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					The Bulletin                                            Northwest Historical Association


Contents & Club Statement …..……. 1
                                                              NWHA Statement
Unit Listing ………….………………. 2                   Operating in the Pacific Northwest, the Northwest
                                              Historical Association has active members from the
                                              northwest United States and western Canada. The
Club Photos – Living History….……. 3-5         club encourages people with an interest in the Second
                                              World War to join in the fun and challenge of
Epaulet Markers…………………….. 6-7                 reenacting and living history. You will gain a greater
                                              understanding of what life was like as an infantryman
                                              facing other infantrymen in a grim struggle beyond
Member Ads ………………………… 7                       your control.

Live Fire Match Results………...…… 8-9           The Northwest Historical Association is an
                                              organization dedicated to the preservation of the
Club Photos – October……………... 10-16           history of World War II. We are amateur historians
                                              who collect militaria, books, firearms, and vehicles.
                                              We exhibit our collections to interested parties and
Norway in WWII…………….………. 17-23                relive that era via tactical battles and displays. We are
                                              not survivalist, Nazis, neo-Nazis, or affiliated with
Czech Reenacting Photos……………. 24-28           any militias. We do not espouse any political views
                                              while gaming. We are and will remain non-political.
The Wereth 11……………..………… 29-30                The Northwest Historical Association welcomes all
                                              interested parties to inquire about our club. Any
                                              applicant under the age of 18 must have a sponsor in
                                              the unit he would like to join and parental/guardian
                                              permission. All new members must join a historically
                                              accurate unit in a historically correct combat role.
                                              These rules are explained further in the club By-Laws
                                              printed at If you want more
                                              information about a specific unit please e-mail the
                                              unit directly or visit their web site. Please include
                                              your name, age, home mailing address, and full
                                              telephone number when contacting any unit.

                                              To contact the Northwest Historical Association for
                                              more information send email to

 Send your articles or photos to share with
 the membership. Do you have an interest
 in an historical topic? A story or picture
 from a recent event? Send it out and we'll
 add it to the next newsletter. Email it to or hand-deliver to
 your unit commander at any event. Any
 format, even hand written, is fine.                           1                            First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                       Northwest Historical Association

                            Member Units
                US 1st Infantry Division

                US 3rd Armored Division

                US 101st Airborne Division

                Queen’s Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada

                British 3rd Parachute Brigade

                Russian 150th Rifle Division (Associate Unit)

                German 11. Panzer Division

                German Fallschirmjäger Regiment 6

                German 2. SS Panzer Division
                Website:                      2                        First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                               Northwest Historical Association

                                            Club Photos
  The following pictures are from the club’s many Veterans Day activities this November ’03.

   Top Left: British Nurse, Milwaukie
   Top Right: 101st, Milwaukie
   Bottom Left: 101st with LST, Vancouver
   Bottom Right: QOCHoC, Vancouver                                  3                    First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                             Northwest Historical Association

      Top: Original member of Glenn Miller’s band   Bottom: 101st at Milwaukie, and AAC
      with introduction from NWHA members.          living history at the Pearson dance.                                   4                   First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin              Northwest Historical Association

                    Top Left: QOCHoC, Vancouver
                    Top Right: 3rd Armored, Vancouver
                    Bottom Left & Right: Commando & Polish Para,
                    Living History weekend, Ft. Stevens   5                    First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                                            Northwest Historical Association

 WWII History:
 Throughout the long history of the British
 army regiments battalions have been
 basic field unit. During wartime the
 number of battalions in the same
 regiment is greatly expanded. Many
 battalions created their own distinguishing
 insignia, sometimes unofficial, that would
 mark them as separate from the other
 battalions in their regiment.

  British Parachute Battlions
         Epaulet Colours
 By: Tony Standefer – 3rd Para Bde.

           The British Paratroopers of World War II all
 wore the same basic uniform, this uniform for NW
 Europe consisted of the camouflage Denison Smock,
 and the Battledress Blouse. Some units within the
 airborne forces made use of colored epaulet loops to
 differentiate the Battalions of the Parachute Regiment.        The Reverend Jenkins, Padre for the
                                                                12th Battalion, wearing the light blue
                                                                 "Yorkshire" epaulet loop slipped on
                                                                        over the officer pips.

                                                                    Colored epaulet loops were worn on the
                                                           Battledress and Denison smock. They do not appear to
                                                           have been worn on officers Service Dress. For the 9th
                                                           Battalion of the Parachute Regiment this color was
                                                           Maroon, much like the maroon color of the Airborne
                                                           Forces beret. This color has been erroneously recorded
                                                           in some reference sources as red or purple.
                                                           Correspondence with 9th Battalion veteran "Freddie"
                                                           Glover confirms the color as maroon.

                                                                    The loops were made of cotton twill and were
                                                           about 7/16th of an inch wide. They were to be worn at
                                                           all times by members of the battalion, and according to
                                                           Pte. Glover this was strictly enforced, especially on the
                                                           battledress. These epaulet loops were issued by the
                                                           Quartermasters store, and consisted of a pair of "slip-
                                                           on" loops for each garment. The epaulet loops were
                                                           usually worn on the Denison smock as well.

