Outstanding process technology
Cracking furnace technology
Turn key perfection
PYROCRACK® is a trademark of The Linde Group
About 80% of all petrochemicals are derived from
products of ethylene plants, which are the heart of
Today’s modern ethylene plants are a complex
network of more than 300 individual units, for
thermal cracking, cracked gas compression and
physical scrubbing, fractionation, adsorptive dry-
ing, catalytic hydrogenation and others, operating
in the temperature range of 1,100°C to -170°C.
Due to the complexity of the process only a few
experienced contractors can offer competitive
designs for ethylene plants today.
Ever since building the world’s first ethylene feedback of operating data and information
plant in 1931 based on cryogenic separation of on process and equipment performance in oper-
ethylene from coke oven gas, Linde has been ating plants has provided Linde with substantial
incorporating the latest improvements and in- background for the yet more efficient design of
novations in the design of each new plant. The future plants, and is the basis of Linde’s world-
high degree of creativity and the continuing wide accepted leading position in this technol-
success of Linde’s capable engineering and de- ogy.
sign staff in applying new features for the opti-
mum plant design has resulted in the construc- More than 50 new plants have been built all
tion of a large number of world-scale olefin over the world, with capacities up to 2 million
plants in many different countries. Extensive MTA, for processing of all types of feedstocks.
Outstanding process technology
Together with the proven furnace technol- the bottlenecks of a plant have to be replaced. An attractive alternative for ethylene plants is
ogy Linde offers a separation process which Linde’s engineering staff has developed special the application of an acetylene recovery step in-
is based on a unique sequence with front-end tools and methods for optimized solutions for stead of the acetylene hydrogenation normally
hydrogenation and open loop heat pump driven plant revamps and capacity expansions, which used in ethylene plants. Linde’s acetylene
C2 splitter. These cornerstones of Linde’s tech- are accepted by the industry as highly competi- recovery is based on the extraction of acetylene
nology have been developed during 60 years tive with respect to technology and economics. with DMF, and is accepted by industry as the
in cryogenic separation of ethylene from gas leading technology for acetylene recovery.
mixtures. The separation technology of Linde Feed flexibility
is superior to other concepts and has been Linde can offer ethylene plants for all feed- Cracking furnace technology
applied to improve the performance even in stocks, such as ethane, propane, butane, LPG, One essential element of the outstanding Linde
plants of competitive technologies. The out- light naphtha, full range naphtha, raffinates, ethylene process is the PYROCRACK® furnace
standing features translate into lowest energy AGO, gas condensates and HVGO. AGO, gas- technology. For all commercially used types
and feedstock consumption figures for all feed- condensates and HVGO require special tech- of feedstock and economic scenarios optimal
stocks in single train plants up to 1.5 million nology for feed vaporization in order to avoid cracking furnaces can be offered with respect
MTA ethylene capacity. unvaporized feedstock to enter the reaction to selectivity towards ethylene and other valu-
section. able olefins and highest capacities per furnace.
Due to the permanent improvement of Linde’s The PYROCRACK® furnace technology comprises
technology, Linde can employ the latest tech- Most of Linde’s latest plants offer a wide all features of a modern furnace design, well
nologies for revamps and capacity expansion flexibility in feedstocks and products to the known and approved in the industry as a robust
of existing plants. Revamps offer advantages in operator, in order to run the most economic design with an excellent availability.
investment costs per ton of ethylene, due to the feedstock scenario. Modern plants are pro-
fact that spare capacities of equipment and ex- cessing up to 5 different external feed streams
isting infrastructures can be used and only together with several internal recycle streams. Ethylene plant in Belgium
Furnaces in an ethylene plant in Saudi Arabia
Large single furnace capacities are designed Turn-key perfection
with the Linde twin-cell firebox concept com- With its long experience as turn-key contrac- Today Linde is in a position to offer most com-
bined with a common convection section. tor of petrochemical mega projects, Linde can petitive turn-key or convertible contracts to its
Single furnace capacities up to 180,000 mta offer the experience of a technology supplier clients, either alone or in very strong regional
ethylene for liquid feeds and 260,000 mta and a first class worldwide EPC contractor in alliances with first class EPC contractors.
