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					Government of Orissa
Department for International Development

WESTERN ORISSA RURAL LIVELIHOODS PROJECT


CNTR: 98 7800




SENSITISING WESTERN ORISSA RURAL LIVELIHOODS PROJECT STAFF
ON POVERTY AND EQUITY FOCUSED APPROACHES IN DEVELOPMENT


                                                      MAY 2003

S. Chatterji
A. Panda
S. K. Moinuddin
                                           (Working Paper No. 9)
                         WESTERN ORISSA RURAL LIVELIHOODS PROJECT




DISCLAIMER
This document is an output from a project funded by the UK Department for
International Development (DFID) for the benefit of developing countries. The views
expressed are not necessarily those of DFID.




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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The consultants received excellent support from the PSU staff and CBT project staff
from Bolangir and Nuapada districts. In particular we would like to thank Mr.Subodh
Mahapatra, Mr S.N. Pandeya and Mr. Rajiv Mohanty (CBT members, Bhubaneswar)
for their active participation and for providing logistic support for last minute
photocopying, etc. and Ms. Madhusmita (ERA) for assistance during the workshops.
We would also like to thank Mr. Martin Stewart and Mr. Rajib Ghosal NRIL for their
support. The logistic support provided by ERA consultants for typing up the annexes
and parts of the report is gratefully acknowledged.

The consultants would also like to thank Mr. S.K Lohani District Collector, Bolangir
and Mr. L. Otta, Project Director Bolangir, and Mr. P.K Patnaik, District Collector,
Nuapada and Mr. A.K. Panda, Project Director Nuapada for their active participation
and interest in the workshop.




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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Project (WORLP) is a ten-year project that
follows a ‘watershed plus’ approach based on the GoI watershed guidelines (2001)
with significant additional resources allocated for livelihood support activities,
targeted on the poorer and disadvantaged members of rural communities.

Many project stakeholders, including the district administration, WORLP staff and
PIAs/WDT members, are still not very familiar with livelihoods and gender
approaches. Two workshops were conducted in Bolangir May 2003, for PIAs, WDT
members, resource persons and project staff from Bolangir and Nuapada districts, to
provide an opportunity to initiate discussion on issues related to gender and
livelihoods and for identifying selection criteria for PIAs and watershed villages, and
look at capacity building needs. Each workshop was conducted over three days
facilitated by Dr. Sandhya Chatterji and co-facilitated by Dr. Abhash Panda.

The key concept of DFID livelihood approach was defined as “the way in which we
use resources to gain a living. These resources may be financial, physical, natural,
social and human.” The focus of discussion was based on the understanding that
project interventions should be aimed at the poorest and most deprived livelihood
groups and lead to improvements in the financial, physical, natural, social and
human capital assets of these groups (with special reference to the position of
women). The key concept of gender was defined as being shaped by historical,
economic, religious, cultural and ethnic factors, and “used to underline that women’s
position is not so much a result of biological differences between men and women
but rather based on differences that are socially determined.” The focus of
discussions was on the need to understand that it was necessary to identify sub
groups of men and women based on income, land ownership, caste, occupation, etc.
for identifying the poorest and deprived groups and activities for improving
livelihoods.

One of the key concerns of WORLP is to expand the project and hence to establish
methodologies for selecting watershed/villages and PIAs. In the workshop a list of
criteria was prepared for both aspects and as done in the case of APRLP, the
selection criteria were assigned weights to enable prioritisation and final selection of
PIAs and watersheds. The main aspects considered for the PIA was the experience
of staff, experience in implementing development projects in the region,
accountability and organisational capacity and the role of the WDT.                  For
watershed/village selection, the criteria considered related to physical characteristics
of the village/watershed, village location specific and village community related
aspects.

In a process project like WORLP, capacity building needs to be dynamic, ever
evolving and continuous. It was observed during the workshop that there is urgent
need to organize capacity building exercises on livelihoods and gender at the district,
block and community levels.




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ORGANISATION OF REPORT
The objectives of the workshop were to:

•   Improve the understanding of WORLP and PIA/WDT staff of livelihoods security,
    gender approaches and their roles in rural development;
•   Identify and document requirements and opportunities for capacity building in
    support of more extensive and effective use of livelihood security and gender
    approaches.
•   Initiate and document discussion of poverty-focused selection criteria for
    watersheds and PIAs.

Section A of the report therefore deals with the concepts of livelihoods and gender
discussed during the workshop, and outputs from field visits to generate information
on livelihoods using a gender perspective to data collection and analysis of solutions.

Section B gives an overview of some problem issues identified by the participants
and the participative designed selection criteria for PIA and watersheds.

Section C addresses the general capacity building needs of secondary stakeholders
as discussed during the workshop. Some additional inputs to the identification of
capacity building and training needs came from PSU staff at Bhubaneshwar.

Section D includes the major issues highlighted during the workshop and outlines
follow up action for WORLP.




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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DISCLAIMER .....................................................................................................................1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................................................................................3
ORGANISATION OF REPORT ..............................................................................................7
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................11
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................5
SECTION A-LIVELIHOOD/GENDER APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT ......................................13
  1. BACKGROUND .....................................................................................................13
  2. WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS AND OBJECTIVES .......................................................14
  3. WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS ..................................................................................14
  4. KEY CONCEPTS DISCUSSED .................................................................................16
SECTION B–SELECTION CRITERIA FOR PIAS AND WATERSHEDS/VILLAGES ......................17
  1. OVERVIEW OF METHODOLOGY ADOPTED IN WORKSHOP ........................................17
  2. METHODOLOGIES FOR DESIGNING THE SELECTION CRITERIA ...............................17
  3. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR PIAS ..........................................................................19
  4. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR WATERSHED VILLAGES................................................22
  5. MAJOR ISSUES IDENTIFIED .................................................................................24
SECTION C – CAPACITY BUILDING ..................................................................................25
  1. CAPACITY BUILDING REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................25
  2. OPPORTUNITIES FOR CAPACITY BUILDING ...........................................................26
SECTION D - RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FOLLOW UP ACTION ............................................27
  1. CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................................................27
ANNEXE 1 ......................................................................................................................32
  CONSULTANCY TERMS OF REFERENCE .........................................................................32
ANNEXE 2 ......................................................................................................................36
  LIST OF PARTICIPANTS ...............................................................................................36
ANNEXE 3 ......................................................................................................................38
  WORKSHOP ON LIVELIHOODS APPROACH IN WORLP - BOLANGIR ...............................38
ANNEXE 4 ......................................................................................................................39
  SUSTAINABLE RURAL LIVELIHOODS APPROACH – DR. ABHASH PANDA ..........................39
ANNEXE 5 ......................................................................................................................42
  GENDER AND METHODS OF ANALYSIS – DR. SANDHYA CHATTERJI ...............................42
ANNEXE 6 ......................................................................................................................44
  SELECTION CRITERIA FOR PIAS AND WATERSHED VILLAGES – ....................................44
  MR. S.K. MOINUDDIN ................................................................................................44
ANNEXE 7 ......................................................................................................................48
  GROUP – I: WELL BEING ANALYSIS ............................................................................48
ANNEXE 8 ......................................................................................................................57
  WORKSHOP ON LIVELIHOODS APPROACH IN WORLP – NUAPADA................................57
ANNEXE 9 ......................................................................................................................65
  KEY CONCERNS RAISED IN BOLANGIR WORKSHOP AND THE SOLUTIONS SUGGESTED ....65




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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

APRLP          Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project
BDO            Block Development Officer
CBO            Community Based Organisations
CBT            Capacity Building Teams
CPR            Common Property Resources
DC             District Collector
DFID           Department for International Development
DRDA           District Rural Development Agency
DWDC           District Watershed Development Committee
ERA            Environmental Research and Action Consultants Pvt Limited
EPA            Entry Point Activities
GO             Government Organisation – (Line Departments)
GP             Gram Panchayat
HQ             Head Quarters
JFM            Joint Forest Management
KBK            Koraput-Bolangir-Kalahandi region of Western Orissa
LST            Livelihood Support Teams
MoRD           Ministry of Rural Development
NGO            Non Government Organisation
NRIL           NR International Ltd
NRM            Natural Resource Management
NTFP           Non Timber Forest Products
PD             Project Director
PIA            Project Implementing Agency
PRA            Participatory Rural Appraisal
PST            Project Support Team
PSU            Project Support Unit
R&D            Research & Development
SC             Scheduled Caste
SHG            Self Help Group
ST             Scheduled Tribe
TA             Travel Allowance
TOR            Terms of Reference
UG             User Group
WA             Watershed Association
WC             Watershed Committee
WDT            Watershed Development Team
WORLP          Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Project
WM             Watershed Mission Govt of Orissa
WS             Watershed
ZP             Zilla Parishad
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SECTION A-LIVELIHOOD/GENDER APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT

1.      BACKGROUND

The Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Project (WORLP) is a ten-year project
implemented by the Watershed Mission (WM) of Government of Orissa and funded
by DFID with a total budget of 23 million. WORLP follows a ‘watershed plus’
approach based on the GoI watershed guidelines (2001) with significant additional
resources allocated for livelihood support activities, targeted on the poorer and
disadvantaged members of rural communities in Western Orissa. Resources are also
available for appropriate technical support and capacity building.

Project Goal
More effective approaches to Sustainable Rural Livelihoods adopted by government
agencies and other stakeholders in KBK districts and elsewhere.

Project Purpose
Sustainable livelihoods, particularly for the poorest, promoted in 4 districts in
replicable ways by 2010.

Project Components
-    Promoting livelihood improvements;
-    Capacity building for primary and secondary stakeholders;
-    Encouraging an enabling environment.

The project was launched in October 2000 with the appointing of the Project
Director, Watersheds and Assistant Project Directors. Work on the first 4 watersheds
began in July 2001 and a further 22 watersheds were taken up in October 2001.
The Project Support Team (PST) was appointed in January 2002 and the Project
Support Unit (PSU) established in September 2002. The Capacity Building Teams
(CBT) was positioned in December 2002 and the Livelihood Support Teams (LST) still
has to be appointed. At present 26 micro watersheds – 20 in Bolangir and 6 in
Nuapada have been taken up, entry point activities (EPA) have been initiated, PRA
activities undertaken and micro watershed plans have been developed. Most of
these however have followed the traditional watershed approach with a focus on soil
and water conservation, without much consideration for livelihood issues.

In this context, two workshops on gender and livelihoods were planned with PIAs,
WDT members, resource persons and project staff from Bolangir and Nuapada
districts, to provide an opportunity to initiate discussion on these issues and the way
forward. The detailed consultant’s TOR is given in Annex 1.

Many project stakeholders, including the district administration, WORLP staff and
PIAs/WDT members, are still not very familiar with livelihoods and gender
approaches.

A strategy and planning process carried out in late 2002 identified a clear need for
more training and orientation in these areas. To date this has been provided to a
limited extent and for core project staff only. Capacity building is therefore required
for secondary stakeholders at all levels of project implementers. Moreover the

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selection criteria both for watershed and for the PIAs villages need to be reviewed in
the light of the need to focus watershed plus on the poorest villages and other
vulnerable sections of communities.

2.     WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS AND OBJECTIVES
The methodology followed included two participatory, semi-structured three-day
workshops. The team of consultants worked closely and in an interactive manner
with around 35 participants for each workshop, drawn from WORLP and other line
department staff in Bolangir and Nuapada. The participants from Bolangir and
Nuapada included the DC of the district, the PD (WS) and PD (DRDA), BDO, PIA,
WDT, NGO, CBT members. The list of participants is given in Annex 2.

The workshops were held at Hotel Tribeni, Bolangir between May 7th-9th for the
participants from Bolangir, and May 10th-12th for the participants from Nuapada
district.

The main objectives of the workshops were:
- To assist participants to develop an understanding of livelihood security,
   value and practical application
- To assist participants to understand how to analyze people’s livelihoods, how
   these change over time; how to identify livelihood related trade-offs, constraints
   and opportunities
- Facilitate understanding the practical value of gender equity. Develop
   comprehension of how an enabling environment for women can be created so
   that they are able to assume leadership roles and become effective partners in
   the project. Help project staff to consider and propose processes that will
   ensure equitable representation of men and women and their access to
   and control over resources and assets
- Based on an increased understanding of livelihoods and gender, help to develop
   draft poverty focused selection criteria for both watersheds and PIAs that
   would lead to more effective implementation of livelihoods-based socially
   equitable watershed plus approaches through the project
- Some information was also collected from participants on capacity building
   needs.

3.     WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS
Each workshop was conducted over three days. The agenda is given in Annex 3.

The workshop was facilitated by Dr. Sandhya Chatterji and co-facilitated by
Dr. Abhash Panda. The workshop was conducted in a participatory manner with
plenary sessions for presentation of key concepts, open discussions using flip charts
for documenting view points and group work to enable participants exchange views
for assessing livelihood and gender issues. During some sessions, cards were used
to get inputs from all participants for selection criteria for PIAs and watershed
villages.

