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Riser Design in Foundry Technology

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					                     MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION , MUMBAI
                                 TEACHING AND EXAMINATION SCHEME
COURSE NAME : POST DIPLOMA IN FOUNDRY TECHNOLOGY
COURSE CODE :FD
DURATION OF COURSE : THREE SEMESTERS / ONE AND HALF YEAR   WITH EFFECT FROM 2007-08)
SEMESTER : SECOND                                          DURATION : 16 WEEKS
FULL TIME / PART TIME: FULL TIME                           SCHEME - C
                                      TEACHING
                                                                                  EXAMINATION SCHEME
SR.                       SUBJECT      SCHEME
       SUBJECT TITLE
NO.                        CODE                     PAPER      TH                 TOTAL          PR               OR               TW
                                    TH    TU   PR                        TEST
                                                     HRS    MAX MIN              MAX MIN      MAX MIN       MAX        MIN   MAX     MIN

 1    Casting Design        9895     04   --   02     03     80     28     20    100     40     --     --    --        --    25@     10
      Cast Iron Foundry
 2                          9896     04   --   02     03     80     28     20    100     40     --    --    25#        10    50@     20
      Practices
      Foundry
 3    Management and        9897     04   --   --     03     80     28     20    100     40     --     --    --        --     --      --
      Control
      Steel Foundry
 4                          9898     03   --   02     03     80     28     20    100     40     --     --   25@        10     --      --
      Practices
      Non Ferrous
 5                          9899     03   --   02     03     80    28      20    100     40     --    ---   25@        10     --      --
      Foundry Practices
      Computer
 6                           --      --   --   04     --      --    --     --     --     --     --    --     --        --    25@     10
      Applications
             TOTAL                   18   --   12     --     400    --    100    500     --     --     --    75        --    100      --
STUDENT CONTACT HOURS PER WEEK(FORMAL TEACHING) : 30 HRS.
THEORY AND PRACTICAL PERIODS OF 60 MINUTES EACH.
@ - INTERNAL ASSESSMENT, # - EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT.
TOTAL MARKS – 675
ABBREVIATIONS : TH – THEORY , TU – TUTORIAL , PR – PRACTICALS , OR –ORAL, TW – TERMWORK.
All Practical, Oral and Term Work assessment are to be done as per the prevailing norms for implementation and assessment.
Course Name : Post Diploma in Foundry Technology
Course Code : FD
Semester         : Second
Subject Title : Casting Design
Subject Code : 9895

Teaching and Examination Scheme:

  Teaching Scheme                                 Examination Scheme
                              PAPER
 TH         TU       PR                 TH        TEST    PR      OR        TW     TOTAL
                               HRS
  04        --       02        03       80         20      --      --      25@        125


RATIONALE:
       This subject will help to develop the knowledge of various design aspects related to

foundry, such as pattern design, gating and risering design and their application on various

types of metal castings. The students will also get familiarized with the design consideration

of dies for gravity and pressure die casting and casting design aspects. This knowledge will

help them to work in the product development section of a foundry.

OBJECTIVES:

Students should be able to:

       1. Understand the significance of casting design.
       2. Get acquainted with pattern allowances and pattern design procedure.
       3. Get familiarized with gating elements and gating design.
       4. Understand the principle of directional solidification and methods of riser design.
       5. Know various design features of die casting dies.
       6. Get acclimatize with the concepts of design for economic moulding and overall
          economy in manufacture
       7. Understand the importance of design for sections.




                                              2
 Learning Structure:


                 Understanding the concepts of pattern design, gating and risering
Application      design, die design for gravity and pressure die casting process To
                 get acquainted with the casting design aspects.




