativism: different cultures, beliefs, & values
      had equal merit.
    – Rationalism: by using reason, humans could
      find truth & improve world.

  The Enlightenment challenged the authority of the Christian churches of
  Europe…it made people turn to science & reason for answers to
  questions about the world…instead of their faith.
History A: Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and
changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




        View of the world during the Middle Ages…the Scientific
        Revolution & Enlightenment would challenge the traditional ways
        of viewing the world.
History A: Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and
changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




   Ptolemy’s Geocentric
  Worldview (Earth is the
center of the universe) and
 Copernicus’ Heliocentric
  Worldview (Sun is the
  center of the universe)
 show how the world was
    changing due to the
  Scientific Revolution &
      Enlightenment.
History A: Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and
changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




        Cartoon representing the “Age of Reason” and rejection of
        traditional forms of authority…religion…monarchy…feudalism.
History A: Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and
changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments.      PAGE 2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Ideas of the Enlightenment:
    – Locke:
        • People have the natural rights of life, liberty, and property.
        • Citizens enter into a social contract with their government, in which people
          give power to the government in order to have their natural rights protected.
        • Governments can be overthrown if the natural rights of citizens are not
          protected.
    – Montesquieu:
        • Governments should be divided into 3 branches (legislative, executive, &
          judicial).
        • Governments should utilize the checks and balances system to make sure
          that one branch cannot become all powerful (like in absolutism).
    – Rousseau:
        • Citizens enter into a social contract.
        • Governments should govern based on the principal of popular sovereignty
          (the will of the majority).
    – Voltaire:
        • Citizens should have the right to freedom of speech (no censorship)
          and freedom of religion (no religious persecution).
History A: Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and
changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                            Locke                                   Montesquieu




                           Rousseau                                  Voltaire
History A: Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and
changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments.     PAGE 3
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Changes in the relationship between citizens & gov’t:
    – Citizens began to demand more of a voice in their government, as well
      as an end to the absolutist regimes that controlled their nations and
      limited the rights of citizens.
    – Enlightenment ideas also inspired independence movements, as
      colonies sought to create their own country and
      remove their European colonizers.
    – Governments also began to adopt ideas like
      natural rights, popular sovereignty, the election
      of government officials, and the protection of
      civil liberties. Examples…
Right: Louis XIV of France represented the traditional
view of government…they believed in the “Divine
Rights of Kings” referring to the belief that God placed
them in power & supported their reign (that is why the
picture shows an angel crowning Louis XIV)…going
against your king was like going against God.
History A: Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and
changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments.     PAGE 4
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• United States:
    – British colonies were upset with their lack of representation in
      Parliament (oppressive taxes).
    – British colonies rebel against their mother country, resulting in the
      American Revolution.
    – Declaration of Independence: Right to life, liberty, pursuit of happiness;
      all men are created equal; right to overthrow government.
    – Constitution: Based on popular sovereignty, created a new 3 branch
      government, used checks & balances.
    – Bill of Rights: Protected the rights of
      free speech, religion, press, &
      assembly.
History A: Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and
changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                         Signing the Declaration
                                                            of Independence


         King George III                                   George Washington
                                                           (General of Colonial
                                                          Army & 1st President of
                                                                the U.S.
History A: Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and
changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments.     PAGE 5
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• France:
    – Citizens were upset with the absolute monarchy of the Bourbon royal
      family (only the 3rd Estate had to pay taxes).
    – French citizens rebelled against Louis XVI (this started the French
      Revolution).
    – Declaration of Rights of Man: Proclaimed
      rights to life, liberty, equality; equality of all
      citizens; right to resist oppression.
• Latin America:
    – Revolutionaries like Simon Bolivar led
      independence movements against European
      colonizers of the region.



  The French Revolution took on a radical agenda:"No God! No Religion!
  No King! No Constitution!"
History A: Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and
changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                THE FRENCH
                                REVOLUTION

                               Women’s Bread
                                March (Top);
                               Mistreatment of
                                the 3rd Estate
                               (Left); Reign of
                                Terror (Right)
History A: Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and
changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                                                   Toussaint-
                       Simon Bolivar led
                                                                 L’Ouverture led
                       Latin America to
                                                                     Haiti to
                        independence.
                                                                 independence.