To provide a theoretical basis for discussion, presentations were given by (1)
Dr. Abhash Panda on the Sustainable Rural Livelihoods Approach of DfID, (2) Dr.
Sandhya Chatterji on Gender Approaches to development and (3) Mr. S.K Moinuddin
on the APRLP selection Criteria for PIAs and Watershed villages. These presentations
are given in Annex 4, 5 and 6. Working groups were formed among participants to
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encourage discussion and exchange of experiences among them and the results of
the deliberations were presented by each group and discussed in the plenary
session. The working group discussions on methodologies for assessing livelihoods
considering gender based differences, is given in Annex 7. Field visits were also
organised to get a first hand impression of methods of conducting PRAs with a
livelihoods and gender approach to data collection and planning of activities in micro
plans. The outputs of the working groups for both workshops are given in Annex 8.

Workshop Day 1
On day 1 in the morning session, the theoretical concepts relating to livelihoods and
the gender approach to development were given through presentations. This was
followed by group work for identifying methods of analysis of livelihoods groups, and
for assessing variations within the community on the basis of gender based
differences for work, and access and control over resources. In the afternoon,
methods for the identification and analysis of different livelihood and gender groups
were discussed in three working groups and the results presented by each group. A
presentation on methodology for livelihood analysis and identification of pro poor
interventions was made by Mr. Czech Conroy followed by a joint presentation by Mr.
Subodh Mahapatra, Mr S.N. Pandeya and Mr. Rajiv Mohanty (CBT members,
Bhubaneshwar) on methodology used for livelihood analysis in 2 villages in Bolangir.
A film on watershed development was also shown at the end of the day.

Workshop Day 2
Day 2 began with a brief review of possible methodologies that could be adopted to
assess livelihood groups and get insights into gender-based differences between
members of the community. The participants were then divided into two groups,
with each group visiting a village and actually conducting PRAs and focused group
discussions so as to better understand methodological issues related to data
collection and analysis. The group from Bolangir district visited the villages and the
group from Nuapada district visited the villages for the fieldwork. The group worked
on identifying livelihood classes through a well being ranking and gender analysis by
preparing an activity profile for women and men along with time line data on the
different work loads of different groups of women and men. In the afternoon
presentations were made by each sub group on the main findings from the village
visit.

Workshop Day 3
On the last day of the workshop, the ZOPP methodology with cards (in our case
sticky post-its) was used to get ideas from all participants on selection criteria for
PIAs and watershed villages. The cards were arranged and common cards were
discarded to get a composite list of selection criteria. These are presented in the
following section of the report. This was followed by the presentation of the APRLP
criteria as information to the participants. The selection criteria developed during the
workshop for WORLP was crosschecked against the APRLP criteria. All the APRLP
criteria for selection of watersheds had been covered by the participants. The
selection criteria for PIAs however was somewhat villages different since most of the
APRLP criteria focussed on NGO implementers while most of the WORLP, PIAs were
from government agencies.
Some of the capacity building needs were highlighted and problem issues that arose
during the discussion process were also presented and possible solutions sought
from participants.
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4.     KEY CONCEPTS DISCUSSED

Livelihoods
The key concept of livelihood was defined as “the way in which we use resources to
gain a living. These resources may be financial, physical, natural, social and
human.”     The focus of discussion was based on the understanding that project
interventions should be aimed at the poorest and most deprived livelihood groups
and lead to improvements in the financial, physical, natural, social and human capital
assets of vulnerable groups (with special reference to the position of women).

DFID’s Sustainable Rural Livelihoods approach is based on the analysis of the capital
assets (physical, natural, financial, human and social) from which rural people make
up their livelihoods. Project interventions can aim at strengthening this capital in
different ways depending on the need. In areas of great inequality, there is need to
strengthen the human and social capital of the poorest to enable them to overcome
entitlement failures which prevent them from accessing natural resources.

Under this approach, interventions in WORLP will address non agricultural livelihood
needs articulated by the poor – including food security, drinking water supply,
savings and credit, transport, communications, non-land based income generation
and access to health and education services. This approach also ties in closely with
MoRD thinking on how to improve effectiveness of government poverty reduction
schemes – in particular by promoting convergence between different instruments by
which government addresses rural livelihoods.

Gender
Considering that the concept of gender was defined as “women’s and men’s socially
defined roles and characteristics the focus of discussions was based on the need to
understand that it was not enough to merely differentiate between women and men,
but that it was necessary to identify sub groups of men and women based on
income, land ownership, caste, occupation, etc. for identifying activities for improving
livelihoods.

The project planning process therefore will consider the:
- position of women in relation to men in terms of the division of labour, access
   and control over resources, socio-political dimension of women’s position and
   influencing factors in the enabling environment
- capacity of the implementing institutions to address gender
- likely participation of women and men in project activities and
- likely effects of the project on women as compared to men

In the project document, women in general (and female headed households in
particular) are identified as primary stakeholders of the project and a special focus
group. The project will encourage interventions aimed at women who depend on
labour, marginal farming and NTFP.

See Annex 7 and Annex 8 for working groups’ presentations on methodologies for
the analysis of livelihoods and gender approaches and the results from village
surveys.


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SECTION B–SELECTION CRITERIA FOR PIAS AND
WATERSHEDS/VILLAGES

1.     OVERVIEW OF METHODOLOGY ADOPTED IN WORKSHOP
In each workshop one day was devoted to discussions on the selection criteria for
watersheds and PIAs. The deliberations began with a theoretical overview on how
methodologies for designing the selection criteria for PIAs and watersheds have
evolved in MoRD guidelines and DFID projects such as KAWAD, WIRFP and APRLP.
The gist of the overview is given in Section 6 below.

This was followed with group work in which participants listed the selection criteria
they thought important firstly for PIAs and then for watersheds. Each idea was put
on a separate card and the ideas were then grouped in sets. Duplicate cards were
removed, overlapping ideas were consolidated and a final list of selection criteria was
prepared separately for PIAs and watersheds/villages.

A presentation was then made on the APRLP criteria and the list prepared in the
workshop was compared to see if any aspect had been left out. In both workshops,
the participants had considered all possibilities for WORLP and all the APRLP criteria
had been covered. In a smaller group, the selection criteria for WORLP were
rearranged into a table and weights were assigned as done in the case of APRLP.
The initial WORLP selection criteria developed along with the reformatted table form
with proposed weights are given in section 7 for PIAs and Section 8 for watersheds.

After finalization of these criteria, there was open discussion on whether priority
should be given to first identifying needy villages with deprived communities and
then demarcating a watershed boundary for project implementation, versus first
selecting watersheds on the basis of degradation and then identifying which villages
to work in. There was common consensus that to give a poverty focus to the
selection criteria, priority should be given to first identifying poorer village
communities and then identifying physical boundaries for physical watershed works.

The possibility of including ZP and GP bodies as PIA was also discussed. The
participants felt that the GP were still too undeveloped to take on the responsibility
of implementing WS and livelihood activities. One possibility discussed for including
them, was the joint implementation with either a GO or NGO partner, where the GP
would assist primarily in community mobilization activities and micro planning.

Using inputs from the presentations and the experience gained in the field the
previous day, a methodology to proceed in the field was then discussed highlighting
the need to include the views of different stakeholders the need for flexibility in
designing micro plans for activities was emphasized to accommodate village and
community location specific conditions. Some of the issues identified during these
open discussions are given at the end in section 9.

2.     METHODOLOGIES FOR DESIGNING THE SELECTION CRITERIA
The gist of the theoretical overview given during the workshop on how
methodologies for designing the selection criteria have evolved in MoRD guidelines
and DFID projects is given below.

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MoRD
The concept and practices of watershed development have come in for periodic
assessment. Accordingly the selection criteria for watershed and habitation have
also been reformulated. In the early model of selecting the watershed, the variables
considered included inputs through evapo-transpiration potential data; amount of
rainfall; sediment yield index; level of management of natural resources. On the
basis of these criteria, the watersheds were selected in five categories from very high
to very low capacity. These criteria were mono-focused on natural and physical
factors especially of land, water and vegetation.

In 1995, MoRD radically revised its selection criteria by focusing on habitations
instead of watersheds to enhance the participation of village communities. The
criteria for selecting habitations included the assured contribution from people in
labour, cash and kind; involvement of the Gram Panchayat for use of CPRs and
commitment to maintenance of assets. In addition, the existence of local NGO or
other institutions willing to function as the PIA, and the formation of CBOs such as
SHGs, JFM etc. In addition, within the selected villages, the watersheds were
identified on the basis of the acute shortage of drinking water; a large population of
dalits and adivasis; preponderance of wastelands and common lands; actual wages
lower than the minimum wages; proximity to other treated or selected watersheds
and an area of around 500 ha.

The PIA plays the key role in facilitating planning and implementation of the
programme and many NGOs took up watershed activities under the MoRD
programme. Where NGOs were not available, government agencies were appointed
as the PIA. The selection criteria for the PIA (rigorously enforced only in the case of
NGOs), were close proximity to the watersheds, experience of community
mobilization work in rural areas, financial accountability, appropriate infrastructure
and trained staff. GO agencies were generally appointed in areas where NGOs were
not available.

MoRD is currently in the process of revising the guidelines and the preparation of the
Haryali guidelines that give prominence to gram panchayats as PIA for implementing
the programme. When these come into effect, gram panchayats will be important
primary stakeholders in the project and all watershed projects are to be implemented
by the GP of the concerned village. The WORLP project will have to consider this
eventuality even though the GP in the project area are as yet unprepared for the
task.

DFID
DFID India’s evolving rural development programme including the KAWAD, WIRFP
and APRLP projects help to mainstream its effort within government. Of these, the
APRLP is closest to the WORLP in concept with its central focus on considering
watershed activities as part of livelihood improvement strategies. While WORLP has
a strong project support structure, APRLP depends less on parallel management and
support structures as the GoAP is better organised and the project can seek to work
fully within existing systems.

WORLP is among the most recent DFID supported livelihood improvement projects
and planning for WORLP has incorporated lessons from the previous projects. The
selection criteria designed for APRLP can therefore be considered a prototype of an
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SRL approach to watershed development and revised to suit the institutional context
of Orissa and WORLP. In the WORLP Strategy & Planning Process document,
November 2002, the suggested selection criteria for watersheds/PIAs include:
• Selection of watersheds must be done in consultation with villagers
• There should be a probationary period of 6 months to assess people’s
   commitment to contribution and participation
• WDT under WORLP will be exclusive for the project
• The PIA should implement only the number of watersheds that it can effectively
   handle in terms of staff and infrastructure.
• Gram panchayats should be considered as PIA on a pro-active basis.

The workshop participants began their group work with this background information.

3.     SELECTION CRITERIA FOR PIAS
The selection criteria for PIAs developed during the workshop to an extent reflected
the type of participants - who were mainly from GO line departments.

The WORLP PIA selection criteria was grouped under the subheads
• staff experience;
• the PIA experience in the local area with community mobilization;
• accountability and organizational competence;
• role and nature of the WDT associated with the technical capacity of the PIA.

Regarding Staff and experience
- Experienced staff is available in the PIA (for activities related to community
   organisation, land and water conservation livestock management; marketing and
   income generation activities; conflict resolution; etc)
- The PIA has sufficient number of field staff (men and women)
- PIA leadership should have adequate management skills, leadership qualities and
   experience in managing multi-disciplinary teams
- PIA staff should be willing to work throughout project period to maintain project
   continuity
- The PIA should devote at least 50% of its time to project activities

Experience in local area
- The PIA should have close rapport with the community and have a proven track
   record for organizing the poor in the local area
- The PIA could be from another area as long as they have a proven track record
   in community mobilization and WS and WS+ activities
- There should be an independent PIA (GO) in each block
- PIA should have R&D capability, and ability for innovations in design
- The PIA should work full time for WS activities or PIA (GO) should not have any
   other responsibility for work from the parent line department
- Women’s CBOs such as federation of SHGs could work as the PIA and can get
   inputs (technical) from the WDT
- While a large number of years of experience in the local area was welcome, it
   was not a rigid criteria or mandatory rule
- The PIA should be given a probation period of 6 months for capacity building of
   staff on one hand and for the community to accept them on the other hand.