                                                         Analysis of design problems
               Calculation of pouring time,              such as shrinkage, warpage,
               choke area, gating ratio for              hot tear, difficulty in mould
               pressurised and                           filling, cold shuts and misruns
Procedure
               nonpressurised systems, riser             etc. to find out the solutions
               design by Caine’s, NRL,                   on such problems
               modulus method.




              theorem, continuity equation,              Principles of economic
              design objectives for gating               moulding, Principles of
Principles
              and       risering, directional            directional solidification,
              solidification.                            principles of casting design.




              Development of pattern and                 Parting line selection, location
              die drawing from casting                   of bosses and ribs, elimination
              drawing, design of gating                  of cores, thin sections,
Concepts
              elements like sprue, runner,               uniform sections, unequal
              ingates, riser, card layout,               sections, junctions, and
              feeding aids.                              dimensional variations




                 Pattern Design, methoding, die design for gravity and pressure die
Facts            casting. Casting design aspects




                                             3
Contents: Theory

Chapter                       Name of the topic                     Hours   Marks
           Introduction to Casting Design
           1.1 Concept and meaning.
           1.2 Designers’ requirement of cast products.
    1                                                                04      04
                Preparation of casting drawing incorporating
                 significant production instructions.

           Pattern Design
           2.1 Pattern allowances.
           2.2 Pattern layout.
    2                                                                06      12
           2.3 Development of pattern drawing from the casting
                 drawing with systematic labelling.

           Methoding of Casting
           3.1 Preparation of method card layout from pattern
                drawing.
           3.2 Gating design objectives.
           3.3 Flow characteristics involved in the gating system
                design.
           3.4 Pouring time calculation.
           3.5 Choke area calculation.
           3.6 Gating ratios.
    3      3.7 Size calculation of pouring basin, sprue, runner      16      20
                and ingates.
           3.8 Slag trapping arrangements.
           3.9 Directional solidification.
           3.10 Riser design by Caine’s method.
           3.11 Riser design by NRL method.
           3.12 Riser design by modulus method.
           3.13 Feeding distances.
           3.14 Riser efficiency and feeding aids.

           Design of Die Casting
           4.1 Design fundamentals.
           4.2 Die paring line selection.
           4.3 Soundness and pressure tightness.
           4.4 Ribbed and hollow designs.
    4      4.5 Collapsible cores.                                    10      08
           4.6 Ejection mechanism.
           4.7 Design criteria for optimum shapes.
           4.8 Taper or draft requirements
           4.9 Residual stresses.

           Design For Economic Moulding And Overall
           Economy in manufacture
    5                                                                16      20
           5.1   Designing for economic moulding.
           5.2   Parting line selection.



                                          4
               5.3     Influence of radii on parting line location.
               5.4     Location of bosses, undercuts and ribs.
               5.5     Design for sand moulds and investment moulds.
               5.6     Designing for economic coring.
               5.7     Influence of shape on core requirements.
               5.8     Coring of complicated passages.
               5.9     Coring in investment casting.
               5.10    Unequal expansion of mould and core.
               5.11    Elimination of cores.
               5.12    Coring versus drilling.
               5.13    Designing to reduce pattern cost, machining cost,
                       mould cost.
               5.14    Casting cost versus casting volume for different
                       processes.

               Design problems related to sections
               6.1   Design problems involving thin, uniform,
                     unequal sections.
               6.2   Design problems involving junctions and
                     distortion.
               6.3   Influence of junctions on metal solidification and
                     quality.
               6.4   Various types of junctions.
               6.5   Design to eliminate junctions.
      6                                                                    12   16
               6.6   Relation of distortion with hot tears.
               6.7   Dimensional variation and tolerances.
               6.8   Influence of pattern equipment, cores, location of
                     gates and risers on dimensions.
               6.9   Dimensional variations of different types of
                     moulds.
               6.10 Dimensioning for simplification of inspection
                     and machining.

                                                                  Total    64   80

Practical:

Skills to be developed:

Intellectual Skills:

1.   Understand the system of pattern Design, pattern allowances.
2.   Design the pattern and core box for a given casting.
3.   Design the gating system and risering system
4.   Get acquainted with the method cards and process sheets.
5.   Understand the design concepts of dies for die casting components.




