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									Letter from Rome to the

Of the Secular Franciscan Order (S.F.O.)
Spiritual Assistance Office + Via Santa Maria Mediatrice, 25 + 00165 Roma, Italy + secfran@ofm.org
ENGLISH EDITION: 1998 – 4 + Year 31, n. 111.

LETTER TO THE ASSISTANTS: “An Apology for a Double Issue‖ (Nils Thompson
OFM). ―Relating With Muslims‖ (Erwin Schoenstein OFM). ―Friends of Francis‖
(Nils Thompson OFM). ―Historic Gathering…‖ (CNSA, United States).‖Hints for
Assistance on Justice-Peace-Integrity-of-Creation Work with the SFO‖ (Francesco
O’Connaire OFM).


                           AN APOLOGY FOR A DOUBLE ISSUE
                                               Nils Thompson, O.F.M.

I apologize for the delay in publishing the LETTER TO THE ASSISTANTS. I
consider this my basic task as General Assistant, as part of service to and animation
of the O.F.M. Spiritual Assistants in the world—and all the others who have asked to
be on this mailing list.

There is no KOINONIA available for this issue—the bulletin of the Conference of
General Spiritual Assistants, and usually both are published together. However, we
have a serious problem of a shortage of translators in all four of the General Curias
of the Friars in Romew. The General Assistants will address this problem soon and
find a solution. The current KOINONIA is available on the internet at www.ciofs.it

LETTER TO THE ASSISTANTS will be mailed free of charge from now on. Those
of you with email will no longer receive this by surface mail, but at your email

If you would like to send a donation to help keep the LETTER afloat, please do so,
thank you! And, thanks to those of you who have faithfully sent in subscriptions over
the years. This change is being made to simplify the system and to insure that
anyone who wants it can receive it. But, let me repeat the hope that donations will
be sent occasionally, when you can. Your brother,

WHAT’S HAPPENING IN YOUR COUNTRY? It is helpful to all of us to know what
National Spiritual Assistants are doing in their area of responsibility. Send me notes
or information on programs you find useful in assisting the Secular Franciscans or
Friends of Francis where you live.

                                 RELATING WITH MUSLIMS
                 By Erwin Schoenstein, O.F.M. of the Province of St. Peter Baptist, Philippines.
Erwin wrote: ―I am not an expert on Muslim-Christian dialogue, much less an expert on being an SFO spiritual
assistant. I have had some experience with both and had the privilege of being novice master here for ten years
which account for my approach to answering your question.‖

Worldwide we Franciscans and the                           attempts only two days apart to burn our
Church itself have to learn how to relate                  new chapel and our home. But these
with Muslims. Their presence in almost                     were done only by a few individuals or
all nations of the world is a present-day                  small groups—rebels who want to
phenomenon and according to the latest                     embarrass the government, politicians
statistics they are now more numerous                      who want to vent their frustration at losing
than Catholics (1998 World Almanac). Our                   an election, youth high on drugs or
way of relating with them cannot be that of                fundamentalists who want a purely Muslim
the Middle Ages, one of war and crusades.                  community. To complete the picture I
We have to learn to see and appreciate                     should add that the vision of the Church
the good in Islam and realize, as Francis                  here is precisely a dialogue of life and
did, that ―whatever is good (in their                      faith with Muslims, so we Franciscans are
writings) does not belong to them…but to                   not alone in trying to relate well without
God to whom belongs every good‖                            Muslim neighbors.
(1.Celano 82). So there is good in other
religions and God is the source of that                    Now we come to the question, how can
good.                                                      SFO Spiritual Assistants help SFO
                                                           members develop a good attitude toward
In chapter sixteen of his First Rule Francis               Muslims and learn how to deal with them?
describes how we are to relate with                        Studying Islam, learning their beliefs,
Muslims. (Omnibus p.43). First he tells                    history and dreams would of course help
us to avoid quarrels and disputes, to be                   immensely;       but     ordinary   spiritual
subject to them for God’s sake and so to                   assistants would not be equipped for that.
show that we are Christians. Then, when                    They should be equipped, however, to
they ask about our way of living and our                   instill basic Franciscan values, and they in
faith, we are to share with them our                       turn will give Secular Franciscans the right
Catholic convictions.                                      attitude towards Muslims and show how
                                                           they are to relate with Muslims. Allow me
Muslims are not the same in all parts of                   to show that this is true.
the world; but I believe that no matter how
they relate with us, our approach to them                  Brotherhood (Fraternitas).        We know
should be that of St. Francis. Let me share                that Franciscan Brotherhood began when
something of our experience in Balo-i,                     God gave Francis brothers. (Testament,
Lanao del Norte in the Philippines. Balo-i                 p.68). From the very beginning Francis
is 97% Muslim and all our immediate                        saw his brothers as gifts to him from God.
neighbors are Muslims. We Franciscans                      As such he respected them, loved and
have lived here for over fifteen years trying              cared for them and was ready to give them
to be brothers to them. I have had                         humble service. In his writing she never
pleasant experiences with them and have                    refers to himself as a father to them; he is
not been harmed by them.             Others,               always only their brother. And they on
however, have caused harm. In 1985 our                     their part always refer to him as brother
Catholic chapel was burnt to the ground.                   Francis or as The Brother. It is only after
A grenade exploded just outside our                        his death that he is referred to as Father
house.      There was an attempt at                        Francis. (Letter of Bro. Elias announcing
kidnapping.     And recently there were                    the death of Francis, Omnibus, p.1894).