for gas cracking are in operation or under one hand, which translates into a single point However, besides turn-key responsibility, Linde
construction, leaving still some room for a responsibility in execution of projects. can offer all kinds of services to the industry,
future increase. Modern twin-cell furnaces including studies, front-end engineering, detail
can be designed for individual cell decoking, Global alliances engineering, procurement and construction.
an operation in which one cell remains in In order to strengthen its position worldwide,
normal operation where as the other radiant Linde has entered into regional cooperations Based on the experience from a mega project
cell is decoked. with engineering partners, known to be abso- of a gas terminal in Norway, Linde has gained
lute leaders in certain areas of the world. tremendous experience in modularization of
Linde’s PYROCRACK® coils have been used suc- A very successful cooperation is in place with plant components and in project execution
cessfully in commercial cracking furnaces for Samsung Engineering of Korea for the Asian/ under extreme environmental conditions. This
gas and liquid cracking. Long run lengths are Pacific market, which has led to contracts for experience allows Linde to offer plants in all
achieved with conservative maximum heat flux 5 world-scale ethylene plants in China, Thailand, parts of the world, including areas with poor
designs. Commercial experience for gas and Malaysia, Saudi Arabia and India. infrastructure.
liquid feedstocks in the short residence time
range down to 0.15 seconds is an excellent ba-
sis for future projects. If required, PYROCRACK®
furnaces are capable to process the full range
from ethane through heavy gasoils and hydro-
treated feedstocks with end boiling points close
to 600 °C.
Major awards Environmental features Down-stream processes
The recent years consolidated Linde’s position Linde plants can easily match any environ- More than 50 % of the ethylene product is con-
as the leading ethylene contractor world-wide. mental requirement, some of them operate sumed in polymer processes for the production
Of the plants awarded by competitive bidding in densely populated areas with the highest of HDPE, LDPE and LLDPE. Consequently Linde
Linde won more than 30% of the contracts in environmental standards. offers the EPC services for these technologies
the last ten years. as well. For the Unipol process Linde is one of
Practically all furnaces are furnished nowadays the nominated bidding contractors. Two world
Current executions of ethylene plants are in with LowNOx burners in order to meet the BAT scale PE plants for Sharq in Al Jubail/Saudi
India (1.1 million MTA), China (1 million MTA), (Best available technique) requirements. If re- Arabia are under execution.
in Abu Dhabi (1.5 million MTA) and in Saudi quired, a further reduction of NOx level to the
Arabia (1 million MTA). The last has been exe- range of 60 mg/mn³ and below can be achieved Recently Linde has won a contract for a PP plant
cuted ahead of schedule despite a difficult and guaranteed by the installation of a SCR in Tobolsk (CIS) based on Ineos PP technology.
environment in Saudi Arabia. DENOX-system.
Another important down stream process is the
Recently the capacity expansion of the BASF For the treatment of spent caustic, Linde has production of linear alpha olefins, used as co-
cracker in Antwerp to nearly twice the original proprietary technology available with proven polymers and for the production of alpha alco-
capacity completed. With capacities of 1.1 million performance in several plants world-wide. hols, synthetic lubricants, etc. with an increasing
MTA ethylene and 600 000 MTA propylene this economic importance. Since many years, Linde
unit is currently the largest liquid cracker in the To complete the environmental protection sys- has supplied plants for the recovery of these
world. tem of petrochemical plants, Linde provides in- hydrocarbons and since a few years Linde has
cinerators for the thermal treatment of solid and offered the complete plants, based on the new
With Borouge 2 Linde has built world’s largest liquid wastes. They are of proprietary design alpha-SABLIN® process, developed in coopera-
ethane cracker with a capacity of 1.45 million and achieve the most stringent requirements. tion with Sabic. The first large scale plant with a
MTA of ethylene. capacity of 150,000 mta alpha olefins went on-
stream in 2006 operated by United in Al Jubail/
Borouge 2, world’s largest ethane cracker
Linde can offer various processes to the petro-
chemical industry in all kinds of contract forms.