                                               5
Motor Skills:

1. Prepare the pattern design sheet for the given complex casting and core boxes.
2. Prepare the gating and risering (methoding) sheet for the casting mentioned in practical 1.
3. Prepare the method card layout for the casting mentioned in practical 1.


List of Practicals:

   1.   Preparation of pattern drawing from a casting drawing with systematic labelling.
   2.   Design calculations for methoding data for a complicated steel casting.
   3.   Preparation of method card layout for the casting in exercise 1.
   4.   Design of a die for a simple component of Aluminium alloy manufactured by die
        casting method.

Learning Resources:

                                                            Year of
        Author                Title            Edition                         Publisher
                                                           Publication
                      Casting Design                                     American Society
 ASM                                               -          1967
                      Handbook                                           for Metals,USA.
                      Fundamentals of                                    Oxford and IBH
 P. C. Mukherji                                   1st         1970
                      Metals Castings                                    publication.
                      Metal Casting
                                                                         New Age
 TV Ramana Rao        Principles and              1st         1996
                                                                         International, Delhi.
                      Practice
                      Manufacturing
                      Technology –                                       Tata McGraw Hill,
 P. N. Rao                                        10th        1996
                      Foundry, Forming                                   New Delhi.
                      and Welding
 R. Heine ,                                                              Tata McGraw Hill,
                      Principles of Metal      Indian
 C . Loper,                                                   1989       Delhi.
                      Casting                  Reprint
 P. Rosenthal
                      Ductile Iron III
 S. I. Karsay                                     1st         1981       QIT – Fer et Titane
                      Gating and Risering
                      Directional
 Wlodaver             Solidification of           1st         1964       German Publishing
                      Steel Casting




                                              6
Course Name : Post Diploma in Foundry Technology
Course Code : FD
Semester            : Second
Subject Title : Cast Iron Foundry Practice
Subject Code : 9896

Teaching and Examination Scheme:

   Teaching Scheme                                Examination Scheme
                               PAPER
 TH        TU           PR              TH        TEST    PR      OR        TW     TOTAL
                                HRS
  04           --       02      03       80        20      --     25#      50@        175


RATIONALE:
        This subject will help to make the students aware of various manufacturing aspects of

Cast Iron Foundries. They will get conversant with the various moulding, core making,

melting, inoculation and magnesium treatment practices in Cast Iron Foundries. With this

background the students will be able to work in the Gray Iron and S.G. Iron foundries at the

entry level.

OBJECTIVES:

Students should be able to:

        1. Understand the significance of Iron – Cementite and Iron- Graphite equilibrium
           diagrams in relation to the cast iron melting.
        2. Get acquainted with the effect of inoculation on morphology and microstructure
           of grey cast iron and nodular cast iron.
        3. Get familiarized with moulding, core making and shake out practices in cast iron
           foundries.
        4. Understand the cupola and induction melting operations and charge calculations.
        5. Know basic concepts of malleable iron casting manufacturing.




                                              7
Learning Structure:


                Understanding and getting acquainted with the various Cast Iron
Application     foundry practices such as moulding, melting and inoculation,
                magnesium treatment for S. G. Iron and manufacturing cycle of
                malleable iron




              Sand moulding, hpml and shell            Melting, desulphurisation,
              moulding, CO2 moulding,                  magnesium treatment, post
Procedure     Cupola and Induction furnace             inoculation, melt control test
              melting, duplexing, inoculation          for S. G. iron and malleablising
              by FeSi and Calcium Siliside,            cycle for malleable cast iron.
              wedge test




              Principle of inoculation, under          Positive modification by
              cooling, nucleation and grain            magnesium treatment,
Principles    growth                                   austenitising and slow cooling
                                                       of white cast iron to get
                                                       temper carbon




              Production of grey iron                  Production of S. G. Iron and
              castings, types of graphite              malleable iron castings
Concepts      flakes, Section Sensitivity,
              mechanical properties of grey
              iron.




