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Instruction Informed by Cognitivism

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					               IDE 621. Principles of instruction and learning


               Fall 2004
               Cognitive-inspired instruction




October 2004                    Koszalka & Satterly
               How does cognitive development
               theory inform Instruction?

                  What is learning?
                  How should instruction be designed to facilitate
                   learning?
                      Cognitive development theory suggests that learning is a
                       relatively permanent change in mental structures (schema)
                       as a results of experience, therefore instruction should
                       provide experiences that facilitate mental processing,
                       storing, and recalling of new information
                  What are some examples of cognitive development
                   based instructional theories?
                      Meaningful reception theory, 9-events of instruction, etc.


October 2004                            Koszalka & Satterly
               Instruction Informed by Cognitivism

                  What are the characteristics of instruction
                   informed by cognitivism?
                      Advance organizers
                      Expository organizers
                      Signals
                      Concept Maps
                      Prior Knowledge Activation
                      Verbalization
                      Rehearsal
                      Enactment
October 2004                       Koszalka & Satterly
                   Instruction Informed by Cognitivism

                  Your task is to design a job aid, informed by
                   cognitive theory, for a given learning situation
                  Assign one team member to be a scribe to
                   document the process and job aid – the scribe
                   will need to be able to explain the job aid
                   design
                  You have 30 minutes



                                                           Knowledge base




October 2004                         Koszalka & Satterly
               Instruction Informed by Cognitivism
               Learning situation: Making an ice cream sundae
                A new ice cream scooper is shown a picture of the perfect ice
                cream sundae. The master scooper briefly describes the
                characteristics of the sundae (pointing out key elements and
                quality control points), the ingredients (pointing them out on
                the picture and set out for the training) and provides the new
                scooper with an ice cream scoop, bowl, and other necessary
                tools to make the sundae. The master shows the new scooper
                how to hold the scoop and get the perfect scoop of ice cream
                from the box. The new scooper is encouraged to try scooping
                the ice cream. The master scooper provides positive and
                constructive feedback on how the new scooper grips the scoop
                and scoops the ice cream. When the scooper has mastered
                scooping the ice cream and placing it in the bowl the master
                scooper demonstrates (using similar techniques) the process of
                adding the toppings …


October 2004                         Koszalka & Satterly
               Instruction Informed by Cognitivism
               Learning situation: Writing poetry
                The teacher begins by reading a poem, stopping at the end of
                each line to describe the line’s rhythm, beat, and form. The
                students are prompted to read the line silently, then out loud as
                a class, emphasizing the rhythm, beat, and form using
                intonation, like the teacher. The teacher reads the next line,
                and continues the process until the stanza is completed. The
                teacher then asks the students questions about the definition
                and use of rhythm, beat, and form for the stanza. The students
                respond with definitions of rhythm, beat, and form and point
                out examples of how these factors were used in the poem. The
                teacher then gives the students a topic (e.g., tree, dog, dating,
                etc.) and asks them to write a poem using the same rhythm,
                beat, and form as the stanza they just read. When completed,
                the students are asked to recite their poem and the class
                discusses the rhythm, beat, and form … the lesson continues
                with …

October 2004                          Koszalka & Satterly
                                                               Knowledge base




               Instruction Informed by Cognitivism
               Learning situation: Creating a knowledge base of
               learning theories
                The facilitator provides students with a definition, list of
                required components, guidelines, grading (criteria) rubrics,
                and examples of knowledge bases. The students review the
                input documents and several examples of knowledge bases. The
                facilitator asks the students to describe and develop a key piece
                of the KB, the learning situation, and submit it for review. The
                facilitator reviews the submissions and provides approval with
                reminders of KB connections or constructive feedback to help
                the student meet the learning situation standards. Students are
                prompted to draft an outline of their complete KB component,
                e.g., content presentation, learning situation, observation
                checklist, and reflection, and seek feedback from the facilitator.
                The facilitator reviews the initial outline, asks specific questions
                about KB features and provides feedback (constructive and
                reinforcing). The student applies the feedback and prepares the
                KB for the next submission …
October 2004                           Koszalka & Satterly
               Instruction Informed by Cognitivism
                  Switch teams, the scribe stays to describe the job
                   aid created by the team
                  In the new team, review and critique the job aid
                   using the list of characteristics we developed in the
                   beginning of class
                  Prepare to share your findings
                  You have 15 minutes

                  Return to your original teams and have the scribe
                   briefly review the feedback
                  You have 10 minutes



October 2004                         Koszalka & Satterly
               Instruction Informed by Cognitivism
                                                 What instructional theory was
                                                  represented in the job aid?
                                                 How easy or difficult was it to
                                                  design this piece of instruction
                                                  using the tenets of
                                                  cognitivism?
                                                 Why?
                                                 Would it have been easier to
                                                  use Behaviorism?
                                                 Why? Why not?
                                                 What surprised you about the
                                                  peer review?

October 2004                Koszalka & Satterly
                   Instruction Informed by Cognitivism
                  Summary of key content points
                      Mental Events are centrally involved in human learning
                      Learning is a process of relating new material to previously
                       learned information
                      Knowledge is organized
                      Learning involves an internal mental change that can be reflected
                       in overt changes in behavior
                      Individuals are actively involved in the learning process
                      Learning, to some degree, is connected to the context in which it
                       occurs
     This theory suggests that learning is a change in mental structures as a
     results of receiving, processing, organizing, storing, and recalling new
     information in meaningful, well-connected knowledge structures…
     therefore to facilitate learning instruction must present new information
     in organized ways that facilitates processing to assimilate, accommodate,
     and create new schema.
October 2004                              Koszalka & Satterly
                   Instruction Informed by Cognitivism
                  How do cognitive development theories differ from
                   behavioral learning theories on the following dimensions:
                   (refer to worksheet: Matrix Comparing Behaviorism and Cognitivism)
                       Definition of learning
                       Nature of learning
                       Role of behavior during learning
                       Role of internal processing during learning
                       Role of external environment during learning
                       Processes inherent in learning
                       Key theorists and their contributions


October 2004                              Koszalka & Satterly
                   Instruction Informed by Cognitivism
                  For next class
                     Readings in Social Learning Theory

                     The cognitivism component of your knowledgebase is
                      due. Do not forget to include a copy of the grading rubrics




October 2004                            Koszalka & Satterly

				
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