      Father Miguel                        Jose de San Martin
       Hidalgo led                          led Latin America
        Mexico to                           to independence.
     independence.
History A: Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and
changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                    Latin American independence movements.
History B: Explain the social, political, and economic effects of
industrialization.   PAGE 1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           Short-Term                        Long-Term
              Growth in cities and urban          Emigration out of Europe and
              population as workers                mass immigration into the
              migrated for jobs.                   United States
              Rise of tenement lifestyle in        U.S. changed from Old
              cities, which led to poor            Immigration to New
              sanitation, high rates of disease,   Immigration
     Social   and lower life expectancies.          Rise of nativism in the U.S.
   Effects of
              Increase in the amount of           Emergence of the middle class
   Gilded Age
              women entering the workforce.        & middle class culture.
                                                   Technology and medicine
                                                   begin to dramatically improve
                                                   the quality of life.
                                                   Increasing gap between the
                                                   rich and poor.
History B: Explain the social, political, and economic effects of
industrialization.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




The Industrial Revolution led to the growth of cities (urbanization) & with it came
new problems…




New cities were crowded,
polluted, dirty, &
dangerous…
                                        Tenements                 New Social
                                                                  Hierarchy
History B: Explain the social, political, and economic effects of
industrialization.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                   Robert Fulton’s “Clermont” (the 1st steamboat)

     The railroad greatly
        affected life


     The “Silent Highwayman”
    (1858) cartoon showing the
        pollution of the new
       industrialized cities.
History B: Explain the social, political, and economic effects of
industrialization.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




  That is not a crocodile…that
  is a Catholic immigrant
  coming to the U.S.; notice
  the fear of the “Natives” on
  shore.




       As immigration increased, Nativism grew (discriminated against
     immigrants & felt that “Native-born” Americans were superior)…they
        seemed to forget that their families were once immigrants too!
History B: Explain the social, political, and economic effects of
industrialization.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




        “Natives” viewed new immigrants negatively (as shown by Uncle
                               Sam’s reaction)!
History B: Explain the social, political, and economic effects of
industrialization.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




              The real “Natives” & 1st illegal immigrants of the U.S.
History B: Explain the social, political, and economic effects of
industrialization.   PAGE 2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Short-Term                        Long-Term
              Textile industry first to            Increased standard of living.
              experience industrialization.         Rise of monopolies and
              Demand for textiles                  corporations.
              (increasing supply of cotton).        Reliance on machines, mass
              Immigrants used as a large           production, and assembly lines.
   Economic
              and inexpensive labor force.          Rise of labor unions to obtain
   Effects of Use of child labor in factories      wages, hours, working
   Gilded Age and mines.                            conditions, & social reform.
              Unregulated working                   Knights of Labor & American
              conditions, long hours, and low       Federation of Labor (AFL) in
              wages.                                the U.S.
              Laissez-faire governmental            Use of protests, strikes, &
              policies were utilized.               boycotts by laborers.
                                                     Owners responded with strike
                                                    breaking, violence, etc.
History B: Explain the social, political, and economic effects of
industrialization.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




  There was a switch from the Cottage Industry (handmade products at home)
  to the Factory System (using machines to mass produce products).
History B: Explain the social, political, and economic effects of
industrialization.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                   Industrialization & the switch to the Factory
                                   System led to an increase in women and
                                   children working (they were given some of the
                                   most dangerous jobs & paid very little).
History B: Explain the social, political, and economic effects of
industrialization.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                Labor Unions formed to address
                                                the unfair & dangerous working
                                                conditions resulting from the
                                                Industrial Revolution…employers
                                                used various methods (including
                                                violence) to stop labor unions.
History B: Explain the social, political, and economic effects of
industrialization.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