                  Grey Iron, S. G. Iron, and Malleable Iron casting manufacturing
Facts




                                           8
Contents: Theory
Chapter                         Name of the topic                            Hours   Marks
          Physical Metallurgy of Cast Irons
          1.1   Iron – Cementite and Iron- Graphite equilibrium
                 diagrams.
          1.2   Eutectic solidification.
          1.3   Phases in cast irons.
          1.4   Types of cast irons, their microstructures.
          1.5   Types and size of graphite flakes in grey cast iron.
          1.6   Role of silicon and carbon equivalent in graphitisation.
          1.7   Effect of composition on hardness and other mechanical
                 properties.
  1                                                                           14      16
          1.8   Meaning of negative modification or inoculation. Its
                 effect on mechanical properties such as tensile strength,
                 hardness and machinability of grey iron.
          1.9   Section sensitivity and its significance.
          1.10 Effect of under cooling.
          1.11 Positive modification by magnesium treatment to
                 produce S. G. iron.
          1.12 Mechanical properties of S. G. iron and malleable iron.
          1.13 Heat treatment of grey and S.G. iron castings.

           Production of Cast Iron
           2.1 Green sand moulding – hand and machine moulding.
           2.2 High-pressure moulding.
           2.3 CO2 - sodium silicate moulding.
           2.4 No – bake moulding.
   2       2.5 Core making by ovens, core shooters and cold box               10      16
                 method.
           2.6 Design and layout of gating system for grey cast iron.
           2.7 Design and gating layout for S.G. iron.
           2.8 Effect of shake out time on properties.




                                              9
    Melting of Grey Iron – Cupola Furnace
    3.1 Melting methods and their comparison with merits and
           limitations.
    3.2 Cupola components.
    3.3 Operation, rating and cost.
    3.4 Cupola operations with continuous and intermittent
           tapping.
    3.5 Charge calculation and composition control.
3   3.6 Divided blast, hot blast and cokeless cupola. Their           14   16
           principle of working.
    3.7 Typical mechanical charging systems.
    3.8 Heat cycle, log sheet recording.
    3.9 Duplexing.
    3.10 Shop flour tests for composition control.
    3.11 Inoculation practice.
    3.12 Causes and prevention of common casting defects.

    Melting of Grey Iron – Induction Furnace
    4.1   Classification and types.
    4.2   Merits and limitations.
    4.3   Selection by comparison for typical applications.
    4.4   Power supplies.
    4.5   Electrical utilities and safety control.
4   4.6   Lining for induction furnaces.                              12   12
    4.7   Melting practice.
    4.8   Charge calculations.
    4.9   Heat cycle and log sheet recording.
    4.10 Induction duplexing of a cupola melted iron.
    4.11 Inoculation and alloying practice.

    Melting of Spheroidal Graphite Iron
    5.1   Selection of raw materials.
    5.2   Types of furnaces and their operation.
    5.3   Desulphurisation.
    5.4   Metal temperature.
5                                                                     10   12
    5.5   Magnesium treatment.
    5.6   Method s of magnesium treatment.
    5.7   Post inoculation.
    5.8   Melt control test.
    5.9    Causes and prevention of common casting defects.
    Production of Malleable Iron casting
    6.1   Melting practice and the control of melting.
    6.2   Composition control.
6                                                                     04   08
    6.3   Annealing heat treatment cycle.
    6.4   Black heart and white heart malleable iron.

                                                              Total   64   80




                                     10
Practical:
Skills to be developed:

Intellectual Skills:
   1. Understand the relevance of iron – Cementite and iron – graphite phase diagrams
        with respect to grey and S. G. iron melting.
   2. Understand the co-relation of microstructures of various cast irons with the melting
        and mechanical properties.
   3. Understand the importance of shop flour control test in controlling the morphology of
        grey and nodular cast iron.
   4. Understand the charge calculations for different cast iron alloy compositions.
   5. To get acquainted with the induction melting heat cycle.