                                                              1st Battalion -        Green lanyard
                                                              2nd Battalion -        Yellow lanyard
  The Reverend John Gwinett, padre for the                    3rd Battalion -        Red lanyard
   9th Battalion, Parachute Regiment. The                     4th Battalion -        Black lanyard
  maroon epaulet loop is clearly seen sewn                    5th Battalion -        Hunting Stewart
        underneath the officer pips.                                                  Tartan behind cap
                                                                                      badge                                         6                             First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                                            Northwest Historical Association

  6th Battalion -      Black collar ribbon                 Member Ads:
  7th Battalion -      Green cloth behind                  All club members can post items 'for sale'
                        cap badge                           or 'wanted' for free in the newsletter. Just
    8th Battalion -    Dark Blue epaulet                   send an email to
    9th Battalion -    Maroon epaulet loop
    12th Battalion -   Light Blue epaulet                                   For Sale
                        loop with "Yorkshire"
                        or lanyard                                     Contact: Scott West
    13th Battalion -   Black epaulet loop                           e-mail:
    1st Canadian Bat. -    Yellow epaulet
                            loop                             1 M-1 WW II 1st ID Steel Pot early war $40
                                                             1 M-1 WW II 3rd ID Steel Pot w/liner w/ net
           It appears that epaulet loops were used            late war $70
 primarily by the 6th Airborne Division. The parachute       1 M-1C WW II 326th Medical 101st Abn Steel
 Battalions of the 1st Airborne used a system of colored      Pot w/ liner w/ net $165
 lanyards worn only on the Battledress blouse. The           1 Early Style Overseas Cap sz 7 ¾ w/ Blue
 lanyards were first used when the airborne forces were       piping & w/ Unit ID $30
 formed in 1941. With the formation of the 6th               1 M-41 Jacket Size 48 (repo) $60
 Airborne Division in 1943 the use of epaulet loops          1 Mustard Wool Shirt size 17 (repo) $70 each
 was used instead of lanyards. Some reference sources        1 Mustard Wool Shirt size 15 (org) $15 each
 list the above battalions as all having epaulet loops or    1 Pistol Belts Khaki $15
 lanyards, veteran recollections indicate usage of other     1 Airborne Medic Bag/Pack (dated 1950) $30
 methods, like the lanyard or cap badge backing.             1 Folding Stretcher/Litter $40
                                                             1 Canteen Covers khaki (need to be fixed) $10
                                                             1 Canteen Set (khaki cover, canteen & cup)
                                                             1 M-5 Gas Mask Bag, D-day (Repo) $35
                                                             1 M-43 Field Jacket Size 34R poor $10
                                                             1 M- 43 Field Jacket size 34R good $15
                                                             1 Folding Shovel No Cover $10
                                                             1 M-8A1 Knife Sheath $10
                                                             1 First Aid Pouch WW I (repo) $15
                                                             1 Pick/Mattock w/Cover WWII dated - $45
                                                             6 Rubber Grenades $7 each
                                                             1 16 inch Bayonet canvas cover (repo) $20
                                                             1 Aviator sun Glasses $15
                                                             5 sets of PFC Strips $5 each set
                                                             5 sets of Corporal Stripes $5 each set
                                                             1 1st ID Patch WWII (repo) $7
                                                             2 1st ID Patch not WWII $3 each

     A member of the NWHA 9th Battalion,                                      Wanted
       wearing the maroon epaulet loop.
                                                                       Contact: Scott West
     My Thanks to Private "Freddie" Glover, 1
      Platoon, A Coy, 9th Battalion, Parachute
                                                             P-37 Web Waist belt - Brass Hardware - Lg size
      Regiment for his assistance with this article.
                                                             P-37 Bayonet and Frog - No. 4 spike bayonet
     ”The Paras", Gregor Ferguson & Kevin Lyles,
                                                             No. 4 Mk.1/II .303 Enfield
                                                             FS Fighting Knife
     "The British Soldier, D-Day to VE Day", Jean           Denison Smock - King & Country - Size Large
      Bouchery, 1998                                         British Gray Wool Blanket
     "British Army Uniforms of WWII", Brian
                                                             Folding stock M1 Carbine
      Davis, 1983                                          7                          First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                                Northwest Historical Association

 WWII Reenacting:
 The club held its fourth live-fire, full-auto shoot this November. A new team winner this
 year, congratulations to the Russian 150th Rifle Division, Za Rodina!

                            4th Annual NWHA Shoot
                               Live-Fire, Full-Auto
                               By: Wayne Woodcock – 1st ID

         The 4th Annual NWHA Live Fire Match is over and the smoke has cleared. First of all
 I'd like to thank all the people that came out for the match and the Clatskanie R&P Club for
 the use of their range again this year. The attendance for this year was less than last year
 with 10 shooters signing up for 23 different matches. Four units had shooters there in
 uniform with the largest group being the 150th Rifle (Soviet) with 5 shooters.

         The Rifle Match started off with targets placed at 100 yards with the shooter firing a
 slow fire and a rapid-fire stage. The third stage was shooting a balloon, tossing a grenade
 and shooting at the mover. The Pistol Match had the shooter firing at IPSC targets set up at
 15 and 25 yards. The second stage was three tries with the balloons, tossing grenades and
 shooting at the mover. The SMG Match started with the shooter firing at IPSC targets set up
 at 15, 25, and 50 yards. The second stage was three tries with the balloons, grenades and

 Pistol Match

 Unit            Name                                   Score          Weapon
 150th Rifle     Markus Powell                          131            Tokarev
 6 FJR           Greg Hamilton                          130            P-38
 6 FJR           Warren Nance                           127            Browning M1935
 150th Rifle     Wayne Woodcock                         123            Colt 1911
 11th PNZ        Anthony Bowman                         101            P-08 Luger
 11th PNZ        Steve Manners                          93             P-38
 3rd Para Bde    John Kooken                            80             Browning 9mm

 Rifle Match

 Unit            Name                                   Score          Weapon
 6 FJR           Greg Hamilton                          405 – 2X       K98
 150th Rifle     Wayne Woodcock                         403 – 3X       Mosin–Nagant
 150th Rifle     Markus Powell                          393 – 2X       Mosin–Nagant
 11th PNZ        Anthony Bowman                         389 – 4X       K98
 6 FJR           Warren Nance                           334 – 2X       G-43
 3rd Para Bde    John Kooken                            278            Enfield .303
 11th PNZ        Steve Manners                          143            K98
 150th Rifle     Allen Thompson                         83             Mosin–Nagant
 150th Rifle     Stephan McGarry                        71             Mosin–Nagant
 150th Rifle     Dan Limb                               59             Mosin–Nagant                              8                          First Quarter 2004
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 Subgun Match

