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Impact Assessment 2010 www.vetmed.lsu.edu March 2010 1 Impact Assessment- Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine- March, 2010 A. Executive Summary. The LSU SVM undertook an overall impact assessment in order to provide ourselves, our stakeholders, and the campus administration, with information regarding the many significant impacts of the SVM, on the State of Louisiana. Performance indicators assessed in this impact were selected to illustrate contributions in many areas, including the SVM’s social, cultural, intellectual, environmental, and economic impacts. Unless otherwise indicated, information included in this impact assessment is primarily from the 2008-09 fiscal year, the last year for which complete annual data is available. 1. Veterinary Medicine and the Production of an Educated, Cultivated Citizenry. 71% of persons participating in a recent Gallup poll rated the honesty and ethics of veterinarians as “high” or “very high”. The national average yearly spending on veterinary care is at least $366 per pet. The value of animal agriculture, fisheries, and wildlife in Louisiana is estimated to be $3.079B. The SVM has 84 graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. In the past five years alone, the LSU SVM has graduated 32 Masters-level and 30 Doctoral-level scientists. SVM graduate students are paid an average annual stipend of $20,726 or 106% of the average stipend paid to graduate students on the LSU campus. 2. Comparative Advantage with Respect to Peer Institutions. With 97.4 FTE of professorial level faculty, LSU ranks 21st among all 28 US SVM and at 82% of the cohort mean. With 111 total faculty members LSU ranks 18th among US SVM and at 87% of the cohort mean. LSU SVM faculty rank 10th (Asst Prof; 102% of cohort mean), 17th (Assoc Prof: 99% of cohort mean), and 13th (Professor: 101% of cohort mean), respectively, in salaries among US SVM. With $24,892,455 in direct state support LSU ranks 12th among 26 state supported schools and at 101% of the cohort mean among US SVM. With $52,616,971 in annual expenditures LSU ranks 17th among US SVM and is at 78% of the cohort mean. 2 The LSU SVM received $8.519M in new sponsored program income and indirect cost recovery. With $6.81M in sponsored research expenditures, LSU ranks 20th within the cohort and is at 42% of the cohort mean. With $4.8M in NIH research expenditures in FY2008-09, LSU ranks 15th among 26 US SVM with NIH funding and is at 58.3% of the cohort mean. With 329 veterinary students in FY2009-10, LSU ranks 18th within the cohort with a professional student enrollment that is 86% of the cohort mean (FY2009-10). Incoming veterinary students have a mean pre-veterinary GPA of 3.77, ranking 1st within the cohort at 105% of cohort mean. The mean GRE score (verbal + quantitative) for these students is 1141, ranking 15th within the cohort and at 101% of the cohort mean. LSU ranks 5th within the described cohort with 3.38 students per professorial line faculty FTE, which is at 73% of the cohort mean of 4.61. 3. Impacts on Louisiana Social, Cultural, Intellectual, Environmental, or Economic Well- Being. The LSU SVM has developed programs with social impact on the citizens of Louisiana. Most notable are Tiger HATS (Human Animal Therapy Service) and a Therapeutic Riding Program. The LSU SVM hosts annual cultural events for the public, including Open House (>4,500 visitors), “Animals in Art” exhibition (825 guests), “Great Rover Road Run” (307 persons and their pets), and “Pets & Vets” (64 children and several adults). LSU’s “Mike” the tiger is visited by an estimated 100,000 persons per year. SVM faculty members perform community service in organizations such as the “Best Friend Gone” Project, Celtic Society of Louisiana, Hurricane Katrina Response (~1,700 animals served), Equine Rescue Program (>300 animals rescued), Disaster Preparation and Emergency Medicine Program (> 50 veterinary students & 200 others), Equine Medication Surveillance Laboratory, Friends of the Baton Rouge Zoo, National Federation of the Blind, and Spay Baton Rouge. The SVM contributes to the intellectual development of the state by educating veterinarians now serving on faculty here at LSU (20) or on the faculties of other veterinary schools, medical schools, or universities (129). Thus, 149 LSU SVM graduates are engaged in academic veterinary medicine. There are currently 1,153 veterinarians licensed to practice in Louisiana. Of these, 798 (69.2%) graduated from the LSU SVM. 3 18 SVM faculty members are members of the Louisiana Veterinary Medical Association (LVMA). 4 current or former faculty members served as President of the LVMA. 7 SVM faculty members are members of the local area veterinary medical association. The SVM library holds 49,222 total books/print journals, and access to 3,172 electronic journal titles. In 2009, 28,227 persons utilized the services of the library. Since 2005, SVM faculty members published 35 articles related to the environment. SVM faculty members make personal commitments to improving the environment, including Keep Baton Rouge Beautiful. Annually, the Raptor & Wildlife Rehabilitation Unit provides care for 1,500 raptors and conducts 30 educational demonstrations and lectures. The shelter medicine service performs 700 surgeries and 2,000 health examinations on shelter animals annually. In 2009, 60 Certified Animal Euthanasia Technicians participated in SVM-hosted training. Louisiana State appropriations for FY2008-09 totaled $24,892,455. This amount, when compared to SVM, employee, and student expenditures, generated $128,864,826 in direct and indirect economic impact. Thus, for every dollar appropriated to the SVM from the Legislature, $5.18 is circulated throughout the state. Louisiana state tax revenues resulting from economic activities of the LSU SVM are estimated to be $2.5M annually. Local tax revenues resulting from economic activities of the LSU SVM are estimated to be $1.9M annually. Thus, total state and local tax revenues resulting from economic activities of the LSU SVM are estimated at $4.4M annually. The model shows that in FY2008-09 LSU SVM expenditures were responsible for 1,662 jobs in Louisiana, while student expenditures were responsible for 229 jobs in Louisiana. In FY2008-2009, the LSU SVM employed 428 FTE positions. Using the labor multiplier, the model shows that each full-time position at LSU SVM creates an additional 3.42 jobs in Louisiana. In a 2005 study, the Oklahoma State University Center for Veterinary Health Sciences (CVHS) was responsible for creating 506 new jobs annually, compared to 1,463 for the LSU SVM in 2008-09. Also, the CVHS was responsible for $51.1M (inflation adjusted) annually in new economic activity, compared to $60M for the LSU SVM in FY2008-09. 4 In a 2004 study, the Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine was credited with creating 717 jobs annually, compared to 1,463 for the LSU SVM and $24.3M (inflation adjusted) in new economic activity compared to $60M for the LSU SVM in FY2008-09. In a 1998 study, alumni of the Washington State University SVM contributed $44M (inflation adjusted) to that state’s economy in direct earnings. By comparison, alumni of the LSU SVM contributed up to $58.5M to the Louisiana economy in direct earnings alone in FY2008-09. With annual salaries and benefits expenditures of $34M, the SVM pays its employees an average of $80,064 in salaries and benefits. 4. Strength of the SVM with Respect to Performance, National Reputation, and the Meeting of National and Local Needs. In 2007, the Chronicle of Higher Education conducted an objective study on the scholarly productivity of faculty at research institutions within the US, including US SVM. In the subsequent report, the LSU SVM was ranked 6th among all US SVM. US News and World Report gave the LSU SVM a score of 2.8 (top score 4.5) and a rank of 22nd out of 25 US SVM in their most recent opinion poll. The LSU SVM was only 0.2 points from tying with Auburn for a rank of 14th, which is in the middle of the rankings. LSU has maintained full AAALAC accreditation since 1980, making it one of only 15 universities nationwide to continually meet accreditation guidelines for the past 27 years. Faculty, staff, and students of the LSU SVM regularly receive local, national, and international recognition and awards. SVM faculty published 62 manuscripts in major scientific journals in 2009 alone. 8 faculty members serve as editors or associate editors of 16 journals and on editorial boards of an additional 25. 12 faculty members serve on national grant peer review panels. 10 faculty members have been presidents of State or National scientific organizations. Nationally there are 30 veterinarians per 100,000 residents. In Louisiana, there are 26 veterinarians licensed to practice in the state per 100,000 residents. LSU SVM enrolled an average of 83 students per class (329 total in FY2009-10). LSU ranks 18th among US SVM with a professional student enrollment that is 86% of the cohort mean. 5 In 2009, 43.5% of SVM graduates accepted internship or residency positions. The LSU SVM is one of only 3 internship sites in Louisiana. Since 2000, 102 veterinary students have participated in the SVM’s Summer Research Scholars Program. Of these, 69 have graduated from veterinary school. Of those 69 participants, 33 (48%) have gone on for advanced clinical and/or research training. Two are currently enrolled or have completed doctoral degree programs. Several past participants have earned MS degrees, typically in conjunction with residency training. The LSU SVM is one of only 7 SVM with a residency training program in laboratory animal medicine. Since 1999 over 30 new graduates have entered training programs in this field (more than any other US SVM). At least 7 of these have become board- certified with the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. LSU is one of only 6 SVM with residency training programs in both laboratory animal medicine and pathology. Approximately 3-4 graduates enroll in residency training programs in anatomic or clinical pathology per year. 5. Effect on, Relevance to, or Cooperation with, other LSU Programs. In FY2008-09, SVM cost centers provided $1M (77%) in services to SVM users, $241K (18.3%) in services to non-SVM LSU users, and $62K (4.7%) in services to external (non-LSU) users. SVM clinicians provide medical care for 4,650 farm animals, including 3,754 cattle, 120 horses, 40 goats, 200 deer, 500 swine, and 36 sheep owned by the Agricultural Center. SVM faculty members on the IACUC spend roughly 64 hours annually reviewing protocols submitted by LSU campus or Ag Center faculty. Dr. Baker serves as Attending Veterinarian for all animals used in teaching and research on the LSU campus. The IACUC Chair, Dr. Jim Miller, spends time on animal related regulatory matters on behalf of animal research on the LSU campus. SVM faculty members advise pre-veterinary students. SVM faculty members teach courses enrolled in by 137 undergraduate and graduate students from the main LSU campus. SVM faculty members teach 7 courses on the main LSU campus. SVM faculty members serve as PI on 1 State and 2 federal grants with campus faculty as co-PI. The total annual value of these 3 awards is $2,223,413. 6 SVM faculty members serve as co-PI on 1 State and 1 federal grants with campus faculty as PI. These 2 awards have a total annual value of $221,013. 6. Current or Potential Student Demand and Effective use of Teaching Resources. The SVM has a competitive applicant pool with approximately 8 students applying for each open seat. The average number of Louisiana applicants per admission cycle is 148 (range: 120- 186). With a mean GPA of 3.77 among incoming veterinary students, LSU ranks 1st among all 28 US Schools of Veterinary Medicine and at 105% of the cohort mean. With a mean GRE score of 1141 LSU ranks 15th among the 26 US Schools of Veterinary Medicine which require the GRE and at 101% of the cohort mean. Approximately 95.5% of professional students admitted to the program graduate. The most recent 5 year average pass rate on the National Licensing Examination, for LSU SVM students at graduation is 97.8%, compared to a mean of 75.6% for all examinees. Approximately 30% of Louisiana students end up practicing in Louisiana. The average starting salary for 2009 LSU SVM graduate veterinarians was $73,300, versus $64,800 from all SVM in the US. With 37 interns and residents, LSU ranked 14th among all 28 US Schools of Veterinary Medicine, and at 93% of the cohort mean. Virtually 100% of recent internship and residency program graduates find employment within their field of expertise. In FY2008-2009, $140,000 was distributed to veterinary students in the form of scholarships and awards. The LSU SVM hosts roughly 10 continuing education courses annually for practicing veterinarians. In 2009, a total of approximately 1140 veterinarians and other professionals participated in these courses. 7. Effect on the Overall University Budget. In FY2008-09, SVM faculty members submitted a total of 139 grant proposals, an increase of 54% over 2007-08. Grant proposals for FY2008-09 totaled $65,200,678, a 111% increase over FY2007-08. 