Motor Skills:
  1. Observe the microstructures of various cast irons and identify different phases in
      etched and unetched condition.
  2. Exercise gating design for simple grey iron casting and nodular iron casting.
  3. Calculate the charge for cupola melting of different compositions of grey cast iron.

List of Practicals:

   1. Study of iron – Cementite and iron – graphite phase diagrams in the perspective of
       grey and S. G. iron production.
   2. Study of microstructures of different types of cast irons.
   3. Design of gating system for a simple casting of grey iron.
   4. Design of gating system for a simple casting of S.G. iron.
   5. Cupola log sheet and its study.
   6. Study and demonstration of shop flour control tests.
   7. Exercise on charge calculation.
   8. Demonstration of carbon equivalent measurement.
   9. Induction melting heat cycle and log sheet recording.
   10. Study of morphology and mechanical properties of S. G. iron.
   11. Study of nodularity estimation.

Learning Resources:

                                                                 Year of
        Author                      Title            Edition                    Publisher
                                                                Publication
 R. W. Heine, C. R.       Principles of Metal        Indian                   Tata McGraw
                                                                   1989
 Loper, P. Rosenthal      Casting.                   Edition                  Hill, Delhi.
                          Principles of Foundry                               Tata McGraw
 P. L. Jain                                            2nd         1986
                          Technology                                          Hill Delhi.
                                                                              Jaico
 Roy Elliot               Cast Iron Technology         2nd         1992       Publication,
                                                                              Calcutta.
                                                                              American
 AFS                      Cupola and its Operation      -          1967       Foundrymens
                                                                              Society, USA.




                                              11
Course Name : Post Diploma in Foundry Technology
Course Code : FD
Semester        : Second
Subject Title : Foundry Management and Control
Subject Code : 9897

Teaching and Examination Scheme:

  Teaching Scheme                                 Examination Scheme
                              PAPER
 TH        TU       PR                  TH        TEST    PR     OR       TW      TOTAL
                               HRS
  04       --       --         03       80         20     --      --        --      100


RATIONALE:
       This subject will develop the concept of organizational aspects of the foundry such as
human resource development, production planning and control, material management,
financial management, plant layout etc. It will also help to comprehend the personal
development and social development values such as communication, leadership, human
relations, safety consciousness and environment protection.


OBJECTIVES:

Students should be able to:

       1. Understand the basic concepts of Human Resource Development
       2. Get acquainted with basic features of production planning and control.
       3. Get familiarized with aspects of inventory control and material management in
          foundries.
       4. Know various modern trends in production systems such as MRP, JIT, KAIZEN,
          TQM, ISO9000, QS 9000 etc.
       5. Understand the concepts costing and accounting applicable to foundries.
       6. Study the aspects of site selection and plant layout in the light of the foundry
          industry.




                                             12
Learning Structure:


Application   To understand the organizational features of a foundry required for
              the efficient functioning of a foundry.




              Recruit-          Capacity              Inventory          Balance
              ment,             planning,             control,           sheet,
              training to       sales                 MRP, JIT,          costing
              develop for       forecasting,          vendor             income
              the needs,        value                 develop-           tax, sales
Procedure     motivation        analysis,             ment,              tax, excise
              through           time and              Purchase           duty
              incentive         motion                and stores
              scheme            study.                control.



              Principles          Principles         Principles          Principles
              of human            of                 of                  of
              resource            productio          material            financial
Principles
              develop-            n planning         manage-             manage-
              ment.               and                ment.               ment.
                                  control




                                  Product             Material           Costing
              Manpower            develop-            require-           and
              planning            ment,               ment               accounts,
              and their           Production          planning.          taxation.
Concepts      training.           planning            Just in
              Industrial          and control         time.
              Relations,          Sales and
              Safety,             marketing,
              Pollution           Work study
              control.            method
                                  study


Facts
              Human              Production          Material            Financial
              Resource           Manage-             Manage-             manage-
              Develop-           ment.               ment                ment
              ment.

