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									                   Personality Assessment

Increased usage:
SHRM survey --- 30%
Fortune 100 Companies --- 50%
Outside U.S. ----- 50% to 80%

 Interaction of personality characteristics and the situation
• Strong vs. weak situations
• Impact of reward systems
• Which personality characteristics are important for a given
          Personality Inventories
Self-reports --

(e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI),
California Psychological Inventory (CPI), Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator (MBTI), Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI), NEO
PI-R NEO (assesses the 5-Factor model consisting of:
Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness
Projective Techniques --

(e.g., Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), Rorschach Inkblot Test
(RIT), Miner Sentence Completion Scale)
                     Five Factors
• Extraversion --- Outgoing, sociable
• Neuroticism (Emotional Stability): Depressed, anxious,
worrisome, etc.
• Agreeableness: Flexible, forgiving
• Conscientiousness: Careful, thorough, persevering
• Openness to Experience: Curious, imaginative
 Overall, conscientiousness and extraversion are best
predictors of managerial performance across jobs
 Personality measures add to prediction above and beyond
other commonly used measure such as cognitive ability
                          Sample Myers-Briggs Items
•    When you go somewhere for a day, would you rather:
     a)    plan what you will do and when, or
     b)    just go
•    In a large group, do you more often:
     a)    introduce yourself, or
     b)    get introduced
•    Is it harder for you to adapt to:
     a)   routine, or
     b)    constant change
•    Do you think it is a worse fault to be
     a)    unsympathetic
     b)    unreasonable

    Literal ______________________ Figurative
    Forgive _____________________ Tolerate
    Impulse _____________________ Decision
                 Where you focus your attention

      E                                                   I

 Focus attention on the outside          Focus attention on the inner
 world – people and things               world – ideas and impressions

                 The way you take in information

      S                                                   N

   Take in information through the       Get information from patterns,
   senses; focus on the present          see the big picture and focus on
                                         future possibilities

                     The way you make decisions
      T                                                   F

   Make decisions using logic,           Make decisions on values and
   objective analysis                    subjective person-focused factors
              How you deal with the outside world
       J                                                  P
Planned, organized                       Flexible, spontaneous approach
                                Thinking --- Feeling
    Very Clear Clear          Moderate Slight           Slight Moderate         Clear   Very Clear
         30        25      20        15        10           5               5   10        15         20
        25        30
T                                                           Holly (7)                                         F
                                           Steve (10)

                                                                 Paul (2)

                                                            Bill (5)

                                            Sally (2)

                                                                Frank (1)

                                     Betty (19)

                     Thinking                                                             Feeling
• Looks at the logical consequences                                    • Focuses on how others may be affected by
   of actions;                                                           decisions by mentally placing themselves
• Examines pros and cons of                                            into
   approaches objectively;                                                situations;
• Energized by critique and analysis;                                  • Guided by personal values;
• Focuses on tasks                                                     • Energized by appreciating and supporting
• Desires to find a standard to apply                                     others;
  in all situations; reasonable and fair                               • Focuses on interactions
                                                                       • Strives for harmony and positive
                              Judging --- Perceiving
Very Clear     Clear       Moderate Slight              Slight    Moderate      Clear   Very Clear

        30       25      20       15            10           5           5     10        15       20
        25       30
J                             Holly (25)                                                                     P
                                                             Steve (6)

                            Paul (28)

                                    Bill (18)

                                  Frank (20)

                                  Betty (20)

                     Judging                                                           Perceiving
 • Planned, ordered, and structured in                             • Spontaneous and adaptable in orientation;
   approach;                                                          prefers flexibility in work
 • Systematic and methodical;                                      • Leaves things open as long a s possible;
 • Prefers to have things settled, closure;                        • Open to last minute options and changes;
 • Likes to make plans and schedules;                              • Energized by resourcefulness and adapting
 • Energized by getting things done and                              present demands
 settled;                                                          • Focuses on enjoying the process
 • Prefers to avoid last-minute stress
  S                            Sensing --- Intuition                                                          N
   Very Clear Clear       Moderate          Slight    Slight Moderate        Clear   Very Clear
         30       25      20       15            10       5        5         10       15          20
         25       30
                               Holly (24)

                                        Steve (11)

                                     Paul (16)

                                  Bill (21)

                                              Sally (9)

                                                                        Frank (26)

                               Betty (24)

                      Sensing                                                       Intuition
• Prefers real, tangible information;                         • Takes in information by focusing on the big
• Notices specifics and focus on practical                    picture;
realities;                                                    • Attends to relationships and connections
• Factual                                                     between
• Develops understanding through practical                       facts; provides connections and meanings
  applications                                                • Imaginative and verbally creative; follows
• Focus on immediate issues                                   inspiration
                                                              • Moves quickly to conclusions and follows
E                     Extraversion --- Introversion                                                                   I
  Very Clear Clear        Moderate Slight                 Slight Moderate          Clear    Very Clear
    30      25       20       15        10          5                          5       10         15      20
    25      30
                                                           Holly (6)

                                              Steve (5)

                                               Paul (6)

                                                                       Bill (18)

