Pin Chen Goh 1. PUB – Singapore’s National Water Agency PUB, the national water agency, plans, manages and safeguards Singapore’s water resources. Our mission is to secure an efficient, adequate and sustainable supply of water. From rainwater collection to used water treatment, the entire water loop is managed by PUB. By closing the water loop, PUB has put in place the 4 National Taps. They are our 3 local sources (local catchments, NEWater and desalination.) and imported water from Johor. 2. What PUB does As the national water agency, PUB is responsible for the collection, production, distribution and reclamation of water in Singapore. Our Water Loop Discharge Rain to sea Sea 3. Pressing Challenges/Concerns in the water energy nexus 1. How can we ensure a sustainable water supply? 2. Alternative sources of water such as seawater desalination have a high energy footprint. Can we further reduce the energy footprint of such water sources? 3. To what extent should Rainwater harvesting be encouraged? 4. How can we better tap alternative sources of energy to further reduce the energy footprint? 4. What PUB has done Ensure a sustainable water supply i. Developing a robust water supply Through an integrated management of the water loop, PUB has developed a unique Four National Taps strategy that not only ensures a diversified and robust supply, but also sustainable for future generations. The four National Taps are: A. Water from local catchment – We are expanding our water catchment areas to turn two-thirds of Singapore’s total land area into catchment areas by 2010. B. Imported water - Singapore also imports water from Malaysia C. NEWater is high grade water reclaimed from treated effluent. It is extensively used in industries that need high grade water, particularly the wafer-fabrication industries. This will free up more drinking water to meet present and future demand from households and industries. In addition, a small amount of NEWater is being pumped to our reservoirs as a source of drinking water. By 2011, NW capacity is expected to cater to 30% of Singapore’s water demand. D. Desalination - In September 2005, Singapore turned on its fourth National Tap, with the opening of the SingSpring Desalination Plant in Tuas. This plant can produce 30 million gallons of water a day (136, 000 cubic meters) and is one of the region’s largest seawater reverse-osmosis plants. Desalinated water is blended with treated water before it is supplied to homes and industries in the western part of Singapore. ii. Managing Demand Securing an adequate supply is only half of the water equation – managing the demand side is just as crucial. PUB has a wide-ranging water conservation plan that encourages customers to use water wisely. Singapore’s per capita domestic water consumption has been brought down from 165 litres per day in 2003 to the current 157 litres. The target is to lower it to 155 litres by 2012 Some examples of the programmes are a. The 10-Litre Challenge aims to get every individual to reduce daily water consumption by 10 litres. This programme encourages people to assess their individual water usage, learn the various water conservation measures and devices to achieve a saving of 10 litres per person per day b. Water Efficient Homes (WEH) is a programme to help residents save water at home and cut down on their water bills. The programme encourages residents to install water saving devices and practice good water conservation habits. As part of the programme, PUB officers visit households in Singapore to install free-of- charge water saving devices such as thimbles and cistern water saving bags. c. Water Volunteer Programme - PUB is actively working with the community to form Water Volunteer Groups (WVGs). The WVGs encourage residents to cut down on their water consumption by taking the 10-litre challenge. d. Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme – this involves labelling of appliances to so that consumers can make informed decisions when choosing their appliances and encourage buying of water efficient ones Alternative sources of water such as Desalination have a high energy footprint; can we further reduce the energy footprint of such water sources? One area of interest is how we can continue to improve efficiency technologies such as RO to further reduce the existing energy footprint. Some examples of projects currently undertaken by PUB: a) Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) - In MBR systems, membrane separation is combined with biological treatment. The membrane will acts a filter to remove all suspended solids from the water and therefore eliminates the need for final sedimentation tanks for removal of suspended solids from the effluent water. b) Variable Salinity Plant - The Variable Salinity Plant (VSP) concept, utilizes membrane technology to produce potable water from feed source that ranges between fresh water with salinity less than 200 parts per million and sea water with salinity at 36,000 parts per million. The plant is designed as a seawater desalination plant but incorporates the flexibility to automatically switch to treatment of freshwater when freshwater feed is available. c) Membrane Distillation (MD) is an advanced membrane based desalination process that makes use of temperature and vapour pressure difference to drive vapour through the membrane and condense it as distilled water d) Capacitive Deionization (CDI) technology for the treatment and recovery of RO brine - Capacitive Deionization (CDI) technology is a non-membrane electrosorption process for continuous removal of ionic impurities in water. This technology is being used as the core of the brine treatment process for the recovery of water from the reverse osmosis (RO) brine from the NEWater factories. This R&D project is a joint collaboration amongst PUB, NUS and the European Union (EU) “RECLAIM” programme1 3. To what extent should Rainwater harvesting be encouraged? Developers can build rainwater collection systems and underground tanks to collect rainwater in their premises for their own non-potable uses, such as washing and toilet flushing. This applies to premises located within water catchments as well as those outside water catchments. Our concern however is that unlike centralized systems such systems would have limited storage and is likely to be less efficient when compared to a centralized system (already about 2/3 of Singapore area are water catchments). 