Session reinforcement by MikeJenny


									Session                      Term                                                    Answer
   1    2 ways of finding where the record floor goes     1. Right hand axis
        on a standard chart?                              2. 1/# minutes
   1    Counting period floor (used to be called          # minutes spent observing
        record floor)
   1    Echoic (controlling variables)                    Verbal stimulus determines form + audience (SD) + GCR.
                                                          PTP and similar forms.
   1     Emergency procedures                             Procedures designed to protect the person, others or the
                                                          environment from immediate harm, not as therapeutic
                                                          interventions. Two types: 1. immediate restraint 2.
                                                          immediate isolation
   1     Emergency situations                             Situations that present a risk to the client or others. Three
                                                          types: 1. behavior that is totally unexpected 2. behavior
                                                          that is low frequency (< 6/year) 3. behavior that must be
                                                          managed until a program is in place
   1     Example of verbal behavior under multiple        Kid who tacts "paper" that is evoked by specific EO.
         control (e.g., impure tact)
   1     If data points are going down on a Standard      Upward trend
         Chart, and the data are duration data, what is
         the trend?
   1     If data points are going down on a Standard      Downward trend
         Chart, and the data are rate data, what is the
   1     If data points are going up on a Standard        Downward trend
         Chart, and the data are duration data, what is
         the trend?
   1     If data points are going up on a Standard        Upward trend
         Chart, and the data are rate data, what is the
   1     Intraverbal (controlling variables)              Verbal stimulus determines form + audience (SD) + GCR.
                                                          No PTP correspondence of stimulus and response
   1     Least restrictive treatment                      Using treatment that minimizes suspension of basic rights or
                                                          freedoms. The "least restrictive treatment" that has a
                                                          reasonable change of success should be used.
   1     Mand (controlling variables)                     EO determines form + audience (SD) + specific reinforcer
   1     Meaning of a word                                Variables responsible for its emission.
   1     Normalization                                    Living environments and treatment procedures should be
                                                          used that are most like those applied to normal populations
   1     Right hand axis on Standard Chart                Time
   1     Tact (controlling variables)                     Nonverbal stimulus determines form + audience (SD) + GCR
   1     Textual (controlling variables)                  Verbal stimulus determines form + audience (SD) + GCR.
                                                          PTP correspondence but dissimilar forms
   1     Verbal behavior                                  Behavior that is reinforced with the mediation of another
   1     X-axis on a standard chart                       Days
   1     Y-axis on a standard chart                       Count per minute
   2     ABCD analysis: what is D                         Non-socially mediated consequence of behavior
   2     Analogue FA                                      Setup conditions to mimic real-life situations
   2     Analogue FA conditions                           Control, attention, escape from task, alone, tangible
   2     Analytic                                         Characteristic of ABA. Scientifically based experimental
                                                          designs are used to assess the effectiveness of
                                                          interventions under study.
2   Applied                                     Characteristic of ABA. Focuses on behavior with social
2   Applied Behavior Analysis vs Experimental   Both use systematic manipulations and data analysis of
    Analysis of Behavior                        individual organisms.
                                                ABA: Behaviors of social significance to the person are
                                                EAB: Behaviors of no social significance of the person are
2   Assumptions/Characteristics of Science      1. Determinism
                                                2. Law of Parsimony
                                                3. Scientific Manipulation
                                                4. Empiricism
                                                5. Philosophic Doubt
                                                6. Replication
2   Automatic reinforcement                     A reinforcer that is produced by the behavior without the
                                                participation of other people. For example, echolalia
                                                produces sounds that may maintain the behavior. It can be
                                                positive or negative reinforcement.
2   Behavioral                                  Characteristic of ABA. Behavior is the focus, not a
                                                hypothetical entity.
2   Behavioral assessment: 2 general kinds      1. Functional analysis
                                                2. Descriptive assessment
2   Behavioral assessment: goal                 Identify the function of behavior
2   Behavioral Technologies                     Collection of procedures that have arisen from research and
                                                are applied to practical problems by practitioners. Ex:
                                                behavioral momentum is now implemented by many service
                                                providers in clinics, schools, and homes
2   Behaviorism                                 Philosophy of behavior that assumes behavior is a function
                                                of current and past environments as well as genetics.
2   Characteristics of ABA                      1. Effective
                                                2. Technological
                                                3. Conceptually Systematic
                                                4. Generality
                                                5. Analytic
                                                6. Applied
                                                7. Behavioral
2   Conceptually Systematic                     Characteristic of ABA. Procedures are tied to the basic
                                                principles of behavior.
2   Dependent Variable                          Measure of behavior of interest
2   Determinism                                 Assumption of Science. Behavior is caused by some event.
2   Discrepency analysis                        Compare data with those of norm group to determine
                                                changeworthiness of current behavior
2   Effective                                   Characteristic of ABA. Attempt to produce large enough
                                                effect that has an impact on the person's life.
2   Empiricism                                  Assumption of Science. Information is collected by objective
2   Explanatory Fiction/Circular Reasoning      Explaining behavior by using entity that lies within the
                                                behavior itself. (Eric is aggressive because he has an
                                                aggressive trait. Evidence of aggressive trait is his
                                                aggressive behavior)
2   Generality                                  Extent to which the results or functional relations will be
                                                observed if the experiment is changed in some way. Can be
                                                tested by implementing the Tx with different Ss, settings,
                                                behaviors, or species.
2   How to sample high rate behavior             Continuous recording for short period of time
2   Hypothesis testing (2 kinds)                 1. Tx vs no Tx probes in real life setting
                                                 2. Set up FA conditions to test hypothesis
2   Inadequate Explanations of Behavior          1. Nominal Fallacy
                                                 2. Teleology
                                                 3. Reification
                                                 4. Circular reasoning
2   Incident method of pinpointing               Have caregiver report a specific incident of problem
                                                 behavior, and derive the definition from the incident
2   Independent Variable                         Treatment or intervention
2   Kinds of descriptive assessments             1. Direct observation
                                                 2. Records review
                                                 3. Interviews
2   Law of Parsimony                             Assumption of Science. The simplest explanation of
                                                 behavior should be provided, all else being equal
2   Mentalistic Explanations of Behavior         Explanations that appeal to mental, unobservable
                                                 processes. Ex: The child was aggressive due to his
                                                 frustration with school.
2   Nominal Fallacy                              Explaining behavior by naming or classifying it (The behavior
                                                 is PICA to explain eating inedible objects)
2   Philosophic Doubt                            Assumption of Science. Conclusions of science are tentative
                                                 and can be revised as new data comes to light.
2   Pinpoint behavior                            Objective definition of the behavior in question
2   Private Events                               Behavior and/or stimuli that can only be observed by the
                                                 person. (Ex: headaches) These behaviors and stimuli still
                                                 must be explained by appealing to a history of environmental
                                                 contingencies or biological processes.
2   Reasons why you might need to intervene      A. Danger to self, others
                                                 B. Safety hazard
                                                 C. Welfare in current environment
                                                 D. Behavior problem prevents access to less restrictive
2   Reification                                  Explaining behavior by appealing to non-existent entity (ID,
                                                 ego, self, etc.)
2   Scatterplot                                  A chart that shows occurrences of behavior in a given time
2   Scientific Manipulation                      Characteristic of Science. Systematically manipulating an
                                                 event to see effects on behavior
2   Social Significance                          Characteristic of Applied Behavior Analysis whereas the
                                                 behavior is socially significant to the person as well as the
                                                 changes that occur.
2   Systematic Manipulation                      Assumption of science. To see if an event affects behavior,
                                                 the event is systematically manipulated and the effects on
                                                 behavior are noted.
2   Technological                                Characteristic of ABA. Provides written detail of procedures
                                                 to permit replication of techniques in other settings.
2   Teleology                                    Explaining behavior by appealing to future, unexperienced
                                                 events (I am doing my homework to graduate)
2   Trigger analysis                             Examine the evocative effects of a particular antecedent
2   What is Behaviorism?                         Philosophy of behavior that assumes that behavior is a
                                                 function of past and current events as well as genetics.
2   What is the difference between Applied and   The difference is that with Applied the behaviors have social
    Experimental Analysis?                       significance to the person being investigated whereas with
                                                 Experimental Analysis they do not.
3   Abative effect                               When a stimulus causes an immediate weakening of a
                                                 response. Term applies to the effect of an S-delta or SDP.
3   Abolishing Operations                        1. Decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus
                                                 2. Decreases the strength of the behavior that has produced
                                                 that stimulus in the past
3   Adventitious Reinforcement                   Refers to accidental reinforcement, results in superstitious
                                                 behavior. In this kind of reinforcement, the reinforcer is not
                                                 produced by the response, but nontheless occurs after it.
                                                 Ex: Pitcher wears socks and has good game, then wears
                                                 sock at all games.
3   Antecedent                                   Event before the behavior
3   Audience                                     The individual(s) who provides the reinforcement for VB.
                                                 The audience is an SD for the VB.
