SDI Adaptations Accommodations and Modifications by MikeJenny


									                     ERs, IEPs,
                   Behavior Plans,
                   Data Collection!!
Lions and tigers
   and bears!!
     Oh my!

            Bucks County Intermediate Unit #22
                     August, 2010

Why we are here. What we do…

  Our Vision: “Every child by name
 reaching core academic proficiency in
 core academic disciplines regardless
 of zip code, economic status, race,
 ethnicity or disability.”
 Mission Statement - PDE
 Our goal today is to work together to gain a
 better understanding of the requirements for
 demonstrating compliance with IDEA.

 Evaluation Report, Reevalution Report
 Behavior Support Plans
 Progress Monitoring (data collection)
Does anyone need a
     break yet?
         Individuals with Disabilities
          Education Act (IDEA ’04)

Special education law guarantees the following
  rights to all students with disabilities:

     The right to an education
     The right to a “free” education
     The right to an “appropriate” education
     The right to placement in the “least restrictive setting”
     The right to due process


         Defining Appropriate

    The courts define appropriate as
“in accordance with the student’s IEP.”

 This means the IEP serves as THE single most
        important document for a student
               with a disability.
The Purpose of an IEP

   Serves as a blueprint for the provision of special
    education services.

   Puts into writing the district’s commitment to
    educating a student with a disability.

   Describes the specialized services that are needed
    for the student to be successful.
The Importance of an IEP

    The IEP is a firm, legally binding
     “commitment of resources” by the district.

    When the IEP team specifies that a
     specialized service is needed, the district
     must provide it.

 Source: Bateman, B. (1995) Writing Individualized Education Programs for
  Success: Secondary Education and Beyond. Learning Disabilities Association.
 Persons Responsible for
Implementation of an IEP
                     List may include:
  All school staff      Administrators
  working directly      Special education
  with the student      General education
  are responsible        teachers
  for implementing      Counselors
                        Support staff/related
  the IEP.               services staff
                        Paraprofessionals
Parts of the IEP

I. Special Considerations     VI. Special Education/
                                  Related Services/
II. Present Levels of             Supplementary Aids
    Performance                   & Services/Program
III. Transition Services
                             VII. Educational
IV. Participation in State        Placement
    & Local Assessments
                             VIII. Penn Data
V. Goals and Objectives            Reporting
I. Special Considerations
    Blind or visually impaired?
        If yes, explain:
     Deaf or hearing impaired?               Any
        If yes, develop Communication
    Communication needs                   checked
    Assistive technology                  must be
    Limited English Proficiency
    Behaviors that impede learning
        If yes, Behavior Plan based on   in the IEP.
    Other (Specify)
II. Present Levels of Performance

Present Levels of Academic        Strengths:
 Achievement:                     Describe what student does relatively
 Performance in general           well
 education curriculum,
 including reading, writing,
 and math                         Academic & Functional Needs:
                                  State specific needs related to
 Present Levels of                disability (translates into goals)
 Functional Performance:
 Related to activities of daily
 living, functional levels of     Effect on Involvement & Progress
 academics, social deficits,      in General Education Curriculum

    Present Levels of Academic
                 Instructional Level and Grade Level

   It is critical that assessments and present levels include both the
    instructional and grade levels.

   Instructional level alone does not meet the criteria of the general
    education curriculum.

   Grade level alone does not meet the criteria of an IEP based on
    identified skill deficits.

   The two levels together allow the student to make progress in the
    general education curriculum, while also addressing skill deficits
Types of Information
Included in Present Levels
 Academic Achievement:             Functional Performance:

    Standardized test scores         Classroom performance
    Curriculum-based                 Daily living skills
     assessments                      Progress reports on
    Teacher records                   previous IEP goals
    Observations                     Behavioral records
    Input from parents               FBA results
    State and local assessments      Related Services
       PSSA, PASA                    Other:
III. Transition Services

    Begin Transition Planning if the student will be 14
     years of age or if the IEP team decides to begin
     planning earlier.