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Organizational Capacity/Financial accountability
- PIA should have transparency in financial accounting and proven track record
   (audited accounts etc) and be a registered organization
- PIA should have ability to generate funds from other government programmes
   through convergence
- The PIA should have adequate minimum infrastructure

Role of WDT
- At least 50% of the WDT members should come from the local area (within
   district)
- WDT should be appointed full time only for WS and WS Plus work in project
- NGOs should have a minimum number of watersheds to support the cost of WDT
   teams
- WDT members should have knowledge of indigenous technologies and
   knowledge of the local socio-economic and cultural situation
- One (or more) members of the WA/WC may be in the WDT

Suggested Criteria and weights for the selection of PIA in WORLP

Sl.                                                                            Weight
           Parameters                        Range                     Marks
No.                                                                             age
I. GO PIA
     Willingness to provide
                                                Yes                      5
  1. necessary
                                                No                       -       5
     inputs/support to WDT
     Orientation and/or
     experience in
                                                Yes                      5
  2. participatory
                                                No                       -       5
     development
     programmes
     Participatory,
                                                Yes                      5
  3. responsive and
                                                No                       -       5
     accountable services
                                            <3 years                     1
      Experience in rural
 4.                                        3 to 5 years                  4
      development
                                            >5 years                     5       5
     Vigilance enquiry                          No                       5
 5.
     initiated/pending                         Yes                       -       5
II. NGO PIA
                                                Yes                      5
 1.   Registered Body
                                                No                       -       5
      Experienced and proven
                                            <3 years                    2
      track record of working
 2.                                        3 to 5 years                 6
      with rural community
                                            >5 years                    10       10
      for rural development
                                          <3 years                      4
      Proven track record in
 3.                                      3 to 5 years                   6
      social mobilization
                                          >5 years                      10       10
      Management skill of the             Adequate                      10
 4.
      Leader/Director                 Needs improvement                 5        10

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      Transparency in
      financial accounting                    Yes                    10
 5.
      (Audited records for the                No                      -          10
      last 3 years)
      Willingness to work
                                              Yes                    5
 6.   through out the project
                                              No                     -            5
      period
 7.   Infrastructure:
         a) Office premises
                                           Separate                  3
              (Maximum 5
                                            Shared                   2
              marks)
         b) Vehicles
                                          2 wheeler                  2
              (Maximum 5
                                          4 wheeler                  3
              marks)
         c) Supporting staff
                                          Technical                  4
              (Maximum 5
                                        Non-Technical                1           10
              marks)
 8.   Experienced field staff
      (0 if no staff):
                                            1 No.                    2
        a)   Social Science
                                            2 Nos.                   5
        b)    Livelihood                      1                      2
              management                      2                      5
        c) Natural Resource                   1                      2
              Management                      2                      5
        d) Female
                                                 1                   3
              professional
                                                 2                   5           20
              employee
     Ability to generate
                                    Upto 10% of project
     funds by converging                                             2
                                           cost
 9. other programmes and                                             5
                                        10 to 20%
     to collect peoples                                              10          10
                                        Above 20%
     contribution
     Expenditure on works               <Rs.5 lakhs                  2
     by the organization           Rs.5 lakhs to 10 lakhs            3
 10.
     during the last financial     >10 lakhs to 25 lakhs             5
     year (Audited records)              >25 lakhs                   10          10

NOTE:
1. Minimum of 10 watersheds to be assigned to one PIA.
2. The PIA should have/ appoint WDT with four members for every 10 watersheds.
   In case of financial limitation at least the Social Scientist, Livelihood Specialist
   should be appointed: Other WDT members i.e. Soil Conservationist /Civil
   Engineer, Agronomist/Horticulturist, etc may be engaged on an honorarium basis
   as required.
3. At least 50% of WDT members should be from local area (within Block/District).
4. PIA should establish field office for the WDT in the centrally located village of the
   project area or nearest to it.



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4.     SELECTION CRITERIA FOR WATERSHED VILLAGES
The selection criteria for watersheds were sub-grouped into
• physical factors,
• village characteristics and
• attributes of the village community.

Physical factors
- Topography of watershed (based on satellite imagery; ground waters situation,
   slope, etc) should be considered and preference given to resource poor regions
- Watersheds where degraded lands (especially CPRs) and wastelands are greater,
   or there is no forest cover/ vegetation, large non-irrigated areas exist, and water
   resources (drinking and ground water) are limited, and where drought frequency
   is high, should be taken up
- Villages contiguous to other watershed villages should be preferred

Village characteristics
- Preference to small homogenous villages where people’s need for improving
    livelihoods are high and existing potential for income increments are low
- Preference should be given to the village covered by one watershed
- Preference to villages in remote locations (distance from road/block HQ)
- The village should not be already covered under other watershed programmes

Village community related
- Villages should have high percentage of SC/ST population and other deprived
    and vulnerable groups
- Villages with a large number of small/marginal farmers with degraded land
- Preference should be given to villages where community has already been
    organized (into JFM, Pani panchayat, etc groups). Special preference to villages
    where women are organized into SHG or other groups
- Villages where all sections of the community are willing to participate and
    contribute to project especially for development of common resources
- Preference should be given to villages where the community has already initiated
    self management of NRM
- Villages where resources are poorly used should be taken up to increase NRM
- Preference to villages where population is larger (so as to benefit more people)
- Villages with social deprivation such as lack of primary school, common road,
    drinking water and large SC/ST population should be given priority
- Villages where a large proportion of the community is poor and deprived of
    resources such as access to adequate drinking water, health, education,
    communications infrastructure, etc should be taken up
- Village with high migration and proportion of population below poverty line
- Villages where watershed activities are felt need of primary stakeholders should
    be prioritized

In a smaller group as in the case of the selection criteria for PIAs, the criteria for
selection of watersheds and villages were put into a table and given weights so that
new villages / watersheds can be taken up under WORLP.



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Suggested Criteria for Selection of villages/watersheds in WORLP

Sl.
               Parameters                  Source            Range          Marks        Weight
No.
       Physical:
                                                                              2
       Topography and level of                                Low
 1.    degradation of land &
                                            ORAC
                                                          Medium High
                                                                              8
                                                                              10            10
       vegetation (forests)
                                           ORAC &             <10%            1
 2.    Availability waste/fallow lands      Village        >10-<20%           4
                                           Statistics         >20%            5             5
                                           ORAC &           >800 mm           1
 3.    Rainfall (Annual in mm)              Village        >600-<800          4
                                           Statistics       <600 mm           5             5
                                                             <10 mt.          1
                                            Dept. of
 4.    Status of Ground Water
                                         Ground Water
                                                          >10-<15 mt          4
                                                             >15 mt.          5             5
                                                              >30%            1
                                            Village
 5.    Irrigated area
                                           Statistics
                                                           <30->20%           4
                                                              <20%            5             5
       Contiguity of                        Review             No             0
 6.    treated/proposed watersheds          Report             Yes            5             5
                                                             <1000            2
                                            Village
 7.    Livestock (Number)
                                           Statistics
                                                          >1000->2000         3
                                                             >2000            5             5
                                                              <30%            2
       Social:                              Village
 8.    % of SC/ST population               Statistics
                                                          >30%-<50%           8
                                                              >50%            10            10
                                                              <25%            2
       No. of small and marginal            Village
 9.    farmers                             Statistics
                                                           >25-<50%           8
                                                              >50%            10            10
       % of women organized in                                <20%            2
                                           Primary
 10.   groups and participating in
                                           Survey
                                                          >20%-<50%           3
       development programmes                                 >50%            5             5
       Willingness of community to
                                           Primary             No             0
 11.   participate in development
                                           Survey              Yes            10            10
       programmes
                                                             Available        2
                                           Primary
 12. Problem of Drinking Water             Survey
                                                             Shortage         8
                                                          Acute Shortage      10            10
       Availability of CPR & its                              <10%            1
                                           Primary
 13.   accessibility to landless &
                                           Survey
                                                            >10-<20%          4
       poor                                                   >20%            5             5
                                                              >80%            1
       Landless people involved in          Village
 14. wage employment                       Statistics
                                                            >50-<80%          4
                                                              <50%            5             5
       No. of families                     Primary
                                                             <50%             1
       affected/involved in migration     Survey and
 15.   for want of wage                     Village
                                                           >50-<100%          4
                                                             >100%            5             5
       employment                          Statistics

Note:
Preference may be given to the villages
-   that are in remote locations (distance from Block headquarter or from main road)
-   where community has already been organized (into thrift & credit groups, JFM, Pani panchayat etc
    with special preference to women groups)
-   primary schools and health centers are absent




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5.      MAJOR ISSUES IDENTIFIED
During the workshop, some problem issues were identified by the PIA from GO.
Most issues were related to the institutional structure of the project, role of the WDT,
work overload and time constraints for GO PIAs, existing skills and capacity building
needs of PIAs, lack of infrastructure, incentives, fund flows, lack of co-ordination at
the block level, need to follow MoRD guidelines, little flexibility for independent
decision making and lack of clarity regarding project implementation strategy.

Some of the solutions suggested were:

-    There should be a separate watershed office for each block, just as in the case of
     the state and district to improve coordination between PIA and WDT in the same
     block, and between different line departments related to watershed work and
     convergence activities

-    There should be a separate WDT for each PIA (covering 10 watersheds) to
     ensure adequate technical support. WDT members should report to the PIA to
     ensure accountability

-    PIAs (especially NGOs) should implement a minimum number of watersheds to
     avoid having to support very high costs of WDT and to spread overheads

-    Overheads for WDT members should be improved (especially for mobility –
     existing norm is only Rs 250/month) to enable them to travel to watersheds

-    Watershed activities are perceived as an additional charge over and above the
     existing departmental work; PIA should therefore concentrate exclusively on WS
     activities

-    Some guidelines are required for methods of implementing livelihood activities;
     the existing guidelines tend to be interpreted in a way that makes it difficult to
     address people’s needs beyond entry point activities

-    Clarity is required in implementation procedures. Some confusion exists as to
     difference between watershed plus activities and livelihood improvement
     activities (what should be taken up under what budget head, since fund flows are
     different for both heads)

-    PIA / WDT / CBT / LST need training and exposure visits to better understand
     methodologies related to gender approach, livelihoods analysis, coping strategies,
     conflict resolution and tracking changes in livelihoods




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SECTION C – CAPACITY BUILDING

1.     CAPACITY BUILDING REQUIREMENTS
The efficiency and effectiveness of any programme depends on the capabilities and
skill of the project staff in planning and implementing project activities. Capacity
building and training of secondary and primary stakeholders is thus of prime
importance. Capacity building is a major objective in a process project like WORLP,
and needs to be dynamic, ever evolving and continuous. It was observed through
deliberations with the participants during the workshops that there is an urgent need
to assist and orient stakeholders at district, block and community levels, from
planners and administrators at the district level to project implementers at the
district, block and village level.

During the two workshops, though we were dealing with around 40 participants in
each session, very few WORLP PIAs and WDT members were present. Most
participants included GO officials at various levels (DCs, PDs, to forest guards and
anganwadi workers) with wide variation in awareness on watershed development,
community participation, livelihood and gender issues. Some GO participants had
been given additional charge of watershed activities and were not clear of their
future role in the project. Some CBT members had just joined and had minimal
exposure to the project. The level of participation therefore was not as intensive as it
could have been in a smaller and more homogenous group. Also, the (as yet) lack of
actual stakeholder involvement in project activities (most participants were not PIAs
or WDT members) did certainly affect the type of suggestions for follow up that
came up and the discussions were more general rather than specific based on
experiences of project implementation.

Most participants had not really been previously involved with project planning or
implementation and used the workshop as a venue for familiarising themselves with
the project concept. Under these circumstances, at best it was possible to have a
general idea of capacity building needs, but we did not have the time or the
expertise available within the group to come up with a specific strategy with concrete
suggestions on what training is required at different levels, where can this be given,
how often, topics to be covered, training events and programmes, exposure visits,
what sort of agency / consultant would be most appropriate to provide the training
etc. However, an attempt has been made by the consultants to outline some general
comments regarding capacity building and training that emerged in the workshop.

Orientation to the project approach and watershed plus activities in context of
support to livelihoods improvements for the poorest and most deprived sections of
the community can be considered for the District Collectors, PD (DRDA) and PD
(WS), DWDC members, Zilla Parishad (ZP) members and the district CBT.

In addition to orientation on the project approach, training on livelihoods and gender
analysis and community mobilization methods (including generating contribution,
conflict resolution and withdrawal strategy to hand over responsibility can be given
at the block level to PIAs, WDT, LST and to BDOs. As appropriate to existing
capacities of the PIA, WDT and LST, training can be given on establishing income-
generating activities, and on the transfer/ application of indigenous and appropriate
technologies. The PIA in particular requires orientation to the livelihoods approach.

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LST have still not been appointed and GO WDT members are part time departmental
staff given charge for providing technical inputs to WS activities. Though highly
experienced and in some cases motivated, they require orientation in the livelihoods
approach and participatory methods of addressing the needs of the poorest, rather
than focusing on soil and water conservation activities. NGO WDT members on the
other hand, lack capacity in technical matters and needs appropriate training.

The specific capacity building and training needs at the village level for SHG
members, JFM, UG, WA, WC and other CBOs, will emerge from the nature of activity
to be introduced and the existing skills of the trainees.

Considering the new Hariyali guidelines, the GP will be responsible for implementing
all watershed activities. The GP members of the concerned village will therefore form
an important group for capacity building under WORLP.

2.     OPPORTUNITIES FOR CAPACITY BUILDING
The opportunities for capacity building include
• exposure visits to other livelihood, watershed and local institution building (SHG,
   JFM groups) projects
• training programmes
• workshops and seminars
• production of appropriate training material for different livelihood groups
• development of pilots as models for demonstration

As per our information and subsequent discussion with the participants, training
institutes specializing in livelihoods orientation/improvement strategy or in gender
equity are not available in Orissa. Therefore to begin with, expertise from specialized
National institutes like MYRADA or the services of expatriates familiar with DFID
livelihoods strategy could be hired. The livelihoods specialists available at the PSU
/CBT level could be attached to the experts hired from specialized institutes so that
they carry forward capacity building exercises in subsequent training programmes.

A Consortium/pool of facilitators consisting of Livelihoods Specialists from PSU/CBT,
master trainers picked from state/district level training resource centres like CYSD,
CENDERET, IMAGE, RITEs etc. could be constituted. As there is no specialized
training centres on Livelihoods/Gender in the state, the above mentioned consortium
could be imparted training in various aspects of livelihoods by experts from national
level training centres like MANAGE and MYRADA and the Watershed Mission should
enter into a MoU with these institutes for exchange of expertise. Similarly the
primary stakeholders, especially the SHGs, user groups and WDC members should go
for exposure visits to projects implemented by GVT and CSWRTI in the state. Visits
to APRLP and WIRFP can also be considered.

