Antacids by ashokmakhija

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Project on antacids

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									                                                                    PROJECT REPORT

                                                                STUDY OF ANTACIDS




                           1. Introduction


This project is aimed at analyzing some of the commercially available antacids to
determine their ability to neutralize hydrochloric acid and hence determining the best
of the brands which has the highest ability to neutralize acids.

We all know that the food we eat undergoes various biochemical reactions resulting in
digestion. In this process various enzymes working at different conditions are required.

The enzymes of stomach require an acidic pH to function; hence dilute HCL is produced
in stomach. However, sometimes the stomach starts producing excess of HCL. This
condition is called gastric hyperacidity and is usually caused by over eating highly
spiced food. In an uncontrolled condition this HCL can also destroy the mucous lining of
the stomach and result in peptic ulcer




     CENTRAL ACADEMY SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, LUCKNOW                           Page | 1
                                                                   PROJECT REPORT

                                                               STUDY OF ANTACIDS




                             2. ANTACIDS
Antacids are the commercially available products which neutralize the excess HCL
secreted in the stomach. The action of antacids is based on the fact that base (alkali)
can neutralize an acid forming salt water.

The antacid should not contain excess of alkali that may lead to an alkaline medium in
the stomach and make the enzymes inactive. Thus some additional compounds are
added to the antacid it keep the pH optimum. The action of an antacid is for a short
time, irrespective of the dose; hence it is required to take an antacid at frequent
intervals.

Antacids are meant to be used only occasionally. They should not be taken
continuously for more than two weeks unless under a physician's directions. Taking
antacids over long periods could mask the symptoms of a serious stomach or intestinal
problem, such as peptic ulcer disease. Older people should be especially careful, as
they may have ulcers without showing the typical symptoms.

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     CENTRAL ACADEMY SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, LUCKNOW                          Page | 2
                                                                     PROJECT REPORT

                                                                  STUDY OF ANTACIDS




2.1 SIDE EFFECTS
Side effects are very rare when antacids are taken as directed. They are more likely
when the medicine is taken in large doses or over a long time. Minor side effects
include a chalky taste, mild constipation or diarrhea, thirst, stomach cramps, and
whitish or speckled stools. These symptoms do not need medical attention unless they
do not go away or they interfere with normal activities.
Other uncommon side effects may occur. Anyone who has unusual symptoms after
taking antacids should get in touch with his or her health care provider.



2.2 USES OF ANTACIDS:

   1. It gives immediate relief from gastric hyperacidity.
   2. Controlled use of antacids can prevent ulcers in stomach.




     CENTRAL ACADEMY SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, LUCKNOW                           Page | 3
                                                           PROJECT REPORT

                                                        STUDY OF ANTACIDS




      3. COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ANTACIDS
3.1 ENO
Mfd. By:

Southern drugs and pharmaceuticals




                                           Fig: ENO

Ingredients:

Svarjiksara , Nimbukamlam

Dosage:

    One sachet in a glass of cold water

    Repeat in two to three hours if necessary


     CENTRAL ACADEMY SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, LUCKNOW                 Page | 4
                                                                 PROJECT REPORT

                                                              STUDY OF ANTACIDS




3.2 DIGENE TABLETS
Mfd by:

Abbot india ltd.




                                 Fig: Digene tablets

Ingredients:

Dried AL(OH), Mg-Al silicate hydrate

Dosage:

    2-4 tablets as required to be chewed or sucked after meals and at bedtime; or as
      advised by the physician

    Repeat in two to three hours if necessary




     CENTRAL ACADEMY SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, LUCKNOW                        Page | 5
                                                           PROJECT REPORT

                                                        STUDY OF ANTACIDS




3.3 PEPFIZ
Mfd by:

Ranbaxy




                                    Fig: pepfiz



Ingredients:

Simephecone , fungal diastase , papaim

Dosage:

    One tablet in a glass of cold water

    Repeat in two to three hours if necessary




     CENTRAL ACADEMY SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, LUCKNOW                 Page | 6
                                                                    PROJECT REPORT

                                                                STUDY OF ANTACIDS




                          4. EXPERIMENT
AIM
A comparative study of the effectiveness of different commercially available antacids

APPARATUS REQUIRED
Burette,pipette,conical flask, glass rod, mortar and pestle

CHEMICALS REQUIRED
HCL solution, NaOH solution, phenolphthalein/methyl orange, a few commercially
available antacids (like digene, ENO etc).

PROCEDURE
    1. Take 50 ml of 0.1 N NaOH solution in the burette.
    2. Take 50 ml of 0.1 N HCL in the conical flask.
    3. Add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein/methyl orange to the conical flask, which
       serves as an indicator.
    4. Add 1 g of finely powdered antacid to the conical flask. Use pestle and mortar to
       powder it.
    5. Shake well and now titrate the solution and observe the end point- a
       pink/yellow coloured solution.
    6. Repeat this with other antacids and note the readings.




      CENTRAL ACADEMY SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, LUCKNOW                          Page | 7
                                                                    PROJECT REPORT

                                                                STUDY OF ANTACIDS




OBSERVATION



    Antacid      Volume ofNaOH used          Volume of HCL                 Strength of
                 (y)ml                       neutralized(50-y= x)ml        antacid ml/gm


  Eno(5gm)        31.3                       18.9                          4.2


                  46.2                        3.8                          2.2
Digene(4gm)
                  44.9                        5.1                          2.4
Pepfiz(1.5gm)




PRECAUTIONS


 1. The weighing should be accurate.
 2. Powdering should be fine to promote maximum dissolution.
 3. The amount of HCl should sufficiently in excess so as to neutralize every bit of the
     antacid




    CENTRAL ACADEMY SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, LUCKNOW                             Page | 8
                                                                     PROJECT REPORT

                                                                  STUDY OF ANTACIDS




                                 5. RESULTS


Antacid                   Cost per gm         Strength ml/gm       Cost effect

Eno                       1                    3.74                0.8

Digene                    0.66                 3.17                1.2

Pepfiz                    2.66                 2.66                1.2




       ENO has the highest strength and thus “highest neutralizing capacity”




      CENTRAL ACADEMY SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, LUCKNOW                           Page | 9
                                                      PROJECT REPORT

                                                   STUDY OF ANTACIDS




             6. BIBLIOGRAPHY
   NCERT chemistry XII

   results_abbott.jsp

   www.abbott.co.in

   www.bing.com

   www.google.co.in




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