7 In FY2008-09, the SVM received a total of $8,518,813 in sponsored program income. The total direct cost for these grants and contracts was $23,428,756. In FY2008-09, annual research grant expenditures totaled $6,807,195. The SVM ranked 5th within our SREB cohort in research expenditures and was at 97.1% of the cohort mean. The sources of SVM extramural funding are: federal agencies (84.9%), State (9.2%), foundations (1.2%), industry (3.8%), and other sources (0.9%). In FY2008-09 the majority ($16,831,373= 71.8%) of total direct costs were from NIH grants. Total SVM research expenditures from NIH grants ($4.8M) were 185% of the mean of SREB institutions and 96% of our selected peer institutions. Comparing research funding for academic departments for FY2008-09, Pathobiological Sciences with 27 professorial faculty members ranks 5th and Comparative Biomedical Sciences with 20 professorial faculty members ranks 7th. 8. Feasibility of and Time Required for Improvement or Phasing out. With 24,278 combined large and small animal hospital visits in 2008-09, LSU ranks 7th in the described cohort and is at 90% of the cohort mean. The LSU VTH&C charged external clients $7,830,027 in FY2008-09. The average client charge per visit to the LSU VTH&C was $322.52. Without the LSU SVM, clients taking their animals to Texas A&M, the next closest veterinary teaching hospital, would spend $254.65 per hospital visit, or $6,182,393 annually in the State of Texas just on travel, lodging, and food. In FY2008-09 total SVM research expenditures from NIH grants were 185% of the mean of SREB institutions and 96% of our selected peer institutions. Any significant cutback in support to the SVM has the potential to jeopardize the continuation of this trajectory of success and set back the growth of our research program several years. B. Introduction. 8 Veterinary medicine and veterinarians have a unique relationship with the health and well-being of animals and in fact operate at the interface between society and animals. Veterinarians are integral members of the public health team and are the only professionals in the health and medical field trained in comparative medicine. Veterinarians bring extensive benefits to society, and it is this unique knowledge and abilities that are underpinned by veterinary medical education. A unique resource to the State and the region, the Louisiana State University (LSU) School of Veterinary Medicine (SVM) is one of 28 SVM nationally and one of 10 such programs in the SREB (one of 6 in the SEC). Through its extensive programs in professional and post-graduate education, research, and clinical and diagnostic services, the SVM is an integral part of the veterinary medical expertise available to the animal agricultural industries, the animal owning public, and to biomedical science of the State. Having an SVM at LSU brings great prestige and recognition to the institution in meeting its land-grant mission of teaching, research, service, and outreach. “The SVM mission is to provide superior education in veterinary medicine and related postgraduate fields, to offer a wide range of services to the public and veterinary medical community, and to maintain a relevant, high-quality research program in basic and applied fields.” The SVM is organized into three departments: Comparative Biomedical Sciences (CBS), Pathobiological Sciences (PBS) and Veterinary Clinical Sciences (VCS). Three degrees are offered by the SVM and include the professional DVM degree, and MS and PhD degrees as part of a school-wide research intensive graduate program. Postgraduate internship and residency programs lead to diplomate status in clinical specialty colleges. In 1999, following reviews by the American Veterinary Medical Association - Council on Education (AVMA-CoE) accreditation panel and the LSU Program Review Council, the SVM made a major commitment to redirection. The target was to move the SVM into the top tier of veterinary colleges within the U.S. The overall strategy was to increase the nationally and internationally recognized scholarship by faculty and students; particularly in the area of NIH funded biomedical research. Subsequently, the SVM was reorganized, new faculty were hired, internal funds were redirected and extramural funds obtained to improve our infrastructure. As a result, faculty-initiated grants and scholarship have increased significantly, and collaborations between the SVM and other units on the campus and in the State have been developed, expanded, and solidified. Sponsored scholarship has become the expected standard within the SVM and a culture shift in this direction has occurred. The success of these efforts were recognized in the 2005 AVMA-CoE accreditation site visit and their March, 2006 Report of Evaluation. The Council noted numerous strengths of the SVM including: “Research Programs: The SVM is commended for its renewed commitment to research and its success in significantly increasing activity and funding (more than doubled in the past five years) for the research programs. The DVM students have good opportunities to be involved 9 in research as workers and scholars, while they are making career choice decisions, and to showcase their research project. LSU is commended for its success in recruiting students for careers in laboratory animal medicine and is recognized nationally for its accomplishments. Curriculum: The SVM appears to have a strong program for monitoring the curriculum and teaching. The curricular revision initiated eight years ago appears to be suitable for the SVM and its resources. The alumni are pleased with veterinary school graduates and they are also very supportive of the SVM. LSU and the SVM are highly commended for their caring contributions to the victims and their animals following the disastrous hurricanes of 2005.” The programs of the SVM make a significant contribution to the State of Louisiana. Further, the SVM is a critical educational, research, and service program at LSU. Most schools and colleges of veterinary medicine, located at the state’s land grant universities, are viewed as one of the crown jewels of their respective campuses. In the absence of a medical school on campus, LSU should continue to invest in the SVM as the primary biomedical center on campus. C. Impact Assessment- Purpose and Methods The LSU SVM undertook an overall impact assessment in order to provide ourselves, our stakeholders, and the campus administration, with information regarding the many significant impacts of the SVM, on the State of Louisiana. Performance indicators assessed in this impact were selected to illustrate contributions in many areas, including the SVM’s cultural, social, intellectual, and economic impacts. Information included in this impact assessment is primarily from the 2008-09 fiscal year, the last year for which complete annual data is available. Data sources are cited where available. The economic impact component was conducted under the guidance of LSU Professor Dr. Jim Richardson, a renowned economist and Director of the LSU Public Administration Institute. Multipliers were obtained from U.S. Department of Commerce, Regional Input-Output Modeling System II (RIMS II). Eight areas of assessment are included in the study. For each area, multiple statements are made regarding veterinary medicine and the SVM. These statements are supported by performance measures (PM) indicative of the impact of the SVM on relevant segments of society. 10 D. Assessment Outline 1. Assessment Area 1- Veterinary Medicine and the Production of an Educated, Cultivated Citizenry. a) Veterinary medicine is among the most respected professions. b) SVM is a primary venue for training biomedical professionals. 2. Assessment Area 2- Comparative Advantage with Respect to Peer Institutions. a) The LSU SVM compares favorably to peer institutions in faculty numbers and research funding. b) The LSU SVM compares favorably to peer institutions in education mission. Data is from Fall, 2008. 3. Assessment Area 3- Impacts on Louisiana Social, Cultural, Intellectual, Environmental, or Economic Well-Being. a) Social impacts on the State of Louisiana. b) Cultural impacts on the State of Louisiana. c) Intellectual impacts on the State of Louisiana. d) Environmental impacts of the School of Veterinary Medicine. e) Economic impacts on the State of Louisiana. 4. Assessment Area 4- Strength of the SVM with Respect to Performance, National Reputation, and the Meeting of National and Local Needs. a) National reputation. b) Meeting of Manpower Needs. 5. Assessment Area 5- Effect on, Relevance to, or Cooperation with, other LSU Programs. a) Services provided to other LSU programs. b) Research collaborations with other LSU programs. 6. Assessment Area 6- Current or Potential Student Demand and Effective use of Teaching Resources. 7. Assessment Area 7- Effect on the Overall University Budget. a) Grant and contract income generated by SVM faculty members. b) Grant and contract income generated by SVM departments compared to units on campus. 8. Assessment Area 8- Feasibility of and Time Required for (a) Improvement, or, (b) Phasing out. a) The impact on SVM clients of phasing out the SVM. b) Steady increase in extramural grants and contracts. 11 E. Impact Assessment 1. Assessment Area 1- Veterinary Medicine and the Production of an Educated, Cultivated Citizenry. a) Veterinary medicine is among the most respected professions. PM1: National survey results for public perception of veterinarians. The profession of veterinary medicine has earned and enjoys many benefits from serving the animal-owning public. For many years, veterinarians have been held in high esteem by the public, compared to other professionals, including physicians, accountants, lawyers, dentists, teachers, and others. The prime characteristics that veterinarians represent to the general public include compassion, expertise (educated), humanness, judgment, care, and understanding (AAVMC, 2007; Brown & Silverman, 1999). In a Gallup Poll conducted in 2007, veterinarians were once again highly regarded, and the profession ranked third for honesty and ethics among 23 occupations (AVMA, 2007b). Roughly 71% of persons polled rated the honesty and ethics of veterinarians as “high” or “very high”. This percentage was only exceeded for nurses (84%) and pharmacists (73%). Physicians and dentists followed veterinarians with 69% and 62%, respectively. These characteristics are important components of an educated and cultivated citizenry. PM2: Veterinary medicine impacts multiple sectors of Louisiana society. Roughly 71.4 million (62%) of households in the U.S. own at least one pet animal (APPA, 2010) and this number is increasing yearly (AVMA, 2007a). Annually, these households spend over $45.5B on animal care, or roughly $637 per household (APPA, 2010). In 2006, the average yearly spending on veterinary care was $366 per pet (AVMA, 2007a). In 2008, there were 4,410,796 persons living in roughly 1.6 million households in Louisiana. Applying the percentage (53.8%) of households in Louisiana that owned pets in 2006 (AVMA, 2007a), there are roughly 860,800 privately owned animals in the State. Thus, expenditures for veterinary services for pet animals are approximately $315 million annually. It should be noted that these estimates do not include expenditures for veterinary care provided to food producing animals. Regarding the latter, the role of animal agriculture in the state’s economy is substantial, with an estimated annual economic value of $2.316B (LSU Ag Center, 2009). Additionally, veterinarians play significant roles in safeguarding the health of fisheries and wildlife enterprises in the state. In 2008, the value of these commodities was estimated to be $942.7M (LSU Ag Center, 2009). Thus, the total value of animal agriculture, fisheries, and wildlife in the State of Louisiana was estimated to be $3.079B (LSU Ag Center, 2009). b) SVM is a primary venue for training biomedical professionals. PM3: Biomedical professionals trained at the SVM. In addition to training veterinarians (discussed below), LSU trains young scientists for careers in biomedical research. During 2008-’09, the SVM had 68 graduate students. Profiles for these 12 graduate students are: DVM-MS (11), non-DVM-MS (6), DVM-PhD (21), and non-DVM-PhD (30). Two of our DVM-PhD students were registered in our joint DVM-PhD program which is designed to increase the numbers of scientists holding both degrees. These students were supported from multiple sources, including faculty research grants, a training grant from the NIH, and others. The most recent average GRE of incoming PhD students was 1153. The SVM annually budgets over $400,000 for the training of graduate students. Graduate student stipends are intended to support students for 2 years, after which the student and mentor will find other sources of funding. The SVM has 84 total graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. In the past five years alone, the LSU SVM has graduated 32 Masters-level scientists and 30 Doctoral- level scientists. The majority of students receiving the PhD degree are recruited into post- doctoral positions in prestigious laboratories at major U.S. research institutions. PM4: SVM graduate student stipends versus the LSU campus. In FY2008-09, graduate students in the SVM were paid an average annual stipend of $20,726 (Tanoos, 2010), or 106% of the average stipend paid to graduate students on the LSU campus ($19,623) (LSU Enterprise Information System, 2010). This indicates robust support for graduate education relative to the main LSU campus. 