PbS Presentation

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					      Transition Conference
                October 14, 2004

 National Evaluation and Technical Assistance
Center for the Education of Children and Youth
  Who are Neglected, Delinquent and At-Risk

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education
         U.S. Department of Education
    Performance-based Standards for Youth
    Correction and Detention Facilities (PbS)
   Edward Loughran
       Executive Director,
        Council of Juvenile Correctional Administrators (CJCA)

   CJCA
     National non-profit organization dedicated to improvement of
      youth correctional services, incorporated in 1994
     Unites nation’s youth correctional CEOs to promote leadership for
      juvenile justice
     Initiates and facilitates exchange of ideas and philosophies among
      administrators; serves as clearinghouse for members, lawmakers
      and the public on best practices, program development and
      emerging issues
     Committed to expanding the adoption of PbS as a best practice to
      improve conditions of confinement
    Presentation Overview
   Project History
   Project Elements and Process
   Standards and Outcomes
   PbS Improvement Cycle
       Data Collection
       Site Reports
       Facility Improvement Plans (FIPs)
   Data Quality
   Questions and Discussion
   CJCA’s Performance-based Standards (PbS) project has
   been named a 2004 winner of the Innovations in American
   Government Award, a program of the Ash Institute for
   Democratic Governance and Innovation at the John F.
   Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University,
   founded by the Ford Foundation and administered in
   partnership with the Council of Excellence in Government.
History of confinement

   Since the opening of the first facility in 1846, the
    institution has been the program of choice for
    juvenile offenders
   Institutions have cyclical lives: initial calm;
    overcrowding due to crackdown on crime;
    deterioration and violence; media event;
    government investigation; Blue Ribbon
    Commission; reforms and back to calm.
   PbS is a cycle that breaks the cycle.
    Picture of youth facilities
   Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement
    reported 2,980 facilities (1,197 public, 1,774 private,
    and 9 tribal facilities) that held 104,413 residents
    (82%) that met all the inclusion criteria for the
       Younger than 21.
       Charged with an offense or court-adjudicated for an offense.
       In residential placement because of that offense.
   Responses to the most recent CJRP identified over
    127,251 young persons assigned beds on October
    24, 2001 in 3,580 facilities nationwide.
Conditions of Confinement Study 1994

   Studied about 1,000 secure facilities and
    found “substantial and widespread
      High rates of youths and staff getting hurt
      High rates of suicidal behavior
      Few timely or professional health
      High levels of staff turnover
      Adherence to existing standards did not
       mean “better” facility
    Data on youth facilities was:
   Little to non-existent
   Dangerous
   Used to sue!

Existing standards of accreditation were:
 Process and policy-based; didn’t measure performance
 Pass / fail
 Three-year cycle
 Not about improvement
    PbS Development
   OJJDP designed PbS to lead the field out that dismal
    situation and address the specific problems cited in
    the COC study
   OJJDP selected the Council of Juvenile Correctional
    Administrators (CJCA) to direct and develop the
   Guiding principals:
       Facilities should be places we’d feel comfortable sending
        our own children
       Gradually transfer knowledge, skills and ownership of PbS
        from project to field
       Field driven to be meaningful and useful: feedback
    Development Process
 Advisory Board of representatives from 10 major
  organizations set the framework, goals and
 Working group on each function area: Safety, Order,
  Security, Health/Mental Health, Programming,
  Justice, and Reintegration standards and created
  outcome measures, expected practices and
  processes; comprised of experts, practitioners,
 Pilot, revise, field test - loop
 Mental health/ substance expert groups
 Reintegration with Intensive Aftercare Program
    Project Events
 1995: OJJDP launched PbS Initiative
 1997: Field tested standards in 18 facilities, 16 of
  which continue to participate today
 1998: Began implementation in 32 facilities
 2000: Launched nationwide web-based data
  collection and reporting system
 2002: Added Reintegration standards and measures
 2003: Pilot data quality certification processes
 2004: CJCA incorporates the PbS Learning Institute
  to expand and sustain PbS
 2005: Pilot PbS for community programs
    Why PbS?
 For the first time, staff, managers and directors know
  from data what is going on in facilities
 PbS provides the information in a context of
  improvement, with:
    Tools to identify the good and not-so-good;
    A roadmap of ways to improve and
    Monitoring over time to demonstrate accountability
     and effectiveness
    Examples
    Project Participants: October 2004
                                   141 facilities involved
                                    in 28 states and DC
                                   Facility capacities
                                    under 20 beds to over
                                    300; operated by
                                    public and private
                                    agencies; accredited
…                                   and non-accredited
                         ..        Urban and rural
                        …          81 Correction, 60
                                   Initial facilities have 12
                                    sets of data showing
                                    performance since
Project Elements
•   A set of seven goals and 36 standards to assess:
     • Safety
     • Order
     • Security
     • Health and mental health
     • Programming
     • Justice
     • Reintegration
    Performance toward meeting each standard is measured
      using one or more outcome measures, which are
      compared over time and to other participating facilities.
    PbS Standard Layout
Each of the seven areas are formatted in the following manner:

Area: XXX
XXX1 Performance Standard

  Outcome Measures           Expected Practices              Processes
   Rates, frequencies,      Practices expected to       Policies, forms, tests
   numbers that show        produce higher quality      used to describe or
    change in status,        outcomes based on           perform practices.
     occurrence or           available research,
      prevalence.               consensus of
                             professional opinion
                                and past PbS
 Goal: To engage in management practices that promote
  the safety and well-being of staff and youths.
 Standards:
       Protect youth and staff from intentional and accidental injuries
       Promote management practices and behavior that minimize
        harm resulting form the use of restraints, isolation and
        environmental risks;
       Protect youth and staff from fear.
   Outcome Measures: Number of injuries to youths;
    number of injuries to youths by other youths; incidents of
    suicidal behavior with and without injury by youths;
    percent of youths and staff reporting that they fear for
    their safety.
   Goal: To establish clear expectations of behavior and an
    accompanying system of accountability for youths and staff
    that promote mutual respect, self discipline and order.
   Standards:
     Maximize responsible behavior by youth and staff and conformance to
      facility rules;
     Minimize the facility’s use of restrictive and coercive means of
      responding to disorder;
     Maximize opportunities for youths to participate in activities and
   Outcome Measures: Incidents of youth misconduct; use of physical
    restraint; use of mechanical restraint; use of isolation or room
    confinement and; average duration of isolation or room confinement.
   Goal: To protect public safety and to promote a safe
    environment for youths and staff, an essential
    condition for learning and treatment to be effective.
   Standards:
       Prevent unauthorized exit from the facility and maintain custody
        of youths admitted to the facility;
       Prevent contraband from being introduced into the facility and
        minimize access to contraband within the facility.
   Outcome Measures: Incidents involving contraband
    (weapons, drugs, other); lost keys and tools.
         Health/Mental Health
   Goal: To identify and effectively respond to youths’ health, mental health and
    related behavioral problems throughout the course of confinement through the use
    of professionally-appropriate diagnostic, treatment and prevention protocols.
   Standards:
         At the time of admission, identify youths who have acute health problems or who face crisis mental
          health situations and following evaluation, ensure the delivery of appropriate health and/or mental
          health services;
         Provide health appraisals for all youths not released quickly and behavioral, mental health an
          substance abuse evaluations when indicated;
         Develop or continue individual treatment plans for every youth to respond to health, mental health,
          substance abuse and behavioral problems;
         Respond in an appropriate and timely manner to all new and/or chronic health and mental health
          problems of confined youths;
         Promote a continuity of treatment for youths undergoing health or mental health treatment at the
          time they are released from the facility;
         Provide a clean and health living environment for confined youths – one that ensures youths are
          safe and that they receive adequate nutrition and exercise.
   Outcome Measures: Percent of youths who had health, mental health and suicide intake
    screenings completed within a time frame considered critical by national experts; percent
    of youths who had various assessments completed within a time frame considered critical
    by national experts and; percents of youths who received the health and mental health
    treatment that was prescribed in their individual treatment plans.
   Goal: To provide meaningful opportunities and services for youths to improve
    their education and vocational competence, to effectively address underlying
    behavioral problems and to prepare them for responsible lives in the
   Standards:
        Provide an education program tailored to each youth’s educational level, abilities, problems
         and special needs and that promotes the improvement of educational performance and
         vocational skills during confinement;
        Provide culturally competent and gender-specific programming that minimizes periods of idle
         time, addresses the behavioral problems of confined youths and promotes health life
        Promote continuity of programming and services for youths after they are released from
        Open facilities to the community via telephone contact, visitation and the involvement of
   Outcome Measures Percent of youths confined for over six months whose reading
    and math scores improved between admission and discharge; percent of non-English
    speaking youths who have treatment plans written in the appropriate language;
    percent of youths who have had in person contact with a parent or guardian and;
    percent of youths who reported policies governing telephone calls are implemented
   Goal: To operate the facility in a manner consistent with
    principles of fairness and that provide the means of ensuring
    and protecting each youth and family’s legal rights.
   Standards:
      Operate the facility in a manner consistent with applicable statutory,
       regulatory and case law requirements;
      Ensure that youths, their custodians and other appropriate parties know
       what their legal rights are and how to protect them;
      Administer rules and policies for youths and staff fairly and consistently
       and offer effective means of redress for grievances and violations of
   Outcome Measures: Percent of interviewed youths who report
    understanding of the facility rules and their legal rights; percent of
    youths who say they understand their facility’s level system and;
    percents of youths and staff that reported filing a grievance and
    indicate that their grievance was addressed.
   Goal: To prepare youths for successful reintegration
    into the community while they reside at the facility
       Individualized planning from the perspective of family and
       Programming and activities that prepare them for transition
        and continue, when appropriate, after the youth leaves the
        facility; and
       Linkages and activities between facility and aftercare case
        manager with outside service providers or key community
    Reintegration standards
   Provide continuity in programming and services for youths after they
    are released from custody
   Develop and maintain personal relationships through in-person
    meetings and other contacts between each youth and his/her
    aftercare case manager
   Treat each youth in the context of his/her family by including
    parents/guardians in reintegration programming and facilitating in-
    person contact between them and aftercare case manager
   Ensure that youths are referred and admitted to community services
    prior to release
   Develop and maintain personal relationships through in-person
    meetings and other contacts
   Create a transition program that provides gender-specific, culturally
    sensitive and language appropriate services tailored to fit the
    individual needs of all youths
    Reintegration, continued
   Outcome Measures: Percent of youths confined for more
    than 60 days who have finalized and concrete written
    aftercare treatment plans within 30 days of release from
    the facility; percent of youths who have had contact with
    the person responsible for their supervision upon release
    while they were incarcerated and; percent of youths
    whose home has been assessed to determine suitability
    for future placement; percent of non-English speaking
    youths who have reintegration plans written in another
    appropriate language.
PbS Outcome Measures
        Area        Corrections   Detention
       Safety           14           14
       Order            12           12
      Security           7            7
       Health           14            7