        ██ High human development   ██ Medium human development
        ██ Low human development    ██ Unavailable
  Industrialization worldwide as a result of the Industrial Revolution and
  subsequent industrialization.
History B: Explain the social, political, and economic effects of
industrialization.   PAGE 3
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Short-Term                        Long-Term
                 Government policies initially     Rise of populism and
                 support big business (laissez-     progressivism in the U.S.
                 faire).                             Increase in urban reforms
                 Use of tariffs and subsidies to    More business regulation and
                 protect and support the            anti-trust legislation
                 economy.                           More laws regulating
    Political
   Effects of                                       workplace conditions, hours, &
   Gilded Age                                       child labor.
                                                    Focused on obtaining rights
                                                    for minorities & supported
                                                    prohibition
                                                    U.S. Jim Crow laws existed &
                                                    created legal discrimination
                                                    against African Americans
History B: Explain the social, political, and economic effects of
industrialization.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                              The Industrial Revolution led to the
                                              rise of Big Business (business
                                              leaders became extremely wealthy
                                              as they formed corporations &
                                              monopolies); the business leaders
                                              benefited off the laissez-faire
                                              approach of governments.
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.   PAGE 1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Imperialism: ambition of a powerful nation to dominate the
   political, economic, and cultural affairs of another nation or
   region (from 1830-1917).
• Reasons for Imperialism:
           SOCIAL                    POLITICAL                  ECONOMIC
  Missionaries wanted to     Colonies viewed as         European leaders
  spread Christianity.        sources of troops for       wanted stable sources of
  Westernization of the      armies.                     raw materials & labor.
  "natives."                  Trading stations &         New markets for sale of
  "The White Man's           military bases.             goods.
  Burden."                    National power &           Trade routes.
  Outlets for population.    prestige.
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                            Imperialism around the world.
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                           Imperialism has occurred
                                                           based on the belief that
                                                           Europeans (whites)
                                                           needed to westernize,
                                                           Christianize, & educate
                                                           native people with the
                                                           European culture; land,
                                                           resources, power, &
                                                           prestige have also been
                                                           reasons.
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.   PAGE 2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Global Impact of Imperialism:
                Social Change           Political Change        Economic Change
         Massive overseas           Most European            Importation of raw
         migration of                nations established       materials=
         Europeans.                  colonies.                 industrialization.
         Spread Christianity,       Imperialism=             Surplus capital=
         medicine, & hygiene.        nationalism, power, &     investment.
  Europe
         Industrialization=         prestige.                 Trade routes=
         urbanization.               Bitter rivalries arose   new markets.
                                     (European militaries
                                     grew).
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.   PAGE 3
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Global Impact of Imperialism:
                 Social Change          Political Change        Economic Change
              Native culture        Europeans impose         New farming
              suppressed—            direct & indirect govt.   techniques.
              Assimilation.          Direct=Europeans         Roads, railroads,
              Forced labor &        control all levels.       communications built.
   Africa
              military service.      Indirect=Europeans       Industrialization
              European medicines    advise local leaders.     (benefits Europe).
              introduced.            Borders established.     Suez Canal seized
              Natives kept living                             by Britain to control
              by tradition.                                    trade.
              Slave trade
              established (1441 by
              Portugal).
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                      Imperializing Africa.
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


      The Berlin
     Conference
  (1885) was used
   to establish the
       areas that
       European
    nations could
     colonize…it
   became known
  as the “Scramble
      for Africa.”




                                   European claims in Africa, 1914.
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.   PAGE 4
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Global Impact of Imperialism:
                 Social Change          Political Change        Economic Change
              System of social       Centralized govt.       Govt. policies to
              classes abolished.      established.             encourage private
              All Japanese free to   Constitution            investment.
              choose occupation.      accepted.                Govt. built modern
   Japan      Universal              National Assembly       communication/trans
              compulsory education    with elected house       portation
              established.            formed.                  Japan
                                                               industrialized.
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                                            Matthew Perry
                                                            forced Japan to sign
                                                            an Open Door
                                                            Policy…this led to
                                                            the infiltration of
                                                            Western culture.