4. How can we better tap alternative sources of energy to further reduce the energy footprint? We are currently looking into how we use our facilities (installations, reservoirs, etc) to tap solar energy. 1 PUB is a member in the EU project RECLAIM Water. The RECLAIM Water project is a large- scale research collaboration funded by the European Commission (EC) and comprises 20 international research organizations. PUB and NUS were invited to participate in the project on the topic: "Treatment and Recovery of RO Brine from Water Reclamation Factories" as Targeted Third Countries (TTC) partners outside EU. Our proposal has been accepted by EC. Project cost for PUB-NUS is S$699,000, of which EC will contribute about S$396,000 and the remaining will be funded by PUB. Itay Fischhendler: Integrating energy into IWRM: is it possible and desirable? The implications of a fragmented water sector – or one that lacks coordination among different resources or users – have often been used to justify the need for the adoption of Integrated Water Resource Management – IWRM. IWRM seeks to create a process that can bring together fragmented water uses and users into an integrated planning, allocation and management framework, typically at the scale of a watershed. Energy, is not different: the interconnectedness between different energy sources; the establishment of a European energy market and a transmission system; and the affect of energy use on the environmental and economics - all these raise a need to set up polices that address energy in an integrated manner. Yet, it was already identified that integrated polices have high bargaining costs, transactions costs and sunk costs. These high costs in the water sector were already found to impede ability to adapt polices to changes in the background conditions, such as droughts, economic recessions and political changes. Physical and institutional integration was also found to create a path dependency that decreased the ability to adopt immediate solutions to drastic changes. In Israel, for example we found that excessive physical and institutional integration resulted in inability to modify the existing system to new water demands and market conditions. As a result a new water reform was set in motion to break this path dependency created by the integrated system, which had perpetuated the management of the existing nation wide infrastructure and gridlock in decision making. Put it simply, IWRM conflicted with the need for Adaptive Governance that is a requisite for addressing climate change Given these findings, the question that I see as crucial is: should we seek a full fledge integration between water and energy? Does this integration will not result in tremendous costs that will outweigh the integration benefits? The answer to this paradox (of the need for integration to internalize externalities versus the costs of integration) may be the development of more modular governance systems. These modular systems will allow us to decouple (and retreat from) the energy/water integration when the cost of integrations seems high. Put it differently, maybe the real challenge is finding that balance between the concepts of integration and independency in decision making that is required to address emergency situations. Andy Howe. 14/11/08 Sustainable Development Policy Advisor firstname.lastname@example.org Carbon reduction and energy efficiency in the water industry – update Steering group members are asked to note this update and provide any comments on work-streams. 1. Background We are conducting a two year science project (April 2007-March 2009) into increased energy efficiency and carbon reductions in the water and wastewater sectors. The project will: Identify opportunities for reducing carbon emissions in the water and wastewater sectors through sharing best practice, developing a robust evidence base, increased use of renewable energy and pollution control. Improve our reputation with industry and stakeholders by ensuring that our approach to sustainable water management and climate change objectives are aligned. Identify barriers and potential solutions for carbon reduction in the sector, especially any created by regulation. Include best practice for energy and carbon in our decision making. To deliver these objectives we have work underway or completed in the following areas. 2. Sustainable supply - water supply & demand management options In July 2008 we launched our report and model framework which quantifies the greenhouse gas footprint of water supply and demand management measures. We used a lifecycle approach, developing a framework to allow assessment of the carbon implications of different supply side and water efficiency options. The results, including a short summary of the work were published in July 2008 and forms an important part of our new water resources strategy, due for publication in early 2009. A key finding is that simple demand management measures – particularly those which reduce hot water use – have significant potential to not only save water and energy, but also to reduce the carbon footprint throughout the water system. Small actions by individuals could together result in a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, with the added benefit of lower energy and water bills. We have funding for a joint project with the Energy Saving Trust (EST) in 2009 to further develop the evidence base on hot water use and energy savings in the home. We are currently developing the specification for this project with EST and Waterwise. 