Furthermore Francis saw as brothers not             among them, in a humble, respectful,
only his immediate companions.           His        non-threatening way is the first step before
sense of brotherhood was an expanding               good relations can take place. This was
brotherhood. All Christians, whether they           Francis’ approach.
lived in nearby towns or far away, whether
of the same or different cultures, were also
his brothers and sisters in Christ (Letter to       Awareness of God (Pietas). Francis’
All    the   Faithful,    Omnibus     p.93).        abiding awareness of the presence of God
Non-Christians,      too—Saracens        and        in his life and in that of his brothers, his
Mongols—were his brothers and sisters               realization that it was God who
under one God.          In fact all God’s           accomplishes whatever good we do and
creatures—brother sun, sister moon, birds,          that we are mere instruments in His
animals of all sorts—all were considered            hands, his realization of God’s love for all
as brothers and sisters by Francis. And             humans and all his creatures prompted
this is not mere poetry. It is based on his         Francis to turn to God in constant praise,
vivid awareness of his relations with God           thanksgiving and trust. Towards the end
and their relations with the same God.              of his life, especially after receiving the
This is a basic learning that SFO members           stigmata, Francis experienced intense
have to acquire.                                    pain and suffering.          But again his
                                                    recollection of all that Christ suffered for us
Simple Lifestyle, Humble Service                    convinced him of the value of suffering
(Minoritas). Early in his conversion, by            with Christ and for others.                The
meditating on the life of Christ, Francis           awareness of being sent by God and of
was awed by how utterly God had emptied             God working in and through us is essential
Himself in becoming man. The kenosis                for a sustained effort at relating well with
he saw in Christ demanded a voluntary               Muslims. Without it our failures, lack of
stepping down on the part of people of              apparent results and our fears would
high social standing.     ―Christ and his           quickly impel us to give up the effort.
blessed Mother chose        to be poor.‖
(Omnibus p.93, par.3). Francis meditated            Conversion: work of the Spirit. One final
on the life of Christ in Nazareth. The              point is that Francis would not force,
all-mighty, transcendent Lord chose to live         impose on or demand that others be
as an ordinary human being—a carpenter              converted to Christ. He realized that
and son of a carpenter—in a little town,            conversion is the work of the Holy Spirit.
Nazareth, and that for thirty years of his          But he was very willing and anxious to
earthly life!                                       reach out to others, to bring them the
                                                    ―fragrant words‖ of his Lord. (Letter to All
Related to this simple life style is the            the Faithful, Omnibus, p. 83).           His
non-use of arms. Francis had dreamed of             humble, respectful, loving approach to
winning glory by the use of arms, but at            Muslims is not just a technique for dealing
Spoleto God put a stop to that endeavor.            with Muslims. It is a way of life and a way
―Go home. You must interpret your dream             of reaching out to all, Catholics and
in a different way.‖ (Three Companions,             non-Catholics,       friends    and    even
6, Omnibus p.894). Francis learned this             enemies—a       most       evangelical  and
lesson well and later forbade his lay               Christlike way of life.
followers to carry arms and he himself
campaigned against the use of arms,                 In conclusion then, growth in these three
especially in Damietta in Egypt (Jacques            Franciscan values (Fraternitas, Minoritas
de Vitry, Letter of 1220, Archivum                  and Pietas) will prompt us in the first place
Franciscanum Historicum, vol. 19, 1926,             to attempt to reach out to Muslims to
p.567).                                             profess our faith in their midst and more
                                                    importantly to persevere in that attempt
A simple, humble life style among Muslims           even when other Christians—priests and
is important in order to promote good               bishops included—fail to see the value of
relations with them. Simply being present           such an approach. By teaching SFO