                                        13
Contents: Theory
Chapter                         Name of the topic                      Hours   Marks
          Human Resource Development
          1.1   Manpower planning.
          1.2   Recruitment.
          1.3   Training and development of personnel needed for the
                foundry.
          1.4   Identification of training needs.
          1.5   Planning, execution and evaluation of training
                programs.
  1       1.6   Communication Skills.                                   16      16
          1.7   Leadership.
          1.8   Motivation.
          1.9   Human relations.
          1.10 Industrial relations and relevant acts.
          1.11 Incentive schemes.
          1.12 Ergonomics and human elements.
          1.13 Quality consciousness through Quality Circle

          Production Management
           2.1 Product design and development.
           2.2 Production planning and control.
           2.3 Capacity planning.
           2.4 Aggregate planning.
   2       2.5 Sales and marketing.                                     12      16
           2.6 Sales forecasting.
           2.7 Value analysis.
           2.8 Method study applied in the foundry.
           2.9 Time study applied in the foundry.

          Material Management
          3.1 Integrated approach.
          3.2 Organizations and functions of purchase and stores.
          3.3 Control of stores.
   3                                                                    08      12
          3.4 Inventory control.
          3.5 Vendor development –terms of contract.
          3.6 Spares and control commodities.

          Modern trends in production systems
          4.1 Material requirement planning (MRP-I, MRP – II)
          4.2 Just in time (JIT).
          4.3 Kiezen and lean management.
          4.4 Pollution norms applicable to foundry.
   4      4.5 Utilization and disposal of waste.                        16      16
          4.6 ISO – 14000.
          4.7 Accidents – causes and prevention.
          4.8 Accident prevention programme and training.
          4.9 Concepts of quality planning, total quality management
                and quality assurance.



                                           14
            4.10 Introduction to quality standards, their history.
            4.11 ISO – 9000 series of standard.
            4.12 QS – 9000 (Quality System)

            Financial Management
             5.1 Balance sheet.
             5.2 Depreciation.
             5.3 Costing and cost control.
    5                                                                          08          12
             5.4 Budgetary control.
             5.5 Taxes such as income tax, sales tax and excise duty.
             5.6 Banking procedures – Loans and cash credit.

            Site Selection and Plant Layout
             6.1 Aspects of site selection applicable to foundry.
    6                                                                          04          08
             6.2 Aspects of plant layout applicable to foundry.

                                                                      Total    64          80


Learning Resources:

        Author                    Title             Edition       Year of      Publisher
                                                                 Publication
                         Elements of Production                                Universal Book
Samuel Eilon                                           1st           1981
                         planning and Control                                  Corporation,
                         Production Systems –
                                                                               John Wiley and
James L. Riggs           Planning Analysis and         4th           1987
                                                                               Sons,
                         Control
                         Human Resource                                        News India
D. M. Silvera                                          2nd           1990
                         Development                                           Publication ,
                         Safety Management in                                  Jaico
N. V. Krishnan                                         2nd           1996
                         Industry                                              Publications,
                         Industrial Organization
T. R. Banga , S. C.                                                            Khanna
                         and Engineering               1st           1981
Sharma                                                                         Publishers,
                         Economics
                                                                               Dhanpat Rai
                         Industrial Engineering
Dr. O. P. Khanna                                       8th           1986      and Sons,
                         and Management
                                                                               Delhi.
                         Engineering                                           G. K.
G. K. Mithal , R.
                         Economics and                 1st           1996      Publishers
Mittal
                         Management                                            Delhi