3   Autoclitic                                   VB that is used to modify the effect of other VB on the
                                                 listener ("You are moving really slowly")
3   Avoidance behavior                           Avoidance behavior that is reinforced by the postponement
                                                 or avoidance of an aversive stimulus (negative reinforcer).
3   Behavior                                     Interaction of a person and his/her environment. Action of
                                                 the muscles and/or glands
3   Behavior contrast: negative                  When a treated behavior increases (e.g., ext or punishment),
                                                 and the same untreated behavior in another situation
                                                 decreases. In the laboratory, contrast is studied in multiple
3   Behavior contrast: positive                  When a treated behavior decreases (e.g., ext or
                                                 punishment), and the same untreated behavior in another
                                                 situation increases. In the laboratory, contrast is studied in
                                                 multiple schedules.
3   Behavioral view of “sensory defensiveness”   Tactile stimuli are negative reinforcers
3   Categories of functions                      Positive reinforcement (Direct and SM)
                                                 Negative reinforcement (Direct and SM)
3   COD                                          Change over delay - when a concurrent superstition occurs,
                                                 a delay is programmed after the first behavior occurs to
                                                 eliminate the superstition.
3   Collateral Measures                          Measures of behaviors other than the primary target
3   Concurrent superstition                      When a behavior (e.g., tantrum) is maintained by the
                                                 reinforcer for another behavior (e.g., mand for food).
3   Conditioned Motivative Operations (CMO)      Have the same effects that motivative operations have, but
                                                 are due to a conditioning history
3   Conditioned Reinforcer (punisher)            A consequence that increases (or decreases) the rate of
                                                 behavior because it has been paired with another reinforcer
                                                 (or punisher)
3   Consequence                                  Event that occurs after the behavior
3   Contingency                                  Dependency among behavior and stimuli or among stimuli.
                                                 Can be expressed as an If-Then Statement.
3   Contingency Shaped Behavior                  Behavior that occurs because it has resulted from direct
                                                 exposure to contingencies.
3   CR                                           Conditioned Response – a response elicited by a
                                                 conditioned stimulus
3   CS                                           Conditioned Stimulus – a neutral stimulus that comes to
                                                 elicit a conditioned response through pairing with a US
3   Cycle                                        Specifies when a behavior begins and when it ends.
3   Dead Man’s Test                              Test for evaluating whether a goal or objective is viable. If a
                                                 dead man can do it, then it may not be a functional, useful
3   Deprivation                                  Absence of reinforcer for a period of time, thereby making
                                                 that event more effective as a reinforcer.
3   Discrete Trials                              An instructional method wherein the client is presented with
                                                 formal opportunity to perform behavior. Consequence is
                                                 provided depending on behavior.
3   Discriminated Operant                        Behavior that requires some "opportunity" or specific
                                                 antecedent to occur. Ex: in order to follow directions, there
                                                 must first be a direction given.
3   Discrimination                               Refers to a change in observed behavior when antecedent
                                                 stimuli are changed
3   Discrimination Training                      Reinforcing a behavior in the presence of some antecedent
                                                 and extinguishing (or punishing) the behavior in the absence
                                                 of the antecedent.
3   Echoic                                       Verbal behavior under antecedent control of prior verbal
                                                 stimulus. Point to point correspondence between the
                                                 antecedent stimulus and the response. (imitative behavior)
3   Environment                                  Entire constellation of stimuli that can affect a person
                                                 (includes both internal/external)
3   Escape behavior                               Escape behavior is behavior that is reinforced by escaping
                                                 from a aversive stimulus (negative reinforcer)
3   Escape Extinction                            Extinction of a negatively reinforced behavior. Withholding
3   Establishing Operation                       1. Increases the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus
                                                 2. Increases the strength of the behavior that has produced
                                                 that stimulus in the past
3   Evocative effect                             When a stimulus causes an immediate strengthening of a
                                                 response. Term applies to the effect of an SD, CS, or US.
3   Extinction                                   Withholding a stimulus that normally occurs after a behavior,
                                                 resulting in a decrease in the rate of behavior.
3   Extinction Side-Effects                      Extinction burst, emotional behavior, aggression, increase in
                                                 variety of topographies, increase in intensity of behavior
3   Free Operant                                 Behavior that can occur at anytime, given some motivation.
3   Functional Response Definition               Includes the topography of response as well as the
                                                 functional antecedents and/or consequences.
3   Function-altering                            The concept that conditioning (and rules) alters the function
                                                 of stimuli. For example, discrimination training creates SDs.
                                                 And, reinforcement creates EO s.
3   Function-altering: Operant conditioning      Reinforcement alters the function of neutral stimuli and
                                                 results in the emergence of SDs and EO s.
3   Function-altering: Respondent conditioning   The pairing of a NS and US results in a change of the NS
                                                 function - it becomes a CS.
3   Function-altering: Rules                     Rules create new CSs, SDs, conditioned reinforcers, EO s,
3   Fundamental Characteristics of Behavior      1. Temporal locus
                                                 2. Temporal extent
                                                 3. Repeatability

                                                 Rate, Latency, Duration are derived from this.
3   Generalization Gradient                      A graph that shows the frequency of a behavior in various
                                                 stimulus conditions, one of which is the "training" situation
                                                 and then other similar but untrained "test" situations.
3   Intraverbal                           Verbal behavior evoked by some antecedent verbal
                                          stimulus, but without point to point correspondence (ex: red
                                          white and_____)
3   Mand                                  Verbal behavior that specifies its reinforcer and is evoked by
                                          some establishing operation. (asking for something)
3   Motivational Operation (2 effects)    1. Changes the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus
                                          2. Changes the strength of behavior that has produced that
                                          stimulus in the past
3   Negative Punisher                     Stimulus that when withdrawn after a behavior, decreases
                                          the rate of the behavior. Note that IRT will increase.
3   Negative Reinforcement                Process in which a stimulus is withdrawn after a behavior,
                                          and the rate of the behavior increases.
3   Negative Reinforcer                   Stimulus that when withdrawn after a behavior, increases
                                          the rate of the behavior. Note that IRT will decrease.
3   NS                                    Neutral Stimulus – stimulus that does not elicit a response
                                          prior to conditioning
3   Operant                               A collection of responses with a common effect on the
                                          environment. Ex: child may do a variety of things to obtain
3   Operant Conditioning                  Kind of learning where a class of behavior (operant) is
                                          modified by changing its consequences.
3   Positive Punisher                     A stimulus that when presented after a behavior, decreases
                                          the rate of behavior. The IRTs would increase.
3   Positive Reinforcement                Process in which a stimulus is presented after a behavior
                                          and the rate of the behavior increases. The IRTs would
3   Positive Reinforcer                   Stimulus that when presented after a behavior, increases the
                                          rate of the behavior. Note that the IRT will decrease.
3   Primary Reinforcer                    Reinforcer effective without previous experience (food,
3   Reflexive CMO                         Have their effects because their presence signals a
                                          "worsening" or "improvement" of conditions. In the former,
                                          their offset is reinforcing. In the latter, their offset is
3   Resistance to Extinction              The extent to which behavior persists when the maintaining
                                          reinforcer is withheld. Abbreviation: RTE
3   Respondent (classical) Conditioning   Kind of learning in which one stimulus is paired with a
                                          second stimulus and, as a result, the first comes to elicit the
                                          same or similar response that the second elicits
3   Respondent Extinction                 Decrease in the strength of a CR as a result of presenting
                                          the CS alone
3   Response                              A single instance of a behavioral class.
3   Response Definition                   Description of a response that is in objective and observable
3   Response Generalization               Effects of a contingency spread to responses not yet
                                          associated with the contingency.
3   Rule-Governed Behavior                Behavior resulting from rules rather than direct exposure to
                                          contingencies. For example a person may put together a
                                          bike using the instruction manual.
3   Rules                                 Contingency-specifying stimuli that describe relations
                                          between stimuli or between stimuli and behavior
3   Satiation                             Decrease in responding due to the reduced effectiveness of
                                          the reinforcer, because the person has received too much of
3   SD                                  Stimulus that 1. evokes a behavior 2. because that behavior
                                        has been reinforced in the presence of the stimulus.
3   S-delta                             A stimulus that:
                                        1. suppresses a behavior
                                        2. because that behavior has been extinguished in the
                                        presence of the stimulus
3   SDP                                 Stimulus that
                                        1. decreases or suppresses a behavior
                                        2. because that behavior has been punished in the
                                        presence of the stimulus.
3   Sensory Extinction                  Extinction of a behavior maintained by sensory reinforcers.
                                        The sensory reinforcers are withheld.
3   Skinner’s Verbal Behavior           A system of language that classifies verbal behavior
                                        according to its function.
3   Social Extinction                   Extinction of a behavior maintained by social reinforcers.
                                        Withholding social reinforcement.
3   Social Learning Theory              Theory of learning that posits learning occurs as a result of
                                        observations that subsequently affect the person through
                                        cognitive mediational processes.