members these basic elements of                          Muslims. And not only with Muslims, but
Franciscan living the Spiritual Assistants               with all we meet and live with.
will prepare them for the right attitude
toward and the right way of dealing with
  Hints for Assistance on Justice-Peace-Integrity-of-Creation Work
                            with the SFO
                      by Francisco Ó Conaire, OFM, JPIC Office, OFM Curia, Rome,
                   and is from the Province of Our Lady of Guadalupe of Central America.
                                                         which will be published some time early
Is there such a thing as a Justice,                      next year may be worth looking at. The
Peace and Integrity of Creation                          SFO Rule calls on all SecularFranciscans
Christian spirituality? There isn't! I                   ―together with all people of
think we can only speak about
Christian spirituality if it includes JPIC               goodwill…to build a more fraternal and
as an integral part. In other words,                     evangelical world so that the Kingdom
without the JPIC aspect no Christian                     of God may be brought about more
spirituality could call itself Christian.                effectively…‖ (Number 14). It states
Just as "prayer and the spirit of                        clearly that ―both individually and
devotion" is fundamental for Christian                   collectively they should be in the
discipleship, so too is all that has to do               forefront of promoting justice by the
with the love of neighbour and                           testimony of their lives and their
solidarity with whoever lacks the                        courageous initiatives…‖ (Number 15).
material and spiritual necessities to live               The rule also encourages them to be
a dignified life.                                        ―bearers of peace…through dialogue‖
        As an SFO assistant, are you                     (Number 19), as well as respecting
convinced about this? As you can well                    ―…all      creatures   animate      and
appreciate, we transmit to others what we                inanimate‖,      based     on    ―…the
are convinced about ourselves. People                    Franciscan concept of universal
are more impressed and affected by                       kinship‖ (No.18). These and many
example than words. As assistants to the                 other references in the Rule help us
SFO (and seeing that this article is                     appreciate that JPIC is an integral part
dedicated to JPIC), unless you believe in                of Franciscan spirituality. I wish to
and are personally struggling with JPIC                  share some practical ideas on how to
issues in your own personal and fraternal
                                                         encourage our SFO brethren to live out
life and living them out concretely, it will be
impossible for you to serve as a catalyst                to the full our Franciscan spirituality
and animator in these values for our SFO                 with JPIC as an integral part.
brethren. Animation is not just about
helping       people    to    know        their                    SOME HELPFUL HINTS
responsibilities, but more importantly, is               (1) Find out what people feel about JPIC
about helping them to act them out. A                    and social justice. What is their starting
good animator encourages others to                       point?       What are the fears and
assume concrete commitments and                          expectations of the SFO members? This
actions and is prepared to do likewise.                  will vary depending on the general
        So my first practical suggestion is              ecclesial environment, the formation
for you to clarify where you personally                  processes of the SFO and their personal
stand. Re-examine your attitudes in the                  and national histories as well as the
light of our Rule, General Constitutions,                present social, political, cultural and
especially Art. 1:1, and all the chapters                economic environment. The laity, similar
and documents of the Order since Madrid                  to the friars, have very diverse ideas about
1971 which leaves us in no doubt that                    JPIC. (2) Involvement in social justice
JPIC is not just an option, but an                       work requires the ability to critically reflect
imperative. The OFM JPIC Handbook                        both individually and in fraternity on the