 Unit             Name                                   Score          Weapon
 150th Rifle      Markus Powell                          235            PPSh 41
 11th PNZ         Anthony Bowman                         217            MP-40
 150th Rifle      Wayne Woodcock                         210            28 TSMG
 6 FJR            Greg Hamilton                          200            Beretta 38a
 3rd Para Bde     John Kooken                            173            Sten Mk V
 11th PNZ         Steve Manners                          173            MP-40

 Team Rifle Match

 Unit             Name                                   Score          Weapon
 150th Rifle      Wayne Woodcock, Markus Powell,         879 – 5X       Mosin-Nagant
                  Allen Thompson

        While the mover was being set up John K. put on a firepower demonstration with a
 MG 34 and a BREN. Both guns were quickly able to show that cinder blocks are not bullet

         This year the shooter had to fire one round or full auto burst at a balloon trying for
 bonus points before picking up a grenade and attempting to get it through the window for
 more bonus points. Two seconds or so after the grenade was tossed the mover would start
 it's run across the range with the shooter trying to hit the IPSC target. At this point I'd like
 to thank the TCGC Practical Rifle people for letting us borrow the mover.

        This was the year for the Red Horde to take the Team Match. The 150th Rifle was
 the only unit to have three or more shooters entered in the Rifle Match.

       Next year it will not just be the mover doing all the moving but the shooters will do
 some running and maybe a little bit of crawling too.

 More Matches

 If anyone wants to do any other live fire shooting throughout the year there are several
 ranges and matches around the area. Here is a partial listing:

    Clatskanie Rifle & Pistol Club - Clatskanie, OR - Outdoor rifle & pistol range with covered
     firing line. Monthly Action Pistol matches and various rifle matches throughout the year.

    Tri-County Gun Club - Sherwood, OR - A large club with many different ranges. Monthly
     Practical Rifle and other matches throughout the year.

    Albany Rifle & Pistol Club - Albany, OR - Outdoor ranges with covered firing line. Monthly
     Subgun matches and Full Auto Shoots twice a year.

    Central Oregon Shooting Sports Association - Idaho - A shooters/collectors association
     that puts on several matches and shoots throughout the year at various ranges in Idaho.                               9                          First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                              Northwest Historical Association

                                          Club Photos
    The following pictures are from the club's October reenactment at Camp Rilea, Oregon.

                    This Page:                               Following Page:
        Top: American Patrol                       Top: German Patrol
        Bottom Left: SS PanzerGrenadier            Middle: Jump-Off Line
        Bottom Right: Command Group                Bottom: Bren Gunner                               10                       First Quarter 2004
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The Bulletin         Northwest Historical Association   12           First Quarter 2004
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            Previous Page:                                This Page:
   Top: German Assembly Point   Top Left: Always Marching       Top Right: Section Leader
   Middle: Das Reich            Bottom Left: Canadian Gunner    Bottom Right: American Attack
   Bottom: Fight in the Woods                            13                           First Quarter 2004
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                Top, Left to Right: Canadian Infantryman, Panzer Grenadiers, British Paras
                Bottom Left: 11 Panzer                    Bottom Right: 101st Airborne                                  14                              First Quarter 2004
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                 Previous Page:
       Top Left & Right: Allied Patrols    Top Left: 101 Rifleman   Top Right: Scouts with a Patrol
       Bottom Left: Das Reich NCO          Bottom Left: Moving Up   Bottom Right: British Para
       Bottom Right: Synchronizing Times                               16                              First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                                           Northwest Historical Association

 WWII History:                                              fields of North Sweden. In this connection,
                                                            Norwegian harbors had to be secured. The plans were
 Following is an article giving an overview
                                                            scrapped when Finland sought peace with the USSR
 of Norway's participation in WWII. The                     on 13 March 1940. The two Allied divisions which
 initial campaign in Norway in 1940 was                     had been earmarked for the operation were
 unusual in many respects, and provides                     transferred to France.
 those interested in tactical and strategic
 studies many instructive examples.

           Norway in WWII
                  By: Tor Dagre

      Norwegians were surprised and unprepared when
 Nazi Germany, with its superior military might,
 attacked Norway on 9 April 1940. The general
 public, and their political leaders, had believed that
 Norway would be able to stay out of the second
 world war, just as the country had maintained its
 neutrality in World War I. They believed that
 Norway was strategically on the periphery, protected
 by British naval power, and thought that Norwegian
 neutrality was also in the interests of the warring
 nations on both sides.
      Therefore, the Norwegian government had
 declared Norway's neutrality when the war broke out
 in the autumn of 1939. There was a broad political
 consensus for this stance. The military forces were
 geared to protect the national borders and hinder
 violations of the country's neutrality, and unprepared
 for an invasion. During the first winter of the war, the
 Norwegian authorities even negotiated trade
 agreements with both Germany and Great Britain. In
 February 1940, these talks ended in an agreement
 allowing Great Britain to charter a portion of the
 Norwegian merchant marine while Norway was to be
 permitted to maintain its pre-war level of trade with
 Germany. In case it proved impossible to stay out of            The Germans' plans were more extensive and
 the war, the government of Johan Nygaardsvold              radical; they called for the complete occupation of
 (Labour Party) had no intention of fighting on the         both Denmark and Norway. One of the motives was
 German side.                                               the German navy's desire for Norwegian bases for the
                                                            war at sea. The German navy had not forgotten how
 Neutrality of Little Value                                 their surface fleet had been trapped in the Baltic
                                                            during the first world war, and understood that their
      The Norwegian neutrality proved to be of little       submarines could have been more effective with
 consequence. Strategic interests led both sides to         more bases in the Atlantic Ocean arena.
 make plans which involved violations of Norwegian               The usefulness of such bases was to be
 boundaries and operations on Norwegian territory.          demonstrated later on as the sea war developed. In
 From mid-December 1939, both the German and                December 1939, three ore ships in the British service
 Allied sides analysed scenarios involving operations       were torpedoed by a German submarine off the
 in Scandinavia.                                            Norwegian coast. The vessels had been transporting
      The Allies planned mainly to send an expedition       Swedish iron ore, shipped from the North Norwegian
 corps to Finland, crossing Scandinavian territory          town Narvik.
 from the North Norwegian port of Narvik to the ore                                          17                         First Quarter 2004
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      German interests were also involved in iron ore      mid-Norway and the south, the last to fall was Hegra
 transport from Narvik. The western Allies were            Fort in Trøndelag county.
 displeased with the Norwegian and Swedish policies
 of neutrality regarding the shipping of this ore
 through Norwegian waters. The situation became
 critical when a British war ship cruised into the
 Norwegian Jøssingfjord and sank a German vessel
 and liberated British prisoners. On 8 April 1940, the
 Allies announced that they had placed mines in
 Norwegian waters to stop the shipments of iron ore to
 Germany. However, the minelaying was not intended
 to be the first step in an Allied attack on Norway.