3. Transforming treatment - Sewerage and wastewater Nearing completion, this work brings together current information on the energy and carbon associated with sewerage and wastewater treatment techniques. Of particular interest is building the evidence base for possible solutions which could deliver carbon reduction and achieve high water quality standards, how this might be achieved and what policy and delivery changes this could require. The study looks at the potential for greater efficiency and lower carbon treatment solutions, including quick wins for the next five years. We have commissioned Atkins to undertake this work, with peer review by Water Innovate (commercial arm of Cranfield University). Draft report under review by the steering group, final report due December 2008. 4. Draft business plan carbon summary and case studies of low carbon solutions We pulled together a short written summary of water company plans for greenhouse gas emissions based draft PR09 business plans. This enabled us to advise our PR09 team on the range of responses, level of detail and targets proposed by companies. We have also drafted a short summary of case studies related to water industry carbon. This includes information provided by companies in response to our questionnaire and ad-hoc contact. Case studies typically fall into examples of deliberate low carbon schemes, schemes which provided low carbon solutions but were not driven by this outcome alone, as well as examples where companies feel higher energy schemes have been required because of regulation. 5. Opportunities presented by sustainable drainage schemes and sewage as an energy resource Promising areas for carbon reduction relevant to the water industry is the potential of sustainable drainage systems in reducing the amount of water reaching a sewage works and therefore lessening energy intensive treatment and pumping required at end of pipe. We circulated a draft specification for this work to the steering group in October and have taken on board comments received back. We are now inviting tenders for this work. Secondly we want to explore further than has currently been covered by Atkins, looking into the future say 25-50 years, and consider what wastewater treatment and disposal may look like at this time under an economy moving towards Climate Act targets. We will commission five academic and industry experts to for their opinion on the options for dramatically reducing greenhouse gas emissions related to the treatment of wastewater at sewage treatment works by 2050. The outputs would be a series of short essays and a workshop summarising these future visions. A draft specification for this work will be presented to the steering group for comment and suggestions for innovative contributors would be welcome. 15 Aug 2008 Water and Energy IWA Workshop and Reference Paper outline Prepared by Bo N. Jacobsen* & Gustaf Olsson** * Member of IWA Strategic Council Manager, Copenhagen Wastewater R&D; Head, Planning and Development, Avedoere Wastewater Services, Denmark ** IWA Director, WST Editor-in-Chief Prof. Emeritus, Lund University, Sweden Water and energy are inextricably linked. Energy is needed for water supply - to extract, pump, clean and distribute water - as well as for wastewater transportation and treatment. Energy can be produced in anaerobic treatment systems and extracted via heat pumps in effluent water. Also, water is crucial for electrical energy generation, not only in hydro power but also as cooling water in thermal plants. Water is a crucial component in the production of fuels such as ethanol where the conflict between energy and food becomes apparent. Population growth, climate changes, urbanization and ever-rising health and environmental standards create an increasing challenge to handle water and energy together. At national governmental levels this is sometimes reflected by merging ministries for environment and energy in order to coordinate the synergies and to balance the conflicting interests. The purpose of the water-and-energy workshop at the IWA Biennial conference 2008 in Vienna and a subsequent reference paper is to outline the framework for interactions with the water sector and the energy sector respectively and to formulate some IWA positions. Based on the frameworks defined and some indicated factual information, the paper can be used as a platform for discussions both within the IWA framework and in dialogue with other international organisations dealing with water and energy related topics as well as provision of structured information to the media community. Energy use, saving and recovery at water and wastewater utilities Water abstraction, treatment and distribution require power mainly for pumping but also for processing during treatment. Statistics for water abstraction, treatment and distributions are maintained by OECD and Eurostat and also by UN for different sectors. However, the corresponding energy consumption is not recorded in the water statistics. Some national water utility associations maintain statistics on energy consumption by the water sector. The power consumption follows typically a diurnal, weekly and sometimes seasonal use pattern. There is a potential for compensating some of the diurnal use pattern by pumping to water storage reservoirs during low load hours for the power plants and vice versa for the high load hours. Drinking water production is increasingly crucial, in particular in dry countries. The use of desalination is increasing at a significant rate in many industrialized countries, but this development further emphasizes the close coupling between water and energy. Wastewater collection, treatment and discharge, sludge treatment and disposal require electrical power for pumping and aeration in biological treatment processes as the dominating consumers. Statistics for wastewater generation, collection and treatment as well as sludge generation and disposal are maintained by OECD and Eurostat and also by UN for different sectors. As for water supply the corresponding energy consumption is not recorded in the water statistics. Some national water utility associations maintain statistics on energy consumption by the water sector. Energy recovery by biogas production in anaerobic sludge digesters is quite common and the biogas may be used for power generation, fuel for transport or