3   Spontaneous Recovery                Following an extinction session, a temporary re-appearance
                                        of the behavior in the beginning of the next extinction
                                        session. It is thought that the re-appearance is due to the
                                        relative novelty of the "beginning of the session" that was
                                        only briefly experienced in the previous session.
3   Stimulus                            An energy change in the environment that affects a person
                                        through his/her senses.
3   Stimulus Class                      Collection of stimuli with a common characteristic. Ex: any
                                        stimulus that evokes tantrums, or any stimulus of a certain
3   Stimulus Control                    The extent to which a behavior occurs when the antecedent
                                        stimulus is presented. EX: Mom has stimulus control over a
                                        child's tantrums to the extent that the child tantrums in the
                                        presence of mom, and does not tantrum in her absence.
3   Stimulus Generalization             Effects of a contingency spread to stimuli not yet associated
                                        with the contingency.
3   Superstitious Behavior              Behavior that occurs due to accidental or adventitious
                                        reinforcement. In this kind of reinforcement, the reinforcer is
                                        not produced by the response, but nontheless occurs after it.
3   Surrogate CMO                       A surrogate CMO has its effect because of a history of
                                        pairing with an MO, and these effects mimic those of the
3   Tact                                Verbal behavior that is evoked by some non-verbal
                                        environmental stimulus (naming)
3   Target Behavior                     Behavior to be changed.
3   Textual                             Verbal behavior evoked by some written stimulus with some
                                        point to point correspondence
3   Topographical Response Definition   Includes only description of the form, or topography, of the
3   Topography of Response              Form of response (e.g. kicking, hitting,)
3   Transitive CMO                      Change the reinforcing value of some other stimulus, and
                                        change the strength of behavior that has produced that
                                        stimulus in the past.
3   Unconditioned Reinforcer            A reinforcer that is effective without previous experience.
                                        Ex: food, drinks
3   UR                                              Unconditioned Response- response elicited by an
                                                    unconditioned stimulus
3   US                                              Unconditioned Stimulus – stimulus that elicits a behavior w/o
                                                    any history.
3   Verbal behavior                                 Behavior that is maintained by reinforcement mediated by
                                                    another person.
4   Antecedent Manipulation                         Adding or removing antecedents that evoke behaviors
4   Baseline                                        Pre-intervention assessment that is used to refine recording
                                                    procedures, design the intervention and provide data with
                                                    which to compare intervention data when evaluating
                                                    intervention effects.
4   Behavioral Assessment                           Assessment that examines the person's entire life in order to
                                                    identify possible causes of the behavior in question. You
                                                    may use descriptive assessment methods or functional
4   Complete Behavioral Support Plan                4 Elements: motivational operations, discriminative control,
                                                    replacement behaviors and consequence manipulations
4   Conditional probability                         The likelihood of an event occurring, given another event
                                                    (e.g., how often a behavior occurs, given an antecedent).
                                                    Formula: #A--> B/ # A OR # B --> C/# B.
4   Contextual Variables (setting events)           Variables that are more generally present stimuli that are not
                                                    necessarily manipulated as part of a behavior change
                                                    program. May influence the efficacy of behavioral
                                                    procedures. Ex: medical status, task variation, number of
                                                    staff, etc.
4   Descriptive Assessment                          Includes: records review, interviews of clients or significant
                                                    others, and direct observations. The goal is to identify
                                                    patterns of behavior, topographies and frequencies in order
                                                    to develop an hypothesis
4   Direct Solutions to Behavior Problems           Solutions to behavior problems that do not involve formal
                                                    behavior programs. Ex: treating a medical condition,
                                                    removing an antecedent stimulus, changing some feature of
                                                    the environment, etc.
4   Ecological Changes                              Changing schedules, staffing patterns, activities, diet, etc.
4   Functional Analysis                             Manipulation of environmental conditions to determine a
                                                    functional relation between problem behavior and
                                                    independent variables. Goal is to confirm hypothesis
                                                    developed in descriptive assessment.
4   Functional analysis best practice: how many     Use one control for each test (pair wise)
    controls to use
4   Functional analysis best practice: natural vs   Natural
    contrived environments
4   Functional analysis best practice: role of      To develop an hypothesis
    supplemental information
4   Functional analysis best practice: what to do   If descriptive assessment does not indicate behavior occurs
    with tangible condition                         to produce tangibles, then don't include in test conditions.
4   Functional analysis models                      AB and ABC
4   Functional analysis: brief                      An FA that involves 1 or 2 sessions
4   Functional Analysis: Multi-Component            Arranging for particular conditions/situations (task, alone,
    Manipulations                                   enriched environment, etc) and measuring behavior.
                                                    Reinforcers may be provided for problem behavior.
4   Functional analysis: Pair wise                  When a particular test condition (e.g., FR 1 attention) has a
                                                    corresponding control condition (e.g., continuous attention).
                                                    A pair wise is often used to test a particular hypothesis (e.g.,
                                                  is the behavior maintained by attention?).
4   Functional analysis: undifferentiated data    This suggests that the behavior is under multiple control
                                                  (there is more than 1 operant) - or it may suggest that there
                                                  is some idiosyncratic variable that is maintaining the
                                                  behavior in all conditions.
4   Lag sequential analysis                       When conditional probabilities are calculated. It can be
                                                  between an A and B, or between a B and C. Formula for A
                                                  and B: Prob(A-->B)/Prob(A). Formula for B and C: Prob(B-
4   Lag sequential analysis: Lag 1                When conditional probabilities are calculated. It can be
                                                  between an A and B, or between a B and C. Lag 1 refers to
                                                  the fact that the CP examines the A just before the B, or the
                                                  C just after the B.
4   Lag sequential analysis: Lag 2                When conditional probabilities are calculated. It can be
                                                  between an A and B, or between a B and C. Lag 2 refers to
                                                  the fact that the CP examines the A that is two antecedents
                                                  before the B, or the C that is two consequences after the B.
4   Pattern Analysis                              Looking for patterns of behavior, noting any kind of
                                                  correlation of behavior and some other factor. Ex: time of
                                                  day, staff, curriculum, etc. Common type of pattern analysis
                                                  is scatterplot.
4   Replacement Skills                            New skills that are taught to replace target behaviors in
                                                  order to obtain the same reinforcer
4   Sequence Analysis                             Identifying events that typically precede and follow a target
                                                  behavior. Also called ABC Analysis.
4   Testing Hypothesis in Functional Analysis     Conditions are arranged to test the hypothesis. Ex: high
                                                  v.s. low attention conditions to assess behavior thought to
                                                  occur for attention
5   Alternating Treating (multi-element) Design   Two or more treatments with their own signal, alternated
                                                  across time - usually in the same day.
5   Between subject designs                       Participants only receive 1 condition (e.g., BL or TX). The
                                                  mean of each group is typically reported.
5   Changing Criterion                            A design in which criterion in reinforcement is systematically
                                                  changed. Control is shown when changes in behavior
                                                  shadow changes in criterion.
5   Component Analysis                            Taking treatment apart and identifying which component is
                                                  the effective component. Can be accomplished by slowly
                                                  taking each element out -or- by starting with a single
                                                  element and slowly adding each element.
5   Confounding Variable                          Uncontrolled variables or events that influence the outcome
                                                  of an experiment. Often accompany the IV and thus are
                                                  indistinguishable from the IV.
5   Correlation                                   Two events co-vary. One may cause the second, the
                                                  second may cause the first, or both may be caused by a
                                                  third variable.
5   Deductive Processes                           Testing hypothesis by collecting data in systematic
                                                  manipulation format.
5   Direct Replication                            Repeating the exact experiment with the same (intra-
                                                  subject) or similar subjects (inter-subject). When used with
                                                  the same participant, allows for assessment of internal
5   Experimental Design                           A sequence of conditions that permit conclusions about
                                                  whether the changes in behavior resulted from the
5   External Validity                              Extent to which intervention can be successfully applied to
                                                   other people, other situations, or other behaviors. Also
                                                   termed generality.
5   Functional Relation                            When an independent variable lawfully affects a dependent
5   Inductive processes                            Generating a hypothesis from data that has already been
5   Integrity of the Independent Variable          Refers to the extent to which the treatment is implemented
                                                   as intended.
5   Internal Validity                              Whether or not changes in behavior can be attributed to the
                                                   intervention. AB designs lack strong internal validity, but
                                                   ABA or ABAB designs have strong internal validity.
5   Multiple Baseline (3)                          Baseline data are collected on two or more subjects,
                                                   situations, or behaviors. Intervention is applied to the first,
                                                   and then the first and second, etc.
5   Multiple Probe                                 Multiple baseline design except that untreated behaviors are
                                                   assessed periodically through probes until they receive the
5   Parametric Analysis                            Studying different values or levels of a treatment. Can be
                                                   accomplished by randomly presenting the different values in
                                                   a ABCDEF design varied across participants -or- by
                                                   presenting the values in an ascending/descending series in
                                                   ABCDEDCBA design. This design is often used in drug
5   Practical Issues with Alternating Treatments Effects of one treatment can be seen in other conditions due
    Design                                         to rapid alternation. If treatment procedures are not
                                                   discriminable, differences may not be evident in data.
