ABSTRACT Human capability has long been limited by biology. Our mental and physical capabilities are limited. Athletes have pushed the limits of strength and endurance. Human working memory has always been limited to a relatively small number of items. Our minds, even of the most talented, are limited. And as we age, we go frail, both physically and mentally. Up to now, our advances in technology have functioned as accessories, enhancing our capabilities but not making any changes in our biology. Now, we are able to develop a technology that helps us in the implantation of bio-electronic devices to amplify human thought, memory, vision, and muscle power. After these implants, a human- being becomes a Cyborg. A CYBORG is a human-machine hybrid DEPARTMENT OF (cybernetic organism). It is part cybernetic and part INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY human. Like all hybrids, Cyborgs provoke ambivalent responses. Their techno-bodies are represented super healthy, super clean and "more real than real" and their invulnerability makes them both seductive and potentially dangerous. CYBORGS The number of respected scientists predicting the advent of intelligent machines is growing CONTENTS: exponentially. Steven Hawking, perhaps the most highly regarded theoretical scientist in the world and Introduction the holder of the Cambridge University chair that once belonged to Isaac Newton, said recently, "In 1. Why contrast with our intellect, computers double their 2. How performance every 18 months. So the danger is real 3. Visualisations that they could develop intelligence and take over 4. Applications the world." He added, "We must develop as quickly 5. Challenges & Concerns as possible technologies that make possible a direct 6. FAQ connection between brain and computer, so that 7. Conclusion artificial brains contribute to human intelligence Introduction: rather than opposing it."1 The important message to take from this is that the danger—that we will see How might we interact with future machines with an intellect that outperforms that of computers? Let me list the ways: By gesture, by humans—is real. hand, foot and body motion, by the speed and forcefulness of our activities, by our thoughts, The communication to robos is very difficultThere feelings and emotions, by where, how and when we are certain grey areas in the man’s ability in order to look, by speech and sound, by music and touch. rectify them. Imagine it and it shall come to pass? Not quite, but the potential is staggering, especially in the area of the cyborg—the implantation of bio-electronic devices to amplify human thought, memory, vision, and muscle power. Cyborg is a cybernetic organism whose mental and physical and mental abilities are far extended by the machine technology. It’s partly human and partly a machine. WHY ? HOW CYBORGS ARE MADE..? The chip is to be implanted in to our body,which consists of an array of electrodes.These electrodes are extremely thin,similar in dimension to a huma hair.When implanted this get in contact with median nerve in order to record the reactions and simulate the nerves.The array is in turn in connected to the signal processing system through wires.The implant is a two way communication. into the median nerve. Connecting wires were fed under the skin of the forearm and out from a skin puncture and the wounds were sewn up. The wires will be linked to a receiver device to relay nerve messages to a computer by radio signal. The procedure involved inserting a guiding tube into a two inch incision made above the wrist, inserting the microelectrode array into this tube and firing it into the median nerve fibres below the elbow joint. A number of experiments have been carried out using the signals detected by the array, most notably Professor Warwick was able to control an electric wheelchair and an intelligent artificial hand using this neural interface. Another important aspect of the work undertaken as part of this project has been to monitor the effects of the implant on Professor Warwick’s hand functions. This was carried out by Allesio Murgia a research student at the department, using the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) test. By testing hand functionality during the course of the project the difference between the performance indicators A British university professor has been fitted with before, during and after the implant was present in cyborg technology enabling his nervous system to Kevin’s arm can be used to give a measure of the be linked to a computer. He is Professor Kevin risks associated with this and future cyborg Warwick, probably, the world’s first cyborg. experiments. Readings will be taken from the implant in his arm. These readings will be of electrical impulses V ISUALISATIONS: coursing through his nerves. These signals, which are generated by encoding movements like wiggling We think a lot isn’t it? We think logically ,Analytically but we lack the processing fingers and feelings like shock and pain, will be capabilities.What if we can get the processing transmitted to a computer and recorded. capabilities of machine with our own way of Surgeons implanted a silicon square about 3mm thinking.No doubt we can create absolutely wide into an incision in Warwick's left wrist and wonders. attached its 100 electrodes, each as thin as a hair, 8-QUEEN PROBLEM: SU-DO-KU: Su-do-ku is another great puzzle which can be solved by computers in fraction of seconds but it can not be solved by us in that less time. Because the processing capabilities of man are very less. APPLICATIONS: 1) It is possible that the procedure could lead to a medical breakthrough for people paralyzed by spinal cord damage. 2) I hope to wire myself up to an ultrasonic sensor, used by robots to navigate around objects, to give myself a bat-like sixth sense. 