2. Assessment Area 2- Comparative Advantage with Respect to Peer Institutions. The LSU-SVM annually reviews both its status and progress relative to SREB peer institutions. Peer Schools of Veterinary Medicine are located at Auburn University, University of Florida, University of Georgia, Mississippi State University, North Carolina State University, Oklahoma State University, University of Tennessee, Texas A & M University, and the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine. The Association of American Veterinary Medical College’s (AAVMC) 2009-2010 Comparative Data Report (AAVMC, 2010) was used for the following comparisons with the 9 peer institutions previously listed. a) The LSU SVM compares favorably to peer institutions in faculty numbers and research funding. PM5: Number of faculty. With 97.4 FTE of professorial level faculty, LSU ranked 21st among all 28 US Schools of Veterinary Medicine, and at 82% of the cohort mean. Similarly, with 111 total faculty, LSU ranked 18th among US Schools of Veterinary Medicine, and at 87% of the cohort mean (AAVMC, 2010). PM6: Faculty salaries. Faculty salaries at the LSU SVM are competitive, with Assistant Professors ranked 10th at 102% of the cohort mean; Associate Professors ranked 17th at 99% of the cohort mean; and Professors ranked 13th at 101% of the cohort mean (Figure 1) (AAVMC, 2010). 13 Annual SVM Faculty Salaries: FY 2008‐09 $140,000 $120,000 $100,000 $80,000 LSU $60,000 US Average $40,000 $20,000 $0 Asst Prof Assoc Prof Professor Figure 1. Annual SVM faculty salaries; FY2008-09. PM7: Level of State Support. With $24,892,455 in direct state support during FY2008-’09 (Figure 2), LSU ranked 12th among 26 state supported schools and at 101% of the cohort mean (AAVMC, 2010). State Revenue Appropriations GBI‐ 3.3% LADDL‐ 3.2% Statutory Arbovirus Support‐ Control‐ 1.2% 4.0% EHSP‐ 3.0% General Fund‐ 85.3% 14 Figure 2. Louisiana State revenue appropriations to the School of Veterinary Medicine; FY2008-09. PM8: Total expenditures. With $52,616,971 in annual expenditures during FY2008-09, LSU ranked 17th within the described cohort and was at 78% of the cohort mean (AAVMC, 2010). PM9: Research finances. The LSU SVM received $8.519M in new sponsored program income and indirect cost recovery. With $6.81M in sponsored research expenditures, LSU ranks 20th within the cohort and is at 42% of the cohort mean. It is important to note, however, that with our focus on funding from the NIH, LSU ranked 12th in that category with $7.231M in NIH research expenditures, and we were at 88% of the cohort mean (AAVMC, 2010). b) The LSU SVM compares favorably to peer institutions in education mission. Data is from Fall, 2008. PM10: Number of students educated. Nationally, approximately 2600 students graduate annually from U.S. Schools of Veterinary Medicine (AAVMC, 2010). The LSU SVM class size is approximately 85 students. With 329 students in FY2009-10, LSU ranks 18th within the described cohort with a professional student enrollment that is 86% of the cohort mean (AAVMC, 2010). PM11: Veterinary student qualifications. Students admitted into the professional program were highly qualified academically. Their mean pre-veterinary GPA was 3.77, ranking 1st within the described cohort and at 105% of the cohort mean. The mean GRE score (verbal and quantitative) for these students was 1141, ranking 15th within the cohort and at 101% of the cohort mean (AAVMC, 2010). PM12: Student to faculty ratio. LSU ranked 5th within the described cohort with 3.38 students per professorial line faculty FTE, which was at 73% of the cohort mean of 4.61 (AAVMC, 2010). 3. Assessment Area 3- Impacts on Louisiana Social, Cultural, Intellectual, Environmental, or Economic Well-Being. a) Social impacts on the State of Louisiana. PM13: Pet impacts on human health. 15 Pet ownership has been shown to have several human health benefits. Pets improve owners’ mood; control blood pressure better than drugs; encourage exercise, play, and laughter; help with social support; stave off loneliness by providing companionship; reduce stress levels; allow feelings of security; facilitate emotional stability; promote self-awareness; and improve one’s sense of well-being (Schulte, 2008; Scott, 2009). Figure 3 illustrates the reduction in one-year mortality rates in persons admitted to a coronary care unit and owning pets, versus non-pet owners admitted (Friedmann, 1980). Hypertension, lack of exercise, obesity, and cardiovascular disease are well-known problems in Louisiana. Encouraging pet ownership represents an important adjunct in the State’s efforts to address these important health problems. It can be reasonably assumed that the LSU School of Veterinary Medicine promotes pet ownership and therefore, human health in Louisiana through providing access to high quality specialty veterinary medical services not obtainable through local private practices. Figure 3. One-year mortality of patients admitted to a coronary care unit according to pet ownership status at admission. Mortality was significantly lower in pet owners (P < .01), dog owners (P < .05), and dog non-owners (P < .05) versus non-owners (Friedmann, 1980). PM14: Therapeutic effects of pet visitation. Studies have shown human physical, mental, and emotional health benefits to persons in assisted living facilities who have regular interaction with pet animals. Therefore, as a community service, the LSU SVM developed the Tiger HATS (Human Animal Therapy Service) program in 1991. Tiger HATS is an Animal Assisted Activity/Therapy Program made up of local community volunteer teams (volunteer humans and their pets). The program is supervised by Ms. Stephanie Johnson of the SVM. The human volunteers undergo training prior to 16 participating in facility visitations. The pet animals must pass a temperament test and screening prior to being cleared to enter the program. It should be noted that some of these animals have been trained, tested, and subsequently registered as “Pet Partners” in a national registration for therapy animals through the Delta Society. In 2009, Tiger HATS volunteers made 192 visits, involving 70 human volunteers, including 12 SVM students/faculty/staff and 58 other community members; and 70 pets. Twelve local facilities were visited from 12-19 times each during the year. Facilities visited included Our Lady of the Lake (OLOL) Rehabilitation Unit, OLOL Children’s Unit, Regency Place Nursing Home, Parker House, St. Jude, Ollie Steele Burden Manor, St. James Place, Carver Branch Public Library, Williamsburg Nursing Home, Landmark Nursing Home, Mary Byrd Perkins Cancer Center, and the Baton Rouge General Cancer Center. PM15: Therapeutic Riding Program. Therapeutic horseback riding is limited largely due to a lack of empirical data. There are documented benefits of therapeutic riding for a wide range of physical limitations. However, given the wide range of therapeutic riders and associated equine partners, it is difficult to conduct large scale controlled studies to determine how individual riders might benefit most from therapeutic riding exercises. The LSU SVM Therapeutic Riding Program was developed to study the horse a tool that can be used to improve the health of persons with musculoskeletal injuries. The program seeks to document the exact forces that will be transferred to the rider so that a medical professional can prescribe a physical therapy regime that includes therapeutic riding in the same program as a stationary bicycle, elliptical machine, weight training regimen, etc. The horse is a superior therapeutic tool because a horse conveys benefits to the patient that cannot be obtained from inanimate objects. A team of researchers, led by Dr. Mandi Lopez, is conducting studies to allow development of a computer program to match therapeutic riders with equine partners based on diagnosed patient needs. b) Cultural impacts on the State of Louisiana. PM16: Cultural Events Open to the Public. Annually, the LSU SVM hosts several events open to the public. These are intended to increase public awareness of the veterinary school and profession, and augment the impact of veterinary medicine on society. For example, the most recent SVM Open House was held on February 6, 2010 and was attended by over 4,500 visitors. Veterinary students and others set up and operated 38 and 20 booths or exhibits, respectively, for a total of 58 booths and exhibits. Perhaps because of colder weather, the total number of visitors was down slightly from the Open House hosted in March, 2009, when the event was attended by over 5,600 guests. Another cultural event hosted by the school is the annual “Animals in Art” exhibition. The most recent hosting of this event (2009) was attended by 825 guests. In addition to these, the SVM hosts the annual “Great Rover Road Run”, a cultural/athletic event open to the public and their pets. In 2009, 307 persons and their pets participated in the event. Lastly, in 2009, 64 children and several adults attended “Pets & Vets” presentations, where 13 faculty and 3 staff members gave talks on various aspects of pet care; assisted by several veterinary students. Each of these events 17 represents opportunities for the SVM to increase the cultural richness of the local community and to facilitate the growth of an enlightened, educated public. PM17: Cultural impact of “Mike” the Tiger. The live tiger mascot program has been an important part of the culture of LSU since 1936. Generations of LSU students and supporters have grown up with “Mike” the tiger as part of the LSU family. His presence on campus encourages loyalty and support for LSU, with untold financial benefit to the university, and provides the university with an opportunity to educate the public about important conservation issues, including wildlife and habitat preservation. Mike is visited by an estimated 100,000 persons per year. For nearly 40 years, Mike’s care has been provided by faculty of the School of Veterinary Medicine. It would not be possible to provide the highest level of care for this institutional treasure without the support of a veterinary faculty. In addition, Drs. Baker and Bivin, Mike’s current and former primary care veterinarians, respectively, have written two books on Mike the tiger. The first was a book on the history of the tiger mascot program, and the second, coauthored by Drs. Baker and Margaret Stewart, is a children’s book written to develop childhood reading skills and to involve children in hands-on learning experiences regarding conservation issues. All royalties from the sale of these books, which exceeds $60K, have been donated to Mike’s care by the authors. PM18: Community involvement by SVM faculty. SVM faculty members perform community service for several state and local secular and religious organizations. Brief descriptions of some of these community service efforts are provided below. The Best Friend Gone Project- The Best Friend Gone Project offers support during pet loss. Stephanie Johnson of the SVM, along with an intern from the School of Social Work, provide grief counseling to clients of our VTH&C, clients from area clinics, and clients from out of state as well. They offer telephone counseling, individual counseling, and support group meetings twice a month. The group assists approximately 250 pet owners per year. Celtic Society of Louisiana- Dr. George Strain recently completed 2 years as President and previously served as Vice President of the Celtic Society of Louisiana. The group’s mission is to promote Celtic culture. Their pipe band (Na Cait Dubh) pipes at funerals and memorials, primarily for police and fire personnel. They hold Highland games to educate people about Celtic music, athletics, crafts, etc; and offer no-cost courses in Celtic music, including training on bagpipes and Celtic drums. Disaster Preparation and Emergency Medicine Program- The LSU SVM is heavily involved in preparing veterinary students, local practitioners, and members of local Louisiana communities to protect pet animals and livestock, initiate appropriate disaster response plans, and to provide leadership and assistance with animal-related needs following natural disasters. The program brings together personnel from many segments of the community, including veterinary and animal agricultural professionals, farmers and ranchers, and pet owners. Professional groups participating include LSU’s Fire and Emergency Training Institute, the 18 School of Veterinary Medicine, the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, the Stephenson Disaster Management Institute, the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry, and the Louisiana State Animal Response Team. The program includes a course offered in the professional veterinary curriculum (“The Role of the Veterinarian in Community Emergency Preparedness and Response”), as well as public lectures/courses and field exercises involving appropriate emergency response groups. Graduate veterinarians and others who have completed/participated in these courses are able to immediately provide a positive impact in their respective communities. Over the past 4 years since the LSU-SVM’s Disaster Program’s inception, over 50 veterinary students and approximately 200 other animal care personnel from Louisiana and the surrounding region have received certification in technical large and small animal rescue and disaster response. Equine Medication Surveillance Laboratory- Established in 1987, the Equine Medication Surveillance Laboratory (EMSL) performs all equine drug testing for the Louisiana State Racing Commission. The laboratory, one of only 18 of its kind in the United States, tests about 8,000 horses each year, analyzing blood and urine samples for a long list of illegal drugs and other prohibited substances. Dr. Steven Barker of the Department of Comparative Biology serves as the Director of the EMSL. The laboratory is funded by a nearly $1.4M annual contract from the state of Louisiana. Equine Rescue