5   Practical Issues with Changing Criterion       Not all behaviors/treatments can be studied with this design.
    Design                                         In some cases, a reinforcement parameter may be able to
                                                   be varied.
5   Practical Issues with Multiple Baseline Design Requires untreated behaviors, participants or settings which
                                                   could be dangerous. Internal validity can be unclear when
                                                   generalization occurs.
5   Practical Issues with Withdrawal & Reversal 1. Requires counter-therapeutic change
    Designs                                        2. Not appropriate for irreversible changes
                                                   3. SIB can be dangerous in this design
5   Reversal Design                                A design in which an intervention is applied to behavior, then
                                                   removed and a second intervention is applied to the same
                                                   behavior (ex: NCR), and then the second intervention is
                                                   removed and the first is re-applied.
5   Steady state                                   When data show no trend according to some criterion (e.g.,
                                                   no visible trend over 5 sessions)
5   Systematic Replication                         Purposefully changing elements of the experiment and
                                                   repeating the new experiment. Displays external validity or
5   Threats to Internal Validity                   Events that call into question whether the changes in
                                                   behavior resulted from the treatment. Include maturation of
                                                   the subject(s), inaccurate or biased recording, poor
                                                   implementation of the treatment, unplanned environmental
                                                   changes, etc.
5   Transition state                               When there is a trend in the data, and there is presumably
                                                   an ongoing behavioral process that is changing the strength
                                                   of the behavior. Transition states occur between steady
5   Withdrawal Design                           Design in which baseline conditions are alternated with
                                                intervention conditions. Minimum alternations are ABA or
5   Withdrawal with Probe Design                A standard ABAB design except the return to the A condition
                                                is very brief.
5   Yoking: between subject                     Between subject yoking: when some parameter in a
                                                condition is used in another condition for a different subject
                                                (e.g., one subject, called the master, is responding under a
                                                FR 5 condition. When this subject earns a reinforcer,
                                                another subject receives a reinforcer. This would be used to
                                                generate a VT schedule for the "slave." ).
5   Yoking: within subject                      Within subject yoking: when some parameter in a condition
                                                is used in another condition for a subject (e.g., the rate of
                                                reinforcement in a FR 5 condition is used to program a FT
                                                schedule in another condition).
6   ABC recording                               Recording antecedent, behavior, consequence streams.
                                                Used in descriptive assessments.
6   Accuracy                                    Presumed to be present when there is agreement between 2
                                                trained observers. But more correctly, when data are
                                                consistent "true values."
6   Behavior Definitions                        Observable and measurable description of behavior
6   Bias of partial interval recording, whole   Partial interval: overestimates rates, used for reduction
    interval recording and momentary time       targets
    sampling                                    Whole interval: underestimates rates, used for acquisition
                                                Momentary time sampling: no systematic bias
6   Celeration                                  A measure of the change in behavior over time (10/min -->
                                                20/min = doubling)
6   Continuous vs. Sampling Recording           Continuous - uninterrupted observation and recording
                                                Sampling - behavior observed and recorded occasionally
6   Descriptive analysis: limits                1. Sometimes inaccurate conclusions
                                                2. Function might change over time
6   Descriptive analysis: strengths             1. Easy for practitioner
                                                2. No risk
                                                3. Little training is needed
6   Direct Observation                          Observing behavior directly, instead of assessing through
6   Divided attention                           When attention is diverted to another person, and not just
6   Duration                                    Time between the beginning of a response and the end of
                                                that response
6   Duration Recording                          Using some timing device, recording the length of time of the
6   Event Recording                             # of occurrences of a response are recorded.
6   Frequency                                   Number of times a behavior occurs (Ex: count)
6   Functional analysis: AB model               FA in which an EO is manipulated (task vs no task; frequent
                                                attention vs low attention). No consequences are presented
                                                when behavior occurs.
6   Functional analysis: ABC model              FA in which consequences are manipulated. Attention
                                                condition: FR 1 attention for problem behavior. Tangible
                                                condition: FR 1 tangible for problem behavior.
6   Functional analysis: limits                 1. Does analogue apply to real life
                                                2. Sometimes misses idiosyncratic variables
                                                3. Doesn't always investigate complex variables
6   Functional analysis: strengths                 1. High degree of confidence in determining functional
6   Intensity                                      Force of behavior, which could be measured in decibels
                                                   (loudness) or lbs/sq in (pressure)
6   Inter-observer agreement (IOA)                 Extent to which two observer's data agree. It is said to
                                                   estimate accuracy.
6   Inter-observer agreement (IOA): exact count 1. Divide observation time into intervals
    per interval                                   2. Count # of intervals in which there is exact agreement
                                                   3. Compute IOA for each interval by the (# of exact
                                                   agreements/# total intervals) x 100
6   Inter-observer agreement (IOA): mean count 1. Divide observation time into intervals
    per interval                                   2. Compute IOA for each interval by dividing (small/large) x
                                                   3. Average all interval IOA
6   Inter-observer agreement (IOA): total count (Smaller count/larger count) X 100
6   Inter-observer agreement (IOA): Trial by trial (# trials with agreement/# trials) x 100
6   IRT - Interresponse Time                       Time between end of a response and the beginning of
                                                   another response.
6   Latency                                        Duration of time between a stimulus and the beginning of
6   Maladaptive behavior: problem with term        It is assumed that behavior is adaptive, as it has a function.
6   Momentary-Time Sampling                        A recording procedure in which a time period is divided into
                                                   bins. A "+" is recorded if the behavior occurs at the end of
                                                   the bin. A "-" is recorded if behavior does not occur at the
                                                   end of the bin. There is no systematic bias.
6   Narrative recording                            On-line description of behavior, antecedents and
                                                   consequences written in prose.
6   Observation Times for High Rate Behavior       Can be brief
6   Observation Times for Low Rate Behavior        Longer duration to catch the behavior
6   Observer drift                                 Tendency for an observer's recording to gradually change
                                                   across time. It can be pinpointed to the time when an
                                                   observer's scores differ from those of a 2nd observer. One
                                                   cause is a change in response definition.
6   Partial Interval Recording                     Recording procedure in which a time period is divided into
                                                   bins. A "+" is recorded in each bin if a behavior occurs at all
                                                   during that bin. A "-" is recorded if the behavior did not
                                                   occur at all during that bin. This recording procedure tends
                                                   to be an overestimate.
6   Percentage Correct                             # of correct responses/ # of total responses, multiplied by
6   Permanent Product Recording                    Recording the effects of the behavior, not the behavior itself
                                                   (Ex: bed made)
6   Rate                                           #of responses/ time (Ex: responses/minute)
6   Reactivity                                     Extent to which the act of recording influences behavior
                                                   (behavior changes when being observed)
6   Recalibration                                  Re-training an observer to increase accuracy, used to
                                                   decrease/correct observer drift
6   Recording Procedures                           Methods for recording behavior that produce data
                                                   transposable into a measure
6   Reliability                                    Extent to which a given measurement result will be obtained
                                                   with the same sample of behavior
6   Setting events: issue with term                Setting events is not technical term in the field. They
                                                   typically refer to motivational operations
6   Training observers                             Observers can be trained through explanation, video tapes,
                                                   modeling and feedback. They can be calibrated using
                                                   behaviors for which frequencies are known.
6   Trials to Criterion                            Number of trials required for a behavior to meet some
                                                   criterion (Ex: number of trials it takes to complete a task
                                                   without error)
6   True Values                                    Data in which extraordinary measures have been taken to
                                                   eliminate sources of error. True values hould approximate
                                                   the true measure of the behavior in the sample.
6   Whole Interval Recording                       A recording procedure in which a time period is divided into
                                                   bins. A "+" is recorded if the behavior occurred during the
                                                   entire bin. A "-" is recorded if the behavior did not occur
                                                   during the entire bin. This recording tends to be an
7   Bar Graphs (Histograms)                        Graphs used to show the average # of behaviors or other
                                                   measures such as # in a category. Not appropriate for
                                                   showing daily frequencies in real time.
7   Characteristics of Graphed Data                Level, Trend and Variability
7   Condition Change Line                          Vertical line on graphs to indicate change. Solid line for
                                                   planned treatment/condition changes. Dashed line for
                                                   unplanned environment changes (Ex: changes in staff).
7   Cumulative Record                              Graph that shows the cumulative number of responses over
                                                   time. Rate of response is represented by the slope of the
7   Data                                           The results of measurement usually in a quantifiable form
                                                   (e.g., # aggressions in a day, the rate of correct vs incorrect
                                                   flash cards).
7   Data path                                      The line connecting two successive data points.
7   Functional analysis on high intensity behavior 1. Look at the latency to the first response in the condition.
                                                   Then end the condition.
                                                   2. Or, just study precursors.
7   Functional analysis: role of precursors        Can be the DV if the problem behavior is dangerous.
7   Functional equivalence                         When two or more behaviors have the same effect (they
                                                   belong to the same operant). This concept is often used in
                                                   identifying a replacement behavior.