heating. In some cases, installation of heat pumps in wastewater treatment plant effluents has provided energy in terms of heat recovery. The power consumption in wastewater treatment and transportation follows typically a diurnal, weekly and sometimes seasonal use pattern. Stormwater handling adds to the energy requirement. There is a potential for compensating some of the diurnal use pattern by conducting certain treatment processes during low load hours for the power plants and vice versa for the high load hours. Within IWA the following special groups (SG) are considered with a direct interest in energy issues in water and wastewater operations: Advanced oxidation processes (AOP), Anaerobic digestion (AD), Instrumentation control and automation (ICA), Strategic Asset Management, Sustainability in the water sector, Efficient Operation and Management of Urban Water Systems, Design, Operation and Costs of Large Wastewater Treatment Plants, Design, Operation and Maintenance of Drinking Water Treatment Plants. Water use and impacts on the aquatic environment from energy production Hydropower is often considered a “green” energy production in the sense that the electric power production does not generate any emissions of greenhouse gases. However, there are many signs of serious ecological impacts of hydropower generation. The dams will not only influence the downstream transport of sediments and its consequences for the agriculture; they also serve as giant sedimentation basins. Eutrophication in the dams is another serious problem and evaporation from water dams in warm countries is not sufficiently addressed as a great threat to freshwater availability. The dams can act as physical barriers giving restrictions to migration of aquatic wildlife. The use of water systems for recreational purposes is of course closely related to energy production. Thermal power plants – both coal fired and nuclear – require large amounts of cooling water. For example, in the USA almost 40% of the withdrawn freshwater is used for cooling in thermoelectric plants. The heating of the water and the risk for radioactive contamination present great challenges. Also any addition of inhibitors, anti-scaling agents, biocides (in cooling towers) may represent high environmental loads of hazardous substances, although at relatively low concentrations. It is quite apparent that the water quantity and quality aspects are not always placed sufficiently high on the agenda for many power companies. Here IWA may be a cooperating partner with the energy sector to establish professional networks dealing the close relationship between water and energy. It is obvious that energy savings in households and in industry will have a large impact on the need for electrical energy and consequently on water consumption and ecology. For example, using more efficient pumps and power electronic motor control as well as more efficient refrigerators, air conditioners and heating systems will offer a most significant impact on the total electrical energy use. An ironic fact in developing countries is that low cost asynchronous motors and pumps have increased the water extraction for the agriculture. In some cases this has had catastrophic consequences for the groundwater level and for the salinity of the soil. Better use of water for agriculture is therefore of paramount interest. Within IWA the following special groups (SG) are considered with a direct interest in issues related to energy from water and environmental impacts from energy production: Anaerobic digestion Assessment and control of hazardous substances in water (dealing with inhibitors having potential impacts on ecotoxicity, persistency and bioaccumulation) Biofilms (dealing with control of fouling on material surfaces exposed to water) Climate Change and Adaptation Instrumentation control and automation (ICA) Strategic Asset Management Sustainability in the water sector Watershed and River Basin Management Emerging issues Future water supplies and treatment will probably be more energy intensive. Readily accessible freshwater supplies are limited and have been fully allocated in some areas. This means increased energy for pumping at deeper depths and longer conveyance. New technologies to access and to treat non-traditional water resources will require more energy per m3 of water. The water resources can be sea water, brackish water, produced water or impaired water. Many new technology issues offer interesting solutions. Wave energy can offer not only sustainable solutions of energy generation. The combination of desalination plants and wave energy generation could be a very interesting area for research and development for IWA researchers in cooperation with power systems researchers. Microbial fuel cells offer another interesting combination of water and energy issues. The MFC is not only an interesting energy challenge but also offers sustainable treatment of biological substances as a by-product. To extract heat from effluent water in treatment plants does not require new technology research but can probably be applied much more. Of course such a development assumes a relevant infrastructure, for example district heating systems. It is obvious that new incentives and attitudes have to be developed in order to save water and save energy. This is also a crucial role for IWA. Summary Energy and water has been selected as a crosscutting track at the IWA WWC in Vienna 2008. The inputs generated at one full day workshop together with keynote presentations will generate the background for a reference paper. Such a reference paper is meant to outline the framework for interactions with the water sector and the energy sector, respectively and to formulate some IWA positions. COP15, the next UN Climate Change Conference will take place in Copenhagen 30 Nov. – 11 Dec. 2009. It is expected that this will also focus on energy consumption and energy savings. In order to highlight the potentials for energy savings and recovery by the utilities in the water sector, it may be an opportunity for IWA to get involved in organising inputs for this planning process.