                                            From Left to Right: “Enlightened”
                                            Japanese (completely adopted Western
                                            culture); “Half-Enlightened” Japanese
                                            (partially adopted Western culture); “Un-
                                            Enlightened” Japanese (held onto
                                            Traditional Japanese culture).
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.   PAGE 5
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Global Impact of Imperialism:
                 Social Change           Political Change         Economic Change
              1st mass introduction   Korea granted            Korea signs treaty
              of western culture.      independence.             with 5 western
              Opium drug led to       European                 nations.
              war and British          intervention              Europeans demand
              intervention.            diminishes Japan's        retributions for aid.
   China                               influence.                Retributions= bases,
                                       Open Door                railroads, trading, &
                                       Policy=right of all       mining.
                                       nations to equal trade.
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                China was forced into an Open Door
                                                Policy that divided it into “Spheres
                                                of Influence” resulting in the loss of
                                                Traditional culture.
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.   PAGE 6
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• Emergence of U.S. as a World Power:
               Spanish-American War             Asia/Pacific        Latin America
              Colonies in Cuba.            Raw materials,       Canal through Latin
    U.S.      Competition with Britain.    military bases, &     America
  Interests   Maine exploded in            trading posts.        Roosevelt Corollary
              Havana.                       Gets Philippines,    & Monroe Doctrine.
                                            Guam, & Wake Island   Economic &
                                            from Spain.           Industrial.
              War (Apr.-Dec. 1898).        4 year war with      Panama Canal
    Result    Spain surrendered Cuba,      Filipinos.            (1914).
              Puerto Rico, Wake Island,     U.S. acquired        Central America
              Guam, & sold the              Samoan Islands &      became crossroads of
              Philippines to the U.S. for   Hawaiian Islands.     trade.
              $20 million.                  U.S. has chain of    U.S. intervention in
              Guantanamo Bay military      islands from west     Haiti, Nicaragua, &
              base built to protect Cuba.   coast to East Asia.   Dominican Republic.
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        The United States
                                                        attempted to create an
                                                        imperial empire in the
                                                        pacific and in Latin
                                                        America.



                                                         This cartoon shows
                                                         that whereas some
                                                         nations would view
                                                         these natives as
                                                         exploitable, the U.S.
                                                         saw potential in these
                                                         people!
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.   PAGE 6
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Policies & Beliefs Influencing U.S. Imperialism:
    – Monroe Doctrine (1823): President Monroe declared that European
      nations could NOT create any new colonies in the Western Hemisphere;
      the U.S. would defend this area; used to justify U.S. involvement in Latin
      American affairs.
    – Open Door Policy (1899): Secretary of State John Hay convinced
      European nations to sign this policy opening up China to trade from ALL
      nations; China was carved into ―Spheres of Influence.‖
    – Roosevelt Corollary (1904): President Roosevelt extended the Monroe
      Doctrine by stating the U.S. would intervene financially to keep nations in
      Western Hemisphere from turning to European nations for aid.
    – Big Stick Diplomacy: President Roosevelt’s foreign policy philosophy of
      ―Speak softly, but carry a big stick;‖ U.S. would use military force to
      protect their interests; used against Latin America & Europe.
    – Dollar Diplomacy: President Taft thought the U.S. should use its
      financial strength, not military strength to influence the world.
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




  The U.S. used “Manifest Destiny” to justify expanding the nation from
  the Atlantic Coast to the Pacific Coast…these same beliefs led to
  other imperialism policies.
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                          The Open Door Policy
                                                           created Spheres of
                                                                Influence
                  Monroe Doctrine
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




         Roosevelt Corollary




                                                   Big Stick Diplomacy
History C: Analyze the reasons that countries gained control of territory
through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was
controlled.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




  Just as the British were doing in Africa, the U.S. was creating a vast
  empire in the Pacific while defending the Western Hemisphere from
  European nations.
History D: Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of
World War II.   PAGE 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Treaty of Versailles (treaty ending World War I):
    – Germany was forced to accept blame for the war, pay millions in
      reparations (payments for war damages), give up colonies, and disarm
      (allowed to keep a small military).
    – Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia were created.
    – Baltic nations of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were created out of
      Russia who desired land back.
    – Austria-Hungary was divided and lost land to Romania and Italy.
    – League of Nations was created to handle international disputes (U.S.
      never joined and the League would prove ineffective in preventing future
      wars due to lack of military power).
    – Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) would denounce warfare, but like the
      League, it lacked a way to enforce it.
    – This treaty is considered the direct cause for the rise of Adolph Hitler &
      eventually World War II.
History D: Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of
World War II.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  Wilson’s Fourteen Points
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1. No more secret treaties; “open covenants, openly arrived at”
  2. Freedom of the seas
  3. Free trade; removal of barriers to free trade
       among nations
  4. Arms reduction; cutbacks and limitations
       on military arms
  5. Peaceful settlements of disputes over
       colonies; interests of colonized people to
       be considered
  6-13. National self-determination; new nations
       proposed; adjusted national boundaries
  14. Proposal for the League of Nations; world
       organization to settle international disputes
  U.S. President Woodrow Wilson suggested the following “Fourteen
  Points of Peace” after WWI to prevent further wars…these suggestions
  would be largely ignored.
History D: Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of
World War II.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          Provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1. Germany must accept responsibility for causing World War I:
       “war-guilt clause”
  2. Germany required to pay large amounts of reparations—
       payments for war damages
  3. Germany must disband armed forced; promise to keep future
       army under 100,000
  4. Germany forbidden from manufacturing or importing war
       materials
  5. Alsace-Lorraine region returned to France
  6. German coal mining region (Saar Basin) under French control for
       15 years
  7. Poland restored as an independent nation with access to Baltic
       Sea
  8. Germany must give up all its overseas colonies
  9. Creation of world peacekeeping organization; League of Nations
  The Treaty of Versailles ended WWI, but is considered the main cause
  for the rise of Hitler and the start of WWII.
History D: Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of
World War II.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                                        The League of Nations was
                                                        supposed to prevent future
                                                        wars…it had no way of
                                                        enforcing its policies.