happenings in the Church and society; to            responses         to     the    different     JPIC
evaluate and analyze these happenings in            challenges. If you lack confidence in
the light of the Gospel and to work out             promoting a consciousness on JPIC
what can and should be done according to            issues, be aware of the resources
the individual and collective resources             available. For example, you might involve
available. This is commonly known as                the JPIC promoter of your own Province or
the "see, judge and act" model but it is not        entity, or indeed of the other branches of
enough to know the theory, but more                 the Franciscan Family. The important
importantly to implement it in concrete and         thing is to be personally open to learning
practical ways. Following the "see, judge           more about JPIC and concerned to see
and act" model, the personal and fraternal          the SFO develop this central and
reflection on a specific JPIC topic or issue        fundamental area of their Franciscan
should at some stage be completed by                spirituality.           (4)     It    commodity.
agreement on specific actions. These                Environmental destruction holds the key to
actions will depend on the level of spiritual       understanding many of the ills of our time.
maturity of each of the individual SFO              Once a serious reflection is started on any
fraternities. It is a good rule of thumb to         topic like deforestation, waste disposal,
start with small, inclusive projects which          desertification, global warming, acid rain,
are not too threatening. All these efforts          pollution, etc., people involved will become
should be evaluated. This can lead to a             more aware of the origins of these
greater sense of confidence in the group            problems, who are responsible and what
and an eventual commitment to more                  their motives are for destroying the earth’s
difficult and sometimes controversial JPIC          limited resources.             They will also
issues. Remember that the specific JPIC             appreciate that the poor are by far the
issues, in many respects, are not all that          most affected by this wanton destruction.
important, at least at the early stages of          A deeper understanding can also develop
the Franciscan journey.           What is           when the SFO fraternity decides to tackle
important, however, is that the SFO                 a local injustice affecting them or their
fraternities and leaders appreciate we              community.          From a specific task or
cannot remain indifferent to the sufferings         action, like cleaning up a street, planting
of our fellow brothers and sisters and to           trees, promoting a campaign for running
the underlying causes of the suffering.             water to homes, people can grow in their
Because most "social injustice" arise from          understanding of the broader and more
the same root causes, attention to one              global underlying principles involved
issue can eventually bring the fraternity in        behind many injustices, as well as
touch with many other issues in this vast           contributing to the well being of others.
web of darkness. For example, a serious             This same approach can be applied to any
reflection on environmental destruction             other JPIC issue: refugees, the arms
might bring the person to a deeper                  industry,      debt,      racism,     intolerance,
appreciation of the neo-liberal economic            segregation, violence, slavery, right to life,
paradigm which tends to exploit the earth's         education, health, child prostitution, etc.
resources as if they were infinite "see,            (5) Our OFM General Chapter prioritized
judge and act" method. It can prove to              our commitment to refugees and those
be a helpful tool in encouraging the SFO            who have been forced to leave the land
members to live out the social aspects of           (8:4). In 1979 the then Minister General
the Gospel. (3) Your work as assistants is          wrote a letter to the whole Order
primarily with the leaders of the SFO               encouraging the friars to be in solidarity
fraternities. In your meetings, formation           with refugees. It is interesting to note the
seminars and retreats it is an ideal time to        final emphasis is on the friars supporting
introduce and/or deepen a reflection on             existing      initiatives,     not     necessarily
JPIC issues. You personally may be                  Franciscan or Church based.                This, I
unsure about JPIC issues and of itself is           believe, is an important principle to
not necessarily a bad thing. This is can            remember.          You might encourage the
create a healthier climate to examine               SFO fraternities to support and involve
together with the SFO appropriate                   themselves in their local social justice

