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Social Psychology

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					Social Psychology
Other people and us
         Major Themes
Human beings are fundamentally
social by nature
Humans are shaped by and shape
the society and culture in which they
live
Each person has, as a survival tool,
the ability to formulate stereotypes
         Who are you?
What social factors have influenced
you to become who you are?
Do you feel that you are more alike
or different than
– A) someone your age from your
  cultural/ethnic background who grew up
  in your ancestral country of origin?
– B) someone your age from a different
  cultural/ethnic background who grew up
  on your block?
      Social Psychology
Thoughts about others
Feelings toward others
Actions toward others
           Key Terms
Attribution—principles used to judge
the causes of events and our own
and others’ behavior
Fundamental attribution error—
misjudging the causes of others’
behavior because of overestimating
internal personal factors and
underestimating external situational
influence
           Key Terms
Saliency bias—tendency to focus on
the most noticeable factors when
explaining the causes of behaviors
Self-serving bias—taking credit for
our successes and externalizing our
failures
Attitude—learned predisposition to
respond cognitively, affectively, and
behaviorally to a particular object
Cognitive Dissonance Theory and
        Confirmation Bias
Confirmation bias—we tend to accept
data/input that confirms what we
already believe to be true
Cognitive dissonance theory—we
discover inconsistencies between our
attitudes and/or behaviors, we
experience discomfort which we try
to alleviate through attitude changes
Prejudice and Discrimination
Stereotype—a set of beliefs about the
characteristics of people in a group that is
generalized to all group members
Prejudice—a learned, generally negative,
attitude toward members of a group; it
includes thoughts (stereotypes), feelings
and behavioral tendencies (possible
discrimination)
Discrimination—negative behaviors
directed at members of a group
            Prejudice
A learned response
A mental shortcut
– Ingroup and outgroup
Economic and political competition
A form of displaced aggression
  Ingroups and Outgroups
Ingroup Favoritism—Viewing
members of the ingroup more
positively than members of an
outgroup.
Outgroup Homogeneity Effect—
Judging members of an outgroup as
more alike and less diverse than
members of the ingroup.
           Attraction
Physical Attractiveness (symmetry)
Proximity
Similarity
              Love
Eros—erotic love/romantic love
Philia—fraternal love (love between
friends or siblings)
Agape—unconditional love
(companionate love)
       Social Influence
Conformity—Changing behavior as a
result of real or imagined group
pressure
Obedience—Following direct
commands, usually from an authority
figure
            Conformity
Normative social influence—Conforming to
group pressure out of a need for
acceptance or approval
Informational social influence—Conforming
to group pressure out of a need for
direction and information
Reference Groups—People we conform to
or go along with, because we like and
admire them and want to be like them
      Obedience Factors
Power of authority
Distance between the teacher and
learner (i.e., in the ―shock
experiment‖)
Assignment of responsibility
Modeling/imitation
      Group Membership
Roles in groups
Deindividuation—Increased arousal
and reduced self-consciousness,
inhibition, and personal responsibility
that sometimes occurs in a group,
particularly when the members feel
anonymous
   Group Decision Making
Group polarization—Group’s
movement toward either riskier or
more conservative behavior,
depending on the members’ initial
dominant tendency
– A form of ―confirmation bias‖
– As the ends of the spectrum get
  redefined, so does the ―center‖
   Group Decision Making
Groupthink—Faulty decision making
that occurs when a highly cohesive
group strives for agreement and
avoids inconsistent information
– Newly married couples
– Iraq war
           Aggression
Biological factors
– Instinct
– Genes
– The brain and nervous system
– Substance abuse and other mental
  disorders
– Hormones and neurotransmitters
           Aggression
Psychological factors
– Aversive stimuli
– Culture and learning
– Media and video games
   Controlling Aggression
Catharsis
Incompatible responses
Improve social and communication
skills
              Altruism
Actions designed to help others with
no obvious benefit to the helper
– Egoistic model—Helping that is
  motivated by anticipated gain—later
  reciprocation, increased self-esteem, or
  avoidance of guilty and distress
– Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis—Helping
  because of empathy for someone in
  need
            Altruism
Helping breaks down in a crowd
largely due to:
Diffusion of responsibility—Assuming
someone else will take action (or
responsibility)
   Unlearning prejudice and
        discrimination
Cooperation
Superordinate goals
Increased contact
Cognitive retraining
Cognitive dissonance

				
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posted:7/22/2011
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