  The Kellogg-Briand Pact
  showed the world was
  interested in preventing
  future wars…WWII
  occurred anyway.
History D: Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of
World War II.    PAGE 2
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Rise of Totalitarianism:
    – Totalitarianism—dictator-led governments that controlled all political and
      social activity.
    – Germany experienced an economic collapse after WWI and fear of
      communism led to Adolph Hitler and the Nazi Party gaining power.
        • Promised to make Germany strong again.
        • Blamed Jews for many of Germany's problems—led to persecution and later
          genocide in the form of concentration/death camps.
        • Promoted the belief that Germans belonged to a superior race ("Aryans").
        • Used secret police to control citizens.
    – Italy experienced economic problems and feelings of inferiority and
      resentment from Treaty of Versailles--led to Benito Mussolini and the
      Fascist Party ("Blackshirts") gaining power.
        •   Made all other political parties illegal.
        •   Gave himself a great deal of power to make laws.
        •   Used secret police to control citizens.
        •   Wanted more land claims than Treaty of Versailles gave.
History D: Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of
World War II.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




Adolph Hitler and his Nazi Party               Benito Mussolini and his Blackshirts
seized control of Germany after WWI            seized control of Italy after WWI and
and led the world into another world           led an anti-Communist
war…he also conducted the                      movement…eventually allying with
attempted genocide of European                 Germany during WWII.
Jews (Holocaust).
History D: Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of
World War II.   PAGE 3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Rise of Totalitarianism (Continued):
    – Soviet Union experienced the Bolshevik Revolution (1917), which led to
      a Communist State and the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialists
      Republics (USSR or Soviet Union).
        • Death of founder Vladimir Lenin led to the rule of Joseph Stalin.
        • Stalin maintained power with an iron fist—used famine, purges (killings of
          political threats), and secret police to control citizens.
    – Japan formed a military dictatorship under Hideki Tojo.
        • Pursued aggressive foreign policy.
        • Needed land for raw materials (oil), food production, and population.
        • Wanted control of China & the Pacific Islands.
    – During WWII, Germany, Italy, and Japan were allies.
History D: Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of
World War II.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                  Joseph Stalin took
                                over for Lenin & ruled
                                the Soviet Union with
                                    an “iron fist.”




    Vladimir Lenin                                             Hideki Tojo used his
     overthrew the                                               influence in the
  Romanov royal family                                          military to expand
       & set up a                                                 the Japanese
      Communist                                                 empire & create a
     dictatorship.                                                 dictatorship.
History D: Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of
World War II.   PAGE 4
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• The Great Depression:
    – October 1929—the Stock Market Crashed in New York.
        • 1920s wealth was based on speculation (buying stocks on credit) & inflated
          stock prices.
        • Decreased money supply and tighter credit made it harder to get loans.
        • Resulted in lower production and widespread unemployment in the U.S. &
          Western Europe.
        • U.S. would remain isolationist to focus on its own domestic situation & its
          colonial holdings.
        • WWI had created the ―Lost Generation‖ (youth who had been trained for
          warfare, but not for peacetime jobs…this added to Nazi appeal).
    – Economic problems and political turmoil in countries like France
      allowed Adolph Hitler to rearm Germany unnoticed.
        • Racism made it easy for people to create Scapegoats (someone to blame)
          for the social, economic, & political situation of the world.
        • Jews, Poles, Chinese, & Communist were all used as Scapegoats.
History D: Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of
World War II.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The U.S. Stock Market                                    Successful business
          crashed in                                         owners were reduced
       1929…creating a                                           to begging.
     worldwide economic
      depression after a
    decade of prosperity &
   wealth…these economic
   conditions helped lead to
            WWII.
                                    Homelessness &
                                     unemployment
                                        soared.