Program- In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, many horses in the New Orleans area were in need of relief and evacuation. The human response to this need was overwhelming. To address this important community need, the SVM rapidly developed an Equine Rescue Program (ERP), complete with a hotline and teams of faculty, students, staff, and community members committed to rescuing horses and other animals in peril from natural disasters. ERP teams rescued over 300 animals and even a few people. The group also hauled feed and water for livestock and other animals. In one incident alone equine rescue teams recovered approximately 63 horses from two separate boarding facilities affected by hurricane- related flooding. These horses were brought to the first staging area for displaced horses at the Lamar-Dixon Expo Center in Gonzales, La. There, horses were evaluated; treated; and provided shelter, feed and water by numerous volunteers, all of which were under the supervision of LSU Equine Clinic staff veterinarians. The teams work in cooperation with FEMA, the USDA, and the state of Louisiana. Friends of the Baton Rouge Zoo- SVM faculty members have served on the Board of Directors or the Zoo Advisory Committee, for the Friends of the Baton Rouge Zoo. These include Drs. George Strain, David Huxsoll, and Everett Besch. Drs. Huxsoll and Besch are former Deans of the SVM. Hurricane Katrina Response- Led by faculty and students of the LSU SVM, the veterinary community in Louisiana organized a massive animal care effort following Hurricane Katrina. The effort was assisted by the Louisiana Department of Agriculture & Forestry, the Louisiana Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the Louisiana Veterinary Medical Association, and the Louisiana Animal Control Association. The SVM, along with local and out-of-state veterinarians and veterinary technicians, provided care for nearly 1,300 companion animals at the LSU Ag Center’s John M. Parker Coliseum and nearly 400 horses and other livestock at the 19 Lamar-Dixon Expo Center. In support of this effort, the School’s Veterinary Teaching Hospital operated its intensive care unit 24/7 at near capacity. Ultimately, nearly all animals were returned to their original owners. The SVM response to Hurricane Katrina stands as one of the greatest single community efforts of the school, and earned the SVM National recognition. National Federation of the Blind- The National Federation of the Blind (NFB) is the largest consumer organization of blind people. The NFB has many affiliates, including the National Organization of Parents of Blind Children (NOPBC). Dr. Sandra Merchant served as Treasurer of the NOPBC (2001-‘02), Secretary (2002-’09), and President of the Louisiana Chapter of the NOPBC (1998-’09). These groups are dedicated to improving the lives of blind children, primarily through education of the educators and outreach to educators and parents. Spay Baton Rouge- Dr. David Senior serves on the Board of Directors of Spay Baton Rouge and Dr. Susan Eddleston recently served as “Spay Day” Coordinator. Spay Baton Rouge is a newly formed 501c3 effort of The Humane Society of Baton Rouge (HSBR). Spay Baton Rouge was formed under the nurturing of the Baton Rouge Area Foundation by getting the many and varied animal welfare groups together for a series of meetings. The groups in attendance included CAAWS, Spay Baton Rouge, and many others. HSBR is taking a broad view of the loose animal population in Baton Rouge and applying all known methods in a logical, systematic, long-term approach to the issues. It aims to harness and coordinate all available volunteer manpower and resources to this end. Dr. Senior has been involved with HSBR from its inception, arranged for Andrew Rowan from the HSUS come to the first meeting to present the demographics of loose animal populations and the relative merit of strategies to address this issue, gave a brief presentation of the loose animal situation in Baton Rouge, participated in a site visit to the animal shelter in Shreveport, and attended the opening of a new low cost-high volume spay-neuter facility in north Baton Rouge, which is a pillar of the HSBR strategy. Other Community Involvement- In addition to the above, several SVM faculty have engaged in significant community service to a wide variety of social, religious, and cultural organizations. Each of these enhances the culture of the state. Examples of faculty involvement in the community include Dr. Jill Johnson (Secretary, Board of Trustees- Unitarian Church), Dr. Sandra Merchant (President- Glasgow Middle School Parent-Teacher Organization), and Dr. Bruce Olcott (Director- Louisiana State Animal Response Team), Dr. Hollis Cox (Boy Scouts of America Sewell Eagle District Camp Commissioner), Dr. Rhett Stout (Assistant Scoutmaster- BSA Troop 283), and Dr. David Baker (Chaplain and Troop Committee Chair- BSA Troop 205). c) Intellectual impacts on the State of Louisiana. PM19: Training of veterinarians. As previously noted, the profession of veterinary medicine has earned and enjoyed the respect of the public. Veterinarians are considered among the most highly educated of professionals. In this regard, veterinary medicine provides Louisiana with educated, engaged citizens, many of whom become public servants or lay leaders in their communities. There are currently 1,153 veterinarians licensed to practice in Louisiana. Of these, 798 (69.2%) graduated from the LSU SVM (LVMA, 2010). Among the most prominent veterinarians and LSU graduates 20 engaged in public service are Dr. Michael Strain, Commissioner of Agriculture & Forestry; and past State Senator Tom Green. PM20: Development of academic veterinarians. The SVM has further contributed to the intellectual development of the state by educating several veterinarians now serving on faculty here at LSU. There are currently 20 LSU SVM faculty members who graduated from the LSU SVM. An additional 129 SVM graduates serve on the faculties of other veterinary schools, medical schools, or universities (AVMA, 2010). Thus, a total of 149 LSU SVM graduates are engaged in academic veterinary medicine (AAVMC, 2010). PM21: Faculty involvement in the State veterinary association. The faculty members of the SVM contribute to the intellectual health of organized veterinary medicine through participation in the Louisiana Veterinary Medical Association (LVMA). Currently, 18 SVM faculty members are also members of the LVMA. PM22: State Association leadership offices held by SVM faculty. In addition to holding membership in the LVMA, current or former faculty members have served in positions of leadership, including as President, within the LVMA. These include Drs. Robert Lank (1966), Steve Nicholson (1976), Dennis French (1998), and Bruce Eilts (2010). In addition, 8 graduates of the SVM have served as President. PM23: Faculty membership in the local veterinary association. Seven current SVM faculty members are also members of the local area veterinary medical association: the Baton Rouge Chapter of the American Veterinary Medical Association (BRAVMA). These include Drs. Lorrie Gaschen, Cheryl Hedlund, Dennis McCurnin, Sandra Merchant, Dale Paccamonti, David Senior, and Joseph Taboada. PM24: Biomedical library for the State of Louisiana. The SVM operates what is considered the most extensive biomedical library for the state of Louisiana. The SVM library currently holds 49,222 total books and print journals. In addition, the library purchases access to 3,172 electronic journal titles. The collection is heavily utilized by scholars from the SVM, as well as persons (undergraduate/graduate students, staff, and faculty) from the main LSU campus, the Ag Center, the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Southern University, and members of the public. In 2009 alone, 28,227 persons utilized the services of the library. d) Environmental impacts of the School of Veterinary Medicine. 21 Faculty in the LSU School of Veterinary Medicine have made significant contributions to our understanding of the environment and environmental problems and/or have contributed personally to SVM and community-based efforts to clean up and preserve the environment. PM25: Faculty publications concerning environmental issues. Since 2005, faculty in the LSU School of Veterinary Medicine have published 35 articles in refereed journals on topics related to the environment, including environmental pollution, cancer, DNA repair, and the effects of pollutants on host immune responses. PM26: Faculty involvement in environmental efforts SVM faculty members make personal commitments to improving the environment. For example, Dr. George Strain recently completed 6 years as Chairman of the Board of Keep Baton Rouge Beautiful (KBRB). KBRB is the only anti-litter organization in Baton Rouge. Volunteer members provide curriculum training for elementary science teachers on recycling, litter, and solid waste. Two major litter cleanup events are held yearly. The group also supports litter events throughout the city by providing supplies to organizations doing cleanups. KBRB distributes free cigarette butt receptacles to businesses to reduce cigarette litter, and works with the Mayor’s office on litter efforts. The group has recently begun a billboard media campaign on litter. Lastly, KBRB coordinates a Clean Business of the Year Award program to reward community good citizens. Information can be viewed on their website: http://www.kbrb.org PM27: The Raptor and Wildlife Rehabilitation Center. The School of Veterinary Medicine contributes to a healthy environment through operation of a Raptor and Wildlife Rehabilitation Center (RWRU). Veterinary students and SVM clinicians provide care for raptors (owls, hawks, eagles, and vultures) brought into the facility by concerned public persons. Birds are provided medical care and upon recovery, are released back into the wild. The RWRU students and clinicians provide care for an average of nearly 1,500 raptors per year. A few birds are not healthy enough for release and so are cared for on a long-term basis by students. Some of these birds become sufficiently tamed to participate in educational visits to local schools, or educational talks on environmental issues. RWRU students and clinicians conduct roughly 30 educational demonstrations and lectures per year. PM28: Service and educational efforts at local Animal Control Centers. The LSU SVM operates a Shelter Medicine Program which provides veterinary care for dogs and cats at local area animal control centers and other facilities whose primary focus is on caring for stray, orphaned, or surrendered animals. The program is run by Dr. Wendy Wolfson, who takes veterinary students on animal control center calls as part of a senior rotation in shelter medicine. The program was funded in 2006 by a grant from the Humane Society of the United States in the amount of $800,000 for two years, extended yearly so long as a balance remains. The grant remains active. In 2009, the shelter medicine service performed approximately 700 surgeries and 2,000 health examinations on shelter animals. The financial value of the surgical services is estimated to be approximately $52,000 while the health examinations are 22 valued at approximately $70,000, for a total direct value to the animal control facilities of roughly $122,000. The 18 facilities served included: LASCPA- New Orleans, East Baton Rouge Animal Control Center, Denham Springs Animal Control Center, Walker Animal Control Center, St. Charles Parish Animal Control Center, Dixon Correctional Institution, West Baton Rouge Animal Control Center, Ascension Parish Animal Control Center, Calcasieu Parish Animal Control Center, Iberville Parish Animal Control Center, St. Martin Parish Animal Control Center, Animal Rescue of New Orleans, St. Bernard Parish Animal Control Center, Plaquemine Animal Welfare Society, Vermillion Parish Animal Control Center, Livingston Parish Animal Control Center, St. John Parish Animal Control Center, and Lafayette Animal Control Center In addition to the Shelter Medicine Program, the LSU SVM hosts an annual training workshop for Certified Animal Euthanasia Technicians working for the state’s Parish Animal Control Centers. The training event is directed by the Louisiana Board of Veterinary Medicine. In 2009, 60 Certified Animal Euthanasia Technicians participated in the training. e) Economic impacts on the State of Louisiana. PM29: Return on Louisiana taxpayer investment. Louisiana State appropriations for FY2008-09 totaled $24,892,455. This amount, when compared to SVM, employee, and student expenditures, generated $128,864,826 in direct and indirect economic impact. Thus, for every dollar appropriated to the SVM from the Legislature, $5.18 is circulated throughout the state. PM30: State and local taxes generated. Louisiana state tax revenues resulting from economic activities of the LSU SVM are estimated to be $2.5M annually, or 7.3% of estimated earnings (Richardson, 2010). Similarly, local, that is East Baton Rouge Parish and surrounding parish tax revenues resulting from economic activities of the LSU SVM are estimated to be $1.9M annually, or 5.5% of estimated earnings (Richardson, 2010). Therefore, total tax revenues (direct benefit) resulting from economic activities of the LSU SVM are estimated at $4.4M annually. PM31: Job creation in the State of Louisiana. The model shows that in FY2008-09 LSU SVM expenditures were responsible for 1,662 jobs in Louisiana, while student expenditures were responsible for 229 jobs in Louisiana. In FY2008- 2009, the LSU SVM employed 428 FTE positions. Using the labor multiplier, the model shows that each full-time position at LSU SVM creates an additional 3.42 jobs in Louisiana. PM32: Comparison of economic impact findings with other US Schools of Veterinary Medicine. Economic impact assessments by US Schools of Veterinary Medicine are rare. Economic impact data is available for Schools or Colleges of Veterinary Medicine at Oklahoma State University, Texas A&M University, and Washington State University. 