                                              15
Course Name : Post Diploma in Foundry Technology
Course Code : FD
Semester         : Second
Subject Title : Steel Foundry Practice
Subject Code : 9898

Teaching and Examination Scheme:

   Teaching Scheme                                  Examination Scheme
                              PAPER
 TH         TU       PR                  TH         TEST    PR     OR       TW      TOTAL
                               HRS
  03        --       02        03         80         20     --     25@        --      125


RATIONALE:
         This subject will help the students to develop the concepts of specifications and
properties of different types of steel, moulding, methoding, core making, melting and quality
control in the steel foundries, alloying practice and heat treatment of steels. With this
background the students will be able to work in the steel foundry as a supervisor at the entry
level.


OBJECTIVES:

Students should be able to:

         1. Understand the classification of different types of steels in relation to their
            mechanical properties and applications.
         2. Understand the significance of Iron – Cementite equilibrium diagram in relation to
            the steel melting.
         3. Get acquainted with the steel melting processes by using various different types of
            furnaces.
         4. Get familiarized with moulding, core making and shake out practices in steel
            foundries.
         5. Understand the gating and risering practices in the steel foundries.
         6. Learn the different heat treatment processes and their effect on microstructure and
            mechanical properties of steels.




                                               16
 Learning Structure:



              To understand various processes in the steel foundry such as
Application   moulding, methoding, melting, alloying and quality control.




                 Analysis of Iron – Iron               Open hearth process,
                 Carbide diagram,                      Electric arc process,
Procedure        annealing, normalising,               induction melting,
                 hardening, tempering,                 analysis of various defects
                 surface hardening                     and their remedies.




                 Allotropy of iron, solid              Principles of
Principles       solutions, nucleation and             electromagnetic induction,
                 grain growth, solid-state             ionisation and arcing,
                 phase transformation by               conduction, convection
                 eutectoid reaction                    and radiation, directional
                                                       solidification




                 Physical metallurgy and                Moulding, methoding,
                 heat treatment of steels               melting, alloying and
                                                        quality control in steel
Concepts
                                                        foundry.




                                  STEEL FOUNDRY PRACTICE
Facts




                                        17
Contents: Theory
 Chapter                    Name of the topic                     Hours   Marks
            Types of steel
            1.1   Classification.
            1.2   Plain carbon steels.
            1.3   Multicomponent alloy steels.
            1.4   High alloy steels with special properties.
    1                                                              04      08
            1.5   Hadfield and wear resistant steels.
            1.6   Stainless and heat resistant steels.
            1.7   Tool steels and high speed steels.
            1.8   Magnetic and nonmagnetic alloy steels.

             Physical Metallurgy of Steels.
              2.1   Iron and Iron – Iron carbide phase diagram.
              2.2   Significance of phase diagram with respect
                    of steel melting and solidification.
              2.3   Types of phases, grain size, segregation.
              2.4   Eutectoid phase transformations.
     2        2.5   Change in microstructure with the change in    12      20
                    carbon percentage.
              2.6   Effect of alloying elements on phase
                    diagram and microstructure.
              2.7   Inclusions and their distribution.
              2.8   Anisotropy and structural defects.


             Steel Melting in Foundry
             3.1 Selection of furnaces on the basis of merits
                    and limitation.
             3.2 Types of furnaces such as open hearth,
                    Electric arc, Induction furnaces and their
                    operations.
             3.3 Capacity and cost considerations.
     3       3.4 Acidic, basic and combination melting             12      20
                    practice.
             3.5 Oxidation and refining.
             3.6 Physical chemistry of steel making.
             3.7 Deoxidation.
             3.8 Vacuum treatment.
             3.9 Alloying and tapping.