    Discuss Desired Post-School Outcomes
        Post-Secondary Education and Training
        Employment
        Independent Living
IV. Participation in State /
District-Wide Assessments

The IEP team must decide
  whether the student:             It is required that
     participates without             all students
                                      participate in
     participates with
      accommodations (list them)   state and district-
     will be assessed on an               wide
      alternative assessment         assessments.
Coming in 2010!!
                        PSSA-M (modified)

There is now modified
PSSA testing in Math,
Reading and Science
V. Goals and Objectives

   Goals and objectives need to be:
       Measurable / Able to be Monitored
       Meaningful
       Aligned to the general curriculum
       Derived from the needs resulting from the disability
       Related directly to the present levels

Goal Requirements

  Pennsylvania measurable goal statements

     Condition

     Student name

     Behavior

     Criteria

        Measurable Goals at a Glance
                         Defined                Performance             Evaluation
 Condition               Behavior               Criteria                Schedule

-Describe the                                                           Number of times
situation in which the   Name the action you    The level and           needed to demonstrate
student will perform     will see the student   frequency the student   mastery
                         actually doing.        demonstrates
the behavior.                                                           How consistently the
                         Use action verbs.      mastery.
                                                                        student needs to
Given visual cues..      Name                   % of the time           perform the skill(s)
                         Locate                 #times/# times          before it’s considered
During lectures in       Point                  With the # or %         “mastered”
math…                    Separate               accuracy
                         Rank                   “X” or better on a       Evaluation Schedule
                         Choose                 rubric                   -How frequently the
Given active
                                                “X” or better on a      teacher plans to assess
response checks…                                checklist.              the student
                                                                         -Method of evaluation

Standards Aligned Goals                          New!

   Goals are written with actual wording of
    standards/anchors/eligible content.

   Correspond to the identified skill deficit obtained from
    present levels of educational achievement.

General education standards curriculum + standards/anchors
          IEP goals = standards aligned instruction

    Standards Aligned Goals                               New!

   By writing standards-aligned goals, we ensure that we are
    focusing our instruction on skills that will enable students
    to access and make progress in the general education

   Goals need to correspond to the identified skill deficits
    obtained from present levels of academic achievement

   Standards aligned goals include the actual wording of
    standards/anchors/eligible content

 Steps to Standards Aligned Goals

1. Review Present Levels of Academic Achievement

2. Identify student’s needs (academic and functional)

3. Prioritize student’s needs

4. Determine the PA standard that correlates with each need

5. Write the goal with the condition, student name, behavior
    and performance criteria
Examples of Standards-Aligned Goals
 Goal: Given graphic organizers for retells, paraphrasing, and
  cause-effect sequences, David will make and support with
  evidence, assertions about texts with 90% accuracy in 8 out of 10

 Goal: When shown pictures of common idioms, Ken will
  demonstrate understanding of literary language by pointing to the
  correct picture 4 of 5 times on three consecutive probes.

 Goal: Given a word bank with key math vocabulary, Simon will
  answer questions related to content in tables, graphs and charts
  with 90% accuracy on 8 of 10 teacher-made assessments.
Let’s Talk About It -- Count off 1-2-3.
For Information on Standards/Anchors
and the Standards Aligned System:

      SAS :
VI. Special Education/Related
Services/Program Modifications

    Program Modifications and Specially Designed
     Instruction (including Positive Behavior Support Plan,
     if required)

    Related Services

    Supports for School Personnel

    Extended School Year
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)

        SDI is what’s “special” in special education.

     Designed to meet the unique and individualized needs of
      the student.

     The IEP team must identify the specific strategies that are
      needed by the student to access and be successful in the
      general education curriculum.

     Often carried out in the general education setting.
Examples of SDI
 – large print textbooks/ materials on tape
 – communication devices/assistive technology
 – test modification
 – instructional adaptation (repeating directions,
   use of study guides, frequent checks for
 – replacement of traditional reading curriculum with
   functional sight vocabulary
More Examples ...

    Extended time on tests       Modified curricular
    Material read orally to       goals
     student                      Adaptive equipment
    Reduce number of             Quick pen
     items on page to 5 or
                                  Preferential seating
                                   near teacher
    Pencil grip
                                  Seat cushion
Examples for Positive Behavior
  If behavior is identified as an area of concern,
  list positive behavioral support strategies as
  part of specially designed instruction.
Social- Behavioral:
     Individualized positive behavior support plan
     Consistent rewards and consequences
     Visual schedule/ assistance with transitions
     Direct instruction in anger management
     Direct instruction in social skills
Monitoring Delivery of SDI
    For each program modification and/or SDI, the team
     must indicate the location and frequency of the
     service to be provided.