3) The technique could be developed within a decade to restore movement to a tetraplegic's hand This problem is keeping the 8 queens o chess board or feeling to a prosthetic leg used by an amputee. such that one queen should not face the other either diagonally,horizontally or vertically squares. Military applications: There are nearly 96 different solutions to solve this 1)Computer overlay maps projected through an eyepiece positioned over a soldier's right eye problem.But, our computer performs 69,821 offer a view of the terrain ahead with out being calculations of them only 2.34% of them are really exposed. needed. 2) This system will allow them to move leaps and bounds ahead of the current infantrymen on the So, a computer which can not think does all the battlefield. calculations which are unnecessary . 3) Assault weapons are fitted with thermal sights able to zero in on warm bodies through the fog of war. 4) Global positioning systems track the soldier's every step through forests or jungle and tell commanders exactly where everyone is while a battle rages. CHALLENGES AND CONCERNS: website. I would not normally write in my website that I enjoy smoking although that is a truth from 1) The brain communicates with itself which I am trying to escape. As a CYBORG, if I through a complex, highly parallel communication were to upload my whole consciousness online for process involving the firing patterns of neural all eternity, how secure would I feel? Anybody impulses, biochemical stimulation that bathes the worth his programming could hack into my life and brain structures with highly tuned molecular read all about me, also insert whatever fancy stuff structures, and methods as yet unknown. Just how they feel should be a part of my life. information is stored, regenerated, and interpreted 4) Today, we test athletes in an within brain circuits remains a major mystery, one evermore difficult attempt to eliminate drug- unlikely to be solved soon. I’m sure, we can record enhanced performance. Some day we may have to neural firings from tens of neurons and we can do full X-ray (3D tomographic) scans in an ever- stimulate neurons to create crude sensory images. more difficult attempt to detect artificial implants. But full-fledged, precise control of the expert Why? Because it is possible. performer eludes understanding. Note how easy it is for computers to perform tasks we find difficult, FAQ What did your first chip implant do? When did such as arithmetic calculations and precise memory it take place? and how difficult to perform tasks we find trivial, such as walking and talking, throwing and seeing, For the first experimental chip implant, back in August 1998, the implant merely sent a signal to the understanding and creating. computer in the department here in Reading, which identified me. So the computer was programmed to open doors, switch on lights etc. depending where I 2) When we program something in was. For the next experiment we will be sending computer language, we’re essentially devising signals from the nervous system - which is a lot more complex. different optimal ways of bending binary codes. So, if I were to be a cyborg having circuitry implanted Will this technology change the way we communicate? in my body, what language should I use? The speed At present our method of communication, speech, at which my nerves communicate is ultra fast than is very slow, serial and error prone. The potential to communicate by means of thought signals alone is a any super computer there may be. But maybe the very exciting one. We will probably have to learn smarties at silicon valley can come up with a how to communicate well in this way though, in particular how to send ideas to one another. It is not language that can form a pretty good bridge between clear if I think about an ice cream are my thoughts an electrical circuit and a neural circuit (Neural roughly the same as yours - we will have to learn about each other's thoughts. Maybe it will be easier Networks or Genetic algorithms). than we think, maybe not. Certainly speech is an old 3) As a human being isolated in a fashioned, out dated means of communication - it's on its way out! biological body, I can choose to indulge or relinquish contact, but I doubt if I would have the same liberty as an online existent being. For example, when we chat, we project only those truths that we want to project. The same is about a What did your first chip implant do? When did it take place? For the first experimental chip implant, back in August 1998, the implant merely sent a signal to the computer in the department here in Reading, which identified me. So the computer was programmed to open doors, switch on lights etc. depending where I was. For the next experiment we will be sending signals from the nervous system - which is a lot more complex. In the future could this technology change humans into "Super humans"? Will we have new senses and abilities? I think, most definitely. In particular extra memory and processing capabilities could be a possibility. A person's brain could be directly linked to a computer network. CONCLUSION: By cyborg technology man can improve himself a lot. More over in order prevent the machines taking away this world we should be more like them. Today, we have not yet achieved the necessary miniaturization, but we can see how to get there. Power is still a problem, but it will be solved. At first, enhancements are apt to be implanted for medical reasons, but when people discover that an artificial eye is better than the real one, or that the memory chip that remembers events, names, and facts can be ever-present, the trend will be unstoppable.
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