     Narvik, the location of an initial German
     invasion, this city was later beseiged by
            Allied forces and retaken.

 The Invasion Starts                                                       Norwegian Soldiers

      At that point, the German attack on Norway had           By the beginning of May, the military resistance
 already started. A huge fleet had departed from           of South Norway had been broken. To the north, in
 German ports with troops and materiel. Nearly the         the Narvik region, German forces were outnumbered
 entire German navy, six army divisions and a large        and were driven back toward the Swedish border. But
 air force contingent took part in the attack. The first   the Western Allies chose to withdraw due to their
 targets were eight Norwegian towns and cities along       setbacks on the Western Front. After 62 days, the
 the country's lengthy coast.                              German campaign had succeeded. Norwegian
      The Norwegian defence was tiny by comparison.        defence and security policies had suffered a total
 Most of the navy had already been mobilised, but it       defeat. On 7 June, 1940, the Norwegian king and the
 was organised to guard the country's neutrality. On an    Nygaardsvold government boarded the British cruiser
 average, coastal forts were only 50 per cent manned.      HMS Devonshire. It would be five years before they
 The army had mobilised 7,000 soldiers in South            could return.
 Norway but the entire 6th brigade, with its 4,800
 men, was on duty in North Norway.                         The Losses in 1940
      Fierce battles broke out immediately. British
 naval forces became embroiled in combat with                   The battles in 1940 cost many lives: Norwegians
 German units and both sides suffered large losses,        lost about 850, the British 4,000, the French and
 especially in the Narvik area. After a while, British,    Poles a combined 530, while the invaders suffered
 French, and Polish army units joined in. But they         1,300 dead and 1,600 wounded.
 could not put up sufficient resistance against the             In retrospect, the German campaign has been
 well-organised German campaign. The eight targets         evaluated as an unusually daring and successful
 of the attack were captured within 24 hours, as was       action for its time. It was the first operation in
 the Norwegian naval base at Horten. It took longer        military history which used the combined powers of a
 for the aggressor to take the rest of the country. In     nation's army, navy and air force. It was the first time                                         18                           First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                                          Northwest Historical Association

 in which large troops were transported on warships. It
 was also the first time that troops were flown directly           Ground Forces In Norway
 to battlegrounds.

 Resistance Led from London                                German
                                                            2. Gebirgsdivision *
      The Norwegian government resumed its                  3. Gebirgsdivision *
 activities from London. It was able to do so because       69. Inf. Division
 the national assembly, the Storting, had given it the      163. Inf. Division
 authorisation it needed shortly after the attack.          181. Inf. Division
 Popular resistance during the war was also bolstered
                                                            196. Inf. Division
 by the knowledge that King Haakon, and the
                                                            214. Inf. Division
 Nygaardsvold government, had resolutely answered
 "no" to the German demands for submission after the
 invasion.                                                 British
      Only a negligible portion of the Norwegian            15th Infantry Brigade
 defence forces steered clear of the collapse. However,     24th Infantry Brigade
 the government's disposition of the merchant navy -        146th Infantry Brigade **
 the world's third largest at the time - ensured it a       148th Infantry Brigade **
 certain freedom of action. With the income from the        3rd Battalion, Kings Own Hussars
 maritime fleet, the government began to build up new        (1 Troop - only personnel, no tanks)
 forces for the war effort. In addition, the merchant
 navy's efforts helped raise the status of the exiled      French
 government within the Alliance while providing a           5. Demi-Brigade Chasseurs Alpins *
 much-needed currency surplus for post-war                  27. Demi-Brigade Chasseurs Alpins *
 reconstruction.                                            13. Demi-Brigade Legion Etranger
      In time, the government had recruited an army, a      342. Indep. Tank Company (10 light tanks)
 navy and an air force. When the peace was finally
 won, the Royal Norwegian Navy consisted of 52             Polish
 vessels. These participated in ordinary sea war            Polish Brigade
 operations, including convoy service and the invasion
 at Normandy. The Norwegian destroyer Stord played         Norwegian
 a major part when the 26,000 tonne German
                                                           The Norwegian army was small, poorly
 battleship Scharnorst was sunk north of the North
                                                           trained, and existed largely as a border
 Cape in December 1943. Throughout the war, the
 Norwegian naval detachment popularly known as             protection force. Although they initially
 "the Shetland bus" provided a risky transport route       possessed a high morale and fought
 between the Shetland Islands and occupied Norway.         tenaciously, like most European armies in
      A training camp for Norwegian pilots, dubbed         the early stages of WWII they were
 "Little Norway", was established in Canada.               unequipped for the new realities of war.
 Norwegian pilots and crews on Norwegian aircraft          They had no hand grenades, submachine
 took part in Allied operations staged from Iceland        guns, or anti-tank guns. Each battalion,
 and Great Britain, and from France in the final phase     which was the largest operational
 of the war.                                               organization, had only two medium
      Norwegian army forces were established and           mortars and nine heavy machineguns for
 trained in Scotland. They were reserved for action in     support.
 Norway, but commando units also participated in
 special operations, during the Dieppe raid and the        * Mountain Troops
 attack on the Dutch island, Walcheren, in 1944.
      But country's biggest contribution to the Allied     ** These units were composed of
 war effort abroad was the hazardous service of sailors    Territorial Battalions, or what could be
 in the merchant navy. The modern Norwegian                considered militia units, rather than
 merchant fleet carried oil, war materiel, and food to     regular line units.
 soldiers and civilians all over the world and to all
 arenas of the second world war. The effort cost the
 lives of nearly 4,000 Norwegian seamen.                                         19                            First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                                             Northwest Historical Association