            Dust Bowl
History D: Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of
World War II.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                                                      Racism grew
                                                                        due to the
                                                                          Great
                                                                       Depression
                                                                     including Anti-
                                                                        Semitism
                                                                        (prejudice
                                                                     against Jews),
                                                                          which
                                                                      eventually led
                                                                          to the
                                                                       Holocaust.
History D: Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of
World War II.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                              Labor barracks at Buchenwald.
History D: Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of
World War II.   PAGE 5
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Munich Conference (September 1938):
    – Great Britain, France, and Italy used the policy of APPEASEMENT
      (giving in to Hitler's demands) to avoid war by allowing him to annex the
      Sudetenland (a German dominated area of Czechoslovakia).
    – Appeasement showed allied
      weakness and lack of
      preparation…as a result,
      Hitler launched Blitzkrieg
      (lighting war) on Poland on
      September 1, 1939 (officially
      beginning WWII).




                                                  Appeasement handing
                                                 Czechoslovakia to Hitler.
History E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and
contemporary conflicts.   PAGE 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Creation of United Nations (UN):
    – World peace organization created after WWII.
    – Handles international conflicts using military personnel of member
      nations (i.e. in Korean War).
    – Consists of around 200 members
      today, including 5 permanent
      members of Security Council
      (U.S., Great Britain, France,
      Russia, & China).




     The U.N. replaced the weak League
      of Nations and has helped avert
           many world conflicts.
History E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and
contemporary conflicts.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                           Organization of the United
                                                              Nations: (1) General
                                                            Assembly, (2) Security
                                                            Council, (3) Secretariat,
                                                             (4) Economic & Social
                                                           Council, (5) International
                                                           Court of Justice, & (6) the
                                                              Trusteeship Council.
History E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and
contemporary conflicts.   PAGE 2
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Establishment of Israel:
    – Support for a Jewish homeland led to the creation of Israel (1948) by a
      U.N. resolution.
    – Originally, Palestine was divided into two sections (Israel—Jewish &
      Palestine—Arab).
    – Arab neighbors did not accept the establishment of Israel.
        • Attacked Israel the day following its establishment and were soundly
          defeated.
        • Israel obtained land from Syria, Jordan, & Egypt—kept control over territory.
History E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and
contemporary conflicts.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                Both Jews & Arab Palestinians claim
                                                     the right to live in the Holy
                                                Land…the U.N.’s partition plan failed
                                                   to stop the conflict & violence
                                                     between these two groups.
History E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and
contemporary conflicts.   PAGE 3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Cold War:
    – U.S. & U.S.S.R., allies during WWII, became bitter enemies &
      competitors.
    – U.S. adopted the policy of Containment to stop the spread of
      communism and promote the growth of democratic governments around
      the world…this resulted in:
        • Korean War—U.S.S.R. desired the entire Korean peninsula for raw materials
          and seaports.
        • Marshall Plan—U.S. economic aid to countries of western & southern
          Europe.
        • Truman Doctrine—U.S. would aid all countries against Communism.
        • Berlin—U.S.S.R. blockaded western Berlin in hopes of forcing western allies
          to vacate their zones of control within the city—led to the successful Berlin
          Airlift and building of Berlin Wall in 1961.
        • Vietnam War—U.S. worried a Communist Vietnam would lead to a "domino
          effect" of neighboring nations becoming Communist also.
History E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and
contemporary conflicts.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




  The fear of Communism and its spread from nation to nation (Domino
 Theory) caused the U.S. to aid nations around the world financially and
     militarily in order to defeat Communism wherever it was found.
History E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and
contemporary conflicts.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




