Music Therapy

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  Therapy with Music
  Music Therapy

A Brief Historical Review
Music Therapy

   Music and music experiences as tools
    for healing, growth, & development

   Primary Elements:
    – Client
    – Therapist
    – Music
    – A Process
Why Music Therapy?

   Ancient physicians recognized that music
    affected human beings’ moods, energy
    levels, emotions…
   Aristotle (catharsis), Plato (tx for the soul),
    etc. prescribed music for patients with
    physical & mental illnesses
   Moral view: some types of music were
    considered better than others for treating
    “Melancholy” and for “building character”
Very Early Europeans
& Non-Europeans
   Spiritual/Religious Healing
    – Placate gods & exorcize demons
    – Trance states (Shamanic approaches)
    – Sick person did not play- others provided
      musical stimulus for the Shaman-
      Shaman communicates with a god or
      gods to learn how to best treat the
    – Drumming and chanting
Greeks: Rational Medicine

   4 Humours: Balance
    – Blood
    – Phlegm
    – Yellow Bile
    – Black Bile
    This theoretical view lasted 2000 years!;
      into the 1600s
The Rise of Catholicism
   Dichotomy: Power! And (vs.) compassion
   Power dictated what was good & right
   Compassion dictated that ill persons should
    be offered some form of tx
   EXCEPT mental illness!
    – Devil/demon possession
    – Shunned, ridiculed, tortured, killed

    • Music for prayer and worship- to “heal the sick”
    • Church controlled quality of “good” music- down
      to the specific use of musical elements (e.g., tri-
Medicine & Music-
1600s-early 1900s
   Advanced Societies: Advanced
   Music & Medicine linked
    – Microscope invented: cells discovered and
    – Physicians were upper class- studied
      music- valued music for altering moods,
      bringing joy, positive pastime endeavor,
Music & Medicine Part Ways
   1800s forward
   Mind & Body are viewed as separate
   Likewise,
    – Musicians were musicians
    – Physicians were physicians
Enlightenment regarding treatment
for Atypical persons

   Education reforms- (Industrial Revolution)
   1832 Perkin School for the Blind
     – Music programming
   Early 1900s- attempts to bring music
    programming into medical hospitals
WWII: Shell Shock (PTSD)

   Musicians working in VA hospitals
   Menninger Clinic: Kansas
   E. Thayer Gaston (music educator)
   1944 Michigan State- 1st Music
    Therapy degree program
   1946 U. of Kansas- 1st internship
Music Tx as an Organized
   1950 MENC meeting
   Birth of the National Association for
    Music Therapy (NAMT)

   Behavioral medicine philosophical
    stance- to seek acceptance from the
    medical community
    – Pendulum swing…….
              Important Acronyms to
   1950: NAMT (National Association for Music Therapy)
     – Curriculum-based training
     – 1956 RMT (Registered Music Therapist)
           A professional designation- NOT a credential
   1971: AAMT (American Association for Music Therapy)
     – Competency-based training
     – CMT (Certified Music Therapist)
           Professional Designation
         Reunification: 1998
       (NAMT+AAMT) = AMTA

   AMTA
    – “Your” American Music Therapy
    – Competency-Based Training
    The MT-BC Credential
   1986: CBMT (Certification Board for Music Therapists)
   MT-BC (Music Therapist-Board Certified)
     – Board Certification Exam
     – CMTE (Continuing Music Therapy Education)
         100 hours/5 year cycle- or retake the Exam
    Music Therapy Journals: Tools for
         Research and Practice

   1964- JMT (Journal of Music Therapy)
    – NAMT/AMTA publication
    – Juried
    – Empirical Research
   1980- Music Therapy
   1984- Music Therapy Perspectives (MTP)
    – NAMT/AMTA publication
    – Juried
    – “Information Sharing”
Journals continued…
   Nordic Journal of Music Therapy
   British Journal of Music Therapy
   Canadian Journal of Music Therapy
   Australian Journal of Music Therapy
   New Zealand Journal of Music Therapy
   The Arts in Psychotherapy
   Voices- Online International Journal
 online resources
   Etc…
   Established Models:
    – CMT (Creative Music Therapy: aka Nordoff-
      Robbins Music Therapy)
    – AMT (Analytic Music Therapy)
    – GIM (Guided Imagery and Music)
   Rise of Medical Music Therapy
   Private Practice evolves…
   2000: Temple University-
    – 1st “pure” PhD in Music Therapy in U.S.
   Advanced Competencies…

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