 Norwegian Forces in Sweden                                   the establishment of a "national government" under
                                                              the leadership of Quisling in February 1942.
      In 1943, the Swedish authorities granted                     In addition to the Norwegian civilians who
 permission for the establishment and training of the         collaborated with the German occupying power,
 so-called Norwegian "police" troops on Swedish soil.         some 6,000 served with the German armed forces,
 Some of these forces were sent to Finnmark county in         mainly on the Eastern Front. It did not go unnoticed
 the winter of 1944-45 while German and Soviet                that the Nobel Prize winner for literature, Knut
 forces were fighting there.                                  Hamsun, also supported the Nazification.
      The rest of the police troops were immediately
 transferred to Norway after the German capitulation
 in May 1945. They consisted of eight police reserve
 battalions, eight national police companies, as well as
 staff and support units - 13,000 troops in all.

 The Nazification of Norway

      After the German troops had conquered all
 Allied resistance on Norwegian soil, the Germans
 started reorganising Norwegian society to comply
 with the interests of the German war machine. This
 mainly involved anything which could contribute to
 the progress of Germany military needs, but changes
 which served National Socialist ideology also began
 to mark developments. In addition to a German
 commander in chief - to begin with General Nikolaus
 von Falkenhorst - Norway was also burdened with a
 political commissioner, Reichskommissar Josef
 Terboven. Faced with the German forces, and an                  Andalsnes, one of the main landing points
 efficient apparatus for terrorising and oppressing the          for Allied forces attempting to counter the
 population, Norway entered a state of semi-paralysis                          German invasion.
 for five long years.
      As in all the other occupied countries, the Nazi        Norwegian Determination
 power profited from the support of local
                                                                   Following an initial period of shock and
 sympathisers. During a visit to Hitler in Berlin in the
                                                              confusion in the summer of 1940, Norwegian
 winter of 1939-40, the leader of the national socialist
                                                              determination to resist began to show its strength.
 Nasjonal Samling Party, Vidkun Quisling, had
                                                              The Nazification of society was countered at every
 pointed out how valuable it would be for Germany to
                                                              turn, especially in the Church and the schools. Thus,
 occupy Norway. Immediately after the invasion, on
                                                              Quisling's NS party only got a modest grip on the
 the morning of 9 April 1940, he proclaimed himself
                                                              "peoples' soul", and could only exist under the
 the new head of the government and ordered the
                                                              protection of the German armed forces.
 Norwegian armed forces to stop battling the
                                                                   Underground military groups were established in
 Germans. But Quisling's intervention backfired and
                                                              parallel with civilian resistance, and a prime
 stimulated the resistance. Thus, the occupying power
                                                              objective was to assist in the Allied and Norwegian
 quickly realised that - for the time being - Quisling
                                                              intelligence operations. The groups were useful in
 did not serve their interests and they chose to base
                                                              reporting the movements of German vessels and the
 their administration of the country on a certain degree
                                                              transport of troops and materiel, especially in
 of give-and-take with the existing civilian authorities.
                                                              connection with the battles around the Soviet Kola
 Later, the German Nazi Party veteran Terboven was
                                                              peninsula. In November 1944, Norwegian
 sent to Oslo to find the best way to administer the
                                                              intelligence was heavily responsible for the sinking
 occupation of Norway. After negotiations with the
                                                              of the 41,700 tonne battleship Tirpitz in a fjord not
 Storting and leading Norwegians, the result turned
                                                              far from Tromsø. When progress was eventually
 out to be the undisguised exercise of German power -
                                                              made in arming the underground Norwegian groups,
 featuring a council of commissioners comprised of
                                                              often by parachute drops from Allied aircraft and
 Norwegian collaborators, with the reichskommissar
                                                              supplies from the Shetland bus, the military groups
 as the real ruler. In reality, this system lasted up until
                                                              became more of a problem for the Germans,
 the end of the war, despite political acrobatics such as                                            20                         First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                                          Northwest Historical Association