Capacity building for PRIs:
The GP/Gram Sabha members are represented in most of the Watershed
Development Committee (WDC). These members should be oriented to take part
actively in the micro-planning process of the watersheds. An orientation-training
workshop of the GP/Zilla Parishad members could be organized at the district level to
provide them orientation on WORLP – its goal and purpose and other important
aspects of livelihoods. The salient features of MoRD guidelines (and Haryali
guidelines), identifying roles and responsibilities for PIAs, PRIs should also be
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discussed in the workshop. As an initial step some proactive stepa can be taken to
identify and short-list some GPs in the project district and give them responsibility to
manage one or two micro-watersheds on an experimental basis so that it could be
developed into a model for GP to take on the role and responsibility of PIA in the
future. The suggested capacity building exercises at different levels are as follows:


Sl.
           Level                     What                        How           Where
No.

                                                                            District
      District          Livelihoods improvement
                                                                            headquarter,
      (District         strategy (land and non-land
                                                            Training,       visit to
      Collector, PD     based), livelihoods analysis,
                                                            workshops,      successful
 1.   DRDA, PD          livelihoods interventions &
                                                            exposure        projects
      Watersheds,       security, gender equity,
                                                            visits          inside/
      APDs, CBT         empowerment of women and
                                                                            outside the
      members)          other vulnerable sections
                                                                            State

                        Livelihoods improvement
                        strategy (land and non-land
                                                                            Block
                        based), livelihoods analysis,
                                                                            headquarter,
                        livelihoods interventions &
                                                            Training,       project
      Block (PIAs,      security, gender equity,
                                                            workshops       villages;
 2.   WDTs, LSTs,       empowerment of women and
                                                            exposure        experience
      BDOs & PRIs)      other vulnerable sections,
                                                            visits pilots   sharing in
                        process monitoring/
                                                                            non-project
                        documentation, entry point
                                                                            villages
                        activities, participatory
                        techniques/planning etc.

                                                                            Village/
                                                                            community
                        Livelihoods orientation, social     Training,       level;
      Village (CBOs,
                        mobilization, social audit,         exposure        exposure
      Cos,
 3.                     participatory skills/plans,         visits          visits to other
      Community,
                        strengthening of institutions                       watershed
      PRIs)
                        etc.                                Pilots          projects
                                                                            within the
                                                                            state


SECTION D - RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FOLLOW UP ACTION

1.     CONCLUSIONS
Since July 2001, 26 micro watersheds – 20 in Bolangir and 6 in Nuapada have been
taken up, entry point activities initiated, PRAs undertaken and micro watershed plans
developed.       Most of these however have followed the traditional watershed
approach with a focus on soil and water conservation, without much consideration
for livelihood issues. PIA project staff from GO line departments is familiar with
MoRD guidelines, but require orientation to the SRL approach and gender concerns.
Within, the PSU many staff members are still being oriented to the project.
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Under these conditions, the key issues for project management are:

•   What methodology to use given the project poverty/livelihoods focus
•   How to select more PIAs and watersheds/villages to expand the project
•   How to enable project staff/ stakeholders/ local institutions to plan, implement
    and manage the programme

The present workshop directly addressed these concerns. A number of valuable
suggestions came up on how to address livelihood and gender issues, indicators of
selection criteria for PIAs and watersheds were designed, and problem issues were
highlighted in terms of need for creating an enabling environment and for capacity
building. The conclusions drawn and proposed strategy for WORLP follow up action
given below is based on the outcomes of the workshop, discussions with project
management, and prior experience of the consultants.

The Sustainable Rural Livelihoods Approach/Gender Concerns

Livelihoods: The WORLP watersheds already being implemented follow the MoRD
guidelines in fund allocation for soil and water conservation works, community
mobilization, technical inputs from WDT and entry point activities. Activities related
to improving livelihoods (e.g. income generation, grain banks for food security, etc)
have still to be initiated in ongoing projects and planned for in new projects. Most
NGO project staff is well acquainted with methodologies for identifying livelihood
groups through wealth ranking and well being analysis etc. GO PIA field staff is
generally drawn from DRDA or Department of Agriculture and have experience in
extension activities and planning with the community.

However, the existing MoRD guidelines tend to be interpreted in a way that gives
priority to soil and water conservation and makes it difficult to address people’s
needs beyond entry point activities. Micro planning exercises therefore need to be
perceived and structured differently by PIA facilitators with priority given for
identifying livelihood needs; and in the plan including soil and water conservation
structures, afforestation and other watershed related activities as appropriate to
meeting community livelihood needs.

To ensure the poverty and livelihoods improvement focus and the participation of the
poorest in project benefits, guidelines for micro planning are required for methods of
selecting and implementing livelihood activities within village micro planning
exercises and for establishing community self management mechanisms. Fund flows
for availing WORLP budgets for livelihood activities also need to be clarified.

The community needs emerging from micro planning exercises should enumerate
livelihood needs irrespective of sector (e.g. health, roads, income generation, food
security etc). Implementation plans can therefore draw on various ongoing
development programmes. An enabling environment has therefore to be created for
convergence of WORLP with other government programmes. Convergence can be
initiated through decentralized coordination at the block level.

Gender: More consideration has to be given to gender starting from collecting
gender disaggregated data, giving women a role in planning and management, to
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inclusion of specific activities. Gender concerns need to be incorporated from data
collection and planning to project implementation and management. Micro planning
exercises should include activities that address women’s practical and strategic
needs. Women should be involved especially in village level motivation and
management activities. There is a need for employ women as regular staff members
and para-workers in villages. Exposure visits by women and other vulnerable groups
to successful rural development programmes of the district and outside will help
them in understanding and planning their own activities on a priority basis. Specific
gender training programmes and exposure visits for different levels of stakeholders
should be designed and implemented.

Selection Criteria for watersheds/ villages
Expanding WORLP to additional areas is a key concern for project management. The
selection criteria developed in the workshop were sub-grouped into physical factors,
village characteristics and attributes of the village community. Workshop participants
felt that to give a poverty focus to the selection criteria, priority should be given to
first identifying poorer village communities for introducing livelihood improvement
activities instead of first identifying physical boundaries for physical watershed works
and then seeing which villages are to be covered.

During the workshop, discussion regarding selection criteria for PIAs/ watersheds
was necessarily theoretical and led to identification of the ideal “should be” criteria,
rather than the criteria being based on actual experience of implementing watershed
and livelihood activities in the region. A smaller core group should therefore be
constituted to assess the criteria designed for WORLP and finalise the selection
criteria for WORLP.

Selecting villages with the greatest proportion of deprived/ poor population will first
require an adequate database of information on the village physical and socio-
economic criteria. Baseline data on indicators not available from secondary sources
therefore needs to be collected. Such (gender disaggregated) data collection needs
to be initiated.

From a pragmatic point of view, priority may be given to villages contiguous to areas
where watershed activities under the project have already been instituted.

Selection Criteria for PIAs
The success of any programme to a large extent depends on the effectiveness of the
implementing agency. One of the most difficult tasks facing project management is
the selection of PIAs for WORLP. There are very few competent NGOs in the project
region and GO line department staff (WDT members) often hold additional charge
for watershed activities in addition to their departmental work.

The already selected NGO and GO PIAs should be allotted a minimum of 10-12
watersheds to maximise inputs from WDT members. For GO PIAs, WDT members
should be appointed exclusive to the project to avoid overload of work. To increase
commitment to the project, appropriate incentives may be considered for the WDT.

The LST should be appointed on a priority basis. In the WDT/LST, at least 50% of
the staff should be women. An adequate number of WDT members with the

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appropriate technical /social background need to be appointed on a priority basis to
initiate the livelihood approach.

As in the case of the selection criteria for watersheds, a smaller core group can be
instituted to reassess the list prepared in the workshop and finalize the indicators.

In the absence of NGOs the possibility of selecting the GP as PIA was discussed. The
participants felt that the GP were still too undeveloped to take on the responsibility
of implementing WS and livelihood activities. One possibility discussed for including
them was the joint implementation of the GP with a GO or NGO partner, where the
GP would assist primarily in community mobilization activities and micro planning.

Alternative local institutions such as Self Help Group Federations can be considered
as well. The project should pro actively seek such organisations and establish
partnerships for joint collaboration with a GO or NGO PIA where the local
organisation takes responsibility for community motivation activities.

Capacity Building
Capacity building is required to create an enabling environment to understand and
analyse the project from the perspective of the livelihoods approach, where project
activities are oriented from “livelihoods” to “watershed” activities and not vice versa.
This will also enhance coordination and planning by the apex advisory bodies to
achieve the desired goals of convergence.

There is need to develop capacity of the secondary stakeholders at the district level,
block level and at the community level, for implementing livelihoods improvement
(both land-based and non-land based) activities for the community. In order to
streamline this process, a capacity building strategy for implementation should be
developed. Orientation through workshops and training should be organised for
different levels of staff at different times/venues to make it appropriate.

Capacity building needs for primary stakeholders will depend on the type of activities
emerging from the micro plans and the activities to be initiated.

A capacity building Strategy needs to be developed for the project. Appropriate
training institutions within and outside the state need to be identified. A team of
trainers also needs to be identified and master training programmes instituted for
them. Some suggestions of such institutes are given in Section C above.

Immediate Follow up action for WORLP
1. Ensure that existing NGO partners are allotted at least 10-12 watersheds to
   maximise inputs from WDT members.
2. Ensure that at least GO PIAs field staff and WDT members are exclusive to the
   project and each PIA implements 10-12 watersheds to maximise output from
   WDT members.
3. Constitute a core group (including external resource persons/consultants) for
   assessing the selection criteria for PIA and watershed villages developed in the
   workshop and finalising them.
4. Undertake (gender disaggregated) baseline data collection exercises at the
   village level to meet data gaps and short list potential project villages.

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5. Develop manual/guidelines for methodologies for livelihoods analysis through
    micro planning exercises. An external consultant can be appointed for preparing
    the guidelines/manual.
6. Initiate mechanisms to enable convergence of WORLP activities with ongoing
    development programmes to enable better implementation of livelihoods
    improvement based micro planning from district to block and village level.
7. Appoint a gender consultant to the project who can provide periodic inputs to
    ensure gender concerns are adequately covered.
8. Select one GP per district on a pilot basis and appoint them as partner PIA with
    an NGO or GO partner to establish a model for GP participation in WORLP.
9. Appoint a training consultant to prepare a capacity building training strategy for
    WORLP.
10. Initiate discussion with other DFID projects particularly APRLP and WIRFP for
    exposure visits for project management and CBT members.




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ANNEX 1        CONSULTANCY TERMS OF REFERENCE
Moving Towards Watershed Plus

Objectives of the Consultancy

•   Improve the understanding of WORLP and PIA/WDT staff of livelihoods security,
    gender approaches and their roles in rural development;
•   Identify and document requirements and opportunities for capacity building in
    support of more extensive and effective use of livelihoods security and gender
    approaches.
•   Initiate and document discussion of poverty-focused selection criteria for
    watersheds and PIAs.

Background
The Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Project (WORLP) is a ten-year project
implemented by the Watershed Mission (WM) of Government of Orissa and funded
by DFID. The project adopts a ‘watershed plus’ approach, building on Government of
India watershed guidelines with additional resources targeted on the poor and
marginalized.

Project Goal
More effective approaches to Sustainable Rural Livelihoods adopted by government
agencies and other stakeholders in KBK districts and elsewhere.

Project Purpose
Sustainable livelihoods, particularly for the poorest, promoted in 4 districts in
replicable ways by 2010.

Project Components
-   Promoting livelihood improvements;
-   Capacity building for primary and secondary stakeholders;
-   Encouraging an enabling environment.

WORLP follows a ‘watershed plus’ approach based on the GoI watershed guidelines
(2000) with significant additional resources allocated for livelihood support activities
targeted on the poorer and disadvantaged members of rural communities in Western
Orissa. Resources are also available for appropriate technical support and capacity
building.

Many project stakeholders, including the district administration, WORLP staff and
PIAs/WDT members, are still not very familiar with livelihoods and gender
approaches. A strategy and planning process carried out in late 2002 identified a
clear need for more training and orientation in these areas. To date this has been
provided to a limited extent and for core project staff only.

Selection criteria both for watersheds and for the PIAs themselves need to be
reviewed in the light of the need to focus watershed plus on the poorest watersheds
and the poorer sections of communities. The workshops on gender and livelihoods
will provide an opportunity for project staff and PIAs to initiate discussion on these
issues and the way forward.
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Methodology
The proposed process will include two participatory, semi-structured three-day
workshops. A team of four consultants will work closely and in an interactive manner
with a maximum of fifteen participants for each workshop drawn from WORLP staff
in Bolangir and Nuapada. These workshops will be held in Bolangir and Nuapada.

