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Improving Memory and Reading

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									Chapter 3
Improving Memory and
Reading
How does the memory
work?

   Three Stages
     Sensory Register
     Short Term Memory (STM)
     Long Term Memory (LTM)
Sensory Register
 Lasts less than a second
 Records sensory experience
 Allows the brain to process info
 Helps us to focus on relevant info
 The Sensory Register is
like a quickly fading photo
of your sensory experience
Short Term Memory
 Lasts about a half a minute
 Temporary and limited
 Records what we see, hear, do, taste,
  touch
 Purpose is to ponder significance
  and decide if it is important enough
  to remember
Magical Number 7
   It is easier to remember material
    grouped in chunks of seven (+ or –2)
Common 7’s
 Telephone Number
 License Plate
 Days of the Week
 Colors of the Rainbow
 Deadly Sins
 7 Dwarfs (Snow White)
 Can You Name Some Others?
Long Term Memory
 Large capacity
 Permanent storage
 Use it to store important information
  for future use
 Use it to store information for college
  success
Is It True that We Never
Forget?
 We remember what is stored in
Long Term Memory (LTM)
 This is the goal of college study
How Long Do We
Remember?

 Sensory Register less than one
  second
 Short Term less than one minute
 Long Term permanent
To Store Information in
Long Term Memory

 Requires rehearsal
 Apply memory techniques
We
 Unpleasant things
 Names of people, places, things
 What is barely learned
 What we do not understand
 Under pressure or stress
 Material we learn by “cramming”
 Ideas in conflict with our beliefs
We
 Pleasant Experiences
 Material important to us
 What we put in effort to learn
 What we have reviewed
 What is interesting
 What we use frequently
 Muscular skills such as riding a bike
Theories of Forgetting
 I Forgot
 Mental Blur
 Decay
 Interference
 Reactive Interference
 Motivated Forgetting
•Rate of Forgetting (or
losing access)

•AFTER 20 MINUTES 47%
• AFTER 1 DAY     62%
•AFTER 2 DAYS     69%
•AFTER 15 DAYS    75%
•AFTER 31 DAYS    78%

    Hermann Ebbinghaus
Super Learning

Average IQ = 100
Genius = 160
The average human only
uses 4% of their brain

If we could use 7%, we
could all be a genius!
Brain cell of a rat




    Without       With Stimulation
    Stimulation
Ready for a
memory test?
How did you remember?
Memory Techniques
Meaningful Organization
Memory is like a library
If you miss-file a book,
You cannot find it.

It is still there and you may
stumble across it one day.
File your books correctly.

Organize those thoughts!
Organize it.

Learn from the general to the
 specific

Make    it meaningful
Remember the
Magical Number 7?



Organize in Groups of 7 or Less
Visualization
 Make a mental picture of what you
  want to remember
 Commercials make good use of this
  technique
Recitation

 One of the most powerful techniques
 Memories exist in the form of a
  chemical neural trace
 Some researchers think it takes 5
  seconds to establish this trace
 Repeat it 5 times or keep it in your
  mind for 5 seconds
READY FOR THE TEST
AGAIN?

YOU’LL DO BETTER THIS
TIME
More Memory Techniques
Develop an Interest
   We tend to remember what interests
    us
Can You Remember?
 Music
 Sports
 Hobbies
 Styles
Find Something Interesting
in Your College Studies
See the Big Picture
   Understand the main points first and
    the details second
Imagine trying to see a
painting one inch at a time!
It is difficult to appreciate or
understand.
“The essence of genius is
knowing what to overlook.”

  William James
Intend to Remember
   Tell yourself that you are going to
    remember.
Intend to remember where
you put your keys!
Distribute the Practice
 Learn small amounts at a time
 Review frequently
EXAMPLE:
SAFMEDS

SAY
ALL
FAST
ONE MINUTE
EACH
DAY
SHUFFLE
Create a Basic Background
 We remember by making
  connections to what we already
  know
 At first college is difficult because
  you are establishing the basic
  background
Relax While Studying
You can’t remember if you
are embarrassed
Frustrated
Tired
Memory Tricks
Acrostics
   Creative rhymes, songs or poems

    Musical Notes: Every Good Boy Does Fine
Acronyms
   Create New Words as Memory Aids