    Germany was divided into 4 sections
    and occupied after WWII…this made
        Berlin the center of the Cold
    War…resulting in the Berlin Airlift and
               the Berlin Wall.
History E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and
contemporary conflicts.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                             The U.S. fought against Communism
                                              in both the Korean War (1950-1953)
                                               and the Vietnam War (1959-1975).
History E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and
contemporary conflicts.   PAGE 4
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Cold War (Continued):
    – Creation of the Iron Curtain (from Arctic Ocean to Mediterranean Sea)
      and Military Alliances.
        • Imaginary line separating democratic/capitalist nations west of the line from
          autocratic/communist nations east of the line.
        • 1949—North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) led by the U.S. was
          formed (the West).
        • 1955—Warsaw Pact led by the U.S.S.R. was formed (the Eastern Bloc).
        • Both alliances agreed to aid any member nation at war.
    – Superpower Rivalry (U.S. & U.S.S.R.)
        • Nuclear Arms Race began in 1949 once the U.S.S.R. developed their own
          atomic weapon.
        • Arms Race led to intense relations (which peaked in 1962 with the Cuban
          Missile Crisis).
History E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and
contemporary conflicts.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




   The Cold War split the world between the two Superpowers…this took
                 the form of NATO and the Warsaw Pact.
History E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and
contemporary conflicts.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




     The Cold War led to an Arms Race involving nuclear weapons that
          brought the world to the brink of nuclear annihilation.
History E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and
contemporary conflicts.   PAGE 5
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Cold War (Continued):
    – End of Cold War
        • 1970s—Détente (relaxation of tensions) began with the 1st Strategic Arms
          Limitation Treaty (SALT), which limited the number of nuclear warheads
          allowed.
        • Late 1980s—citizens of Eastern Bloc demanded freedom on a massive
          scale.
        • November 1989—Berlin Wall came down (starting the end of Communism
          in the Warsaw Pact by 1991).
    – Effects of Cold War
        • Breakup of Yugoslavia—communist nation (independent of U.S.S.R. during
          the Cold War) broke up because of independence movements in Slovenia,
          Croatia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina (now only a loose alliance called Serbia
          and Montenegro).
        • Nuclear Proliferation—more nations & terrorist groups are determined to
          achieve nuclear power status (many obtaining weapons from the breakup of
          U.S.S.R.).
History E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and
contemporary conflicts.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




 The Cold War pitted the U.S. and the Soviet Union against each other in
  wars and conflicts around the world…they never actually fought each
                              other though!
History E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and
contemporary conflicts.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   The Soviet Union lost the Cold War resulting in former Warsaw Pact nations
           gaining their independence (many turning to democracy).
History F: Identify major historical patterns in the domestic affairs of the
United States during the 20th century and explain their significance.             PAGE 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     Political          Economic             Social            African            Women
                                                              Americans
   Red Scare        Laissez-Faire       Roaring 20s        Great           19th Amendment
  Communism          Consumer            Traditional vs.      Migration      New Jobs
  Scheneck v. US        Economy             Modern           Race/Labor       Home Appliances
  Palmer Raids       Installment Plan    Prohibition            Riots          Flapper
  Sacco & Vanzetti   Credit              Scopes-Monkey       Red Summer
  Nativism          Stock              Ku Klux Klan        NAACP
  Immigrant Quotas      Speculation       Mass Media        Garvey
  Immigration Acts   Buying-on-Margin   Movies & Radio       Harlem
   Conservatism     1929 Crash           Lost Generation      Renaissance
  Presidents                                                  Jazz Age
     Harding,
     Coolidge, &
     Hoover
History F: Identify major historical patterns in the domestic affairs of the
United States during the 20th century and explain their significance.             PAGE 2
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     Political        Economic             Social            African              Women
                                                            Americans
  New Deal         GreatDepression    Hoovervilles       Discrimination    Home  Role
  President        Overproduction      Bonus Army          Scottsboro Boys     Married = fired
     Roosevelt     Bank Failures        Dust Bowl         Lynchings           Domestics not
  Hundred Days     Unemployment        Overproduction       67% no jobs         covered
  Relief           Smoot-Hawley        Mechanization        Substandard      Francis Perkins
    CCC, PWA,        Tariff            Migration West         Housing
  SSA, TVA         Labor Movement      Extended
  Recovery           Growth               families under
    NIRA, NLRB,                           roof
    PWA, AAA
  Reform
    FDIC, SEC
  Fireside Chats
History F: Identify major historical patterns in the domestic affairs of the
United States during the 20th century and explain their significance.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                               This agency paid farmers to grow fewer crops in an attempt to keep the prices of crops higher. The plan
   Agricultural Adjustment
                               would help the farms make more money, but some people were angry that there was less food and cotton.
       Administration
                               The agency was dissolved after the U.S. Supreme Court declared the AAA unconstitutional.