Long experience in project management an as
a general contractor in several mega projects
have contributed to an extensive engineering
and project execution know-how, which quali-
fies Linde as one of the top addresses in inter-
national plant construction. Regional alliances
with strong partners will contribute in the
future to improve Linde’s record in areas,
where local partnership is mandatory to be
Polyethylene plant in the Czech Republic
Designing processes – constructing plants.
Linde´s Engineering Division continuously develops extensive process engineering know-how in the planning,
project management and construction of turnkey industrial plants.
The range of products comprises: Linde and its subsidiaries manufacture:
− Petrochemical plants − Packaged units, cold boxes
− LNG and natural gas processing plants − Coil-wound heat exchangers
− Synthesis gas plants − Plate-fin heat exchangers
− Hydrogen plants − Cryogenic standard tanks
− Gas processing plants − Air heated vaporizers
− Adsorption plants − Spiral-welded aluminium pipes
− Air separation plants
− Cryogenic plants
− Biotechnological plants
− Furnaces for petrochemical plants and refineries
More than 3,800 plants worldwide document the leading position of the Engineering Division in international
Engineering Division Linde Impianti Italia S.p.A. Linde Engenharia do Brasil Ltda. Linde Engineering Middle East LLC Linde Engineering Co. Ltd.
Schalchen Plant Rome, Italy Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Hangzhou, P.R. of China
Tacherting, Germany Phone +39.066.5613-1 Phone +55.21.3545-2255 Phone +971.2.6981-400 Phone +86.571.87858-222
Phone +49.8621.85-0 Fax +39.066.5613-200 Fax +55.21.3545-2257 Fax +971.2.6981-499 Fax +86.571.87858-200
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Linde Kryotechnik AG Linde Process Plants (Pty.) Ltd. Linde Engineering India Pvt. Ltd. Linde Engineering Division
Linde-KCA-Dresden GmbH Pfungen, Switzerland Johannesburg, South Africa Vadodara, Gujarat, India Beijing Representative Office
Dresden, Germany Phone +41.52.3040-555 Phone +27.11.490-0513 Phone +91.265.3056-789 Beijing, P.R. of China
Phone +49.351.250-30 Fax +41.52.3040-550 Fax +27.11.490-0412 Fax +91.265.2335-213 Phone +86.10.6437-7014
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CRYO AB Linde-KCA Russia Branch Linde Engineering Far East, Ltd.
Selas-Linde GmbH Gothenburg, Sweden Moscow, Russia Seoul, South Korea Linde Engineering Taiwan Ltd.
Pullach, Germany Phone +46.3164-6800 Phone +7.495.987-1223 Phone +82.2789-6697 Taipei, Taiwan
Phone +49.89.7447-470 Fax +46.3164-2220 Fax +7.795.987-1224 Fax +82.2789-6698 Phone +886.2.2786-3131
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Linde Process Plants, Inc. Linde Arabian Contracting Co. Ltd. Linde Engineering Division
Cryostar SAS Tulsa, OK, U.S.A. Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Bangkok, Thailand
Hésingue, France Phone +1.918.4771-200 Phone +966.1.419-1193 Phone +66.2751-9200
Phone +33.389.70-2727 Fax +1.918.4771-100 Fax +966.1.419-1384 Fax +66.2751-9201
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Selas Fluid Processing Corp. Linde Arabian Contracting Co. Ltd. Linde Engineering Co. Ltd.
Linde CryoPlants Ltd. Blue Bell, PA, U.S.A. Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Dalian, P.R. of China
Aldershot, Great Britain Phone +1.610.834-0300 Phone +966.3.887-0133 Phone +86.411.3953-8819
Phone +220.127.116.1113-51 Fax +1.610.834-0473 Fax +966.3.887-1191 Fax +86.411.3953-8899
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Engineering Division, Head office, Dr.-Carl-von-Linde-Str. 6-14, 82049 Pullach, Germany
Phone +49.89.7445-0, Fax +49.89.7445-4908, E-Mail: email@example.com, www.linde.com