 particularly for Terboven and the Gestapo. Toward         their resistance to the occupation and for anti-Nazi
 the end of the war, the home front carried out            activities. A sizable number were sent to German
 sabotage against the transport infrastructure. Armed      concentration camps where they perished. A total of
 clashes occurred all across the country. The biggest      40,000 Norwegians were imprisoned by the
 and the best known of the battles between                 Germans.
 Norwegians and Germans occurred in the Matrefjell
 mountain region, northeast of Bergen, in early 1945.      Civilian Suffering
      However, most of the acts of sabotage were
 carried out by Communists. There activist line had,            Aside from the political and military oppression,
 for some time, been opposed by the rest of the            daily life was marked mostly by the lack of food and
 resistance movement, which was subordinate to the         other supplies during the occupation years. With its
 war policies of the exiled government in London and       low degree of self-sufficiency in food production,
 the Western Allies.                                       Norway had relied for years on imports. Imports
                                                           plunged to a minimum during the war years, and
 The Heavy Water Attack                                    supply problems were compounded by the 400,000
                                                           Germans on Norwegian soil. Per capita, Norway was
      An act of sabotage which became famous and           actually the country which had the most German
 possibly had a certain effect on the outcome of the       occupiers on its territory.
 war, was the attack on the heavy water plant at                Statistics bear witness to the scope of the food
 Vemark, in Telemark county. Here, Norwegian               shortage. From 1942, Norwegians lived on an
 soldiers, trained in the UK, were sent into action near   average of 1,500 calories a day, compared with 2,500
 the small town of Rjukan, where Norsk Hydro               normally. In 1944, the average daily consumption of
 produced heavy water, a liquid chemical which the         food sank to 1,315 calories, and in the winter of 1945
 Germans needed for the development of an atomic           the figure was 1,237.
 bomb. Although the Germans guarded the plant, the              Urban dwellers suffered the most from
 production facilities were destroyed. Heavy water         nutritional shortages during the war. But compared
 which was en route to Germany was also destroyed,         with the deprivations suffered in many other
 at the cost of many Norwegian civilian lives.             countries, most Norwegians escaped the real distress
      When the war ended, the underground resistance       of the war.
 forces, Milorg, consisted of 44,000 soldiers.
                                                           A Tougher Situation
 The Machinery of Oppression
                                                                Toward the end of the war, hostility between
      The civilian and military resistance in Norway       Norwegians and the German occupying forces grew
 was met with an escalation of the Nazi machinery of       considerably stronger. A prime cause was the
 oppression. Already in 1940, the first Norwegians         German withdrawal from all fronts. Retreating
 were sentenced to death in German courts of war, and      German units from the fronts in the north, the USSR
 execution squads were active from 1941 and                and Finland, withdrew to Norwegian territory. In the
 onwards. Starting in 1942, more and more                  autumn of 1944, the Red Army followed the
 Norwegians were shot in reprisal. At the same time,       Germans into Finnmark, where it liberated Kirkenes
 thousands were jailed in Norway or sent to                and the northeastern areas. As the occupying troops
 concentration camps in Germany, Poland and France.        retreated, they ordered an evacuation of the entire
      The persecution of Norwegian Jews began              Norwegian population in Finnmark and in Troms
 already in May 1940. But it wasn't until the winter of    south to Lyngen. In Lyngen, three German army
 1941-42 that Jews were arrested in large groups. The      corps dug in. Then the entire region north of Lyngen
 biggest wave of arrests was in October and                was burned and destroyed. The destruction included
 November 1942. Among the 769 Jews who were                10,400 homes, bridges, power stations, factories,
 deported to Germany, only 25 survived. About half         fishing vessels, telephone facilities and other types of
 of the 1,800 Jews who lived in Norway when the war        infrastructure. The scorched earth area was much
 broke out managed to find refuge in Sweden.               larger than all of Denmark.
      So did many other Norwegians. At war's end,               After the Soviet Red Army crossed into North
 92,000 Norwegians were living abroad, and 46,000          Norway, a Norwegian military mission and a small
 of them were in Sweden.                                   number of Norwegian soldiers from Great Britain and
      The Germans arrested a huge number of                Sweden followed. The Russians withdrew from
 Norwegians. Teachers, officers and students were          Norway in September 1945, a few months after the
 collectively arrested, and many were captured for         German capitulation.                                         21                           First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                                         Northwest Historical Association

 Exemplary German Capitulation                                 After the war, legal proceedings were initiated
                                                          against those who had betrayed their country. About
      As the German collapse drew near, there was         46,000 persons were punished for treason. Among
 serious concern about the choice of tactics which the    these, 18,000 were sentenced to prison terms, 28,000
 occupying troops in Norway would choose. But it          were fined and deprived of their rights as citizens.
 ended well - the German commander in chief,                   A total of 45 Norwegians and Germans received
 General Böhme, followed the capitulation orders          death sentences, 37 of the executions were carried
 which he had received from his superiors in Germany      out.
 on 7 May, 1945. A day later, an Allied mission flew           It did not take long for the country to recuperate
 into Oslo, followed by Allied and Norwegian military     from the effects of World War II. Industrial
 detachments. In time, power was transferred back to      production and the gross domestic product were
 the right hands. The Government returned home from       greater in 1946 than in 1938. Three years later, the
 Great Britain and on 7 June, 1945, King Haakon           country's national wealth had also returned to its pre-
 followed.                                                war level.
      The German capitulation was carried out in an
 exemplary and peaceful way, but it took months
 before all the German troops were repatriated.                         The Battle for Otta
      It also took some time to repatriate the 141,000
 foreign nationals which the Germans had brought          Following is a small example of a somewhat
 into Norway. These included 84,000 Soviet prisoners      typical action from the Norwegian Campaign,
 of war and 13,000 conscripted labourers, mainly          in that Allied air, armor, and artillery assets
 Yugoslavs.                                               were non-existent, whereas German forces
                                                          used air and artillery to good effect. The British
 The Costs of War                                         commander General Paget had deployed a
                                                          battalion of the Green Howards (less two
      When the costs of the war were estimated in         companies) to the small village of Otta in
 Norway, the tally showed that 10,262 Norwegians          central Norway. The goal was to slow the
 had been killed, including 3,670 seamen. The             German advance north from Oslo towards a
                                                          link-up with their forces in Trondheim.
 Germans had executed 366 and tortured 39 to death.
 Among political prisoners and members of the                           -------        -------
 underground, 658 died at home and 1,433 abroad.
      About 6,000 Norwegians had served the German
 war cause, and 709 of them had fallen in battle.
      During the years of occupation, the Germans had
 absorbed nearly 40 per cent of the gross domestic
 product. In addition, there was the considerable
 material destruction. Finnmark county had been
 almost totally razed, and a number of towns and
 communities were damaged by bombings or had been
 burned by the retreating Germans. An estimated 16
 per cent of the national wealth had been lost, and the
 outflow to the occupying power had been twice as
 high per capita as it was, for instance, in France. On
 the whole, however, Norway was one of the occupied
 countries which suffered the least during the war.
      When the war broke out, the merchant navy
 totalled 1,024 ships and had a combined tonnage of          View of the village of Otta, looking in the
 about four million. It's service had been vital to the    direction that the German attack came from.
 Allied war effort. During one period, Norwegian
 vessels were transporting more than 30 per cent of all   "Otta, which looks not unlike some little North
 the oil under shipment from the USA to Great             Riding market town, stands about ten miles up
 Britain. But the costs were high; in the course of the   the valley from Kjörem on a tongue of land,
                                                          where the river of the same name flows into
 war the fleet was reduced 2.3 million tonnes.
                                                          the Laagen from the north-west. The main
                                                          road follows the left bank of the Laagen, with a
 The Betrayal
                                                          side-turning across a bridge into the town,                                        22                          First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                                     Northwest Historical Association