    LOCATION refers to where the child will be receiving
     the service.

    FREQUENCY refers to how often the child will be
     receiving the service.
Ensuring Delivery of SDI

    School staff must deliver each service or SDI listed
     in the IEP exactly as outlined in the IEP.

    Special educators and general educators need to
     collaborate to document that each student is
     receiving the services identified in the IEP.
Related Services
  Refers to               Examples:
  transportation and         speech and language
  any developmental,         physical and occupational
  corrective or other         therapy
  supportive service
                             audiology services
  needed to assist a
                             psychological services
  student with a
  disability to benefit      job coaching
  from special               mobility services
Supports for School Personnel
  If personnel, such as   Examples:
  general educators,      • information/ training on
  need supports to          attention deficit disorder
  implement the IEP, it   • training in positive
  should be noted in        behavior support
  this section. This      • training in using assistive
  could include aids,       technology
  resource materials,     • consultation with special

  training, or              educator regarding
                            modification of instruction
Monitoring Supports
    For each support listed, the team must indicate the
     location and frequency of the support to be provided.

    LOCATION refers to where school personnel will be
     receiving the support.

    FREQUENCY refers to how often school personnel
     will be receiving the support.
Extended School Year (ESY)
 In considering          Regression
 whether a child is      Recoupment
 eligible for ESY        Maintenance
                         Mastery of skill
 services, the IEP
                         Crucial skill for self-
 team must                sufficiency/independence
 consider these          Withdrawal from learning
 factors.                 process
                         Severity of disability
 VII. Educational Placement

  Amount of support:       Type of support:
                          Blind/Visually Impaired Support
 Itinerant
                          Deaf/Hard of Hearing Support
  (20% or less)           Autistic Support
                          Learning Support
 Supplemental
                          Life Skills Support
  (>20% and <80%)
                          Emotional Support
                          Physical Support
 Full-Time               Multiple Disability Support
 (80% or more)            Speech & Language Support
Educational Placement-
Location of Child’s Program
    State location child will receive services. Explain if
     not the neighborhood school.

    Explain, if any, reasons the child will not participate
     with non-disabled peers in the regular education

    Explain, if any, reasons the child will not participate
     with non-disabled peers in the general education
VIII. Penn Data Reporting

    Section A: Indicate the percentage of time the
     student spends inside the regular education
     classroom per day (examples provided on IEP)

    Section B: For students educated OUTSIDE Regular
     School Building for more that 50% of the day
Final Thoughts

   Bigger is not better when it comes
               to the IEP.
           Create a focused, manageable,
              measurable document.

    Develop special education services (SDI) that
    address the underlying skill deficits needed to
         succeed in the general curriculum.
A Few More

      Use every section of the IEP to spell out
the services and specially designed instruction.

            Monitor student progress.

        Review the IEP and make changes,
                  if needed.

If it’s written in the IEP, it needs to

   If it’s not written in the IEP, it
            didn’t happen.
This Is It

  The IEP is a written commitment to the child
   and his or her family, outlining the resources
     and specially designed instruction to be
     delivered. The most well-written IEP is
   worthless if it is not implemented as written.

              FOLLOW THE IEP.
Let’s Take a Break!

Positive Behavior Support:
 Chapter 14 Regulations

Positive Behavior Support: Rationale
   “Positive, rather than negative, measures shall form the basis of
    behavior support programs to ensure that all students shall be free
    from demeaning treatment, the use of aversive techniques, and
    unreasonable use of restraints.”

   “Behavior support programs shall include research based practices
    and techniques to develop and maintain skills that will enhance the
    student’s opportunity for learning and self-fulfillment.”
Positive Behavior Support                                 NEW!

   Behavior support programs and plans shall:

       “be based on a functional assessment of behavior and
        utilize positive behavior techniques, and
       be the least intrusive necessary”

   “The use of restraints is considered a measure of last
    resort, only to be used after other less restrictive
    measures, including de-escalation techniques…”
Positive Behavior Support

   Defines Behavior Support Plan - “A plan for students with
    disabilities who require specific intervention to address behavior
    that interferes with learning.”