        NASA
                  LASER
                           SCUBA
Exercise: Practice with
Mnemonics
Peg Systems
One     Bun    Six     Sticks
Two     Shoe   Seven   Heaven
Three   Tree   Eight   Gate
Four    Door   Nine    Wine
Five    Hive   Ten     Hen
Picture the Peg


 Bun
Connect what you want to
remember. Use a picture.
    Bun       Milk
Exercise: Remember a
Grocery List
Peg Systems
One     Bun    Six     Sticks
Two     Shoe   Seven   Heaven
Three   Tree   Eight   Gate
Four    Door   Nine    Wine
Five    Hive   Ten     Hen
Loci Systems
   Use places to remember
     A House
     A Hallway
Can you strengthen your
mind?
Exercises to Strengthen the
Mind
 Puzzles
 Music
 Fix Something
 Art
 Dance
 Aerobic Exercise
 Interesting People
Keeping Your Mind Healthy
 Exercise
 Rest
 Balanced, low-fat diet
 Eat proteins and carbohydrates
 Drink caffeine in moderation
 Don’t abuse drugs or alcohol
 Use safety gear
You can remember!
Part II: Read to Remember
Warm Up Your Brain
Can You Remember the
Grocery List?
Peg Systems
One     Bun    Six     Sticks
Two     Shoe   Seven   Heaven
Three   Tree   Eight   Gate
Four    Door   Nine    Wine
Five    Hive   Ten     Hen
Sum: Apply these super
learning techniques
   Meaningful Organization
   Visualization
   Recitation
   Develop an Interest
   See the Big Picture First
   Intend to Remember
   Distribute the Practice
   Create a Basic Background
   Relax
Myths About Reading
   If I read, I should remember what I
    read.
Generally people cannot
remember 50% of of the
material they have just read!
Myths About Reading
 If I read, I should remember what I
  read.
 I do not need to read if I go to class.
 Practice makes perfect.
Thumb Exercise
Get Started with Skimming
 Quickly read preface or intro
 Look at Table of Contents
 Spend 5-15 minutes quickly looking
  over the book
 Notice the items at the back of the
  book
Exercise: Textbook
Skimming
SQ4R
A shortcut to
college reading
Read once
Instead of Re-reading.

Recite for memory
improvement
Step 1

Survey
Question
         FAST
Why?

•Beginning of speed reading
•Improves comprehension
How?
 Quickly look over the chapter
 Turn the subtitles into questions
Survey
 See the big picture
 Ease into studying
 Warm up
 Create a basic background
 Get started
Question
 Read to find answers
 Improves reading comprehension
 Forces you to concentrate



                        ??
Keeps you awake
Become an Active Reader
Exercise: Survey and
Question a Chapter
Step 2
 Read     SLOW

 Recite   FAST
This step is most important
for

Memory
How?

Read to identify
the topic sentence
or main idea
Underline or highlight the
idea if it is important.
When reading is tough
 Read it again
 Look up new words
 Read it aloud
 Ask the instructor
 Stand up and read
 Use tutoring
 Pretend you understand
 Take a break and come back later
Read with a Dictionary




Use 3X5 cards to
 learn new words
Recite
 Most powerful memory technique
 Converts information from short term
  to long term memory
 Keeps you alert



                         FAST
Step 3
  Review
            FAST
  Reflect
Why?

Reinforces
memory
When?
  Within 20
  Minutes!
Most of the forgetting occurs
in the first 20 minutes.
How to Review
 After each main section, review the
  main points
 At the end of the chapter, quickly
  review the main points one more
  time
 Do your review quickly
Reflection is the creative
step
Reflection
 How can I use this?
 What is important?
 How does it relate?
 How can I use it
  in my career?
 Is it true?
A step beyond
memorization is

Wisdom


  REFLECT
Sum:SQ4R
 1. Survey and Question
 2. Read and Recite
 3. Review and Reflect
Reading is a habit

Start good habits!
Reading Speed
4 Gears of Reading
 Skimming (2000-3000 WPM)
 Rapid Reading (300-800 WPM)
 Slow Reading (150-300 WPM)
 Studying (200 WPM)
Guidelines for Marking a
Text
A Mind Map for Marking a
Text

                      “THE ESSENCE OF
         BE SELECTIVE GENIUS IS KNOWING
            20%       WHAT TO OVERLOOK”
 Marking
     WHY?

