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					                                             ABSTRACT




                          Human capability has long been limited by biology.
                         Our mental and physical capabilities are limited.
                         Athletes have pushed the limits of strength and
                         endurance. Human working memory has always been
                         limited to a relatively small number of items. Our minds,
                         even of the most talented, are limited. And as we age, we
                         go frail, both physically and mentally. Up to now, our
                         advances in technology have functioned as accessories,
                         enhancing our capabilities but not making any changes
                         in our biology.


                          Now, we are able to develop a technology that
                         helps us in the implantation of bio-electronic
                         devices to amplify human thought, memory, vision,
                         and muscle power. After these implants, a human-
                         being becomes a Cyborg.


                          A CYBORG is a human-machine hybrid
    DEPARTMENT OF        (cybernetic organism). It is part cybernetic and part

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY   human. Like all hybrids, Cyborgs provoke
                         ambivalent responses. Their techno-bodies are
                         represented super healthy, super clean and "more
                         real than real" and their invulnerability makes them
                         both seductive and potentially dangerous.




               CYBORGS
                                                          The number of respected scientists predicting the
                                                         advent of intelligent machines is growing
CONTENTS:                                                exponentially. Steven Hawking, perhaps the most
                                                         highly regarded theoretical scientist in the world and
  Introduction
                                                         the holder of the Cambridge University chair that
                                                         once belonged to Isaac Newton, said recently, "In
    1.   Why
                                                         contrast with our intellect, computers double their
    2.   How
                                                         performance every 18 months. So the danger is real
    3.   Visualisations
                                                         that they could develop intelligence and take over
    4.   Applications
                                                         the world." He added, "We must develop as quickly
    5.   Challenges & Concerns
                                                         as possible technologies that make possible a direct
    6.   FAQ
                                                         connection between brain and computer, so that
    7.   Conclusion
                                                         artificial brains contribute to human intelligence

 Introduction:                                           rather than opposing it."1 The important message to
                                                         take from this is that the danger—that we will see
             How might we interact with future           machines with an intellect that outperforms that of
computers? Let me list the ways: By gesture, by          humans—is real.
hand, foot and body motion, by the speed and
forcefulness of our activities, by our thoughts,         The communication to robos is very difficultThere

feelings and emotions, by where, how and when we         are certain grey areas in the man’s ability in order to

look, by speech and sound, by music and touch.           rectify them.

Imagine it and it shall come to pass? Not quite, but
the potential is staggering, especially in the area of
the cyborg—the implantation of bio-electronic
devices to amplify human thought, memory, vision,
and muscle power.


 Cyborg is a cybernetic organism whose mental and
physical and mental abilities are far extended by the
machine technology.


 It’s partly human and partly a machine.




WHY ?
HOW CYBORGS ARE MADE..?




The chip is to be implanted in to our body,which
consists of an array of electrodes.These electrodes
are extremely thin,similar in dimension to a huma
hair.When implanted this get in contact with median
nerve in order to record the reactions and simulate
the nerves.The array is in turn in connected to the
signal processing system through wires.The implant
is a two way communication.
                                                       into the median nerve. Connecting wires were fed
                                                       under the skin of the forearm and out from a skin
                                                       puncture and the wounds were sewn up. The wires
                                                       will be linked to a receiver device to relay nerve
                                                       messages to a computer by radio signal. The
                                                       procedure involved inserting a guiding tube into a
                                                       two inch incision made above the wrist, inserting the
                                                       microelectrode array into this tube and firing it into
                                                       the median nerve fibres below the elbow joint.


                                                       A number of experiments have been carried out
                                                       using the signals detected by the array, most notably
                                                       Professor Warwick was able to control an electric
                                                       wheelchair and an intelligent artificial hand using
                                                       this neural interface.


                                                       Another important aspect of the work undertaken as
                                                       part of this project has been to monitor the effects of
                                                       the implant on Professor Warwick’s hand functions.
                                                       This was carried out by Allesio Murgia a research
                                                       student at the department, using the Southampton
                                                       Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) test. By testing
                                                       hand functionality during the course of the project
                                                       the difference between the performance indicators
A British university professor has been fitted with    before, during and after the implant was present in
cyborg technology enabling his nervous system to       Kevin’s arm can be used to give a measure of the
be linked to a computer. He is Professor Kevin         risks associated with this and future cyborg
Warwick, probably, the world’s first cyborg.           experiments.
Readings will be taken from the implant in his arm.
These readings will be of electrical impulses          V ISUALISATIONS:
coursing through his nerves. These signals, which
are generated by encoding movements like wiggling         We think a lot isn’t it? We think logically
                                                       ,Analytically but we lack the processing
fingers and feelings like shock and pain, will be
                                                       capabilities.What if we can get the processing
transmitted to a computer and recorded.
                                                       capabilities of machine with our own way of
Surgeons implanted a silicon square about 3mm          thinking.No doubt we can create absolutely
wide into an incision in Warwick's left wrist and      wonders.
attached its 100 electrodes, each as thin as a hair,
8-QUEEN PROBLEM:                                        SU-DO-KU:


                                                          Su-do-ku is another great puzzle which can be
                                                        solved by computers in fraction of seconds but it can
                                                        not be solved by us in that less time.


                                                          Because the processing capabilities of man are
                                                        very less.