 while the railway and a subsidiary road follow       in one of which some thirty members of a
 the right bank. Two steeply rising spurs on the      German officers' conference were surprised
 hillside, one on the left bank about one and a       and disposed of, and by evening the company,
 half miles in front of the town, the other on the    having shortened its lines, occupied a post
 right much nearer in, with sheltered access          higher up the hillside backing on to the foot of
 from the side valley, gave scope for effective       a precipice: from there it pinned down enemy
 cross-fire and would be very hard to storm.          detachments almost twice its own strength."
 Each spur was held by one company; the rest
 of our troops were posted in and behind the          "Withdrawal, in accordance with General
 town, where the five surviving anti-tank guns        Paget's orders, was timed to begin at 10 p.m.,
 were also carefully sited."                          when the forward company from the right bank
                                                      crossed the River Otta by a ford after the
                                                      railway bridge leading into the town had been
                                                      partly blown up. Heavy fire was at the same
                                                      time opened by the other companies upon the
                                                      area which we had abandoned; and a general
                                                      retirement    from   the    town,    after the
                                                      disablement of our remaining anti-tank guns,
                                                      was carried out successfully by the Green
                                                      Howards and by the York and Lancaster in the
                                                      rear. The advanced company in its strong but
                                                      isolated position on the left bank did not
                                                      receive the orders for withdrawal, but at half
                                                      past ten drove off a superior force of the
                                                      enemy with heavy loss. It then divided into
                                                      four parties, which moved back in silence and
                                                      for the most part on hands and knees at a
                                                      height of a thousand feet or more above the
                                                      valley floor along a precipitous slope—already
                                                      famous in Norwegian story for the massacre of
   German forces moved up both sides of the
                                                      a force of Scottish mercenaries in 1612, when
    river towards the village of Otta. British
                                                      the peasantry rolled boulders down on them—
   companies were deployed on both slopes
                                                      and entered the village at 6 a.m. to find that
        with their HQ in the village itself.
                                                      the battalion had left. The company was still
                                                      complete in numbers and arms and, though
 "An enemy air reconnaissance at 7 a.m. (28th
                                                      fired on by enemy snipers in Otta, suffered no
 April) was followed by an air attack which did
                                                      loss as it set out on the thirty-mile march up
 little damage. At about half past ten, 150
                                                      the valley to Dombaas."
 enemy infantry with tanks and artillery
 advanced against our right flank along the
                                                      "The break-away this time had been complete,
 track beside the railway. Heavy casualties were
                                                      and the enemy made no immediate attempt to
 inflicted on them, whereupon they resorted to
                                                      follow. The German army reported 'bitter
 their usual tactics—a wide deployment to both
                                                      fighting for Otta', and General Paget was able
 flanks, artillery action against whatever targets
                                                      to record that 'The Green Howards on the Otta
 could be located, and the incessant harassing
                                                      position fought splendidly... the enemy
 of our forward companies by low-flying
                                                      suffered many casualties in this battle, and his
 aircraft. Tanks were employed again later on
                                                      subsequent actions showed little desire or
 both banks, but on the right bank they had
                                                      ability to press home an attack'."
 very little room to manoeuvre and on the left,
 where they came along the main road, a single
 anti-tank gun knocked out three in succession.
 Another party of the enemy was surprised                Campaign in Norway, Derry, T. K. [UK
 while crossing the river in rubber boats to              Military Series: History of the Second World
 attack our forward position on the left bank. A          War], LONDON 1952 HMSO
 series of attacks on our other forward position
 was equally unsuccessful. Even the enemy's           
 usual outflanking manoeuvre this time failed of
 success. Several small actions were fought by
 the company protecting the more distant spur,                                    23                        First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                                     Northwest Historical Association

                                        Club Photos
  The following pictures were taken by and used with the permission of Frantisek Horava, a reenactor
 and photographer with the Historical Club Erika Brno in the Czech Republic. More pictures by Frantisek
        from the club's events can be viewed at and                                 24                           First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin         Northwest Historical Association   25           First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin         Northwest Historical Association   26           First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin         Northwest Historical Association   27           First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin         Northwest Historical Association   28           First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                                         Northwest Historical Association