The main objectives of the workshops will be:
• Assist participants to develop an understanding of livelihoods security, value and
   practical application;
• Assist participants to understand how to analyse people’s livelihoods, how these
   change over time; how to identify livelihoods related trade-offs, constraints and
   opportunities;
• Facilitate the understanding and practical value of gender equity. Develop
   comprehension of how an enabling environment for women can be created; so
   that they are able to assume leadership roles and become effective partners in
   the project. Help project staff to consider and propose processes that will ensure
   equitable representation of men and women and their access to, and control
   over, productive resources and assets;
• Based on an increased understanding of livelihoods and gender, help participants
   to develop draft poverty-focused selection criteria for both watersheds and PIAs
   that would lead to more effective implementation of livelihoods-based, socially
   equitable watershed plus approaches through the project.

Consultants
The PST will coordinate and manage the outputs of this consultancy input. The team
will consist of nationally recognized livelihoods/gender development expert, and an
expert in natural resources management who has substantial experience of
developing holistic, poverty-focused criteria for selection of watersheds and PIAs.
These experts will be assisted by an Orissa-based expert in livelihoods and gender
and one social development assistant identified by the PST.

The rationale for this composition is that the national consultants will lead the
process, bringing broad-based experience from a range of livelihood and gender
related projects in other states and regions. The Assistant will carry out a support
function while gaining exposure and experience that will enable him/her to play a
more active role in future programmes and studies.

Indicative Timeline
  Day                                     Tasks/Plan
1        Consultants arrive; preparatory work
2        Preparatory work and session planning, team leaves for Bolangir
3        Workshop: livelihoods sessions
4        Workshop: gender sessions
5        Workshop: selection criteria for PIAs and w/sheds sessions
6        Travel to Nuapada
7        Workshop: livelihoods sessions
8        Workshop: gender sessions
9        Workshop: selection criteria for PIAs and w/sheds sessions
10       Consultants leave for BBSR
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11        Report writing
12        Report writing
13        Presentation of draft report, consultants depart
14-16     Draft report finalized and submitted

The qualifications and specific roles of the consultant team are given below:

Livelihoods/Gender Development Consultant - Team Leader
Specific Responsibilities:
•   Working under the general guidance of the PST, take responsibility for ensuring
    successful implementation of the workshops and capacity building for
    livelihoods/gender development consultancy process,
•   Coordinate the inputs of the Livelihoods/Gender Development Consultant, the
    Livelihoods/Gender Development Assistant and the Natural Resources Consultant,
•   Take responsibility for production of a mission report in accordance with PST
    guidelines which for each key area (livelihoods, gender, selection of
    PIAs/watersheds) will detail the process followed, observations, outputs and
    recommendations for follow-up activities, and further capacity building needs for
    identified stakeholders.

Qualifications:
•   Nationally recognized expertise in the application of livelihoods/gender
    development to NR-based rural development project
•   Broad experience of livelihoods/gender development projects and NR-based rural
    development projects
•   Broad experience of donor funded projects, working with government and NGOs
•   Some familiarity with watershed guidelines (2000) and associated methodologies
•   Good communications and facilitation/training skills in Hindi and English
•   Familiarity with DFID sustainable rural livelihoods approach and projects strongly
    preferred

Livelihoods/Gender Development Consultant (State Level)
Specific Responsibilities:
•   Work under the guidance of the Team Leader, assisting the PST to manage the
    workshop process and outputs of the consultancy process
•   Assist in the planning, facilitation and documentation of workshops and
    participatory processes, ensuring that local perceptions are properly represented,
•   Assist in the preparation of the mission report under the guidance of the
    Teamleader.

Qualifications:
•   Expertise in the application of livelihoods/gender and development approaches
    and processes,
•   Experience of livelihoods and NR-based rural development projects in Orissa,
•   Experience of donor funded projects, working with government and/or NGOs,
•   Facilitation/training skills in Oriya/English,




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Natural Resources Management Consultant

Specific Responsibilities:
•   Work under the guidance of the Team Leader and the livelihoods/gender
    consultant and assist the PST to manage the process and outputs of the
    consultancy process
•   Assist in the planning, facilitation and documentation of workshops and
    participatory processes, ensuring that local perceptions are properly represented
•   Assist in the preparation of the mission report, with particular emphasis on the
    development of poverty-focused selection criteria for watersheds and PIAs.

Qualifications:
•   10-15 years experience in donor funded natural resource management projects
    with a strong emphasis on holistic, poverty-focused, equitable watersheds
    development
•   Expertise in NR-based development appraisal, design, planning and monitoring
•   Broad experience of working with government (including line departments and
    PIAs) and NGOs
•   Good understanding of the ‘watershed plus’ concept and intimate knowledge of
    GoI watershed guidelines, watershed and PIA selection criteria
•   Experience in advocacy and policy change
•   Good communications and facilitation/training skills in Hindi and English
•   Familiarity with DFID sustainable rural livelihoods approach and projects strongly
    preferred
•   Strong report writing and documentation skills




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ANNEX 2        LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
Date & Place: May 07-09, 2003/Bolangir district group

Sl.No.   Name, Designation & Organisation
 1.      Mr. Nand Kishore Meher, Civil Engineer, VIKALPA
 2.      Mr. Chudamani Panda, WDT Member, SABUJA BIPLAV
 3.      Mr. Yashobanta Naik, Agriculturist, VIKALPA
 4.      Mr. Sudhir Ranjan Meher, WDT Member (Civil Engineer), Khaprakhol –
         Horticulture (Patnagarh)
 5.      Ms. Debikarani Sahoo, Institution/Capacity Building Specialist, Bolangir
 6.      Mr. Ananga Mohan Pahan, Office Assistant, LWS (I), Bolangir
 7.      Mr. Bibhuti Bhusan Mishra, ISCO, O/o. A.E. (Soil Conservation), Titlagarh
 8.      Mr. G.B. Sarangi, CEO, Patnagarh Block, BDO & PIA
 9.      Mr. Soukilal Sahu, CO, Patnagarh Block
 10.     Mr. A.K. Manik, BDO, Patnagarh & PIA
         Mr. Manoranjan Meher, Researcher, Cochin University of Science &
 11.
         Technology, Kerala
 12.     Mr. Biren Nayak, Action Aid, Bolangir F.O.
 13.     Mr. S.K. Pattnaik, Secretary, VIKALPA, PIA
 14.     Mr. Czech Conroy, Livelihoods Consultant, Natural Resources Institute
 15.     Mr. Subodh Kumar Mohapatra, Livelihood Specialist, PSU, WORLP
 16.     Mr. Nirmal, Regional Centre for Development Co-operation
 17.     Mrs. Pramila, Chief Executive, SABUJA BIPLAV, Bolangir
 18.     Mr. S.K. Das, Director, SABUJA BIPLAV, Bolangir
 19.     Mr. S.K. Moinuddin, Consultant, Hyderabad
 20.     Mr. Lingaraj Otta, Project Director, WORLP, Bolangir
         Mrs. Madhusmita Raiguru, Research Executive, ERA Consultancy (P) Ltd.,
 21.
         Bhubaneswar
 22.     Dr. Sandhya Chatterji, Consultant, New Delhi (NRI, DFID)
         Mr. Shivendra Nath Pandeya, Rural Livelihoods Specialist, CBT, WORLP,
 23.
         Bolangir
 24.     Dr. Abhash C Panda, Member, PST and Resource Person
 25.     Mr. Rajib Mohanty, Natural Resource Specialist, CBT, WORLP, Bolangir
         Mr. N.S.J.P. Singh, Forest Range Officer, Afforestation Range, Loisingha,
 26.     working as Team Leader, ACA Watershed, Loisingha Block, previously
         worked as Team Leader in EAS Watershed, Patnagarh Block for 4 years
         Mr. B.S. Mohapatra, Water Management Specialist, O/o. Deputy Director of
 27.
         Agriculture, Bolangir
 28.     Mr. P. Nayak, Deputy Director of Agriculture, Bolangir
 29.     Mr. Lingaraj Otta, Project Director, WORLP, Bolangir
 30.     Mr. B.N. Mohanty, DFO, Bolangir
 31.     Mr. A.K. Manik, BDO, Patnagarh & PIA
 32.     Dr. N. Khatua, DDH, Bolangir
 33.     Mr. S.K. Moinuddin, Consultant, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
 34.     Mr. R.S. Padhi, BDO, Komna




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Date & Place: May 10-12, 2003/Nuapada district group

Sl.No.   Name, Designation & Organisation
 1.      Dr. Sandhya Chatterji, Facilitator.
 2.      Mr. Lambodar Majhi, J.E., CBDA, Sunabeda
 3.      Mr. Netrananda Bhoi, APD (MIS) DRDA, Nuapada
 4.      Mr. Mahendra Kumar Pattnaik, BDO, Khariar & PIA
 5.      Mr. Rajendra Prasad Mund, BDO, Nuapada & PIA
 6.      Mr. Surya Dash, ETV (Annadata)
 7.      Mr. Ramesh Acharya, WDT Team Leader, Nuapada (WORLP)
 8.      Mr. Niranjan Sahu, NRM Specialist, CBT, Nuapada
 9.      Mr. A.V. Swamy, PIA – VISWAS, Khariar Road, Nuapada
 10.     Mr. P.K. Pattnaik, Collector, Nuapada
 11.     Mr. S.R. Mishra, LS ICDS, Khariar
 12.     Mrs. Manju Shukla, LS ICDS, Sinapali
 13.     Mr. Biranchi Mohapatra, Programme Officer, CPSW
 14.     Mrs. Anita Patel, CBT Nuapada (WORLP)
 15.     Mr. A.K. Panda, PD, DRDA, Nuapada
 16.     Mr. H.K. Das, Asst. Soil Conservation Officer
 17.     Mr. G. Behera, APD (Livelihoods), WORLP
 18.     Mr. P.K. Pradhan, APD (DRDA), Nuapada
 19.     Mrs. Madhusmita Raiguru, Co-facilitator
 20.     Mr. Debasish Mohapatra, CBT Team Leader,Napada, WORLP
 21.     Mr. Bhutesh Kumar Meher, NRM Specialist, Lokadrusti, Khariar, Nuapada
 22.     Mr. Padmalochan Majhee, Jr. Engineer cum WDT (SC) Khariar
 23.     Mr. A.V. Swamy, PIA – VISWAS, Khariar Road, Khariar
 24.     Mr. Niranjan Sahu, NRM Specialist, CBT, Nuapada
 25.     Mr. Ramesh Acharya, Manager – DDT Team Leader, VISWAS, Khariar
 26.     Mr. Surya Dash, E TV (Annadata)
 27.     Mr. Rajendra Prasad Mund, BDO, Nuapada cum PIA
 28.     Mr. Mahendra Kumar Pattnaik, BDO cum PIA, Khariar
 29.     Mr. Netrananda Bhoi, APD (MIS) DRDA, Nuapada
 30.     Mr. Lambodar Majhi, JE, CBDA, Sunabeda cum WDT Leader
 31.     Mr. Subodh Kumar Mohapatra, Livelihood Specialist, PSU, WORLP
 32.     Mr. S.K. Moinuddin, Resource Person, APRLP, Hyderabad
 33.     Mr. V. Venkata Raman, Programme Co-ordinator, WO, UNDP
 34.     Mr. Pradip Kumar Naik, Jr. Engineer, SC, Nuapada
 35.     Mr. Ashok Kumar Ram, Jr. SC Asst., Nuapada
 36.     Mr. Rajib Mohanty, Natural Resource Specialist, Bolangir
 37.     Mrs. Manju Shukla, LS, Sinapalli
 38.     Mr. Hemanta Kumar Das, ASCO, Nuapada
 39.     Mrs. Sanju Rani Mishra, LS ICDS, Khariar
 40.     Mr. Prafulla Kumar Pradhan, APD, DRDA, Nuapada
 41.     Mr. Gobardhan Behera, APD (Livelihood) WORLP
 42.     Mrs. Sanju Rani Mishra, LS, Khariar




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ANNEX 3 WORKSHOP ON LIVELIHOODS APPROACH IN WORLP -
BOLANGIR
                                   AGENDA
                          (May 07-09, 2003, Bolangir)
                          (May 10-12, 2003, Nuapada)

 Date: 07.05.2003 / 10.05.03
 10.00            Welcome
 10.00-10.30      Introduction of participants
 10.30-11.00      Presentation on Sustainable Rural Livelihoods
 11.00-11.20      Presentation on Gender
 11.20-11.30      Formation of Working Groups
 11.30-13.00      Working Groups
 13.00-14.00      LUNCH
 14.00-15.30      Presentation by each group
 15.30-16.30      Presentation on Methodologies
 16.30-17.30      Open discussion
 Date: 08.05.2003 / 11.05.03
 9.00-10.00       Plenary on field visit – methods to used
 10.00-15.00      Village visit – Kantapalli, Khaliapalli, Ghungi, Lankabahal
 15.00-16.00       LUNCH
 16.00-18.30      Review of field visit
 Date: 09.05.2003 / 12.05.03
 9.00-10.00       Presentation on selection criteria
 10.00-10.30      Clarifications / discussion
 10.30-12.00      Working Groups – PIA selection criteria
 12.00-13.00      Presentation of results
 13.00-14.00      LUNCH
 14.00-15.30      Working Groups – Watershed selection criteria
 15.30-16.30      Presentation of results
 16.30-17.30      Finalization of PIA/Watershed criteria

Note: The workshop with the Nuapada group ended with lunch on the 12th and the
morning and afternoon sessions were taken up simultaneously.