MEMORY
SAVE TIME
                         “THE ESSENCE OF
            BE SELECTIVE GENIUS IS KNOWING
                20 %     WHAT TO OVERLOOK”
 Marking
     WHY?

MEMORY                   “THE ESSENCE OF
SAVE TIME                GENIUS IS KNOWING
            BE SELECTIVE WHAT TO OVERLOOK”
                20 %
                         GUIDELINES
                           READ FIRST
                          ORGANIZE
                         NOTES IN MARGIN
                          BRIEF
                         FAST AND NEAT
 Marking
     WHY?

MEMORY
                         “THE ESSENCE OF
SAVE TIME
                         GENIUS IS KNOWING
  SYMBOLS   BE SELECTIVE WHAT TO OVERLOOK”
                20 %
                        GUIDELINES
  1 2 3                    READ FIRST
     *                   ORGANIZE
     **                 NOTES IN MARGIN
                         BRIEF
                        FAST AND NEAT
 Marking
     WHY?

MEMORY
SAVE TIME                “THE ESSENCE OF
                         GENIUS IS KNOWING
  SYMBOLS   BE SELECTIVE WHAT TO OVERLOOK”
                20 %
                         GUIDELINES
  1 2 3                     READ FIRST
     *                     ORGANIZE
     **                   NOTES IN MARGIN
                          BRIEF
                          FAST AND NEAT
 Marking
                 DOUBLE SYSTEM
     WHY?          1. UNDERLINE IN PENCIL
                   2. HIGHLIGHT AS PART OF
MEMORY                REVIEW
SAVE TIME                  “THE ESSENCE OF
                           GENIUS IS KNOWING
  SYMBOLS   BE SELECTIVE WHAT TO OVERLOOK”
                20 %
                          GUIDELINES
  1 2 3                      READ FIRST
     *                      ORGANIZE
     **                   NOTES IN MARGIN
                           BRIEF
                           FAST AND NEAT
More Ideas on Text Marking
 Point out definitions by writing DEF
  in the margin. Circle the word being
  defined.
 Point out examples by writing EX in
  the margin
 Write SUM in the margin to point out
  useful summaries to reread.
Group Activity:
Make a Mind Map
Use How Does the Memory
Work?
An Example of a Mind Map
Understanding the main
ideas= Success on tests
The Listing Pattern Presents
a List of Items
 Your task as a reader is to identify all
  items listed
 Watch for clues such as numbers or
  letters
Sequence Pattern
 Presents a list of items in a specific
  order. The order is important.
 As a reader, identify and mark all
  items in the series and note their
  order.
 Again clues are numbers or letters.
 Notice words such as then, next,
  finally
Definition Pattern
 Presents an explanation of a term
 As the reader, understand all parts of
  the definition
 Watch for words such as: is, is
  defined, this term means, is known
  as, refers to
Comparison/Contrast
Pattern
 Presents similarities or differences
 As a reader, recognize these
  similarities or differences
 For comparisons, notice these
  words: similarly, likewise, also
 For differences, notice these words:
  however, in contrast, on the other
  hand, nevertheless
Cause/Effect Pattern
 Presents the reasons things happen
  (causes) and their results (effects)
 As a reader understand the cause
  and effect
 For cause notice these words:
  causes, produces, leads to, results in
 For effect notice these words: results
  from, was caused by, due to,
  consequently, therefore
Improve Reading
Concentration
 Have a regular place to study and get
  in the habit of studying in this place
 Do not do anything else in this place
 Eat, rest or watch TV some other
  place
Deal with Mental Distractions

 Become an active reader
 Be here now
 Remind yourself of your purpose for
  reading
 Deal with worry
 Break the task into small parts
                Keys to Success:
                Positive Thinking

   You can improve your reading and
    your life with positive thinking!
If you think you are beaten, you are.
If you think you dare not, you don’t.
If you like to win but think you can’t,
It’s almost certain that you won’t.

Life’s battles don’t always go
To the stronger woman or man,
But sooner or later, those who win
Are those who think they can.
Exercises:
Test Your College Reading Skills
Becoming An Efficient College
Reader

								
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