   “A positive behavior support plan shall be developed by the IEP
    team and become part of the student’s IEP. Such plans shall
    include methods that utilize positive reinforcement and other
    positive techniques, ranging from the use of positive verbal
    statements as a reward for good behavior to specific tangible

            It takes a team to develop a plan…
Talk Time: Focus on your students
   What are the behavioral
    challenges of your
   What procedures do you              QuickTime™ and a
    need to put in place to               decompressor
                                are needed to see this picture.
    ensure safety, teach
    replacement behaviors,
    and to ultimately
    decrease the use of
    physical aggression/self-
     “Death Toll Rises for Children in
     Programs” – Physical Restraint
        Angellika Arndt
                                              Jason Tallman
          7 years old

                                        Suffocated while being restrained
                                       face down on pillow at Kids Peace
                                         in Pennsylvania – May 12, 1993

 Died after being restrained for 40
minutes in a safe room where she had
    been taken to “calm down”
Restraint: Definition

   “The application of physical force, with or without the
    use of any device, for the purpose of restraining the free
    movement of a student’s body. The term restraint does
    not include briefly holding, without force, a student in
    order to calm or comfort him, guiding a student to an
    appropriate activity, or holding a student’s hand to safely
    escort her from one area to another”
Restraint Exclusions
    Excluded from definition of Restraint:
        Hand over hand assistance,
        Devices used for medical treatment
        Devices used for OT, PT
        Seatbelts in wheel chairs or on toilets
        Harnesses in buses
        Functional positioning devices
When Restraint is Permissible

   “Restraints to control acute or episodic aggressive or
    self-injurious behavior may be used only when the
    student is acting in a manner to be a clear and present
    danger to himself, to other students or to employees,
    and only when less restrictive measures and techniques
    have proven to be or are less effective.”
Examples of Restraint?
        Use Restraint or No Restraint?
   Student refuses to go to Time Out area, saying “You can’t make
   Student shouts “I’m going to kick you!” and moves toward you.
   Student knocks over table and picks up chair to throw it within
    range of other students.
   Student throws crayons, papers and books around classroom.
   Student grabs another student by the hair and begins to punch her.
   Student has tantrum and begins banging head on floor.
   Student runs away from staff in the cafeteria.
   Student is upset and attempts to bite other students, running from
    one student to another.

Restraint Follow-Up Meeting

    “The use of restraints to control the aggressive behavior
     of an individual student shall cause the school to notify
     the parent of the use of restraint and shall cause a
     meeting of the IEP team with 10 school days of the
     inappropriate behavior causing the use of restraints,
     unless the parent, after written notice, agrees in writing
     to waive the meeting.”

        Issue Invitation to Meeting…
Restraint Follow-Up Meeting

      “At the meeting, the IEP team shall consider
       whether the student needs a functional
       behavioral assessment, reevaluation, a new or
       revised positive behavior support plan, or a
       change of placement to address the
       inappropriate behavior.”

Restraint in IEP
   The use of restraints may only be included in a
    student’s IEP when:
       Utilized with elements of positive behavior
       Used in conjunction with the teaching of socially
        acceptable, alternative skills
       Staff are authorized to use the procedure and
        have received the staff training required

Restraint in IEP
   The use of restraints may only be included in a
    student’s IEP when:
       There is a plan in place for eliminating the use of
        restraint through use of PBS

   The use of prone restraints is prohibited.
Behavioral Support Requirement

 Subsequent to a referral
 to law enforcement, for
 students with disabilities
 who have positive
 behavior support plans,
 an updated functional
 behavior assessment
 and positive behavior
 support plan must be

Restraint - Final Thoughts
   The use of restraints may not be included in the IEP for
    the convenience of staff, as a substitute for an
    educational program, or employed as punishment

   Schools shall maintain and report data on use of
    restraints. The report shall be reviewed during cyclical
    compliance monitoring
Positive Behavior Support Plans

 If there are procedures in place, there is never a
 crisis… there is a plan to follow.