23 In 2005, Oklahoma State University conducted an economic impact study on the entire university, including the Center for Veterinary Health Sciences (CVHS) (Oklahoma State University, 2006). In the accompanying report, economic activity within the CVHS was responsible for creating 506 new jobs, compared to 1,463 for the LSU SVM. According to the model used, and adjusting for inflation, the CVHS was responsible for $51.1M in new economic activity annually, compared to $60M for the LSU SVM. It should be noted that the methodologies of the two studies may not have been identical and that the economic impact of the OSU CVHS may be different now. However, it appears that the economic impact of the LSU SVM compares favorably to that of the OSU CVHS. An assessment of the economic impact of veterinary medicine on the State of Texas was conducted in 2004. Included in the report (TVMA, 2004) are estimates of the economic impact of the Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) on the local, regional, and state economies. The CVM was credited with creating 717 jobs versus 1,463 for the LSU SVM and $24.3M (adjusted for inflation) in new economic activity compared to $60M for the LSU SVM. Again it should be noted that the methodologies of the two studies may not have been identical and that the economic impact of the TAMU CVM may be different now. Regardless, it appears that the economic impact of the LSU SVM compares favorably to that of the TAMU CVM. Lastly, economic impact data from Washington State University is limited to an assessment conducted in 1998 (WSU, 1998). The associated report stated that the WSU College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) prevented $50M in losses due to decreases in productivity related to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and eradication of animal and zoonotic diseases in the state of Washington alone. The loss prevention cited was credited primarily to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, the Field Disease Investigative Unit, and the academic units actively researching diseases of food animals. The report also states that at that time there were roughly 1,600 veterinarians living and working in Washington, and earning an average of $35,000 per year. With roughly one half (~800) of those veterinarians WSU alumni, the WSU CVM was responsible for contributing over $28M to the Washington economy through direct earnings of WSU alumni (WSU, 1998). In 1998 the National average annual salary for veterinarians was roughly $73,000 (AVMA, 2009c). Therefore, practitioners in that State were earning on average, 48% of the national average salary. Adjusting for increases in veterinary compensation since 1998, a veterinarian earning 48% of the current National average salary of $115,000 would earn $55,137 per year, which, for 800 veterinarians, would contribute $44M to the Washington economy in direct earnings. By comparison, 69.2% (798) of Louisiana’s 1,153 licensed veterinarians are LSU alumni (LVMA, 2010). In 2009, new graduates from the LSU SVM earned starting salaries of $73,300 (Taboada, 2009). Using this as an extremely conservative average annual salary for all 798 LSU alumni licensed to practice in Louisiana, LSU SVM alumni would contribute $58.5M to the State economy in direct earnings alone. PM33: Average SVM income vs median East Baton Rouge Parish household income. 24 With 428 FTE and annual salaries and benefits expenditures of $34M in FY2008-09, the SVM pays its employees an average of $80,064 in salaries and benefits. In contrast, the median household income for East Baton Rouge Parish was $46,024 (US Census Bureau, 2008). If all SVM employee households were single-income households, SVM employee households would be earning 174% of the parish median household income. However, since many SVM households are dual-income households, SVM employee households earn as a percentage, an even higher relative income than the median parish household income. By paying high wages, the SVM contributes significantly to the economic health of the state and local community. 4. Assessment Area 4- Strength of the SVM with Respect to Performance, National Reputation, and the Meeting of National and Local Needs. a) National reputation. PM34: The Chronicle of Higher Education Report. In 2007 the Chronicle of Higher Education conducted an objective study on the scholarly productivity of faculty at research institutions within the US, including US SVM. Quantifiable performance measures evaluated included faculty scholarly performance index, number of faculty, percentage of faculty with a book publication, books per faculty, journal publications per faculty, percentage of faculty with a journal publication cited by another work, citations per faculty, citations per paper, percentage of faculty getting a new grant, new grants per faculty, total value of new grants per faculty, average amount of grant, percentage of faculty with an award, and awards per faculty (Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007). In the subsequent report, the LSU SVM was ranked 6th among all US SVM. PM35: US News and World Report survey results. Triennially, US News & World Report conducts an opinion poll on institutions of higher education, including US Schools of Veterinary Medicine. The scoring system does not include quantitative measures. The most recent ranking was done in 2007. In the report that followed, the LSU SVM received a score of 2.8 (top score 4.5) and thus was ranked 22nd out of 25 US Schools of Veterinary Medicine (US News & World Report, 2007). It should be noted however that the LSU SVM was only 0.2 points away from tying with Auburn University for a rank of 14th, which is in the middle of the rankings. PM36: Meeting of accreditation standards. Accreditations are considered a component of a SVM’s national reputation and competitiveness. The SVM continues to maintain full accreditation from the AVMA, the American Animal Hospital Association, the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, and the Association for the Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC Int). Concerning the latter, LSU has maintained full AAALAC accreditation since 1980, making it one of only 15 universities and colleges nationwide to continually meet the necessary guidelines over the last 27 years. 25 PM37: Faculty, staff, and student awards and recognition. Faculty, staff, and students of the LSU SVM regularly receive local, national, and international recognition and awards. These increase national visibility for our school, and thereby contribute significantly to an enhanced reputation. A partial record of recognitions and awards from 2009 is included below. Ann Craig (Class of 2011) published a first author review article in the prestigious journal, Infection and Immunity (impact factor 4.1), entitled “Neutrophil Recruitment to the Lungs during Bacterial Pneumonia.” Ann Craig did her Summer Research Training in 2008 under the guidance of Dr. Samithamby Jeyaseelan. Her summer fellowship was supported by the NIH/NCRR Biomedical Research Experience for Veterinary Students program (PI: Dr. Tom Klei). The LSU Biological and Agricultural Undergraduate Senior Design Project entitled, "Inverse Dynamic Analysis of Horse Gait," by the Senior Design Team, Lindsey Blanchard, Alicia Reynolds, Samantha Valette, and Michael Dennis, was selected as one of the top three entries in the 2009 Gunlogson Student Environmental Design Competition. The team was mentored by Dr. Mandi Lopez. The purpose of the Open Gunslogson Student Environmental Design Competition is to encourage undergraduate students to participate in the design of relevant engineering projects and to provide an arena of professional competition for environmentally and biologically related design projects. The contest is an international competition sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological and Engineers. The top three teams are invited to attend the ASABE International Meeting to participate in the oral presentation portion of the competition. Dr. Frank Andrews was guest editor of August 2009 issue of the journal, Veterinary Clinics of North America (Vol. 25, No. 2). This issue focused on new perspectives in equine colic. Dr. Christine Navarre became President-Elect of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners. Dr. Joseph Francis was selected to receive the "Arthur Guyton New Investigator Award" presented by the Consortium for Southeastern Hypertension Control (COSEHC). The award was presented on October 24, 2009, at the COSEHC annual meeting. The award recognizes newly independent investigators working in the field of hypertension or cardiovascular research. In addition, Dr. Francis’s graduate students presented six abstracts (four posters and two oral presentations) at the High Blood Pressure Council Meeting, September 22-26 in Chicago. Dr. Samithamby Jeyaseelan was invited by Dr. Susan F. Plaeger, Editor-in-Chief of Clinical and Vaccine Immunology (CVI), to join the Editorial Board of CVI. The initial appointment is for three years. This journal is published by the American Society for Microbiology. Dr. Jey has served as an Associate Editor of the Journal of Immunology for the past three years. Dr. Jey was also invited by Dr. Peter Binfield, to join the Editorial Board of PLoS ONE, as an Academic Editor. Academic Editors are responsible to solicit outside reviews and to accept or reject submissions. Lastly, Dr. Jey began serving as an Associate Editor of the Journal of Immunology. 26 LSU recently announced its second annual list of “Rainmakers,” those faculty members who are nationally and internationally recognized for innovative research and creative scholarship, compete for external funding at the highest levels and attract and mentor exceptional graduate students. Offering due recognition for their exceptional productivity, these 100 outstanding research and creative faculty were recognized at the annual Rainmakers Gala, a dinner and award ceremony held in October. Among this year’s award recipients are faculty from nearly all disciplines on the LSU campus. Rainmakers from LSU SVM included Joseph Francis, Thomas R. Klei, Konstantin G. Kousoulas, Shulin Li, Fang-Ting Liang, Kevin Macaluso, and Gary Sod. PM38: Faculty publications. In 2009 alone, SVM faculty published 62 manuscripts in major discipline specific peer reviewed journals covering basic biomedical science as well as clinical aspects of veterinary medicine. These are in addition to several books or edited volumes, book chapters, proceedings manuscripts, and lay publications. PM39: Faculty leadership roles- Editorial Boards. Faculty continue to be active in leadership roles within their disciplines, as judged by service as editors, on editorial boards, on national peer review grant panels, and as officers in national and international societies. During FY2007-08, 8 faculty members served as editors or associate editors of 16 journals and on editorial boards of an additional 25. These journals included: Am J Vet Res, Aquat Toxicol, Arch Oral Biol, Biomed Proc Online, BMC Vet Res, Cardiovasc Toxicol, Clin Anat, Compend Cont Ed Pract Vet, Compend Eq Ed, interNatContacts, J Am An Hosp Assoc, Int J Int Cyto Med Res, Mol Biotech, J Am Vet Med Assoc, J Av Med Surg, J Dent Res, J. Exotic Pet Med, J Int Med, J Vet Cardiol, J Vet Diag Invest, J Vet Sci, Parasit Immunol, Vet Pathol, J Wildl Dis, The Vet J, Vet Rad Ultrasound, Vet Surg, and Vet Therapeutics. PM40: Faculty leadership roles- National peer review panels and organizational leadership. Veterinary School faculty members continue to take expanded leadership roles in scientific and professional boards and associations at the national and international levels. Twelve faculty members served on national peer review panels of the NIH, NSF, USDA, Wellcome Trust, and the Grayson Foundation. During the past 5 years, 10 faculty members have been presidents of the ACVIM, the ABVP, LVMA, Vet Cancer Society, Am College of Vet Theriogenologists, Assoc Avian Vet, the AAVC, the Fish Health Section of the AFS, World Aquaculture Society, and Global Network of Geospatial Health. Another 12 faculty members have participated as Chair of the US Animal Health Advisory Board on Brucellosis, Chair of Antimicrobial Testing of NCCLS, VP of the American Association of Veterinary Immunologists, Director of the WHO Collaborative Center on Remote Sensing and GIS, Chair of the Research Advisory Committee of the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, Chair of the Louisiana Johne’s Disease Committee, Chair of a Scientific Symposium on Gene Therapy, Chair of the Physical Gene & Cell Therapy Committee of the American Society of Gene Therapy, Member of the U.S. EPA Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee, External Reviewer for the Southern California Environmental Health Sciences Center, Member of the 27 Board of Trustees for the Environmental Research Consortium of Louisiana, Member of the Scientific Advisory Board for the J. Bennett Johnston Science Foundation, and Member of the LVMA Equine Committee Foundation Board. b) Meeting of Manpower Needs. PM41: Meeting of National and local manpower needs for veterinarians in clinical practice. The Veterinary Profession is a relatively small profession with approximately 87,000 veterinarians practicing in the United States and US territories (AVMA, 2009a). The majority (approximately 60,000) of those work in clinical practice with the rest work for private companies, state and federal governments, foundations, and other public and private employers. The primary focus of the veterinarians in clinical practice in this country is small animal (companion animal) practice; making up 77.2% of the general practice market; 8.5% are in food animal practice, 6.1% are in equine practice, and 7.3% are in mixed animal practice (a practice that is made up of a combination of companion animal, equine, and/or food animal practice) (AVMA, 2009b). There is a critical shortage of veterinarians in many areas of the profession; most notably, companion animal and food supply practice. Nationally, there are 30 veterinarians per 100,000 residents. In Louisiana, that number is slightly lower, at approximately 26 veterinarians licensed to practice in the state per 100,000 residents (AVMA, 2009b). It should be noted that some of these 1,153 veterinarians practice in other states. Therefore, the actual number of veterinarians practicing in Louisiana per 100,000 residents may be lower than 26. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment within the veterinary profession is expected to increase by 33% between 2008 and 2018, much faster than the average for all professions (BLS, 2010). The main driver for this growth is companion animal practice. The growth in the veterinary profession is limited by the number of veterinarians graduating each year and shortages of veterinarians are expected in all aspects of the profession. There are only 28 schools and colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States graduating approximately 2,600 veterinarians each year. Most schools are educating the maximum number of students that their facilities were designed for. The LSU School of Veterinary Medicine is the only school of veterinary medicine in Louisiana. The LSU SVM admitted its first class in 1973; graduating that class in 1977. The current facilities were designed for 80 veterinary students in each class. During FY2008-09, LSU enrolled 329 students in the four classes, for an average of 83 students per class. LSU ranks 18th among US Schools of Veterinary Medicine with a professional student enrollment that is 86% of the cohort mean (AAVMC, 2010). The veterinary curriculum is 4 years in length with students entering veterinary school after an average 4 years of undergraduate study. A system of internship and residency training similar to that found in human medicine is available to veterinary graduates but is not required to get a license to practice in any state. During the 1990’s typically less than 20% of veterinary graduates participated in advanced training opportunities. In 2009, 43.5% of graduates accepted such positions. The trend is increasing dramatically with approximately a 10% increase in the number 28 of positions being accepted each year since 2004. The LSU SVM is one of only 3 internship sites in Louisiana. PM42: Meeting of National and local manpower needs for veterinarians in biomedical science. A recent National Research Council report highlighted the critical need for veterinarians in research (NRC, 2004). The dearth of veterinarians in biomedical research was illustrated by the fact that in 2001, R01 grants awarded to principal investigators with a DVM degree comprised only 4.7% of all the NIH-funded competitive grants utilizing animals (NRC, 2004). A national committee investigating manpower needs for veterinarians in research has recommended, among other things, that Schools of Veterinary Medicine initiate several steps to recruit veterinarians into graduate and post-doctoral training programs, including acquainting students with opportunities in comparative medicine throughout veterinary school, just as the LSU SVM is doing with the Summer Research Scholars Program; increasing veterinary school recruitment of applicants with interest or experience in comparative medicine; effecting change in veterinary school curriculums; addressing financial barriers to postgraduate training in comparative medicine; increasing the number of veterinarians in roles supporting biomedical research; and increasing the number of veterinarians serving as principal investigators (NRC, 2004). The LSU SVM actively seeks to recruit students with interest in biomedical research, and seeks to stimulate and support interest in research through such programs as the Merial/NIH Summer Research Scholars Program. Since 2000, 102 veterinary students have participated in the SVM’s Merial/NIH Summer Research Scholars Program. Of these, 69 have graduated from veterinary school. Of those 69 participants, 33 (48%) have gone on for advanced clinical (internship, residency) and/or research (graduate level) training. At least two (Ashley Holm Stokes, Hillari French) are currently enrolled in (French) or have completed (Stokes) doctoral degree programs. Several past participants have earned MS degrees, typically in conjunction with residency training. The national shortage of veterinarians in laboratory animal medicine and pathology has been recognized for many years (NRC, 2004)). The shortages in these fields do not appear to be declining. For example, from 1997 through 2002, the number of active diplomats with board certification in laboratory animal medicine increased by less than 3% annually, and was insufficient to meet the increasing demand of the biomedical research community as the number of animals used in NIH-funded research increased by over 50% during that same period (NRC, 2004). Further, the number of individuals who completed residency training in laboratory animal medicine was 25% lower in 2002 than in 1996 (NRC, 2004). Lastly, in 2002, there was an estimated deficit of 67 anatomic and clinical veterinary pathologists in the US and Canada. By 2007, this deficit was estimated to increase to 336 positions (NRC, 2004). The LSU SVM is one of only 7 Schools of Veterinary Medicine with a residency training program in laboratory animal medicine. The residency program includes one position funded by the SVM and three positions funded by the Tulane National Primate Research Center. The LSU SVM is nationally recognized as the SVM that sends more new graduates into training programs in laboratory animal medicine than any other SVM. In fact, since 1999, over 30 new graduates have entered training programs in laboratory animal medicine, or roughly 3 new graduates 29 per year. In two of those years, five (2000) and seven (2007) students from classes of 85 enrolled in laboratory animal medicine training programs post-graduation. To date, at least 7 of these 30 have become board-certified with the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM). Further, LSU is one of only 6 Schools of Veterinary Medicine with residency training programs in both laboratory animal medicine and pathology. This is consistent with a focus on comparative medicine. As is the case in laboratory animal medicine, approximately 3-4 graduates enroll in residency training programs in anatomic or clinical pathology per year. 5. Assessment Area 5- Effect on, Relevance to, or Cooperation with, other LSU Programs. The SVM’s focused goals, dynamic strategic plan, and newly directed research culture are consistent and synergistic with the University’s National Flagship Agenda. As the National Flagship Agenda moves forward, the SVM continues to contribute through increased extramural funding from investigator initiated awards, as well as collaborative funding efforts with other campus units including Biological Science, Chemistry, and Biological Engineering. Beyond this campus, we have established collaborative relationships with other units in the LSU System including the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, and the LSU Health Science Center in New Orleans. We are a collaborating unit in the NIH Western Regional Center of Excellence in Bioterrorism and Emerging Infectious Disease at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, Texas. Our strongest outside ties are with the Tulane National Primate Research Center, which is consistent with our goals of developing a Center of Comparative Medicine. The significance of these interactions is seen in our success in obtaining a NIH COBRE grant, “Center for Experimental Infectious Disease Research”, an NIH INBRE grant, “Louisiana Biomedical Research Network“, a NIH T35 “Biomedical Research Experiences for Veterinary Students,” and a T32 "Research Training in Experimental Medicine and Pathology” training grants. The Equine Health Studies Program has established a reputation as a national center of excellence in laminitis research and equine medicine. a) Services provided to other LSU programs. PM43: Value of services billed to other campus users. Increased extramural funding has allowed further development of research service centers such as the Microscopy Center, the BIOMMED Division, the Flow Cytometry Laboratory, the Cell and Organ Culture Laboratory, and the Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine. These are well integrated into the teaching and research fabric of the University. Other centers which in the future will be in a similar position are the Inhalation Toxicology Laboratory, and the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. Several of these provide services to other LSU programs. The SVM operates several cost centers. SVM cost centers include Molecular medicine (BioMMED), Media Services, Computer Services, Microscopy, Media preparation, Flow cytometry, Histology, Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine, and the VTH&C. These provide services for SVM, other LSU, and external researchers and other service users. Because the VTH&C provides the vast majority ($7.89M) of its services to the public, VTH&C external 30 income is not included in this assessment. In FY2008-09, SVM cost centers provided $1M (77%) in services to SVM users, $241K (18.3%) in services to non-SVM LSU users, and $62K (4.7%) in services to external (non-LSU) users (Figure 4). For most of the services provided, no alternative sources of these services exist in the Baton Rouge area. Thus, failure or inability of the SVM to provide these services would significantly compromise the ability of LSU and other local scientists to fulfill their own research and service missions. Sources of Income‐ All SVM Cost Centers External‐ $61,597 LSU‐ $241,225 SVM‐ $1,012,091 Figure 4. Sources of income for SVM Cost Centers; FY2008-09. PM44: Provision of care for Ag Center animals. Food animal clinicians in the LSU SVM provide veterinary medical care for Agricultural Center livestock located at several facilities within the state, including at the St. Gabriel Research Center, LSU Dairy, Veterinary Science Farm, Idlewild Experiment Station, Ben Hur Research Station, and the New Iberia Experiment Station. During FY2008-09, LSU SVM food animal faculty members provided veterinary health care for 4,650 farm animals, including 3,754 cattle, 120 horses, 40 goats, 200 deer, 500 swine, and 36 sheep. Without provision of veterinary care for these animals, it would not be possible for the Agricultural Center to keep these animals for agricultural research. PM45: SVM faculty serving on the IACUC Institutions receiving federal grant funds are required by federal law to have an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) to oversee compliance with federal animal welfare regulations. Among the services performed by the IACUC is the review and approval of animal use protocols and protocol amendments, which are required in order to conduct animal research or utilize animals in instruction. The IACUC consists of 10 LSU faculty members and one public 31 member (total= 11). In 2009, five IACUC members were faculty of the SVM while the remaining 5 faculty were from the LSU campus (3) or the Ag Center (2). IACUC members spend an estimated 60 hours each per year reviewing and discussing protocols and protocol amendments, discussing other regulated issues of animal care, and inspecting LSU animal facilities. In 2009, IACUC members approved a total of 103 protocols and numerous protocol amendments for LSU campus, Ag Center, and SVM faculty investigators and instructors. Of these, 21 (20.4%) protocols were from LSU campus faculty, 1 (1%) was from Ag Center faculty, and the remaining Z (78.6%) were from SVM faculty. Therefore, SVM faculty members of the IACUC spent roughly 64 hours (21.4% of 300 hrs) reviewing protocols submitted by LSU campus or Ag Center faculty. In addition, Dr. Baker serves as Attending Veterinarian for all animals used in teaching and research on the LSU campus. Lastly, the IACUC Chair, Dr. Jim Miller, is a faculty member in the SVM and spends additional time on animal related regulatory matters in that role. Therefore, the animal program oversight efforts of SVM faculty represent a significant SVM contribution to animal research on the LSU campus. PM46: LSU students taking courses at the SVM. The SVM participates with the College of Agriculture in advising pre-veterinary students. In addition, the SVM serves other LSU academic programs by educating undergraduate and graduate students from the main campus. A summary of the numbers of campus students taking classes at the SVM during the 2008-’09 year follows: Educational Level College Graduate Undergraduate Totals Arts & Design 0 1 1 Agriculture 18 103 121 Basic Sciences 7 3 10 Education 3 0 3 Coast & Env 2 0 2 30 107 137 PM47: SVM faculty teaching on the main LSU campus. Each year, SVM faculty members teach the following courses on the main LSU campus, thereby contributing the educational mission of the University: ANSC 2060 Companion Animal Management- Drs. Bruce Eilts & Joseph Taboada ANSC 3060 Companion Animal Health & Diseases- Dr. Kirk Ryan AGRI 1001 Introduction to Agriculture- Dr. Joseph Taboada BE 4290 & BE 4292- Senior Engineering Design & Professionalism- Dr. Mandi Lopez KIN 3608 Animal & Zoonotic Diseases- Dr. Javier Nevarez SW 7807 Animal Assisted Therapy/Social Work- Stephanie Johnson, Coordinator b) Research collaborations with other LSU programs. PM48: Research collaborations with other LSU programs. 