7   Graph                                          Visual display of data, used for decision making and
                                                   comparisons of different treatments
7   Hebephile                                      Attraction to pubescent children
7   Horizontal Axis Label                          Some unit of time (days, sessions, weeks, etc)
7   Ignored Day                                    A day wherein the behavior did have a chance to occur but
                                                   no data were collected, thus, the previous data point and the
                                                   one following are connected
7   Level                                          General height of the points, typically described by
                                                   median/mean of points
7   Low rate behavior: why it occurs               The assumption is that the independent variables are low
7   Matching equation                              Equation that expresses a fundamental functional relation:
                                                   the rate of response will be sensitive to the rate of
                                                   reinforcement for that response as well as the rate of
                                                   reinforcement for other responses
                                                           R1             =          r1
                                                 ---------------         --------------
                                                     R1 + R2                      r1 + r2
7   Matching equation: 2 ways to decrease R1      1) decrease the rate of reinforcement for R1 and 2) increase
                                                 the rate of reinforcement for R2.
7   Motivational operation: distal               An MO that is temporally removed from a behavior - for
                                                 example, several hours prior to the behavior that is
7   Motivational operation: proximal             An MO that occurs close in time to a behavior
7   No Chance Day                                A day wherein the behavior could not occur, thus, the
                                                 previous data point and the one following are not connected.
7   Pedophile                                    Attraction to pre-pubescent children
7   Precursors: role in assessment               In the case of high intensity behavior, precursors maybe
                                                 assessed for safety reasons
7   Precursors: role in treatment                It can be useful to intervene, and treat, precursor behavior:
                                                 1) less restrictive procedures can be used 2) a given Tx
                                                 maybe more effective, as precursors are earlier in the chain
                                                 and therefore maybe weaker
7   Response class covariation                   Operants contain various responses. If the strength of one
                                                 member of the operant is changed by reinforcement or
                                                 punishment, then the strength of the other members is
                                                 changed as well.
7   Sexual offenders Tx: role of confederates    1. They can act as observers in situations where offenses
                                                 have occurred
                                                 2. Confederate can entice the offender into situations where
                                                 offenses have occurred
                                                 NOTE: confederates should never put anyone at risk!
7   Sexual offenders Tx: Example of manipulating Give drugs (e.g., Depo-Provera) to reduce value of sexual
    MO                                           stimuli
7   Sexual offenders Tx: Example of manipulating 1. Remove opportunity for contact with inapp sexual stimuli
    SD                                           2. Provide opportunities for contact with appropriate sexual
7   Sexual offenders: Advantage of Tx in         1. Can see precursors with very little risk as long as
    community with supervision                   supervised
7   Sexual offenders: Assessment methods         1. Records review
                                                 2. Interviews with person and others
                                                 3. Direct observation
                                                 4. Plethysmograph
7   Sexual offenders: Assessment problem with No chance for the behavior to occur and be assessed
7   Sexual offenders: Assessment problem with Supervision
    outpatient Tx
7   Sexual offenders: Drug Tx                    Depo-Provera
7   Sexual offenders: Masturbatory               1. Pairing of appropriate sexual images with arousal:
    reconditioning                               Masturbate to appropriate sexual images
                                                 2. Pair inappropriate sexual images with no arousal:
                                                 Imagine inappropriate images during refractory period
7   Split Middle Method                          Method for drawing a trend line. The line is drawn so that
                                                 half of the data points fall above the line and half of the data
                                                 points fall below the line.
7   Standard Chart: Celeration calculation       Rate of change, computed by drawing a best fit line and
                                                 dividing the rates on 2 consecutive Sundays.
7   Standard Chart: Dark Vertical Lines          Sunday lines
7   Standard Chart: Duration Data Points Going Duration is increasing
7   Standard Chart: Duration Data Points Going   Duration is decreasing
7   Standard Chart: Left hand Y Axis             Count per minute
7   Standard Chart: Rate Data Points Going       Rate is decreasing
7   Standard Chart: Rate Data Points Going Up    Rate is increasing
7   Standard Chart: Record Floor                 Dash on a particular day that shows the duration the person
                                                 was observed. Can be plotted by dividing 1/# min or using
                                                 the right hand scale.
7   Standard Chart: Right Hand Y Axis            Time
7   Standard Chart: X Axis                       Calendar Days
7   Trend                                        Direction of the data points, described by a "trend line"
7   Variability                                  Extent to which the data points vary from day to day, often
                                                 expressed as the range of data points. Range is the highest
                                                 value - lowest value.
7   Vertical Axis Label                          The measure of behavior
8   Behavioral Goal                              Statement when behavioral program will be successful.
                                                 Includes specific behaviors but not specific criteria for
                                                 success. Should be age-appropriate.
8   Behavioral Objective (five elements)         Precise description of when a program will be successful:
                                                 Includes measure, criterion for success, antecedent,
                                                 behavior, and consequences (schedule of reinforcement)
                                                 when the program is completed.
8   Choice Availability                          Extent to which clients are given choices about their lives
                                                 and events therein. When choices are provided, fewer
                                                 problem behaviors may be exhibited.
8   Constructional Approach                      Approach to decreasing inappropriate behavior by focusing
                                                 on building new behaviors to replace inappropriate
                                                 behaviors (replacement skills)
8   Environmental Changes to Reduce the Need     Making changes in the environment that will reduce the need
    for Tx                                       for a behavior program: find interesting job, satisfying places
                                                 to live/recreate, network of friends, provide choices
8   Fair Pair                                    1. ID the inappropriate behavior and program a procedure to
                                                 directly decrease it
                                                 2. ID a replacement behavior and teach it
                                                 These 2 elements constitute a "fair pair"
8   Foundational Skills                          Skill that must be taught before other skills can be taught
8   Functional Goals                             Goals that will improve the life of the client and allow more
                                                 independence and choice. If not accomplished, a caregiver
                                                 will be required to perform the activity for the person.
8   Intermediate outcomes                        Goals that lead to ultimate outcomes Ex: learning to dress,
                                                 ride the bus. Often involves the use of a behavioral
8   Program Design Relating to Implementers      Design the Tx while keeping in mind the contingencies
                                                 controlling the implementers behavior: will Tx be monitored,
                                                 will staff receive feedback, etc.
8   Reinforcer Assessment Procedures             Test to see if the stimulus when presented contingent on a
                                                 behavior, will increase the rate of the behavior - can use
                                                 withdrawal design, reversal design, concurrent schedules
8   Task analysis                                Task in broken into smaller elements and elements are
                                                 stated in their correct order
8   Ultimate outcomes                            Goals that relate to health, safety, choice, access to positive
                                                 reinforcers, avoiding aversive events and quality of life.
8   Weakening Behavior: Replacement skills     Select a replacement skill that is easy to emit and has the
                                               same function as the inappropriate behavior
9   Adjusting Ratio                            Ratio schedule in which size of the ratio increases as
                                               responding becomes more rapid and consistent, but
                                               decreases when responding deteriorates.
9   Alternative Schedule                       A reinforcer is given when one of the two schedules is
                                               completed. There is only one response option. Food is
                                               given when Bill completes a FI1’ or FR 50, whichever comes
9   Antecedent Manipulations (5)               1. Antecedent control procedure
                                               2. Establishing Operation
                                               3. Present SDs for appropriate behavior
                                               4. Remove SDs for inappropriate behavior
                                               5. Increase response effort for inappropriate behavior
9   Artificial v.s. Natural Contingencies      Given a choice, a behavioral programmer should select
                                               contingencies that approximate those in the natural
                                               environment, rather than artificial contingencies. Where
                                               artificial contingencies must be used, however, they should
                                               be changed to more normal contingencies whenever
9   Backup Reinforcer                          A reinforcer that is obtained by exchanging a token for it in
                                               token systems
9   Backward Chaining                          Teaching a sequence of responses by initially training the
                                               last response of the chain, the second to last and the last,
                                               etc. Reinforcer is delivered after the required number of
                                               steps are completed.
9   Behavioral Momentum: Applied               Applied: Following low probability directions can be
                                               increased when they are proceeded by several high
                                               probability directions with reinforcers delivered after each.
9   Behavioral Momentum: Laboratory            Laboratory: subjects behavior patterns and characteristics
                                               temporarily persist even when the contingencies are
9   Behavioral Rehearsal                       Practicing a skill under stimulated conditions that
                                               approximate those in the natural environment.
9   Chain Schedule                             Two or more schedules are presented successively each
                                               with its own signal. A reinforcer is given only at the end of
                                               the sequence (FR10-FI1’-VR20-Reinforcer)
9   Chaining                                   Systematically linking together individual skills into a larger
                                               chain of skills.
9   Combined Prompts (also called simultaneous Prompts are given at the same time or just after the SD
9   Concept Formation                          Generalization within a class of stimuli and discrimination
                                               between classes. E.g.. Learning to identify all canines as
                                               dogs and learning to discriminate between dogs and cats
9   Concurrent Schedule (Conc)                 Two or more schedules are available simultaneously that
                                               can be selected (choose to work in workshop or watch TV)
9   Conditioned suppression: ABA               When the signal of an upcoming aversive event is on (you
                                               are waiting in the Dr office), ongoing responding is
                                               suppressed (it is hard to have an intelligent conversation in
                                               the DR office).