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ANNEX 4         SUSTAINABLE RURAL LIVELIHOODS APPROACH
Dr. Abhash Panda

Rural livelihoods

•   How an individual / community make a living
•   Ways in which other people, nature and created resources effect that livelihood
•   Various aspects of making a living are related:
     - Capital assets
     - Vulnerability context
     - Transforming structures and processes
     - Strategies
     - Outcomes

                                     Capital Assets
•   Human:     Determined by people’s qualities – BAKS
•   Social:    Interrelationship of the community
•   Natural:   Air, land, soil, minerals, water, plant/animal life
•   Physical:  Derived from the resources created by people –
               roads, drinking water, communication systems etc.
•   Financial: Finance available to people in the form of wages,
               savings, credit etc.
•   The capital assets are not always beneficial
•   Assets can be converted from one to another
•   Appropriate mix will be determined by their quantity / quality
•   People’s assets could be built and balanced through:
      - Direct support
      - Indirect support
      - Feed back

People’s assets that contribute to livelihoods also depend on external
factors (vulnerability context)

Trends (Gradual and predictable):
    - Degradation of NR
    - Increase in population
    - Inappropriate technology
    - Undesired changes in politics
    - Economic stagnation

Shocks:
    - Climatic extremes
    - Civil disturbance
    - Sudden devaluation of currency
    - Outbreaks of disease
    - Major accidents




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Seasonality:
    - Prices
    - Production
    - Health
    - Employment opportunities

Transformation (External man - made structures and processes):

Structures:
     - Government
     - NGOs
     - Private organizations

Processes:
    - Policies
    - Legislation
    - Incentives
    - Institutions
    - Cultures
    - Religion

Strategies:
    - NR based: tribal community/subsistence farmers
    - Non – NR based: service jobs, shops
    - Migration: If no appropriate opportunities
    - Multiple strategies: Mix of all strategies

Outcomes:
   - Well-being
   - Vulnerability: reduce the effect of drought/floods etc.
   - Food security: secure supply all year round
   - Income
   - NR use

Core Principles
    • People-centred
    • Involves people and respect their views
    • Holistic in scope
    • Dynamic in application
    • Builds on strengths
    • Considers macro and micro-levels
    • Promotes sustainability




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                                                    Sustainable Livelihoods Framework




                                                                                                                           I
                                                                       TRANSFORMING                                        n
                                LIVELIHOOD ASSETS                      STRUCTURES &                                                 LIVELIHOOD
                                                                        PROCESSES                                          o         OUTCOMES
                                                                                                                           r
                                                                     STRUCTURES                                            d
    VULNERABILITY                                                  •  Levels of                                                    • More income
                                                                                                                           e
      CONTEXT                   H                                     Government
                                                                                                    LIVELIHOOD                     • Increased
                                                                                                    STRATEGIES             r
                                                                   • Private sector                                                  well-being
•    SHOCKS                             N     Influence &                                                                  t       • Reduced
•    TRENDS             S                       access                                                                     o         vulnerability
•    SEASONALITY                                                                                                                   • Improved food
                            P       F                                                                                      a         security
                                                                           •   Laws                                        c       • More
                                                                           •   Policies                                    h         sustainable
                                                                           •   Culture                                     I         use of NR
                                                                                                                                     base
                                                                           •   Institutions                                e
                                                                                                                           v
                                                                       PROCESSES                                           e


                                                                                                  Key
                                                                                                  H = Human Capital       S = Social Capital
                                                                                                  N = Natural Capital     P = Physical Capital
                                                                                                  F = Financial Capital




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ANNEX 5        GENDER AND METHODS OF ANALYSIS
Dr. Sandhya Chatterji

WHAT DO WE MEAN BY GENDER?
Gender refers to women’s and men’s socially defined roles and characteristics that
are shaped by historical, economic, religious, cultural and ethnic factors.

The term gender is used to underline that women’s position is not so much the result
of the biological differences between men and women, but rather the ‘gender’
differences, which are socially determined.

HOW DO WE ADDRESS GENDER IN PROJECT PLANNING?
We need to understand the:
- position of women in relation to men in the project area
- capacity of the implementing institutions to address gender
- likely participation of women and men in project activities and
- likely effects on different categories of women as compared to men

We need to design the project so that it will optimally strengthen the position of
women

WHAT SHOULD WE DO?

Analysis of target group
1. What are the main characteristics of the position of different categories of women
   in relation to men, in terms of
- the gender division of labour,
- gender related access and control over resources
- socio-political dimension of women’s position and
- influencing factors in the enabling environment
2. What are the views and expectations of women with regard to the proposed
   project interventions?

Analysis of institutional setting
1. What capacity does the implementing organisation have for assessing gender
   related issues?
2. What capacity building or additional women staffs are required? What alternatives
   are possible?

Analysis of project idea
1. Are genders concerns correctly identified and incorporated into project planning?
2. In what way and to what extent can the target group in general and women in
   particular, participate in different stages of the project?
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3. What positive or negative effects will the project have on the autonomy of different
   categories of women?

Finally
1. How should project activities be designed to ensure that they will optimally
   strengthen the autonomy of women
2. What monitoring indicators can be included to monitor the participation of women
   and the gender specific effects of the project?




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ANNEX 6        SELECTION CRITERIA FOR PIAS AND WATERSHED VILLAGES

MR. S.K. MOINUDDIN

Selection Criteria, devised by Department of Rural Development,
Andhra Pradesh

Sl.
             Parameters                  Range                 Mark   Weight age
No.
                                          -25%                    5
      % of small and marginal
 1.                                    -25 & 50%                 10
      farmers
                                          -50%                   15       15
                                          -10%                    3
 2.   % of SC/ST holdings
                                       -10 & 25%                 10       10
      % of women organized in             -20%                    3
 3.   SHGs and participating in        -20 & 50%                  5
      programme                           -50%                   10       10
                                         -10 mts                 2
 4.   Status of ground water          >10 & 15 mts               3
                                        >15 mts                  5        5
                                            VL                    6
                                             L                   12
 5.   APSRAC prioritisation                 M                    18
                                            H                    24
                                           VH                    30       30
                                           <50                   3
 6.   Livestock population            >50 & <100                 5
                                          >100                   10       10
                                           <50                   3
      No. of families affected/
 7.                                   >50 & <100                 5
      involved in migration
                                          >100                   10       10
      Contiguity with treated/             Yes                    5
 8.
      proposed WS                          No                     0       5
      Availability of fallow/             <10%                    3
 9.   watershed & CPR for the        >10% & <20%                  5
      poor to utilize usufruct            >20%                   10       10
      Total                                                              100




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PIA Selection Criteria

Sl.
              Criteria description                              Range             Marks
No.
      Experience in Rural                                      <3 years            0
      Survey/development based on                             3-5 years            4
 1.   participation principles since                          5-10 years           6
      registration of organization                           10-20 years           8
      (Maximum 10 marks)                                      >20 years            10
                                                                 <10               2
      No. of employees working in the
                                                               10 to 25            4
 2.   organization
                                                               26 to 50            6
      (Maximum 10 marks)
                                                                 > 50              10
      Professional Employees working with
 3.
      developmental projects
                                                             2 employees            2
      Technical staff (Engineer, Agriculture,
                                                           3-5 employees            4
3.1   Soil Conservation)
                                                           6-10 employees           6
      (Maximum 8 marks)
                                                           >10 employees            8
                                                             1 employee             2
      Employees graduate in social science/
                                                           2-4 employees            4
3.2   anthropology
                                                           5-10 employees           6
      (Maximum 8 marks)
                                                           >10 employees            8
      Female professional employees in the
                                                            <2 employees            2
3.3   organization
                                                            >2 employees            4
      (Maximum 4 marks)
                                                           <2 employees            2
      How many professional employees
                                                       26 to 50% employees         4
 4.   have experience more than 3 years
                                                       51 to 71% employees         6
      (Maximum 10 marks)
                                                       76 to 100% employees        10
                                                             <5 villages            2
      Villages where developmental
                                                           5 to 20 villages         4
      activities carried out continuously for
 5.                                                       21 to 50 villages         6
      more than one year
                                                         51 to 100 villages         8
      (Maximum 10 marks)
                                                            >100 villages          10
      District where organization has carried
                                                               1 district           2
      out developmental activities atleast in
 6.                                                         2 to 4 districts        3
      five villages in last financial year
                                                             >4 districts           5
      (Maximum 5 marks)
                                                             Rs.5 lakhs            2
                                                     Rs.5 lakhs to Rs.25 lakhs     5
      Expenditure for works by organization
 7.                                                 Rs.25 lakhs to Rs.50 lakhs     8
      in last financial year
                                                    Rs.50 lakhs to Rs.100 lakhs    12
                                                           >Rs.100 lakhs           15

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                                                       Separate office hired
                                                                                 2
      Infrastructure:
      a)      Office premises (Maximum 6               No separate office
 8.                                                                              0
           marks)                                      Only two wheelers
                                                                                 2
      b)      Vehicles (Maximum 4 marks)             Two wheelers and four
                                                                                 4
                                                            wheelers
                                                      Upto 5% project cost       2
      Collection of peoples contribution            5 to 10% of project cost     4
 9.
      (Maximum 10 marks)                              10 to 20% of project       8
                                                   More than 20% project cost    10

Categorization of PIA Category A=>70 marks Category B = 45-70 marks Category C =
< 45 marks

Deprivation Typologies
               Habitations with the highest level of deprivation of natural
Typology 1
               resources, social and material (Habitations that are worst off)
                  Habitations with the highest level of deprivation of natural
Typology 2
                  resources and medium level of social and material deprivation
                  Habitations with highest level of deprivation of natural resources
Typology 3
                  and moderate level of social and material deprivation
                  Habitations with the highest level of deprivation of natural
Typology 4
                  resources and low level of social and material deprivation
                  Habitations with the medium level of deprivation of natural
Typology 5
                  resources and highest level of social and material deprivation
                  Habitations with the medium level of deprivation of natural
Typology 6
                  resources and medium level of social and material deprivation
                  Habitations with the medium level of deprivation of natural
Typology 7
                  resources and moderate level of social and material deprivation
                  Habitations with the medium level of deprivation of natural
Typology 8
                  resources and low level of social and material deprivation
                  Habitations with the moderate level of deprivation of natural
Typology 9
                  resources and highest level of social and material deprivation
                  Habitations with the moderate level of deprivation of natural
Typology 10
                  resources and medium level of social and material deprivation
                  Habitations with the moderate level of deprivation of natural
Typology 11
                  resources and moderate level of social and material deprivation
                  Habitations with the moderate level of deprivation of natural
Typology 12
                  resources and low level of social and material deprivation

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                  Habitations with the low level of deprivation of natural resources
Typology 13
                  and highest level of social and material deprivation
                  Habitations with low level of deprivation of natural resources and
Typology 14
                  medium level of social and material deprivation
                  Habitations with the low level of deprivation of natural resources
Typology 15
                  and moderate level of social and material deprivation
                  Habitations with the low level of deprivation of natural resources
Typology 16
                  and low level of social and material deprivation




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ANNEX 7        WELL BEING ANALYSIS
Group - I
Date & Place: May 08, 2003/Kantapalli, Bolangir


Categories        No. of HH     Criteria
                                Land Holding (1-2 Acres)
                                High Cropping Intensity
      I               9         Having Bullocks/Cows/Goats
                                High Value Crop
                                Access to Education
                                = < 1 Acre
                                Kharif Crop only (Paddy/Minor Millets)
     II               8
                                Very less nos. of Bullocks/Cows except goats
                                Access to Education
                                Only labour work
                                (High capabilities)
                                No capital to invest in cultivation
     III              8
                                Cannot afford for education
                                Dependence on NTFP
                                Migration
                                Only L.I. work
                                (Less capability)
     IV              22         Cannot afford for education
                                Dependence on NTFP
                                Migration

Place: Bolangir

Activitie            Opportunities                Constraints
    s
                Traditional skill/knowledge
                Market facility                       Capital
Goatary
                Resources available for               Further upgradation of skill
                rearing
                Skill, experience
Puffed
                Local village level demand/           Capital
Rice
                selling
                Experience
Vegetable
                Local Market                          Capital
vending
                High profit margin
Well            Increased vegetable
                                                      Capital
Digging         cultivation
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TIME LINE

Place: Bolangir

           Activities                                             Time
Domestic work
(Cooking, fuel preparation for cow dung etc.)
 i)        Women                  5.00 am – 8.00 am                      4.00 pm – 6.00 pm
ii)        Girl                   5.00 am – 9.00 am                      4.00 pm – 9.00 pm
Livestock
    i) Women/men                  8.00 am – 11.00 am                     4.00 pm – 5.00 pm
Field work
    i) Women                      8.00 am – 12.00 am                     3.00 pm – 5.00 pm
Business
    i) Women                      6.00 am – 2.00 pm
Stone Crushing
    i) Women/Girl                 6.00 am – 11.00 am                     3.00 pm – 6.00 pm
Kenduleaf Collection
    i) Women/Girl                 5.00 am – 9.30 am                      3.00 pm – 5.00 pm