32 SVM faculty members currently serve as principal investigators on 1 State and 2 federal grants with campus faculty as co-investigators. The total annual value of these 3 awards is $2,223,413. Likewise, SVM faculty members currently serve as co-investigators on 1 State and 1 federal grants with campus faculty as principal investigators. These 2 awards have a total annual value of $221,013. Thus, SVM faculty members currently share 5 grants with campus faculty. These awards have a total annual value of $2,444,426. 6. Assessment Area 6- Current or Potential Student Demand and Effective use of Teaching Resources. The LSU SVM admitted its first class of 36 students in 1973, all of whom were Louisiana residents. In 1994 the class size was increased to the facility-based maximum to help generate revenue to offset budget cuts. Between 80 and 88 students have been admitted every year since that time. Of these, 55 to 60 (average: 69%) of them per year are Louisiana residents. The out- of-state students have come both from Arkansas with which LSU has an educational contract, and at-large students applying from states without SREB contracts. LSU also has contracts with St. George’s University and Ross University whereby students from these programs come to LSU to complete their clinical rotations. Women make up 76% of the students admitted which is reflective of the applicant pool. Diversity is less than ideal with only 8.2% of students being from under-represented minorities. Hispanic students represent the highest percentage of under-represented minorities and most are out of state students. The average age is 24 years with an average of 4 years of undergraduate work having been completed. Approximately 10-15% of the students are older students coming into the veterinary profession from other careers. A higher percentage of students come from rural backgrounds when compared to the general population. PM49: National shortage of veterinarians. As previously noted, nationally, there are 30 veterinarians per 100,000 residents. In Louisiana, that number is slightly lower, at 26 veterinarians per 100,000 residents (AVMA, 2009b). There is a critical shortage of veterinarians in many areas of the profession; most notably, companion animal and food supply practice. Our professional DVM program has a highly qualified student population, a 95% retention rate, a 97.8% rolling average pass rate on the National Licensing Examination, and we produce graduates in high demand within the profession. We continue to increase the number of quality students into graduate programs collectively underpinned by a robust extramural funding portfolio. One recent PhD student is currently a postdoctoral fellow with a member of the National Academy. PM50: Number of applicants to the LSU SVM. The SVM has a highly competitive applicant pool with approximately 8 students applying for each open seat. 33 Over the past decade the average number of Louisiana applicants per admissions cycle has been 148 (range: 120-186); with 137 over the past 5 cycles through 2009. There has been a 33% decrease in Louisiana applicants over the decade. The national applicant pool has increased over the past 5 years from 4,581 to 6,208 (AAVMC, 2010). During that same period the LSU SVM out-of-state applicant pool has been stable; the average number of out-of-state applicants has been 539 (range: 494-558). The school has found that it generally takes at least 2.5 applicants per seat in the Louisiana pool to maintain the quality of student necessary to keep attrition low. This would be a pool of 138 applicants to maintain 55 seats. The out-of- state students are on average better students as only the top 20% of the out of state pool based on gpa and GRE scores are considered for admission. The admission of these selected students raises the level of all of the students as they work together to master the LSU SVM curriculum, brings much needed diversity to the student body, brings a talented group of young people into Louisiana, approximately 10% of whom will stay and work in the state after graduation, and generates higher tuition dollars that helps subsidize the lower tuition paid by the Louisiana residents. PM51: Academic qualifications of incoming professional students. Approximately 67% of incoming veterinary students will have completed an undergraduate degree or higher. The school requires a minimum gpa of 3.2 to apply but has found that when the gpa drops below 3.5 the risk that the student will fail increases significantly. There is no minimum GRE score. For students entering the LSU SVM in the Fall of 2009, the average GPA and GRE (verbal plus quantitative) scores were 3.77 and 1141 respectively. With a mean incoming GPA of 3.77, LSU ranked 1st among all 28 US Schools of Veterinary Medicine, and at 105% of the cohort mean (17). With a mean GRE score of 1141, LSU ranked 15th among the 26 US Schools of Veterinary Medicine which require the GRE, and at 101% of the cohort mean. Further, these scores compare favorably to our peers: UGA (3.54 and 1116), UF (3.51 and 1203), NCSU (3.70 and 1178), Auburn (3.53 and 1104), and UT (3.60 and 1141) (AAVMC, 2010). PM52: Degrees awarded for professional students. During the period 2004 through 2008, an average 80 professional degrees were awarded annually. Approximately 95.5% of professional students admitted to the program graduate. Each year a few students will leave the program for academic or personal reasons and many of these will be readmitted into the following year’s class. Thus the time to degree is approximately 4.04 years for any given class. PM53: National board pass rate vs peer Schools of Veterinary Medicine. The average pass rate for students at graduation on the National Licensing Examination ranges from 96 to 99% over the last five years (mean: 97.8%) (Figure 5) (LSU SVM, 2009). This compares favorably to a mean of 75.6% all examinees over the same period (NAVLE, 2009). For the class of 2009, the pass rate was 96% (LSU SVM, 2009). This also compares favorably 34 to a mean of 84.2% for all examinees (NAVLE, 2009). It is common for all graduating students to have passed the boards prior to graduation. NAVLE Pass Rate‐ LSU 100% 100% 99% 99% 99% 99% 99% 98% 97% 97% 97% 96% 96% Pass Rate 96% 95% 94% 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Figure 5. NAVLE pass rates for LSU SVM veterinary students by year of examination. It should be noted that the professional curriculum was restructured in 1997 to emphasize problem solving, problem-based learning, communication skills, clinical competency, and a broader view of the veterinary profession and how animals fit into the fabric of society. It was also designed to allow for an experience more tailored to the career needs of the individual student through the offering of elective courses and clinical concentrations in Phase 2. In the process, the SVM became a leader on the LSU campus, by assisting in the development of problem-based learning in other campus departments. Two of our peer institutions (UGA and Auburn) have consulted with us relative to the recognized success of our curriculum as they have considered curricular change. Prior to the advent of the restructured curriculum, the pass rates on the national board examinations were frequently below 65%. PM54: Job placement rate for graduating veterinarians. Using both the LSU alumni database as well as the AVMA database, we have tabulated the current occupational activities of the LSU SVM graduates from the last 5 LSU SVM classes. Of these, 42% are working in towns with a population of less 25,000 with 15% in towns of less than 5,000; 12% in cities with populations between 25,000 and 50,000; 46% in cities with a population greater than 50,000 (37% greater than 100,000). This data reflects the current student demographics. When type of practice was evaluated, we found that 2% were currently engaged in mixed animal practice with 0.5% being engaged in food animal practice; 78% were engaged in small animal practice, 6% in equine practice and 13% were engaged in other areas of the profession. Slightly less than a third of the graduates stayed in Louisiana although this number is biased by the high percentage of students who leave the state to find internship positions. Approximately half of the students who do not accept internship positions stayed in Louisiana. 35 Based on our complete alumni base; approximately 30% of Louisiana students end up practicing in Louisiana. Our graduates are highly sought after by employers. Salary offers are consistently above the national average and employers who hire many veterinarians from different schools consistently tell us that they would rather hire LSU graduates because they are better prepared for practice. In 2007, the mean annual income of veterinarians in private practice was $115,000 (AVMA, 2009c). The average starting salary for 2009 graduates not going into advanced studies from U.S. schools was approximately $64,800. In comparison, the average starting salary for 2009 LSU SVM graduates was approximately 13% higher than the National average, or $73,300, reflecting a high demand for LSU SVM students (Taboada, 2009). PM55: Number of veterinarians attaining advanced internship or residency training. The SVM serves a critical role in training veterinarians to become specialists, through internship and residency training opportunities. During FY2008-09, the SVM had 15 interns and 22 residents, for a total of 37 house officers, in such specialty areas as pathology, laboratory animal medicine, companion animal internal medicine, companion animal surgery, equine medicine and surgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, cardiology, oncology, exotic animal medicine, radiology, theriogenology, and anesthesiology. With 37 house officers, LSU ranked 14th among all 28 US Schools of Veterinary Medicine, and at 93% of the cohort mean (AAVMC, 2010). PM56: Job placement rates for graduating house officers (interns and residents). As noted above, the LSU SVM trains over 30 interns and residents per year, in the full spectrum of veterinary specialties. Virtually 100% of recent trainees completing their programs find employment within their field of expertise, unless they choose to go on for additional training. For example, many of our interns transition into residency training programs, and a few of our residents go on to graduate (doctoral) level training programs in biomedical research. PM57: Scholarship and award distributions to veterinary students In fiscal year 2008-2009, $140,000 was distributed to veterinary students in the form of scholarships and awards. Funding for these came largely from private donations. The SVM Dean’s Office contributed sufficient funds to bring each major ($5,000) scholarship up to the full $5,000 award level where recent annual investment income did not otherwise allow for an award of that level; and to increase the number of substantial ($5,000) scholarships awarded by the School. The total contributed by the Dean’s Office was $40,000. Similar adjustments will be made during the current fiscal year. These scholarship distributions represent a significant investment in veterinary education, and highlight the commitment made by many private donors, to veterinary education. PM58: Continuing education courses. The LSU SVM hosts several opportunities for practicing veterinarians and others in animal- related professions, to participate in continuing education (CE) courses and earn CE credits. 36 State licensing boards require veterinarians and persons in animal technology-related fields to earn specified numbers of CE credits annually as a condition of continued licensure. This helps ensure that practicing veterinarians and others remain abreast of new developments in veterinary medicine, and that they have opportunities to maintain skills or learn new skills as new discoveries are made and technology changes. Below is a list of CE courses offered or hosted by the SVM in 2009 (number of participants). A total of approximately 1140 veterinarians and other animal professionals participated in these courses. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Training Seminar (97) Veterinary Dermatology Conference for Veterinarians (75) Companion Animal Cardiology Seminar (215) Certified Animal Euthanasia Technician Course (60) Chemical Capture Certification Course for Animal Control Officers (60) Louisiana Animal Control Association Annual Conference (130) Safe Capture International Certification Course (24) Laser Surgery Course (30) Louisiana Academy of Veterinary Practitioners quarterly meetings (325) Annual Conference for Veterinarians, Veterinary Technicians, & Support Personnel (125) 7. Assessment Area 7- Effect on the Overall University Budget. a) Grant and contract income generated by SVM faculty members. PM59: Grant and contract income. Efforts to increase our extramural funded research portfolio began in 2000 with the renewed culture of sponsored scholarship and have been very successful. SVM faculty members submitted a total of 139 grant proposals in FY2008-09, an increase of 54% over 2007-08 (Figure 6). Grant proposals for FY2008-09 totaled $65,200,678, a 111% increase over FY2007-08. The total number of grants funded has been steadily increasing. 