9   Conditioned suppression: EAB               Animal responds under VI schedule for food. Periodically, a
                                               stimulus comes on and then is soon followed by a shock.
                                               When the stimulus is on, responding for food is suppressed.
9   Conjunctive Schedule (Conj)                A reinforcer is given when both of the two schedules are
                                               completed. There is only one response option. Food is
                                  given when Bill completes a FI 1’ and FR 50.
9   Contingency Contract          Agreement between client and programmer that states
                                  specific behaviors by the client and what consequences will
                                  be forthcoming for each behavior.
9   Contingent Effort             Any one of several procedures that involve requiring,
                                  contingent on a response, client to engage in an effortful
9   Contingent Observation        Contingent on Behavior, the person is removed from
                                  ongoing activities and permitted to observe same.
9   Continuous Reinforcement      Refers to a FR1 schedule wherein every response produces
                                  a reinforcer
9   Delayed Imitation             When a person imitates a model, but the model is no longer
9   Delayed Prompts               Prompts are given after a period of time elapses after the SD
                                  (gives the person a chance to perform independently)
9   Dependent Group Contingency   Reinforcer for a group depends on the behavior of a single
                                  person or small # of people
9   Differential Reinforcement    When a reinforcement contingency depends on 1. presence
                                  or absence of a feature of a response, as in response
                                  differentiation -or- 2. the presence or absence of an
                                  antecedent stimulus, as in discrimination training
9   Direct Instruction            A method of teaching material such as reading and math
                                  that involves scripted presentations, active student
                                  participation, and immediate feedback from the teacher.
9   DRA                           Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior.
                                  Reinforcer is delivered when a response occurs for a fixed
                                  amount of time. The response is chosen because it is an
                                  alternative to the target behavior but not necessarily
9   DRH                           Differential Reinforcement of High Rates of Behaviors.
                                  Reinforcer is delivered for more than a fixed number of
                                  responses in a time period -or- Reinforcer is delivered after
                                  an IRT less than some criterion amount of time. Used to
                                  increase behavior.
9   DRI                           Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior.
                                  Reinforcer is delivered when a response occurs for a fixed
                                  amount of time. The response is chosen because it is
                                  incompatible with the target behavior.
9   DRL                           Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior.
                                  Reinforcer is delivered for no more than a fixed number of
                                  responses in a time period -or- Reinforcer is delivered after
                                  an IRT greater than some criterion amount of time. Used to
                                  decrease behavior.
9   DRO                           Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior. Reinforcer is
                                  delivered when a response does not occur for a fixed (or
                                  varied in VDRO) amount of time.
9   DRO: Momentary                MDRO 5 min = observe person after 5 minutes, and if the
                                  decel target behavior is not occurring at the moment, then
                                  deliver some stimulus
9   Errorless Discrimination      Teaching Discrimination with few or no errors. Ex: Fading in
                                  S-delta (incorrect stimulus) -or- superimposing a new set of
                                  stimuli on an already learned discrimination then fading out
                                  the already learned stimuli
9   Exclusion Timeout             Timeout from reinforcement in which the person is removed
                                          from the immediate situation, but kept in the general area.
9   Extinction-Induced Aggression         Aggressive behavior that occurs when a behavior is being
9   Extra-stimulus Prompts                Those prompts that are "outside" the SD, such as physical
                                          guidance to prompt hand washing
9   Facial Screening                      Briefly covering the eyes or restricting visual input in some
                                          way, contingent on a behavior
9   Fading                                The gradual withdrawal of prompts, such that the SD alone
                                          evokes the desired behavior
9   Feedback                              Providing information contingent on a behavior. Can
                                          function as reinforcement or punishment, depending on the
                                          nature of the information.
9   FI- Fixed Interval                    Reinforcer delivered after the first response after a fixed
                                          amount of time has elapsed. Produces a scalloped rate of
9   Forced Choice Preference Assessment   Present pairs of reinforcers and note which is selected. Pair
                                          each reinforcer with all others on the list of possible
9   Forward Chaining                      Teaching a sequence of responses by initially training the
                                          first response of the chain, then the first and second, etc.
                                          Reinforcer is presented after the required number of steps
                                          are completed.
9   FR-Fixed Ratio                        Reinforcer delivered after fixed number of responses.
                                          Produces steady, high rate of response with pauses after
9   FT- Fixed Time                        A reinforcer is delivered after a fixed time , irrespective of
9   General case analysis                 When training for generalization, including all relevant
                                          stimuli/responses that might be encountered. For example,
                                          when training hand washing, all possible sink/soap
                                          combinations might be trained to prepare the person.
9   Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer    Reinforcer that is effective in many situations because it can
                                          be exchanged for a wide variety of backup reinforcers. Ex:
                                          tokens, money
9   Generalized Imitation                 Imitation skills that will occur even to untrained models.
9   Graduated Guidance                    Give prompts were they are required, but immediately fade
                                          when a person begins to perform the response
9   Incidental learning                   Learning that occurs in naturally occurring activities, not as a
                                          result of programmed, artificial learning trials.
9   Independent Group Contingency         Reinforcer is available for any person whose behavior meets
                                          a criterion
9   Instructions                          Verbal descriptions of behavior and
9   Interdependent Group Contingency      Reinforcer is available if all people in the group meet a
                                          minimum criterion -or- the group's overall performance
                                          meets a criterion
9   Isolation Timeout                     A timeout from reinforcement in which the person is placed
                                          in another location away from others
9   Kinds of Prompts                      Physical guidance, gestural, written, verbal, imitation
9   Learn unit                            A concept in instruction in which the teacher presents an
                                          SD, there is active student responding, and the teacher
                                          provides feedback to the student. Ideally, learn units should
                                          occur frequently.
9   Least-to-Most Prompting                    Give SD and then wait for response to be performed. If it is
                                               not, give the least intrusive prompt first, then second least
                                               intrusive, etc.
9   Limited Hold                               When reinforcer is available for the next response, that
                                               response has a limited amount of time to occur or the
                                               reinforcer is lost (FI 1’ LH10”)
9   Maintenance                                Extent to which a procedure can produce durable changes in
                                               behavior -or- a phase of acquisition that uses specially
                                               designed procedures to maintain an already-learned
9   Maintenance procedures                     1. Thin schedules of reinforcement to increase RTE
                                               2. Use natural reinforcers and stimuli
                                               3. Train to fluency
9   Mixed Schedule                             Two or more independent schedules that are presented
                                               successively but each does not have its own signal.
                                               Independent schedules are those that program their own
                                               schedule of reinforcement. (Mix FR 10 FI 2')
9   Model                                      Some antecedent stimulus that is topographically identical to
                                               the behavior to be strengthened
9   Model Characteristics                      Characteristics that might influence whether a model's
                                               behavior will be imitated: model similarity, prestige of model,
                                               emphasis on modeled behaviors, how nurturing the model
                                               is, and instructions.
9   Modeling                                   Providing a model for another person to imitate.
9   Molar (level) Systems                      Level System wherein clients begin at bottom level and then
                                               work their way up to higher levels. Each level has its own
                                               behavioral criteria for entry and its own collection of
9   Momentary DRO                              DRO schedule in which reinforcer is delivered if the target
                                               behavior is not occurring at the moment the DRO interval
9   Most-to-Least Prompting                    Present the prompt at maximum intensity, and gradually use
                                               a less intense prompt over successive trials.
9   Multiple Schedule (Mult)                   Two or more schedules that are presented successively
                                               each with their own signal (1st period has FR10 attention for
                                               tasks, 2nd period with different teacher has Ext for task
                                               completion). (Mult FR 10 Ext)
9   Negative Contrast                          Behavior in a changed situation increases, resulting in a
                                               decrease of the behavior in an unchanged situation.
9   Negative Practice                          Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring client
                                               to engage in that behavior repeatedly. Has been used in
                                               smoking cessation.
9   Observation in preference assessment       Observe a person in free time and record what they do
9   Personalized System of Instruction (PSI)   Material is broken down into units and each unit has its own
                                               study objectives. Students work at their own pace, study the
                                               material and then take an exam. Students must meet
                                               mastery criterion on an exam and may re-take exams until
                                               criterion is met.
9   Planned Ignoring                           Behavior maintained by social reinforcers, and such
                                               reinforcers are withheld for a given period of time contingent
                                               on the behaviors.
9   Polydipsia                                 Excessive drinking - generated by schedules of food
                                               delivery. Rats under a FT 1 min schedule will drink up to 4-5
                                               times their body weight in water. Also seen in FI schedules.
9   Positive Contrast                          Behavior in a changed situation decreases, resulting in an
                                               increase of the behavior in an unchanged situation.
                                               Typically, the behavior in the changed situation is decreased
                                               with extinction or punishment.