                               This program hired young men from needy families to work on conservation projects. They planted trees
 Civilian Conservation Corps
                               and built parks and dams. It gave many young men a job in a time of high unemployment.

                               In March 1933, the Emergency Banking Relief Act declared a four-day "banking holiday" during which all
  Emergency Banking Relief
                               banks were closed. This was done to stop the banking crisis that was taking place and to prevent more
            Act
                               banks from failing.

                               This was a law that helped workers get fair treatment at work. It created a minimum wage and forty-hour
  Fair Labor Standards Act
                               work week. It also made child labor illegal in the U.S.

                               This program gave jobs to a large number of unemployed people. Workers built thousands of schools,
 Public Works Administration
                               courthouses, bridges, and other public works.

                               This program built dams to help the poor residents of the Tennessee River Valley. The dams helped
  Tennessee Valley Authority
                               residents by providing flood control and electric power.

                               This law, also called the National Labor Relations Act, allowed workers to form unions. Unions can help
         Wagner Act
                               workers band together and request better working conditions or better pay.

   Securities and Exchange     This commission was made to regulate the stock market and restrict margin buying so that the stock
         Commission            market would not have another crash like the one that started the Depression. It still operates today.

                               This act provides government pensions to elderly, retired Americans and to disabled citizens who are
     Social Security Act
                               unable to work. Social Security is also still part of American life.
History F: Identify major historical patterns in the domestic affairs of the
United States during the 20th century and explain their significance.      PAGE 3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     Political          Economic           Social       African            Women
                                                       Americans
  Presidents         Industrial       Victory      Federal           Job
      Roosevelt &       Mobilization      Gardens       Desegregation      Opportunities
      Truman         Office of War     War Bonds    Armed Services   Rosie the
   Japanese            Mobilization                 Defense Industry      Riveter
      Internment    OPA, WPB                         "Double V"          Recruitment
  Bracero           Rationing                       CORE              Seniority
      Program
History F: Identify major historical patterns in the domestic affairs of the
United States during the 20th century and explain their significance.                PAGE 4
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     Political          Economic             Social             African              Women
                                                               Americans
  President          Prosperity          Baby Boom        Restrictive           Perfect
     Eisenhower     Conglomerates        Dr. Spock            Covenants              Homemaker
   Fair Deal       Franchises           Conformity         Ghettos/Slums
   McCarthyism     Technology           "Silent            Brown vs. Bd. of
  Loyalty Review    Transistor              Generation"       Ed. Topeka
     Board          Television           "Cookie          "Little Rock Nine“
  HUAC              Computer                Cutter"         Montgomery Bus
  Hollywood Ten      Credit Card           suburbs           Boycott
  Blacklisting       Taft-Hartley Act    Highways        SCLC
  McCarran-Walter                         Space Race      MLK, Jr.
     Act                                 Sputnik I
  Alger Hiss                             Focus on
  Rosenberg Trial                           Math/science
                                         Promise of moon
                                            landing
History F: Identify major historical patterns in the domestic affairs of the
United States during the 20th century and explain their significance.           PAGE 5
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     Political         Economic            Social         African               Women
                                                         Americans
  Presidents          UFW              Rock & Roll   Civil                Women's Lib
     Kennedy,        Cesar Chavez      Beat              Disobedience      The Feminine
     Johnson, &       Environmental      Generation   Passive Resistance      Mystique
     Nixon              Movement        Peace Corps   SNCC                  NOW
   New Frontier     EPA               Counter-       Freedom Rides        ERA
   Great Society                         culture         & Sit-ins          Roe vs. Wade
  Medicare &                           Hippies          Marches             Phyllis Schlafly
     Medicaid                          Sexual          D.C. & Selma         Anti-Feminism
  Immigration Act of                      Revolution    CRA of 1964
     1965                              Drug Scene       VRA of 1965
   Vietnam                            Woodstock        Nation of Islam—
  Anti-War Protest                                        Malcolm X
  Pentagon Papers                                       Black Power—
  '68 Democratic                                          Black Panthers
     Convention
  Kent State (1970)

				
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