37 Total Number of Proposals Submitted & Awarded FY2003‐09 140 120 Number of Proposals 100 80 Total Proposals Submitted Total Proposals Awarded 60 40 20 0 2003‐04 2004‐05 2005‐06 2006‐07 2007‐08 2008‐09 Figure 6. Total number of proposals submitted and awarded to the SVM; 2003-2009. Our research programs continue on a positive trajectory in terms of extramural funding with 63 currently active grants and contracts held by 27 investigators totaling $23,428,756. In FY2008- 09, the SVM received a total of $8,518,813 in sponsored program income. The total direct cost for these grants and contracts was $23,428,756. The total amount of funds awarded has remained relatively constant since FY2004-05 (Figure 7). The majority ($16,831,373= 71.8%) of total direct costs were from NIH grants, reflecting our position as the biomedical research center at LSU. 38 Funds Requested & Awarded FY2003‐2009 70 60 50 $ (Millions) 40 Total Funds Requested Total Funds Awarded 30 20 10 0 2003‐04 2004‐05 2005‐06 2006‐07 2007‐08 2008‐09 Figure 7. Total funds requested and awarded to the SVM; 2003-2009. The sources of SVM extramural funding were: federal agencies (84.9%), State (9.2%), foundations (1.2%), industry (3.8%), and other sources (0.9%) (Figure 8). The large proportion of our funding in the federal category reflects primarily funding from NIH, our targeted agency. SVM Grant & Contract Sources (FY 2008‐09) Industry‐ Other‐ 0.9% 3.8% State‐ 9.2% Foundations‐ 1.2% Federal‐ 84.9% 39 Figure 8. Sources of funding received during FY2008-09. Annual research grant expenditures totaled $6,807,195 FY2008-09. With these the SVM ranked 5th within our SREB cohort in research expenditures and was at 97.1% of the cohort mean. Total research expenditures from NIH grants to LSU compare favorably to the SREB and peer institution averages. With $4.8M in NIH research expenditures in FY2008-09, LSU ranks 15th among 26 US SVM with NIH funding, and is at 58.3% of the cohort mean. Total SVM research expenditures from NIH grants were 185% of the mean of SREB institutions and 96% of our selected peer institutions (Figure 9). While we are similar to our aspirant peers in many ways, some of their reports include funding through their respective Agriculture Experiment Stations, whereas ours does not because the Department of Veterinary Science is administratively separate from the SVM. Total Research Expenditures from NIH Grants for FY 2008‐09 20 18 18.7 16 14 $ (Millions) 12 10 8 6 7.6 4 5.0 4.8 2 2.6 0 All Schools Top 5 Peer SREB LSU Figure 9. Total research expenditures from NIH grants. b) Grant and contract income generated by SVM departments compared to units on campus. PM60: Grant and contract income relative to other campus units. In FY2008-09, restricted research funding for LSU from all sources totaled $61.4M (LSU Enterprise Information System, 2010). Comparing research productivity on the LSU campus using total research expenditures in FY2008-09, the SVM ranked fourth among academic colleges (Figure 10). Two of our three departments; Pathobiological Sciences and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, are consistently within the top 10 departments at LSU based on research 40 expenditures (Figure 11). Comparing departments using similar data on the SPA web site for FY2008-09, PBS with 27 professorial faculty members was ranked 5th and CBS with 20 professorial faculty members was ranked 7th. While these two academic departments are the primary source of our current research growth, our clinical department (VCS) which contains 48 professorial faculty members, more that 50% of our total, is also increasing in research activity. Research Expenditures Incurred by Academic Colleges at LSU During FY2008‐09 30 25 20 $ (Millions) 15 10 5 0 Figure 10. Research expenditures of academic colleges at LSU; FY2008-09. 41 Research Expenditures Incurred by Academic Departments at LSU During FY2008‐09 12 10 8 $ (Millions) 6 4 2 0 Figure 11. Research expenditures of academic departments at LSU; FY2008-09. 8. Assessment Area 8- Feasibility of and Time Required for (a) Improvement, or, (b) Phasing out. a) The impact on SVM clients of phasing out the SVM. PM61: Economic impact of clients traveling to next closest VTH&C. The Veterinary Teaching Hospital & Clinic is the SVM’s major service program and is integral to the professional and post-graduate instructional programs, and to engagement to the community and beyond. The VTH&C has a robust clinical caseload which underpins our professional and post-graduate instructional programs. With 24,278 combined large and small animal hospital visits in 2008-09, LSU ranked 7th in the described cohort and was at 90% of the cohort mean (AAVMC, 2010). The LSU VTH&C charged external clients $7,830,027 in FY2008-09. The average client charge per visit to the LSU VTH&C was $322.52. At 363 miles away, the VTH&C closest to the Baton Rouge and offering a comparable range of specialty veterinary services is located at Texas A&M University in College Station, TX. Elimination of the LSU VTH&C would mean that clients seeking comparable veterinary care would have to travel to and from College Station. If it is assumed that the typical client would 42 travel from the Baton Rouge metropolitan area to College Station, would realized 20 mpg, and that fuel for the trip would be purchased in Louisiana but that fuel for the return trip would be purchased in Texas, it is estimated that the costs of travel one way from College Station to Baton Rouge would equal $47.81 per hospital visit (MapQuest.com), for total fuel expenditures in the State of Texas of $1,160,731. Further, it is conservatively estimated that lodging would be needed for 2 nights, and would cost $136.84 per trip (Orbitz.com), for total lodging expenditures in the State of Texas of $3,322,202. Finally, it is estimated that food for one day purchased in the State of Texas for two persons would cost $70, for total food expenditures in the State of Texas of $1,699,460. In total, travel, lodging, and food expenditures would equal an average of $254.65 per hospital visit, for total expenditures of $6,182,393 annually in the State of Texas. The loss of the LSU VTH&C would therefore not only cause Louisiana residents to incur considerable additional pet care costs, but these expenditures would not represent income for the State of Louisiana. b) Steady increase in extramural grants and contracts. PM62: trajectory of progress lost with significant funding cuts to the SVM. Our research expenditures, particularly from NIH funding, continue to increase as noted above with the continued addition of NIH-funded faculty. It should be noted that we are slightly above the SREB average in total expenditures and clearly above the SREB average in expenditures of NIH funds. In FY2008-09 total SVM research expenditures from NIH grants were 185% of the mean of SREB institutions and 96% of our selected peer institutions. We are doing all the right things and will in time reach the level of our continually growing aspirant peers. Further it is intuitive that by comparing ourselves to such peers, by definition we would always be lower than the cohort. Any cutback in support to the SVM has the potential to jeopardize the continuation of this trajectory of success and set back the growth of our research program several years. 43 E. Narrative Summary. The faculty, staff, and students of the LSU School of Veterinary Medicine are responsible for contributing to the production of an educated, cultivated citizenry within Louisiana and the Nation. The LSU SVM compares favorably on many performance measures with respect to our peer institutions. Further, the faculty, staff, and students of the LSU SVM make significant social, cultural, intellectual, environmental, and economic impacts on the well-being of the State of Louisiana and her citizens. The LSU SVM exhibits considerable strengths with respect to performance, national reputation, and the meeting of critical national and local manpower needs. Faculty members within the LSU SVM cooperate with and significantly impact several important LSU programs through provision of research support, clinical, instructional, and regulatory services. The LSU SVM effectively uses teaching resources to produce competent, highly sought after veterinarians and biomedical scientists. The LSU SVM has a positive effect on the overall LSU budget through garnering of considerable extramural funding and collaborative research with on-campus researchers. Finally, diminishing or phasing out the services provided by the LSU SVM would have detrimental effects on many stakeholders, including members of the public and scientific colleagues. F. References. AAVMC (2007). Envisioning the Future of Veterinary Medical Education: The Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges Foresight Project, Final Report. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 34(1):1-41. http://www.jvmeonline.org/cgi/content/full/34/1/1 AAVMC (2010). Comparative Data: 2009-2010 (2010). Unpublished. Provided by Matt Grogg, AAVMC, March, 2010. APPA, 2010. Industry Statistics and Trends: Pet Ownership. http://www.americanpetproducts.org/press_industrytrends.asp AVMA (2007a). US Pet Ownership and Demographics Sourcebook (2007 Edition). http://www.avma.org/reference/marketstats/sourcebook.asp AVMA (2007b). Veterinarians Rate High on Honesty, Ethics. http://www.vetclick.com/news/view_article.php?ArticleId=256 AVMA (2009a). Report: Government must address growing shortage of federal veterinarians. http://www.avma.org/onlnews/javma/apr09/090401a.asp AVMA (2009b). Market Research Statistics: AVMA Membership (U.S. and Territories- 2009). http://www.avma.org/reference/marketstats/membership.asp AVMA (2009c). AVMA Report on Veterinary Compensation. 133 pages. AVMA (2010). Number of LSU SVM Graduates on Veterinary Faculties. Personal communication to Ginger Guttner, March 9, 2010. 44 Brown, J.P. and Silverman, J.D. (1999). The Current and Future Market for Veterinarians and Veterinary Medical Services in the United States. JAVMA, 215(2): 161-183. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010). Occupational Outlook Handbook: 2010-2011 Edition: Veterinarians. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos076.htm Chronicle of Higher Education (2007). Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index: Veterinary Sciences. http://chronicle.com/stats/productivity/page.php?bycat=true&primary=6&secondary=231&year= 2007 Friedmann, E., et al. (1980). Animal companions and one-year survival of patients after discharge from a coronary care unit. Public Health Rep 95(4):307–312. LSU Ag Center (2009). Summary: Agriculture and Natural Resources: 2008 Narrative. http://www.agctr.lsu.edu/mcms/webtools/viewExternal.aspx?url=http://www2.lsuagcenter.com/a gsummary/ LSU Enterprise Information System (2010). On-line- access by authorization only. LSU School of Veterinary Medicine (2009). http://www.vetmed.lsu.edu/admissions/navle.asp LVMA (2010). Number of Veterinarians Licensed to Practice in Louisiana. Unpublished. Personal communication to Ginger Guttner, February, 2010. NAVLE Technical Reports (2009). http://www.nbvme.org/?id=82 National Research Council (2004). National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research. The National Academy Press. http://www.stillwaterchamber.org/upload/OSU%20Impact%204.26.pdf Oklahoma State University (2006). Economic Impact of Oklahoma State University on Stillwater, OK. http://www.stillwaterchamber.org/upload/OSU%20Impact%204.26.pdf Richardson, J. (2010). State and local tax generation resulting from economic activities of the LSU School of Veterinary Medicine. Unpublished personal communication, March 18, 2010. Schulte, S. (2008). Animals and Your Health: The Benefits of Pet Ownership. http://www.swedish.org/15309.cfm Scott, E. (2009). How Owning a Dog or Cat Can Reduce Stress: The Health Benefits of Pet Ownership. http://stress.about.com/od/lowstresslifestyle/a/petsandstress.htm Taboada, J. (2009). National Veterinary Salary Data. LSU SVM Office of Student Affairs. Unpublished. 45 Tanoos, E. (2010). Graduate student stipends: LSU School of Veterinary Medicine. Unpublished. Texas Veterinary Medical Association and the Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (2004). The Economic Impact of Veterinary Medicine on the State of Texas. 62 pages. US Census Bureau (2008). American Fact Finder: East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/NPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=05000US22033&- qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_NP01&-ds_name=&-redoLog=false US News & World Report (2007). Rankings: Veterinary Medicine. http://grad- schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-graduate-schools/top-veterinarian- schools/rankings Washington State University (1998). The Economic and Social Impact of Washington State University. http://www.wsu.edu/NIS/EconomicImpact.html Wise, J.K. (1999). Employment of male and female graduates of US veterinary medical colleges, 1999. JAVMA 216(2): 184-186.
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