parish programs and/or with other groups,
committees, and societies that are working
in favor of the poor and marginalised.
These groups may have a local, national
or even international focus.            This
networking          promotes         greater
understanding between groups and leads
to an intelligent and more efficient pooling
of often limited resources. (6) Encourage
the brothers and sisters to keep in contact              FRIENDS OF FRANCIS
with what other SFO fraternities are doing.                    Nils Thompson, O.F.M.
Much can be learned from one another.              In our international Franciscan Family
Even through this publication, you as              there are many groups. The ―Religious
assistants could share some of the                 Orders‖ (Brothers and Sisters living the
wonderful initiatives taking place in your         Vowed Life in communities) and a lay
country or region. It often happens that           Order, the Secular Franciscans. These
SFO fraternities are doing wonderful               include structured groups which are not
apostolic work for the poor and do not see         Catholic—e.g., the Anglican ―Tertiaries of
it as JPIC related action. As an SFO               the Society of St. Francis‖ and the
assistant, you can help the brothers and           Anglican Friars and Sisters, and the
sisters discover their already existing            ―Order of Ecumenical Franciscans.‖
efforts to live out the social dimension of        Besides these historically well organized
the Gospel. (7) Finally, so as to avoid            groups. There are other groups of men
dualism that has plagued us all for so long,       and women who recognize in St. Francis
you might introduce JPIC topics and                certain values with which they identify.
themes into the fraternities' prayer life          While these groups often get formed into
together. We need to bring into our                communities, the members do not feel
prayer all the people and situations we            called to any of the ―Religious‖ or ―Lay‖
encounter in our daily lives and apostolic         Orders.           We Assistants need to
work. We need to pray and intercede for            recognize that these ―Friends of Francis‖
specific people, problems, and situations,         are also our brothers and sisters. I am
and not just become accustomed to                  calling them ―Friends of Francis‖ only
generic prayer formulas.                           because it is a handy term of reference for
Recently, as we knelt in silence in front of       these groups. We know, for example, of
the Blessed Sacrament during a holy hour           covenant groups of laity attached to some
here at the OFM Curia, distant from                of the Franciscan Religious Orders, who
people and their everyday struggles,               share with the Religious Order in some of
suddenly the door banged open and                  its apostolic ministries. And there are other
women with a baby carriage came in.                groups of ―Friends of Francis‖ who form
The young child broke the silence with the         with little or no structure. E.g. in Norway
usual inquisitive questions about what was         there is a group that studies the writings of
going on and I smiled to myself and felt           Francis. I believe we need to be open and
grateful that God had broken in!                   available to all these groups as they follow
You as assistants have the privileged              the Holy Spirit leading them within our
responsibility of      accompanying      the       world-wide Franciscan Family.
Franciscan laity in their faith journey, as
they discern how to translate, the values
they profess into concrete actions of love
within the fraternity and in the society.
The future of the Church and quality of its
testimony lies principally with our
committed laity.      Thank you for your
service to them.
                    Francesco O’Connaire

                    NEWS RELEASE: OCTOBER 18, 1998

FRANCISCANS. The first-time, historic national convocation on spiritual assistance
to the Secular Franciscan Order heard the T.O.R. Minister General Bonaventure
Midili challenge the Franciscan provincials to ―put the appointment of spiritual
assistants on the same level of pastoral assignments.‖ This convocation, gathered
in Denver, Colorado, September 22-25, 1998, centered on the theme ―Communion
and Coresponsibility‖ to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the Rule of the Secular
Franciscan Order. It studied the successful growth of the SFO and the difficulties
and creative initiatives to provide it with pastoral care and spiritual guidance. The
gathering was made up of one general superior from Rome (Fr. Medial), the four
general spiritual assistants from Rome, the four Franciscan friars charged with
overseeing spiritual assistance in the USA (who were the sponsors of the
convocation), over 20 friar provincials or their representative, more than 40 friars
responsible for spiritual assistance on provincial and regional levels, and seven
national lay leaders.

After an inaugural Eucharist with Denver Archbishop Charles Chaput, O.F.M.Cap.,
the 75 participants spent the first day looking at ways of ―igniting a fire‖ among
Franciscan Friars for the secular members of the Franciscan Family. Described as
a process of ―romancing each other,‖ the SFO national leaders talked of their
history, their advances in apostolic work and reorganization, their work in preparing
new members, and their concern for ―dark clouds‖ on the horizon. SFO National
President (Minister) Bill Wicks from Santa Maria, California, set the stage by painting
a picture of how the SFO intends to journey with the Franciscan Friars in achieving a
deeper level of ―communion and co-responsibility.‖           Marie Amore SFO (metro
Detroit), detailed the creative and successful efforts of the SFO in the USA to foster
collaboration and interaction since 1920, through its national meetings and
congresses, through the coming of the Pauline Rule in 1978 and the new General
Constitutions in 1990, and through the differing kinds of participation of friars in the
SFO gatherings. Mary Mazzotti SFO (Arnold, California), national coordinator of
apostolic endeavors, impressed the participants as she related example after
example of all that is being done to make the SFO Rule and Constitutions work,
especially through the apostolic commissions; she cautioned that the SFO would
quickly move ahead of the friars in living out the Franciscan charism, ―leaving them
trailing behind in the dust.‖ National Formation Director David Ream SFO
(Kirksville, MO) demonstrated the great strides that have been made to upgrade the
quality of formation in the SFO, both in preparing new members for commitment and
in strengthening professed members in their faithful and persevering following of the
Franciscan way of life. The keynote dialogue was completed by the former national
minister, Richard Morton SFO, from Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota, who likened the
journey to live the charism to an airplane ride in which too many seculars and
religious are flying as tourists and not co-journeying pilgrims who concentrate on the
dark clouds and merely "observe‖ the Rule as distant, objective bystanders instead of
active, energized, committed participants.