                                                        APPLICATIONS:


                                                              1) It is possible that the procedure could lead
                                                        to a medical breakthrough for people paralyzed by
                                                        spinal cord damage.


                                                              2) I hope to wire myself up to an ultrasonic
                                                        sensor, used by robots to navigate around objects, to
                                                        give myself a bat-like sixth sense.


                                                              3) The technique could be developed within a
                                                        decade to restore movement to a tetraplegic's hand
This problem is keeping the 8 queens o chess board      or feeling to a prosthetic leg used by an amputee.
such that one queen should not face the other either
diagonally,horizontally or vertically squares.          Military applications:


There are nearly 96 different solutions to solve this          1)Computer overlay maps projected through
                                                        an eyepiece positioned over a soldier's right eye
problem.But, our computer performs 69,821               offer a view of the terrain ahead with out being
calculations of them only 2.34% of them are really      exposed.

needed.                                                       2) This system will allow them to move leaps
                                                        and bounds ahead of the current infantrymen on the
So, a computer which can not think does all the         battlefield.

calculations which are unnecessary .                          3) Assault weapons are fitted with thermal
                                                        sights able to zero in on warm bodies through the
                                                        fog of war.


                                                              4) Global positioning systems track the
                                                        soldier's every step through forests or jungle and tell
                                                        commanders exactly where everyone is while a
                                                        battle rages.
CHALLENGES AND CONCERNS:                              website. I would not normally write in my website
                                                      that I enjoy smoking although that is a truth from
             1) The brain communicates with itself    which I am trying to escape. As a CYBORG, if I
through a complex, highly parallel communication      were to upload my whole consciousness online for
process involving the firing patterns of neural       all eternity, how secure would I feel? Anybody
impulses, biochemical stimulation that bathes the     worth his programming could hack into my life and
brain structures with highly tuned molecular          read all about me, also insert whatever fancy stuff
structures, and methods as yet unknown. Just how      they feel should be a part of my life.
information is stored, regenerated, and interpreted               4) Today, we test athletes in an
within brain circuits remains a major mystery, one    evermore difficult attempt to eliminate drug-
unlikely to be solved soon. I’m sure, we can record   enhanced performance. Some day we may have to
neural firings from tens of neurons and we can        do full X-ray (3D tomographic) scans in an ever-
stimulate neurons to create crude sensory images.     more difficult attempt to detect artificial implants.
But full-fledged, precise control of the expert       Why? Because it is possible.
performer eludes understanding. Note how easy it is
for computers to perform tasks we find difficult,     FAQ
                                                       What did your first chip implant do? When did
such as arithmetic calculations and precise memory
                                                      it take place?
and how difficult to perform tasks we find trivial,
such as walking and talking, throwing and seeing,     For the first experimental chip implant, back in
                                                      August 1998, the implant merely sent a signal to the
understanding and creating.                           computer in the department here in Reading, which
                                                      identified me. So the computer was programmed to
                                                      open doors, switch on lights etc. depending where I
            2) When we program something in
                                                      was. For the next experiment we will be sending
computer language, we’re essentially devising         signals from the nervous system - which is a lot
                                                      more complex.
different optimal ways of bending binary codes. So,
if I were to be a cyborg having circuitry implanted   Will this technology change the way we
                                                      communicate?
in my body, what language should I use? The speed
                                                       At present our method of communication, speech,
at which my nerves communicate is ultra fast than     is very slow, serial and error prone. The potential to
                                                      communicate by means of thought signals alone is a
any super computer there may be. But maybe the
                                                      very exciting one. We will probably have to learn
smarties at silicon valley can come up with a         how to communicate well in this way though, in
                                                      particular how to send ideas to one another. It is not
language that can form a pretty good bridge between
                                                      clear if I think about an ice cream are my thoughts
an electrical circuit and a neural circuit (Neural    roughly the same as yours - we will have to learn
                                                      about each other's thoughts. Maybe it will be easier
Networks or Genetic algorithms).
                                                      than we think, maybe not. Certainly speech is an old
            3) As a human being isolated in a         fashioned, out dated means of communication - it's
                                                      on its way out!
biological body, I can choose to indulge or
relinquish contact, but I doubt if I would have the
same liberty as an online existent being. For
example, when we chat, we project only those truths
that we want to project. The same is about a
What did your first chip implant do? When did it
take place?


For the first experimental chip implant, back in
August 1998, the implant merely sent a signal to the
computer in the department here in Reading, which
identified me. So the computer was programmed to
open doors, switch on lights etc. depending where I
was. For the next experiment we will be sending
signals from the nervous system - which is a lot
more complex.


In the future could this technology change
humans into "Super humans"? Will we have new
senses and abilities?


I think, most definitely. In particular extra memory
and processing capabilities could be a possibility. A
person's brain could be directly linked to a computer
network.


CONCLUSION:


 By cyborg technology man can improve himself a
lot.


 More over in order prevent the machines taking
away this world we should be more like them.
Today, we have not yet achieved the necessary
miniaturization, but we can see how to get there.
Power is still a problem, but it will be solved. At
first, enhancements are apt to be implanted for
medical reasons, but when people discover that an
artificial eye is better than the real one, or that the
memory chip that remembers events, names, and
facts can be ever-present, the trend will be
unstoppable.

				
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posted:7/22/2011
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