A Antecedent / Prevention Strategies:

B Behavior Replacement Strategies:

C Consequences - When the Student Performs the Replacement Behavior:

C Consequences - When the Student Performs the Behavior(s) of Concern:

   What questions do I have
    about providing
    behavioral support/ using

   What concerns do I have
    about developing
    behavior support plans?
Data Collection and Progress

 Data must be collected on each IEP goal to
  demonstrate progress/make instructional

   The type of data collected and the schedule for
    collecting data are determined at IEP
Examples of data collection tools

   CBM probes in reading, math, writing
   Skills checklists
   Point cards
   Observation
   Use of prompt hierarchy
   Task Analysis
   Graphs
   OTHER:
What types of data do you plan to
collect to monitor student progress?

   Make a list of types of data collection needed to
    monitor goals.

   Share your list with a partner.

   Circle the items that you are uncertain about
    how you will collect data.
Data Collection: Behavior

    Measurable
      Can be counted or otherwise measured
    Observable
   Behavior or skill to be observed must be defined so all
observers can look for the same thing
    Objective
      Record exactly what is seen and heard
    Reliable
    Observations would be very close to the same if made
by another person watching the same behavior
Data Collection: Observation

    Narrative

    Frequency count

    Duration

    Checklist
Narrative / Anecdotal Record
 The purpose is to provide a complete description of
    a student’s behavior in a particular setting or during
    an instructional period.
   Describe antecedents and consequences which can
    be used to make instructional decisions.
                                  A-B-C Observation Form
Student ___________________________       School ____________________________
Teacher ___________________________       Class/District _______________________
Observer __________________________       Date _____________________________


     TIME      ANTECEDENTS                 BEHAVIORS                               CONSEQUENCES
                          Incident Report
                    Violent/Aggressive Behavior

   Who: identification of all of the people directly involved with
    the incident
   Where: exact description of the location of the incident
   When: date and time of the incident
   What: accurate behavioral description (NOT interpretation) of
    what happened
   How: complete description of how the team intervened
   Injuries: describe injuries (if applicable)
   Notification: a statement of who was notified of the incident
   Follow-up: identification of follow-up for further action
The purpose of the Incident Report is to:

 •   provide a description of what happened
 •   communicate with supervisors and others
 •   create an official and permanent record
 •   provide an accurate description of professional
 •   protect professionals from misrepresentation of staff

Frequency Count
    A count of a target behavior within a specified time
    Method of choice when the objective is to increase
    or decrease the number of times a student engages
    in a target behavior
    Records discrete behaviors – those that have a
    distinct beginning and ending.
                            Summary of Problem Behavior by Time of Day / Activity

Week (s) of:
    Time / Activity   Mon    Tues       Wed      Thurs      Fri      Mon       Tues   Wed   Thurs   Fri
        Summary of Problem Behaviors*

8:00- 8:25     Opening

8:25- 9:15     Reading                 IIII II

9:15- 10:30    Spelling/writing        IIII

10:30- 10:50   Morning Recess

10:50- 11:30   Math                     II

11:30- 12:25   Lunch / Recess

12:25- 1:15    Social Studies

1:15- 2:00     Art /Music

2:00- 2:45     PE                                     I

2:45- 3:00     Closing

   Collected over three week period
   Problem behaviors included behavioral outbursts, and
    outbursts resulting in time outs or restraint (tipping
    desks, shouting, physical aggression, throwing items)
 Measures the length of time a student engages in a
   Method of choice for discrete behaviors with an
    obvious beginning and ending that occur over a long
    period of time

   Tantrums, crying, sleeping, etc.

   Can be used to indicate when behaviors or skills
    are/are not mastered by a student

   Can be commercial or teacher-made

   Skills in a checklist should be listed in the sequence
    necessary for task completion or according to level of
 Role of the Paraeducator
 Paraprofessionals can be called upon to gather
   information through observation under the
   direction of the teacher…
    Activity: Practice What You Have Learned!
    Frequency   Duration Checklist   Narrative

   Spitting
   Remaining in his seat
   Swearing
   Stopping an activity after being told to stop
   Sleeping in class
   Calling out
   Crying
   Social interactions at recess
    Products/ Work Samples/

   Can be used to demonstrate that students have
    mastered a skill or concept or are making adequate
    progress toward this mastery

   Can also be used to show
    growth over time
Questions to Ask Your Supervisor
                           Things that
   IEPs              make you go “hmmm…”

   Behavior Plans

   Data collection

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