In response, the Franciscan Friars pursued through workshops how to understand
what spiritual assistance is meant to be, how to build an interest in the SFO among
friars, how to prepare spiritual assistants. Nils Thompson, OFM, general assistant,
led the second day’s Eucharist and reminded the group that both Francis and Clare
(and all ―saints‖) were simply human beings who gave themselves to God; we are to
invite our people to a realistic, human holiness. On the third day, Fr. Midili led the

Eucharist and later spoke on behalf of the four Ministers General of the Friars. He
stated ―It is our special challenge to create a life-giving bond between salesman and
priest, teenager and aged nun, bartender and hermit friars. It is no easy
task……We need the SFO to complete the Franciscan charism. We need that
complementarity—like male and female—to be the basic source of communion and
co-responsibility……For the foreseeable future to honor this duty [of spiritual
assistance] will become increasingly difficult because of the reduced number of
vocations and because most of our provinces are over-committed in our
apostolates…We need to find creative ways to stimulate the friars to dedicate
themselves to the pastoral care to our SFO fraternities.‖ He also called on Secular
Franciscans to exercise their co-responsibility by promoting vocations to the
Franciscan religious life.

The four friars responsible for providing and promoting spiritual assistance to the
SFO on the international level, the ―General Spiritual Assistants‖ shared with the
participants the rationale and the worldwide plans to boost interaction and
collaboration between secular and religious members of the Franciscan Family.
Zvonimir Brusac TOR, from Croatia, introduced the goals and objectives for
―communion and co-responsibility,‖ especially in terms of shared activities in building
community and realizing the apostolic life and in terms of the Franciscan religious’
efforts to provide quality fraternal and pastoral service to SFO fraternities. Capuchin
Ben Brevoort (Indonesia), related five specific problems which thwart those
objectives, namely, and insufficient number of spiritual assistants, a lack of specific
formation on giving spiritual assistance, a sketchy understanding on what it means to
be Franciscan, differing and opposing visions of Franciscan living, and the
divisiveness of over-emphasizing the distinctions between the different branches of
the Franciscan religious. The American Nils Thompson OFM, talked of practical
solutions, how to ―just do it!‖ He called the participants to live out a ―spirit of prayer
and devotion‖ and to trust the work of the Spirit, to have confidence in their own
judgment, to use common and practical sense, to recognize that the basic job of
spiritual assistants is to animate the friars and to support the seculars with pastoral
and fraternal service, to challenge the SFO to know and live the rights of the laity in
the Church, and to support all efforts of spiritual assistance. Valentin Redondo,
OFMConv, from Spain, who spoke for the first time publicly in English, outlined some
specific hopes for the future: working on the al union of the SFO, promoting the
autonomy of the SFO especially with good formation, developing the Order’s
character of secularity, strengthening efforts at evangelization, and promoting
vocations to the whole Franciscan Family.

After an afternoon of lively exchange the group endorsed eleven practical actions to
carry on the energy of this convocation.              Four follow-up meetings were
recommended: a congress of local spiritual assistants and animators form around
the USA in 1999; a series of workshops in various locations in the year 2000 to help
prepare assistants and certify animators a meeting between friar directors of
formation and national SFO leaders; and a national assembly of Franciscan religious
in formation on the SFO. Two other plans call for the General Ministers in Rome to
discuss the re-prioritization of friars’ apostolates and for the provincial ministers to
find new ways to involve friars in spiritual assistance. Other action plans summoned
the national level of both friars and Secular Franciscans to expand interaction with
the Franciscan Federation of Third Order Religious. The convocation concluded
with a dinner to celebrate the communion and co-responsibility between the
Franciscan seculars and friars.               INFORMATION: Benet Fonck OFM


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