SEASONALITY

Place: Kantapalli, Bolangir

Activities    Sex      Jan    Feb   Mar    Apr    May      June   July   Aug   Sept   Oct   Nov   Dec
Cultivation   Male     12      4      -     -         -     -     10     12    12     9     9     12
including
Agril.        Female   6       -      -     -         -     -      -     12     3     3     2     6
Labour
Non-Agril.    Male      9      9      9    10         10    10    12     12    12     12    12    12
Labour        Female    3      3      3     4          -     -    1      1     2       1     3     2
Stone         Male     12     12     12    12         12    12     -      -     -      -     -     -
work          Female    4      4      4     4          4     4     -      -     -      -     -     -
Kenduleaf     Male      -      -      -     -         10     -     -      -     -      -     -     -
collection    Female    -      -      -     -         10     -     -      -     -      -     -     -
Veg.          Male     12     12     12     -          -     -     -      -     -     12    12    12
Business      Female    -      -      -     -          -     -     -     --     -      -     -     -
Small         Male
                                                      Insignificant (2 Nos.)
Business      Female
              Male                                   Last yr. migration
Migration
              Female                              No migration in this year




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GROUP I – DISCUSSION

          Present                      Proposed                       Methodologies
A) Rapport Building:
   Male mostly addressed          Female members to be               In E.P.A. female issues
   Male influential               addressed                          to be addressed
   (Politicians, Village          Most vulnerable to be              Female motivator
   leader)                        contacted                          Focus group discussion
                                                                     with the vulnerable
                                                                     group
B) Information Sharing:
   Sub-Group discussion /         Ensuring information               More time as per the
   Group discussion (only         reaching to all                    need of the community
   held with few                  household                          As convenient to the
   members)                       Process to be adopted              villagers
                                  by which community                 Focus group discussion
                                  can realised the need              IEC strategy to be
                                  of the project                     adopted
C) Groups Formation:              More % of HH should
   SHG – Mostly female            come in SHG etc.
   SHG                            SHG – Encouragement
   UG – Mostly Male               for male SHG
   WC/WA – More male &            UG – Female
   female are in passive          involvement should be
   stage                          ensured
   Village Committee              More female oriented
   V.S.S. - (Participation &      activities can be taken
   Decision making)               WC/WA – More
                                  emphasized on female
                                  representation as
                                  representative in
                                  groups
Microplanning:                 Holistic Approach:                    PLA
   Mainly land based           Focus on                              I.F. PRA
   activities like WHS,           Gender related issues              FGD (Focus Group
   FARM pond etc.                 Training & capacity                Discussion)
   Non land based                 building                           Gender sensitization
   activities are very poor       Identification of                  Livelihood analysis
   Skill development low          livelihood activities              Use of secondary data
   priority                       NTFP based
   Less emphasize on              Small IGA
   social issues                  Small livestock
   More participation from        Aquaculture
   land lords                     Health
                                  Education
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                                  Migration

                                  Basic infrastructure
                                  development
                                  Revival of traditional
                                  livelihood practices
                                  Food security
                                  mechanism

                                       GROUP 2

WHAT?
• Categorisation of people based on livelihoods & wealth
• NR based livelihoods – Sustainable livelihoods
• Existing pattern of livelihoods and its gender relation – Problems identification
• Role of existing institutions / new institutions
• Existing and traditional knowledge base
• SWOT Analysis of the focused group and the assets in terms of their accessibility
• Identification of CPR and accessibility by the focus group
• Ownership of Natural Resources
• Mapping of financial capital
• Effects of macro policies on existing livelihoods strategy
• Effect of geographical climate pattern
• Understanding migration and impact on target group
• Plan : Proper, timely and user friendly transparency during implementation phase
• Emphasis should be on target group in micro plan

HOW:
• Separate discussion with male – female
• Addressing the capacity building issues process or target based
• Develop sense of ownership
• Participatory process should be encouraged rather than prescriptive
• Gender sensitization for target group and facilitator
• Criteria for selection of resource person

METHODOLOGY:
• Secondary data collection
• Rapport building
• Situational analysis
• Livelihoods analysis
• Needs analysis - SWOT
• Macro environment analysis (policy) - SWOT



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Livelihood Classes

          1                     2                          3                      4
Mrs. Sabita Putel      Mr. Uma Karmi             Mrs. Sabitri Kalsoe     Mrs. Lata Mallik
Mrs. Urmila Karmi      Mrs. Sarojini Behera      Mrs. Meenakshi          Mrs. Kanti Karmi
                                                 Singh
Mrs. Damani Singh      Mr. Kal Bhoe              Mrs. Saraswati Bisi     Mrs. Dhubani Bhoe
Nina
Mr. Sada Singh Nina   Mrs. Indumati              Mrs. Sanjukta Bhoe      Mrs. Mukta Bhoe
                      Kalsoe
Mrs. Sita Singh Nina Mrs. Angarabati             Mr. Gua Bhoe            Mrs. Jamuna Behera
                      Singh
                      Mrs. Sukha Bhoe            Mrs. Supari Bhoe        Mr. Bhagya Danga
                      Mr. Gahul Putel            Mr. Budha Behera        Mrs. Radha Karmi
                      Mrs. Bhumi Kalsoe          Mr. Damani Behera
                      Mrs. Soudamini             Mrs. Sukanti Behera
                      Singh Nina
                      Mrs. Sanjukta Bhoe         Mrs. Jayanti Singh
                      Mrs. Kalpana
                      Behera
Canal area           Cultivation – 2-4           Kenduleaf – 3          Goat/Sheep;
Bricks making        months (1)                  Batun                  Lift Irrigation – 1;
                     Labour – Male;                                     Sarare Bandhan
                     Wood – 5 nos.                                      Seedling/Transplanti
                     family (male &                                     ng
                     female);                                           Bamboo/Nilagiri/
                     Pasara – 4/5                                       Akasia
                     persons;
                     Veg- Watermelon
                     (2)
            Source of Income                            Opportunity for Intervention
    • Farming – 3-4 months                          •    Goatary
    • Daily wage                                    •    Lift Irrigation
    • Fire wood                                     •    Check Dam
    • Petty business                                •    Nursery / Plantation (Horticulture)
    • Vegetable cultivation                         •    Bamboo
    • K.L./Th. Broom collection
    • Animal Husbandry
    • Fishery




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                            GROUP III – PRESENTATION

Purpose:               Study existing livelihood pattern
Methodology:
   Household survey
   Community interaction
   Small group discussion
   Participation in the Bhumi – Sabha

Outcome:
   Well – Being & Wealth Ranking
   Income level identification
   Occupational patterns
   Access and barriers to resources / facilities
   Existence of institution and infrastructures
   Existing skills / related to occupation
   Intra & inter community linkages
   Traditional value systems
   Migration
   Distress sale of land, labour & produce
   Market facilities
   To collect all above information on gender basis

The above information needs to be compelled and analysed in participation with the
community:
• Identify the problems and expectations of the community and different target
   group
• Classifying / categorising the information and develop different interest group
• To develop a plan of intervention in collaboration with different target group and
   coordinating a community level planning
• To ensure equitable participation of men and women at all levels
• To develop capacity of weaker groups

For Equal Level of Participation:
• Promoting village / watershed level institutions
• Developing a sustainable management plan with institutions
• Internal sustainable monitoring and evaluation system by the community with
   external facilitator and gradually plan the withdrawal of ext. fact.

List of Group Members:        Mr. L. R. Otta,           Dr. S.K. Pattnaik
                              Mr. P.K. Manik            Mr. G.B. Sarangi
                              Mr. B.B. Mishra           Mr. Nirmal
                              Mrs. Madhusmita           Mr. Rajib Mohanty


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ACTIVITY PROFILE

Productive Activities:

                                                      Women/Girl         Men/Boys
Agriculture
1. Ploughing & land preparation                              √               √√
2. Application of manure (cow dung)                          √               √
3. Sowing (direct)                                           √               √
4. Sowing (for seedling)                                     √               √
5. Weeding                                                   √               √
6. Uprooting the seedling                                    √               √
7. Transplanting                                             √               √
8. Harvesting                                                √               √
9. Storing                                                   √               √
Livestock
1. Feeding (grazing)                                         √               √
2. Staff feeding                                             √               √
3. Milking the cow                                           √               √
4. Treatment                                                 √               √
5. Marketing                                                 √               √
Income Generating/Employment
1. Vegetable cultivation                                     √               √
2. Kenduleaf collection                                      √               √
3. Pisciculture                                              √               √
4. Mahua collection                                          √               √
5. Vegetable vending                                         √               √
6. Small Grocery shop (business)                             √               √
7. Broom stick making and selling                            √               √
8. Raw fish business                                         √               √
9. Labour work (agril. & daily)                              √               √
10. Migrating labour                                         √               √

ACCESS & CONTROL

                                                      Access             Control
              Resources:
                                               Women             Men   Women      Men
1.   Land                                        √                √                √
2.   Capital                                     √                √                √
3.   Labour                                      √                √                √
4.   Equipment                                   √                √      √         √
5.   Knowledge & skill                           √                √      √         √
6.   Employment opportunity                      √                √                √
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7. Health and fertility                             √              √           √           √
8. Nutrition                                        √              √           √           √
9. Education                                        √              √           √           √
Benefits:
1. Income in cash                                   √              √           √           √
2. Income in kind                                   √              √           √           √
3. Assets ownership                                 √              √                       √

SOCIO-POLITICAL PROFILE OF WOMEN’S POSITION

 Women socio-political position                 Lower                                  Higher
                                                                 About equal
        compared to men                        (worse)                                (better)
Women’s      participation     in
decision making:
   - In the household                                                  √
   - At community level                             √
   - Society at large                               √
Self Image:
   - Self image of women                            √
   - Image of women in society                      √
Organisational Capacity                                                √

TIME LINE

Date & Place: May 07, 2003/Bolangir                      Smt. Padmini Behera

                                Clean & sweep out the              Cleanse the utensils & other
Wake-up
                                house campus                       HH materials
                                Prepared tea and tiffin &          Went for bathing at village
Bring water for cooking
                                take care of the children          “Sar”
                                Served food for the whole
Cooked for lunch                                                   Took food atlast
                                family
Clean some utensils at
                                Went for sleep
night

Date & Place: May 07, 2003/Bolangir                              Mr. Tirtha Bisi

5.30 am                   Wake up
                          Went to ‘Sar’
6.00 am
                          To finish daily work (Brushing teeth etc.)
7.30 am – 8.00 am         Took east days 6 watered rice (Basi Pakhal)
                          Took goats and buffaloes for grazing at the garden of water –
8.30 am
                          melon tied them there & came back to home
9.00 am - 12.00 am        Shared with friends at village mandap
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12.30 pm               Went for bath at ‘Sar’ & brought back the goats
2.00 pm                Took launch
5.30 pm                Went to ‘Sar’ for daily work
7.30 pm                Took dinner
8.30 pm                Went to sleep




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ANNEX 8        WORKSHOP ON LIVELIHOODS APPROACH IN WORLP –
NUAPADA
GROUP I
Date & Place: May 11, 2003/Nuapada

Step – I
• Establishing Rapport / contact with villagers (Neutral persons preferably teacher)
• Orientation to the contact persons
• Village meeting

Step – II
• Programme objectives
• Understanding the village dynamics laying out foundation to get information
   through PRA

Step-III
• Selection of core groups

METHODOLOGY
PRA:
• Social mapping (social status of the village)
• Resource mapping

Well Being Analysis:
• Vulnerable family
• Women headed family

Occupation:
• Parent occupation
• Existing occupation
• Existing skill
• Reason for shifting of occupation
• Upgradation of existing skill / considering livelihood option for women




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Presentation & Consolidation:
   Needs:
      • Identification of common issues
      • Prioritization
      • Issues:


       Village        Household


       Health         Animal          Drinking H2O             Education

GROUP II - METHODOLOGY ON LIVELIHOODS

Approach for Micro Planning in the Watershed Area:
A)   Rapport / Confidence building exercise through:
     • Audio visual
     • Personal interaction / relation
     • Socio economic survey
     • Questionnaire
     • Motivation to generate awareness

B)     Conduct Meeting basing on database:
       • Gender sensitization
       • Socio economic status
       • Availability of resources
              - Individual based
              - Community based
       • Skill and ability

C)     Planning / Need Best:
       • Livelihood option for landless women & children
       • Formation of association, SHG and user group
       • Identification of stakeholders

Farming                                          Non-Farming
1. Goatary                                       1. NTFP
2. Poultry                                       2. Brick making
3. Fishery                                       3. Artisan
4. Diary and Fodder                              a)     Weaving
5. Beekeeping                                    b)     Pottery
6. Mushroom cultivation                          c)     Blacksmith
7. Vegetable cultivation                         d)     Basket making
8. Onion & cotton (onion storage)
9. Crop diversification
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D)     Market Survey and Marketing Access through Net & Gramsat
E)     Improvement skill through meeting, training, explore and visit
F)     Implementation
G)     Monitoring
H)     Evaluation

Participants:
       Sri P.K. Pattnaik,      Sri Surya Das             Sri P.K. Pradhan,
       Ms. Anita Patel         Sri P.L. Majhi            Sri P.K. Nayak
       Sri L. Majhi