   Programming          27           12
       Justice           7            7
    Reintegration       24            0

       Totals           105          59
PbS Improvement Cycle
                          April and October are data
                           collection months.
         DO               Draft Site report is received
                           within 2 weeks of close of data


                          Data corrections are made to

                           anomalies, null sets, not
                           recorded and outliers
                          Final Site Report is generated
                           along with summary reports for
                           all data collection forms
                          Improvement plan is developed
                           and entered into website with
                           targeted outcome measures.
How Does PbS Cycle Work?

PbS Cycle
Data Collection
                     Administrative Form
                          1 per site, 46 questions

                     Incident Reports
                          All incident reports for data
                           collection period

                     Youth Record
                          30 random YR, 93 questions
     Sustained       Youth Climate Survey
   Improvement            30 random youths, 38 questions

                     Staff Climate Survey
                          30 random staff, 38 questions

                     Youth Exit Interview
                          All youths released since last data
                           collection, 24 questions
                          Ongoing data entry
Site Reports
                      Divided Between Areas:
                          Safety, Order, Security,
                           Health/ Mental Health,
       Sustained      Corrections:
     Improvement          105 outcomes

                      Detention:
                          59 outcomes

                      Field Averages
Facility Improvement Plans
                       Components of a
                        Sites FIP
                           FIP Status
                           Targeted Outcome
       PbS                 What is the problem?
   Improvement             Action Steps
                           Progress Notes
                           Ongoing Review
 Data Quality Visit

PbS Project Improvement Plan:
Piloted in North Dakota, Oregon, New Jersey and
    South Dakota
    On site quantitative and qualitative analysis of
      PbS data collection, PbS definitions and PbS
      expected processes
    Field Team and Data Team
         Replicate entry of incident reports and generate
          comparison reports
    Benefits of PbS
 Provide facilities and agencies with a system of
  continual improvement
 Tool to measure and track key indicators of facility
 Able to compare performance overtime & to similar
  participating facilities across the country
 Measurable goals and standards that create success
  and strategy to achieve them
 Allow facilities to demonstrate success with data
  rather than anecdotes
 Become more accountable and gain public support
Keys to Success
                     CEO/ Director support and
                      buy in
                     Engage State and Site
                      Coordinators to lead effort
                     Identify the PbS team
        PbS          Comprehensive and
      Sustained       complete data collection
    Improvement      Analysis of Site Report
                     Implement and monitor
                      Facility Improvement Plan
                      with outcome measure
                      targeted goal
                     Start Again
    Vision & Mission
   “PbS is the energizing force for continuous
    improvement of juvenile justice in the 21st Century.”

   “CJCA will ensure that all juvenile justice
    jurisdictions adopt the PbS system as the core
    practice to sustain continuous quality
PbS Website

Questions and Discussion
    PbS Contact
   PbS Project Director
   PbS Help Line
       help@pbstandards.org
       781-843-2663 [9:00 – 6:00 PM, EST]

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