                                      Sally (15)

                               Betty (26)

                    Extraversion                                  • Focus on ideas and experience; direct energy
• Focus on the external environment;                                            inward;
   direct energy outward;                                         • Prefers to communicate through writing and
• Prefer communicating by talking and working                     work
out                                                                 out ideas through reflection;
  ideas by talking them through;                                  • Learns best by thinking and contemplation;
• Learns best through discussions;                                • Private and self-contained;
• Sociable and expressive;                                        • Takes initiative when situation is important to
•Takes initiative in work and relationships                       them
                                                                  • Enjoys working alone without interruptions
                        Hogan Personality Inventory
                               [206 items]

• Designed to predict occupational success
•   Based on the 5-factor model
•   Developed and normed on 500,000 on working adults
•   Validated in over 200 organizations
•   4th grade reading level
•   No adverse impact

    Primary Scales ---
    Adjustment (confidence, self-esteem, composure under stressful situations)
    Ambition (competitive, possessing initiative, potential for leadership)
    Sociability (extraverted, friendly, enjoys social interactions)
    Likeability (warm, charming, capable of maintaining relationships)
    Prudence (responsible, possessing self-control, conscientious)
    Intellectance (imaginative, curious, creative)
    School Success (achievement orientation, keeps current of business and technical
    Sample Items form the Hogan Personality
                (Motives, Values, Preferences)
• I would rather be famous than almost
• I never judge other people’s actions.
• I often read the business news.
• It is so important to have lots of friends.
• I believe you can never be too careful.
• I like many different kinds of people.
• I like puzzles and mental games.

• I dislike going to parties where I don’t know
  the other people.
• I am pretty strict about right and wrong.
        Hogan Personality Inventory (cont.)

Occupational Scales ---
Service Orientation (attentive, pleasant, courteous to others such as
customers and clients)
Stress Tolerance (ability to handle stress)
Reliability (integrity, good organizational citizen)
Clerical Potential (able to follow directions, attentive to detail, clear
Sales Potential (energetic, ability to interact socially, able to deal
with client issues/problems)
Managerial Potential (leadership ability, good at organizing,
capability to make decisions)
     Sample California Psychological Inventory
                   Sample Items
• I like parties and socials. (Sociability)

• When I work on a committee I like to take charge of
  things. (Ambition)
• I often lose my temper. (Likeability; R)

• Sometimes I rather enjoy going against the rules and
  doing things I'm not supposed to. (Prudence; R)

• I am embarrassed with people I do not know well.
  (Adjustment; R)
• I read at least ten books a year. (Intellectance)

• I always see to it that my work is carefully planned and
  organized. (Ego- control)
                        Miner Sentence Completion Scale
                      [Assesses “Motivation to Manage”] Sample Items

If I am promoted ________
Wearing a necktie _______
Yacht racing _______
Dictating lectures _______
Presenting a report at a staff meeting _______

Seven Subscales:
•   Authority Figures
•   Competitive Games
•   Competitive Situations
•   Masculine Roles
•   Imposing Wishes
•   Standing Out From the Group
•   Routine Administration
    Significant correlations between MSCS and managerial progress (e.g., promotion, pay rate)
    MSCS scores are not related to scores on measures of intelligence
                     Thematic Apperception Test
TAT --- 31 pictures that depict a variety of social and interpersonal situations.
Participants are requested to write or tell a story about each picture to the
examiner (e.g., what happened, what Ten pictures are gender-specific; the others
can be used with either sex.
Use: To uncover internal conflicts, dominant drives, interests, and motives.
Specific motives include the need for achievement, need for power, the need for
intimacy, and problem-solving abilities.
         Rorschach Inkblot Test
Ten cards which bilateral and symmetrical inkblots
Scoring ---
Location: the part of the blot used (e.g., use of the
whole blot, common or unusual detail)
Determinants: form, color, shading, and movement)
Content (human figures, animal figures, anatomical
diagrams, inanimate objects
                       Legality of the MMPI
      Karraker v. Rent-A-Center, Inc. 411 F, 3rd 831 (7th Cir. 2005)

The Seventh Circuit reversed the district court and ruled that the
MMPI fit the definition of a “medical examination.” A medical
exam is a “procedure or test that seeks information about an
individual’s physical or mental impairments or health.” So, the
court had to decide if the MMPI was designed to reveal an
impairment of physical or mental health. They held that the test
was so designed to do so. In other words, it excluded employees
from being promoted who had disorders, even though a
psychologist was not used to interpret the test results.
In this regard, given that the test was originally designed to
measure mental disorders may violate the ADA.
     Medical examinations & inquiries about disabilities
 An employer may not ask or require a job applicant to take a
medical examination before making a job offer

• An employer may condition a job offer on the satisfactory result of a post-
offer medical examination or medical inquiry if this is required of all
entering employees in the same job category
• If an individual is not hired because a post-offer medical examination or
inquiry reveals a disability, the reason(s) for not hiring must be job-related
and consistent with business necessity. The employer also must show that
no reasonable accommodation was available that would enable the
individual to perform the essential job functions, or that accommodation
would impose an undue hardship

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