LIVELIHOOD AND GENDER

GROUP – III

MICRO PLANNING WHAT AND HOW

Place: Nuapda

Organising a Community Meeting:
• Expressing the objective / purpose of visit and intention and output
• Constitution of core task team
• Preparation of time schedule

Sl. No.               PRA Tools                                    Information
  1.      Time Line (History of Community)
  2.      Social Mapping                       Skills of identification
                                               Source of income
                                               Caste wise break up
  3.      Geographical transect                Resource status
                                               Problem identification
                                               Planning and resource dev.
  4.      Resource Mapping                     Identifying the resource, problem and
                                               action plan
  5.      Well Being Analysis                  Vulnerable group /
                                               Family identification
                                               Women headed family identification
  6.      Presentation and consolidation in community meeting
  7.      Focus group discussion and planning for livelihood initiatives based on
          existing skills

Participants:
       Mr. Ashok Panda
       Mr. Netrananda Bhoi
       Mr. Ramesh Acharya
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         Mr.    Sanjuram Mishra
         Mr.    Mahendra Pattnaik
         Mr.    Radhashyam Padhi
         Mr.    Niranjan Sahu
         Mr.    Debasish Mohapatra

WELL BEING RANKING

Place: Nuapada
Occupation:
   Middle class family                       Poor family                      Very poor family
Cultivation – 51                      Wage labour – 48                    Landless family – 19
                                             Total - 118

Very Poor Family:
Bejamati Sahoo – 13
   Leafplate making
   Rainy season – they are doing wage labour
   Most of the days they have no food

Schedule Caste – 6
   Earth work – 4 months
   Bricks making / wage labour – 4 months

Participants:
   Mr. Duli Chanda Agrawalla                 Mr.   Bharat Sahu
   Mr. Baya Biswal                           Mr.   Makar Dhowaja Seth
   Mr. Jayadev Gadatia                       Mr.   Arakhita Sahoo
   Mr. Sukant Sahoo                          Mr.   Budhu Biswal
   Mr. Haribal Biswal                        Mr.   Nara Biswal
   Mrs. Sumitra Seth                         Mr.   Bhajia Mallik

TIME LINE
Place: Nuapada
  Activities      Sex     Jan   Feb    Mar    Apr    May     Jun   July    Aug   Sept   Oct   Nov   Dec
Veg./Pulses      Male     √      √      √
Cultivation      Female   √      √      √
Forest           Male                   √
produce
                 Female                 √     √          √
collection
Ploughing &      Male                                        √     √
sowing           Female
Sowing &         Male                                        √     √
transplanting    Female                                            √       √
Weeding &        Male                                                      √     √      √     √
harvesting       Female                                                    √     √      √     √
Pulses           Male                                                                               √
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             Female                                                  √




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                               ACTIVITY PROFILE
Place: Nuapada
                Cultivation work                Male                        Female
Ploughing                                        √
Prepare to tillage                               √
Application of manure                            √                             √
Sowing of seeds                                  √                             √
Weeding                                          √                             √
Watering in field                                √
Transplanting                                    √                             √
Harvesting                                       √                             √
Transporting                                     √                             √
Storing                                          √                             √
Fuel wood collection                             √                             √
Child care                                       √                             √
Festival work                                    √                             √
Village meeting                                  √

Place: Nuapada
                                                  Use                     Rights
              Assets
                                        Female           Male        Female      Male
Land                                       √              √            √          √√
Domestic goods                            √√              √            √           √
Income                                     √              √√           √          √√
Earning (Sale)                             √              √            √          √√
Health                                     √              √√           √           √

                         WELL BEING ANALYSIS
Village: Ghungi, Nuapada      Total Household = 120
                                 - Having more land
                                 - No loan
                                 - Doing vegetable cultivation
Subhagini Biswal
                                 - Having plough
                                 - Depend upon loan
                                 - Lease of the mahua tree
                                 - Having less land
Rangabati                        - Doing cultivation
                                 - Lease to mahua tree
                                 - Having little agricultural land (30-50 dec.)
                                 - Doing wage labour (within the village and
Kaushalya                            outside the village)
                                 - Collection of minor forest produce
                                 - Bringing the mahua trees at lease basis

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                                           -    No land
                                           -    They have no food
Kasala                                     -    Doing labour work
                                           -    Migrate in a year
                                           -    Collect minor forest produce

                                  ACTIVITY PROFILE
Place: Nuapada
                                                              Male             Female
Paddy Cultivation:
1. Plough work                                                  √
2. Harvesting                                                   √                √
3. Applying fertilizer and pesticides                           √
4. Take care of seeds                                                            √
5. Take care of medicine                                        √
6. Take care of crops                                           √
Pulses Cultivation:
1. Ploughing                                                    √
2. Harvesting                                                   √                √
Vegetable Cultivation:
1. Plough                                                       √
2. Harvesting                                                   √                √
3. Selling                                                      √                √
4. Take care of money                                                            √
5. Procurement of seeds                                         √                √

                           ACCESS & CONTROL PROFILE
Place: Nuapada
   Activities           Male               Female                Male          Female
Land                     √                   √                    √
Principal                √                   √                    √              √
Wage Labour              √                   √                    √              √
Goods                    √                   √                    √              √




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 Social Political Profile of Women’s Position:
   Decision maker              Less                         Equal       More
In house                                                      √
In village                      √
In GPs                          √
Association                     √

Take care of Animals:
                      Items                                    Male     Female
Cattle (rearing, treatment, purchase, sale &
                                                                 √
milking)
Goat (rearing, treatment, purchase, sale &
                                                                 √        √
milking)
Bullock (rearing, care, treatment, purchase &
                                                                 √
sale)
Buffalo (rearing, treatment, purchase, sale &
                                                                 √
milking)

Wage Labour:
                     Items                                   Male       Female
Collection of MFP                                              √          √
Marketing                                                      √          √
Wage labour                                                    √          √


Reproductive Activities:
                     Items                                   Male       Female
Bringing the water for cooking purpose                                    √
Procurement of fuel wood                                       √          √
Preparation of food                                                       √
Take care of child                                                        √
Health                                                         √          √
House cleaning                                                            √
House preparing                                                √



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ANNEXE 9

KEY CONCERNS RAISED IN BOLANGIR WORKSHOP AND THE SOLUTIONS SUGGESTED

When the participants were sensitised about role and responsibilities of different
functionaries, besides the goal of livelihood project, the following key concerns came
out for discussions.

1. Is it a Watershed Project or Watershed Plus Project or Livelihood Project
2. What is Entry Point Activity (EPA)? And who has to implement / execute it?
3. Steps to be followed for the planning & implementation of project.
4. Activities to be taken up / done.
5. Capacity Building.
6. Funds available for Watershed plus Programme.
7. How to spend funds?
8. What to spend on?
9. A PIA to be nominated for every project.
10. Govt. PIA is over burdened.

1. The Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Project (WORLP) is not a Watershed Project
   alone. It is basically livelihood development/improvement projects for the poorest
   of the poor community members who is resource less and land less. WORLP is
   implemented / grounded in the most deserving villages of the District or Block to
   start with, covering the other villages also if deserving in a phased manner. Since
   most of the Rural Livelihoods depend directly or indirectly on the natural resources
   (land, water & vegetation). In such case the NRs are treated on watershed basis by
   identifying the micro watersheds of 500 ha or cluster of watersheds forming a
   geographical area of about 500 ha, which is the unit of area for the allocation of
   funds.

2. It is an activity, which enables the PIA to gain the confidence of the rural
   community. It is the activity / work, which reflects the felt and urgent need of the
   entire community. It is expressed and decided y the rural community. It is
   executed or implemented by the PIA with the funds that released under community
   organisation. If it is taken up after the formation of Watershed Association, then it
   is to be executed with the knowledge and consent of WA. In case of non-
   availability of sufficient funds with the PIA, sharamadan, donations and
   contributions are to be considered.

3. a. The villages with the most degraded natural resources (identified by Orissa
   Remote Sensing Application Centre (ORSAC) and having poorest of poor
   community groups (as per socio-economic/baseline survey). To avoid delay and to
   facilitate the selected PIA it is done in advance by the PD, DRDA.


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   b. The selected PIA has to appoint or identify the following four members of his
      Watershed Development Team (WDT):
                  Social Scientist/worker
                  Plant Scientist
                  Animal Scientist
                  Civil Engineer/Soil Conservationist

   c. PIA is to be oriented with the goal of WORLP, its structure and functioning.
      Managerial and Supervisory aspects and practices. Availability of funds its
      break-up for different components and maintenance of physical and financial
      records are also to be made known to PIA.

   d. Members of WDT should also be trained in their role and responsibilities and
      the goal of WORLP.

   e. The PIA & WDT should visit the selected villages frequently to develop raport.
      Organise the community in livelihood groups, self help groups, user groups or
      identify the above groups to proceed towards formation of Watershed
      Association (WA) and Watershed Development Committee (WDC) with general
      consences. It may take some time to organise the community in the above said
      groups, WA & WDC, as the process has to move through, mass meetings,
      group meetings and individual contacts.

        Formation of livelihood / self help groups may better be started by forming
        thrift groups. After these groups are acquainted with the handling of funds by
        way of contribution, loans to meet the personal / family requirement, returning
        the loan amount with some interest and maintenance of account at group level,
        these groups may be promoted to livelihood groups for successful functioning.
        It may take six months to one year for this process. For the identification of
        different groups PRA techniques (social mapping and resource mapping) may
        be adopted.

   f.   Members of livelihood groups, SHG, UGs, WA & WDC should be oriented about
        the goal of WORLP, their role & responsibilities, and the functioning of project
        both in terms physical and financial aspects.

   g. Livelihood process plan, individual and community plans for addressing the
      natural resources are to be prepared by the group members in a participatory
      manner with the financial and time estimates. These plans are then forwarded
      to the PD with recommendation of PIA for approval. The approved plans are
      the basis for the release of funds and monitoring the implementation.

4. Activities that are finalised by the group and approved by the WA are to be taken
   in order of priority decided by the WA. The activities / works are to be

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    implemented by the groups themselves. The PIA & WDT will only facilitate the
    groups for successful implementation.

5. It is a must and required for all the functionaries from state level to village level in
   different forums in the modules required for that functionaries.

6. Funds that are allocated by the government for the project under watershed
   development programme are provided in the following manner during the project
   period of five year in annual instalments. Total allocation for a watershed of 500 ha
   is made @ Rs.6000/ha.

                                                                               % Break-
 Year        %        Agency         %            Component Break-up
                                                                                  up
                                               Adm. Cost.                        1%
   1st      15%         PIA          4%
                                               Comm. Develop & Training          3%
                                               Adm. Cost.                        1%
                        WDC         11%
                                               Works & other programmes          10%
                                               Adm. Cost.                        1%
  2nd       30%         PIA          2%
                                               Comm. Dev. & Training             1%
                                               Adm. Cost.                        1%
                        WDC         28%
                                               Works & other programmes          27%
                                               Adm. Cost.                        1%
  3rd       30%         PIA          2%
                                               Comm. Dev. & Training             1%
                                               Adm. Cost.                        1%
                        WDC         28%
                                               Works & other programmes          27%
      th
  4         15%         PIA          1%        Adm. Cost.                         1%
                                               Adm. Cost.                        1%
                        WDC         14%
                                               Works & other programmes          13%
  5th       10%         PIA          1%        Adm. Cost.                         1%
                                               Adm. Cost.                        1%
                        WDC          9%
                                               Works & other programmes          8%

    In addition to the allocation detailed above allocation @ Rs.3,500/- per hectare of
    livelihood project area will be released by the WORLP exclusively for livelihoods
    programme.

7. Funds are released by the PD to PIA and WDC in instalments as detailed under
   item 6, on proper utilisation of earlier instalment. The PIA & WDC have to maintain
   the physical & financial records with the help of an accountant in the office PIA and
   WDC has to entrust this responsibility to its paid secretary and volunteers.

8. Funds are to be released after getting satisfied that the amount, that is released
   earlier is utilised properly. Amount is to be spent preferably through cheques
   obtaining the receipt for each and every expenditure.

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9. It is neither possible nor practicable to nominate / appoint one PIA exclusively for
   one livelihood project, because the PIAs (NGO or G.O.) will be having activities or
   works / responsibilities other than the project. If the PIA is conscious about his role
   and responsibilities, it can manage and supervise the project successfully. Only the
   thing that matters is appointment of full time WDT exclusively for project
   facilitations.

10. Allotment of 10-12 projects with full time WDT will reduce the burden of G.O. PIAs.

   If the limitation of funds for the salary / honorarium of WDT members does not
   permit the appointment of 4 members, then atleast 2 members i.e. Social Scientist
   & Livelihood Specialist should be appointed along with an accountant.

   The services of Civil Engineer / Soil Conservationist may be hired as and when
   required.

   Office for the WDT should be located in the centrally located village or near by
   village for easy accessibility to the project villages.

   WDT has to facilitate the members of livelihood groups, other groups, WA & WC
   for proper and successful planning and implementation of project at each and
   every stage.

   After discussing the possible solutions to the raised concerns, the participants
   formulated the criteria for the selection of deserving villages and proper PIAs.




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Sensitization Workshop Report on Poverty-Focused and Equity Issues

				
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