 WWII History:                                            had white officers and black enlisted men. At the
                                                          time of the Battle of the Bulge, the unit was located
 Following is an important article on an
                                                          in the vicinity of St.Vith, Belgium. Specifically it was
 effort that you are encouraged to become                 northeast of Schonberg and west of the Our River in
 involved in.                                             support of the Army VII Corps and especially the
                                                          106th Infantry Division.
             The Wereth 11                                      On December 16, German artillery began
                                                          shelling the Schonberg area. With reports of rapid
       Remembering the Invisible                          German infantry and armored progress, the 333rd
    Soldiers of the Battle of the Bulge                   FAB was ordered to displace further west but to leave
                                                          'C' Battery and Service Battery in position to support
    By: Norman S. Lichtenfeld M.D.                        the 14th Cavalry and 106th Division. By the morning
 Submitted By: Steve Borts (3rd Armored)                  of December 17, these two positions were rapidly
                                                          overrun by the advancing German troops and armor.
      Few realize that a decisive factor in the defense   While many personnel tried to escape through
 of Bastogne, during the Battle of the Bulge, rested in   Schonberg, eleven men of the Service Battery went
 the artillery support of the surrounded town. One of     overland in a northwest direction in the hopes of
 the heavy (155mm) artillery units was the segregated     reaching American lines. At about 3 p.m., they
 969th Field Artillery Battalion joined by a few          approached the first house in the nine-house hamlet
 howitzers and survivors of the segregated 333rd Field    of Wereth, Belgium, owned by Mathius Langer.
 Artillery Battalion. For their actions the 969th FAB           The men were cold, hungry, and exhausted after
 received the Presidential Unit Citation, the highest     walking cross-country through the deep snow. They
 award a military unit can receive. In spite of this      had two rifles between them. The family welcomed
 meritorious service, participation by Black G.I.'s in    them and gave them food. But this small part of
 the Battle of the Bulge, or for that matter in the       Belgium did not necessarily welcome Americans as
 Second World War, is not well known or recognized.       "Liberators." This area had been part of Germany
                                                          before the First World War and many of its citizens
                                                          still saw themselves as Germans and not Belgians.
                                                          The people spoke German but had been forced to
                                                          become Belgian citizens when their land was given to
                                                          Belgium as part of the First World War repatriations.
                                                          Unlike the rest of Belgium, many people in this area
                                                          welcomed the Nazis in 1940 and again in 1944
                                                          because of their strong ties to Germany. Mathius
                                                          Langer was not one of these. At the time he took the
                                                          Black Americans in, he was hiding two Belgian
                                                          deserters from the German Army and had sent a draft
                                                          age son into hiding, so the Nazis would not conscript
                                                          him. A family friend was also at the house when the
                                                          Americans appeared. Unfortunately, unknown to the
   Memorial Service for the Wereth Fallen                 Langers, she was a Nazi sympathizer.
      Everyone knows of the Tuskegee Airmen and                 About an hour later, a German patrol of the 1st
 some know of the 761st Tank Battalion and the Red        SS Division belonging to Kampfgruppe Hansen
 Ball Express. However, the majority of the Black         arrived in Wereth. It is believed the Nazi sympathizer
 G.I.'s in World War II, 260,000 in the European          informed the SS that there were Americans at the
 Theatre of Operations, were not forgotten to history;    Langer house. When the SS troops approached the
 they were simply never acknowledged. They are the        house the eleven Americans surrendered quickly,
 'invisible" soldiers of World War II. They include       without resistance. The Americans were made to sit
 eleven young artillerymen of the 333rd Field             on the road, in the cold, until dark. The Germans then
 Artillery Battalion who were murdered by the SS,         marched them down the road. Gunfire was heard
 after surrendering, during the Battle of the Bulge.      during the night. In the morning, villagers saw the
      The 333rd Field Artillery Battalion was a           bodies of the men in a ditch. Because they were
 155mm Howitzer unit that had been in action since        afraid that the Germans might return, they did not
 coming ashore at Utah Beach on June 29, 1944.            touch the dead soldiers.
 Typical of most segregated units in World War II, it           The snow covered the bodies and they remained
                                                          entombed in the snow until mid-February when                                        29                           First Quarter 2004
The Bulletin                                                            Northwest Historical Association

 villagers directed a U.S. Army Grave Registration           With the help of an American physician in Mobile,
 unit to the site. The official report noted that the men    Alabama, whose father fought and was captured in
 had been brutalized, with broken legs, bayonet              the Battle of the Bulge, a grassroots publicity and
 wounds to the head, and fingers cut off. Prior to their     fund-raising endeavor was begun, and has had
 removal an Army photographer took photographs of            modest success. There are now road signs indicating
 the bodies to document the brutality of the massacre.       the location of the memorial, and the Belgium Tourist
                                                             Bureau lists it in the 60th Anniversary "Battle of the
                                                             Bulge" brochures. Currently three families of the
                                                             murdered men have been located as well as one of
                                                             the soldier's gravesites in Camden, Alabama.

                                                                    Members of the 333rd Field
                                                                ArtilleryBattalion killed at Wereth

                                                                     Curtis Adams
                                                                     George Davis
                                                                     Thomas J. Forte
                                                                     Robert Green
                                                                     Jim Leatherwood
                    Memorial Site                                    Bradley Meagler
                                                                     Nathaniel Moss
      An investigation was immediately begun with a
                                                                     George W. Moten
 "secret" classification. Testimonies were taken of the
                                                                     William M. Pritchett
 Graves Registration officers, the Army photographer,
 the Langers and the woman who had been present                      James A. Stewart
 when the soldiers arrived. She testified that she told              Due W. Turner
 the SS the Americans had left! The case was then
 forwarded to a War Crimes Investigation unit. The                Enough money has been raised to purchase the
 investigation showed however that no positive               land the current memorial is on and further monies
 identification of the murderers could be found (i.e. no     are needed to provide for a modest monument, which
 unit patches, vehicle numbers, etc) except that they        can be easily accessed by the public. It is believed
 were from the 1st SS Panzer Division. By 1948 the           that this will be the only memorial to Black G.I.'s of
 "secret" classification was cancelled and the               World War II in Europe. The dedication of the
 paperwork filed away. The murder of the Wereth 11           memorial is planned for the 60th anniversary year of
 was seemingly forgotten and unavenged!                      the Battle of the Bulge in 2004. Your assistance is
      Seven of the men were buried in the American           needed and would be greatly appreciated. All
 Cemetery at Henri-Chapelle, Belgium, and the other          contributions go to the construction and preservation
 four were returned to their families for burial after the   of the memorial. There are no administrative costs.
 war ended. The Wereth 11 remained unknown, it                    The goal is to make the Wereth 11 and all Black
 seemed, to all but their families until 1994. Herman        G.I.'s "visible" to all Americans and to history They,
 Langer, the son of Mathius Langer, who had given            like so many others, paid the ultimate price for our
 the men food and shelter, erected a small cross             freedom.
 bearing the names of the dead in the corner of the               Send donations (U.S. Wereth Memorial) and any
 pasture where they had been murdered. This private          information on members of the 333 FAB or their
 memorial from the Langer family and the rural               families to:
 community of Wereth remained basically obscure. In
 a tiny hamlet with no school or shops, there were no        U.S. Wereth Memorial
 signs on the roadways to indicate the memorial, and         c/o Norman S. Lichtenfeld, M.D.
 it was not listed in any guides or maps to the Battle of    6701 Airport Blvd., Ste B-110
 the Bulge battlefield. Even people looking for it had       Mobile, AL 36608
 trouble finding it in the small German speaking
 community.                                                  E-Mail:
      In 2001, three Belgium citizens embarked on the
 task of creating a fitting memorial to these men and
 additionally to honor all Black GI's of World War II.                                           30                          First Quarter 2004

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