9   Positive Practice Overcorrection           Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring
                                               person to practice the appropriate behavior that should have
                                               occurred. Ex: if a child wets his pants, he will then practice
                                               standing up and walking to the bathroom.
9   Post-Reinforcement Pause                   A brief pause of responding immediately after reinforcement
                                               under fixed-ratio or variable ratio schedules. Is sometimes
                                               called the pre-ratio pause, as the pause duration is
                                               determined by the size of the upcoming ratio.
9   Precision Teaching                         Using behavioral teaching methods and the standard chart
                                               to track progress and make Tx decisions.
9   Predictability                             Used in behavior programs to decrease problem behavior.
                                               This can involve written or picture schedules of upcoming
9   Preference assessment: Forced choice       Present person with pairs of reinforcers, and note which one
                                               is selected. Pair each reinforcer with all of the others on the
                                               list of possible reinforcers. Graph the # times each item is
9   Preference assessment: Multiple stimulus   Multiple stimulus with (or without) replacement – present an
                                               array and record how often an item is selected. The without
                                               replacement can be used to rank order preference.
9   Preference assessment: Single stimulus     Present a single stimulus, and see if person contacts it. Or,
                                               record the latency or duration of contact.
9   Preference Assessment: Types               1. Interviews
                                               2. Free operant - see what person contacts in free time
                                               2. Single stimulus
                                               3. Forced choice
                                               4. Arrays with/without replacement
9   Premack Principle                          Procedure in which high probability behavior can be used to
                                               reinforce low probability behavior and low probability
                                               behavior can be used to punish high probability behavior
9   Probe Trials                               A method of measuring generalization in which the behavior
                                               is measured in untrained situations.
9   Procedural integrity DV                    The typical DV is % of competencies correctly displayed.
9   Progressive Ratio                          Ratio Schedule in which the ratio size gradually increases
                                               over time. This schedule is sometimes used to assess
                                               reinforcer effectiveness. To do so, the "break point" is
                                               identified - when the organism stops responding.
9   Progressive ratio break point              In a PR schedule, the break point is the last ratio size
                                               completed before the organism stops responding. In
                                               reinforcer assessments, the higher the break point, the more
                                               effective is the reinforcer.
9   Progressive Relaxation                     Technique of relaxation wherein the person relaxes various
                                               muscle groups. When completed, the person is able to
                                               totally relax all major muscle groups under the control of a
9   Prompts                                    An extra antecedent stimulus that is used to evoke a
                                               behavior such that it can then be reinforced
9   Public Commitment                          Person designing his/her own self-control program enlisting
                                               the contingency management support of friends or family.
9   Punishment Guidelines for Efficacy (7      a. Immediate after the target behavior
    guidelines)                                   b. Consistent- punish every response (FR1)
                                                  c. Provide alternative behavior that obtains same reinforcer
                                                  d. Do not allow reinforcer to follow to closely after punisher
                                                  e. Use High Intensity Punisher
                                                  f. Withhold all reinforcers that can be produced by the target
                                                  g. Punisher should be linked to assessment data.
9   Punishment Side Effects (x5)                  a. Escape from the punishing agent
                                                  b. Aggression towards punishing agent
                                                  c. Emotional behavior
                                                  d. Modeling by observers
                                                  e. Inappropriate generalization – person afraid to do
9   Rank Order Preferences                        Analyze choices to determine the most and least preferred
                                                  items. Formula is # times an item is selected divided by total
                                                  number of pairs in which the item appeared then multiply the
                                                  total by 100.
9   Ratio Strain                                  A decrease in responding under a ratio schedule because
                                                  ratio size is too large or was increased to rapidly
9   Reducing a response using matching law        1. Decrease rate of reinforcement for the response
                                                  2. Increase rate of reinforcement for other responses
9   Reflexivity                                   If A=A, then A=A
9   Rehearsal                                     Practicing a behavior to be learned
9   Reinforcer Menu                               A visual display of several reinforcers from which the person
                                                  may choose
9   Reinforcer Sampling                           Requiring a person to sample various reinforcers, such that
                                                  he/she has sufficient experience with them to choose the
                                                  preferred reinforcer
9   Reinforcer Survey                             Ask people about their preferences. Now more correctly
                                                  referred as a preference assessment.
9   Relation between reinforcer effectiveness and Reinforcer effectiveness increases with shorter delay, larger
    delay, amount, quality, deprivation, and      amounts, higher quality, greater deprivation, and greater
    variety.                                      variety.
9   Required Relaxation                           Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring
                                                  person to lie down and relax in quiet area for a period of
9   Resistance to extinction: schedule effects    Extinction after dense schedules (FR 1): rapid. Extinction
                                                  after lean schedules (VR 100): slow
9   Response Cost                                 Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, the removal of a
                                                  reinforcing object (radio, token, magazine).
9   Response Deprivation Procedures               Procedure that involves depriving an organism of the
                                                  opportunity to emit a response and then using the
                                                  opportunity to emit the response as a potential reinforcer for
                                                  other behavior.
9   Response Differentiation                      A use of differential reinforcement to change a characteristic
                                                  of behavior. For example, a father may only listen to his son
                                                  when the son talks about sports. As a result, the son
                                                  frequently talks sports.
9   Response Generalization                       Effects of some contingency spread to responses not yet
                                                  associated with the contingency.
9   Restitutional Overcorrection                  Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring the
                                                  person to restore the environment to a condition superior to
                                                  that before the behavior occurred.
9   Rules for Designing a Token System            -base it on functional assessments
                                              -ID tokens that are easily used
                                              -ID target behaviors and rules for obtaining tokens
                                              -ID schedule of token exchange
                                              -ID how tokens will be conditioned as reinforcers
                                              -field test the system and fine tune as needed
9   Schedule Induced (adjunctive) Behavior.   Behavior that seems to appear because it is under a
                                              schedule of reinforcement. E.g. Some organisms will exhibit
                                              aggression under FR 50 schedules of food delivery, rats will
                                              exhibit copious drinking when exposed to FI 1 schedules of
                                              food delivery.
9   Schedule of reinforcement                 A rule that specifies when a reinforcer will be delivered.
9   Schedule Thinning                         Gradually decreasing the rate of reinforcement. In a FR
                                              schedule, the FR size increases. In a FI schedule, the time
                                              requirement increases.
9   Self Control                              Involves procedures that are implemented by the client.
                                              Typically requires some external source of contingency
9   Self Management                           Another term for self control. The person actively
                                              participates in the recording, goal setting, or reinforcement
9   Self-Punishment                           Client decides if their behavior meets criteria for punishment
                                              and delivers the punisher (or arranges for its delivery) if it
9   Self-Recording                            Client decides if and when their own behavior meets a
                                              criterion, and then recording the behavior if it does.
9   Self-reinforcement                        Clients decides if behavior meets criteria for reinforcement
                                              and delivers the reinforcer (or arranges for its delivery) if it
9   Shadowing                                 When the trainer moves his/ her hands along with the
                                              client's hands as he performs the skill.
9   Shaping                                   Gradually changing the form or topography of a behavior by
                                              reinforcing successive approximations to the correct
9   Side Effects of Negative Reinforcement    Similar to punishment side effects: escape from aversive
                                              stimuli, aggression, emotional behavior, etc.
9   Side Effects of Positive Reinforcement    Schedule-induced aggression, frequent requests for
                                              reinforcer (nagging), "shadowing" the source of
                                              reinforcement, attempts to escape schedule when the
                                              requirements are high (e.g., high FR schedules).
9   Simple Schedules of Reinforcement         Single schedules such as FR, VR, FI, VI, FT, VT
9   Social Validity                           Whether goals, procedures, and outcomes are acceptable.
                                              This can be determined by asking community members,
                                              experts, competent individuals, family or the client.
9   Spatial Fading                            Gradually changing the spatial locus of a prompt during
                                              fading. E.g. going from hand, to wrist, to forearm, etc.
9   Stimulus Equivalence                      When a class of stimuli evoke the same responses or more
                                              generally have the same effects on behavior. Stimuli that
                                              evoke the response "dog" include 1. word dog 2. picture of
                                              dog 3. sight of dog 4. sound of dog barking
9   Stimulus Generalization                   Effects of some contingency spread to stimuli that have not
                                              been associated with the contingency.
9   Stimulus Over-Selectivity                 The tendency of lower functioning individuals to attend to
                                              one and only one element of a complex SD. With a red A
                                              and blue B, the individual may only attend to the colors and
                                                   fail to attend to the letters.
9   Stimulus Shaping                               Involves transfer of stimulus control from an already effective
                                                   stimulus to a new stimulus. E.g. using two apples to teach
                                                   number 2 and then fading them into the number 2.
9   Superstitious Behavior                         Behavior that occurs as a result of "accidental" or
                                                   adventitious reinforcement. In this kind of reinforcement, the
                                                   reinforcer is not produced by the response, but nontheless
                                                   occurs after it.
9   Symmetry                                       If A=B, then B=A
9   Tandem Schedule                                Two or more schedules that are presented successively, but
                                                   there is no signal for each. A reinforcer is given only at the
                                                   end of the sequence
9   Target Setting                                 Setting to which a client will be placed after behavioral
                                                   programming has finished. Setting to which generalization
                                                   efforts are directed
9   Task interspersal                              In instruction, difficult tasks should be presented and
                                                   interspersed with easier tasks (such as maintenance tasks).
9   Task Variation                                 The extent to which tasks are varied in a block of time.
                                                   There is some research that suggests rapidly varying the
                                                   tasks may engender improved learning.
9   Teaching VB using transfer of stimulus control 1. Teach echoics or textuals
                                                   2. Use echoics or textuals as prompts when teaching
                                                   mands, tacks, intraverbals
                                                   3. Fade use of echoics or textuals as prompts
9   Timeout                                        Time out from reinforcement – signaling the removal of
                                                   opportunity to earn reinforcement for a period of time,
                                                   contingent on inappropriate behavior.
9   Tokens                                         Generalized conditioned reinforcers that when earned can
                                                   be exchanged for other reinforcers, or backup reinforcers.
                                                   Benefits: quickly & easily delivered, exchanged for a variety
                                                   of backup reinforcers.
9   Total Task Training                            When an entire task is trained at once, instead of
                                                   implementing a chaining procedure. Usually includes
                                                   graduated guidance
9   Train Loosely for Generalization               During training, vary the environment such that there is not
                                                   narrow stimulus control over the skill. This procedure tends
                                                   to flatten the generalization gradient.
9   Transfer of Stimulus Control                   When one stimulus can evoke a response, and then that
                                                   capacity is transferred to a second stimulus
9   Transitivity                                   If A=B and B=C, then A=C
9   VI-Variable Interval                           Reinforcement delivered after the first response after an
                                                   average amount of time has elapsed. Produces a steady,
                                                   medium rate of response with little pausing.
9   VR-Variable Ratio                              Reinforcement delivered after average number of
                                                   responses. Produces a steady, very high rate of response
                                                   with brief, if any, pauses after reinforcement
9   VT- Variable Time                              A reinforcer is delivered after a variable amount of time
                                                   (average) irrespective of behavior.
9   Ways to Encourage Maintenance (6 ways)         -train to fluency
                                                   -use naturally occurring stimuli
                                                   -fade out artificial stimuli
                                                   -use delayed consequences
                                                   -use self-control repertoires
                                                   -use intermittent schedules of reinforcement
9    Ways to Program Generalization (8 ways)          -Instructions – train a response and give instruction to
                                                      encourage generalization
                                                      -Train in many stimulus conditions.
                                                      -Design supportive environment-untrained situations.
                                                      -Train loosely
                                                      -Program common stimuli
                                                      -Delayed/intermittent reinforcement
                                                      -Self Management
                                                      -Use a variety of prosthetic devices
9    Within-stimulus Prompts                          Those prompts that are contained within the SD, such as
                                                      isolating and exaggerating the critical difference between an
                                                      "E" and "F"
10   3 other explanations of self stim (other than    1. Social deprivation early in life
     behavioral explanation)                          2. Endorphin release
                                                      3. Drugs
                                                      4. Neurodevelopmental dysfunction - changes in dopamine
10   4 strategies for identifying sensory reinforcers 1. Insensitivity to social reinforcers (att, escape, tangibles)
     as a maintaining variable                        2. Behavioral persistence in absence of social interaion
                                                      3. Manipulate public consequence decreases the behavior
                                                      4. You can successfully substitute similar reinforcers to
                                                      decrease the behavior
10   Adjunctive behavior                              Behavior produced by a schedule of reinforcement - for
                                                      example, schedule induced aggression or polydipsia.
10   Automatic reinforcement                          Reinforcers produced by the behavior itself without the
                                                      participation of people.
10   Behavioral explanation of self stim              The behavior is maintained by the production of sensory
10   Competency based training                        The kind of training that is essential in staff training and
                                                      management. This training involves a needs assessment,
                                                      learning objectives, performance criteria, training procedures
                                                      (instruction, simulations, in vivo training), and on-line
                                                      feedback. Training systems observe the principles of
                                                      behavior that are found in CBA class.
10   Counter control                                  Attempts by the subjects of behavior programming to
                                                      change the behavior of the programmer. For example,
                                                      students learned to train their teachers to deliver more
                                                      praise and positive comments.
10   Differential reinforcement example of Tx of      Reinforce appropriate playing with toys to decrease rocking.
     self stim
10   Distal MO example                                1. Child abused by visiting parent over weekend --> problem
                                                      behavior Monday at school
10   EBD                                              Emotional behavioral disorder
10   EBD characteristics                              1. Starts at age 6, but services are often delayed
                                                      2. Single parent homes
                                                      3. Low average IQ
                                                      4. School dropouts
                                                      5. Problems later in life, often criminal activity
10   EO example of Tx of self stim                    Provide vibration toys to decrease head banging; self stim
                                                      toys to decrease range of self stim
10   Example of changing curriculum to Tx             1. Task difficulty linked to problem behavior --> reduce
     behavior problem                                 difficult tasks or teach mand for help
10   Give an example of hypothesis testing as in      1. Hypothesis: Eddie had more problems in written than
     the Eddie example                                nonwritten work. Test: written and nonwritten work studied
                                                      with ATD.
                                                   2. Hypothesis: Eddie had more problems in long than short
                                                   tasks. Test: long and short tasks studied with ATD.
10   Information sharing and display               Information about behavior analysis services should be
                                                   provided to those directly involved (clients, trainers, parents),
                                                   and to those who have a legitimate interest
                                                   (educational/governmental officials, administrators). When
                                                   sharing data with non-professionals, the display should be
                                                   easily interpreted (avoid 6 cycle graphs - consider bar
10   Obtain Support from Others                    To maintain a client's behavior, you should secure support
                                                   from those in their natural environment and work in
                                                   collaboration with others who are involved with the client.
10   Outcomes management                           When feedback is given to participants and the feedback
                                                   depends on an outcome (some permanent product such as
                                                   $ made, skills taught, etc).
10   Performance Monitoring Systems                Systems designed to encourage and maintain appropriate
                                                   staff behavior. They involve objectively defined job
                                                   descriptions, sufficient training in the job, on-line frequent
                                                   feedback, and a system of incentives for excellent
10   Procedural Integrity                          Collecting data on the extent to which the program is being
                                                   implemented correctly. Contingencies are used to maintain
                                                   and shape behavior of implementers.
10   Protective equipment example of Tx of self    Use helmet to decrease face slapping that produces sensory
     stim                                          stimuli.
10   Proximal MO example                           1. Task presented to child --> problem behavior
10   Punishment example of Tx of self stim         1. Overcorrection
                                                   2. Timeout (but prevent self stim in timeout)
10   Schedule induced aggression example           Pigeons responding under an FR 100 schedule of food
                                                   delivery will aggress towards other pigeons upon the offset
                                                   of access to food.
10   Sensory extinction example of self stim       Disconnect light bulb to decrease flipping of light switch
10   Staff training: best practice                 Explanation, demonstration, and feedback on their
                                                   implementation. It is particularly important to have them
                                                   practice the skills and receive feedback.
10   Student assisted interview in assessment      Interview questions that student answers to assist in
                                                   descriptive assessment.
10   Support for behavior analysis services        A behavior analyst should enlist support for her/his
                                                   technology from those who are directly affected by the
                                                   services and by those only indirectly affected, but who may
                                                   have decision power over them (administrators,
                                                   educational/government officials, advocacy committee, HRS,
                                                   popular media). Such support can be obtained by
                                                   educational programs, and feedback/outcome measures that
                                                   show cost effectiveness of the technology.
11   How to compute conditional probability of A-B # A-->B / # A
11   How to compute conditional probability of B-C # B-->C / # B
11   Lag 1                                         1. Lag 1 - Examines the liklihood that an event occurs given
                                                   another event that occurs just before.
                                                   A --> B
11   Lag 2                                         2. Lag 2 - Examines the liklihood that an event occurs given
                                                   another event that occurs 2 events prior.
                                                  A2 --> A --> B
11   Lag sequential analysis                      Computations that examine the liklihood that an event will
                                                  occur given another event.
11   Naturalistic behavioral assesment            Behavioral assessment that occurs in the natural
11   Problem with analogue FA – with respect to   Analogue setting sometimes unlike real-life. Thus, poor
     generality of results                        generality.
11   Scatterplot                                  A chart that shows the times of day on the vertical axis, and
                                                  there are boxes to check occurrences of behavior
13   Functional analysis review: most common      1. Escape from task
     function                                     2. Attention
13   Functional analysis review: most common      Kids with disabilities
     population studied
13   Functional analysis review: most common      Inpatient settings
13   Lesch-Nyhan                                  A genetic syndrome characterized by:
                                                  1. Serious biting or other SIB
                                                  2. CP
                                                  3 Hyperuricemia
13   Lesch-Nyhan-role of response blocking        May be a reinforcer

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