             Manufacturing of steel castings
             4.1  Process designing.
             4.2  Moulding and core sands for steel castings.
     4                                                             12      20
             4.3  Casting systems.
             4.4  Methoding,
             4.5  Riser design – shape and size calculation



                                              18
 Chapter                         Name of the topic                    Hours       Marks
                       methods (Caine’s method, NRL method and
                       modulus method.
              4.6      Heating and insulation of risers.
              4.7      Pressure in risers.
              4.8      Moulding and mould assembly.
              4.9      External and internal chills.
              4.10     Drying of moulds and cores.
              4.11     Steel pouring theory and practice.
              4.12     Cooling of castings.
              4.13     Cooling rate calculation.
              4.14     Cleaning of runner and riser removal.
              4.15     Visual and dimensional inspection.
              4.16     N. D. testing.
              4.17     Hardness Testing and its significance.

              Heat treatment of Steel Castings
              5.1 Annealing.
              5.2 Normalising.
              5.3 Hardening and tempering.
              5.4 Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure
     5                                                                  08           12
                    and mechanical properties of castings.
              5.5 Heat treatment of stainless steel and Hadfield
                    steel.


                                                            Total       48           80

Practical:

Skills to be developed:

Intellectual Skills:

   1. Understand the relevance of iron – Cementite phase diagram with respect to steel
      melting.
   2. Understand the co-relation of microstructures of plain carbon and alloy steels with the
      melting and mechanical properties.
   3. Understand the importance of melting heat cycle and log sheet recording in steel
      foundry practice.
   4. Understand the gating and risering practice and the concept of directional
      solidification in the context of steel casting.
   5. Get acquainted with the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and the
      mechanical properties of steels.
   6. Understand the importance of non-destructive testing of steel castings.




                                             19
Motor Skills:

   1. Observe the microstructures of various plain carbon and alloy steels and identify
      different phases in etched condition.
   2. Exercise gating and risering design for simple steel casting.
   3. Use ultrasonic testing apparatus for the inspection of steel castings.

List of Practicals:

   1. Study of microstructures of plain carbon steels showing the effect of increasing
      carbon content.
   2. Study of microstructures of alloy steels
   3. Study of melting heat cycle and log sheet recording.
   4. Study of pouring practice.
   5. Exercise of methoding and risering for a simple plain carbon steel casting.
   6. Preparation of method card for the casting mentioned in exercise 1.
   7. Ultrasonic inspection of steel castings. Interpretation of observations.
   8. Microstructure of cast steels to study the effect of heat treatment.

Learning Resources:

Books:

                                                       Year of
       Author                Title         Edition                           Publisher
                                                      Publication
 H. F. Taylor, M. C.   Foundry
                                              5th        1993        Wiley and Eastern, USA.
 Fleming J. Wulfe      Engineering
 R. W. Heine, C. R.
                       Principles of       Indian
 Loper, P.                                               1989        Tata McGraw Hill, Delhi.
                       Metal Casting.      Edition
 Rosenthal
                       Steel foundry
 P. Bidulya                                   1st        1967        Peace Publishers, London.
                       Practice
                                                                     American Society for
 ASM                   Castings, Vol.15        -         1996
                                                                     Metals.
                       Directional
 R. Wlodaver           Solidification of      1st        1967        German Publisher.
                       Steel Castings




                                             20
Course Name : Post Diploma in Foundry Technology
Course Code : FD
Semester        : Second
Subject Title : Nonferrous Foundry Practice
Subject Code : 9899

Teaching and Examination Scheme:

   Teaching Scheme                                  Examination Scheme
                              PAPER
 TH        TU       PR                   TH         TEST    PR    OR      TW      TOTAL
                               HRS
  03       --       02         03        80          20     --    25@       --      125


RATIONALE:
       This subject will help the students to develop the concepts of manufacturing practices
of various nonferrous alloys such as aluminium alloys, copper alloys and magnesium alloys.
The background of this subject will enable the students of this course to supervise the
processes in the nonferrous foundry at the entry level.


OBJECTIVES:

Students should be able to:

       1. Understand the melting practices of aluminium alloys in different types of
          furnaces.
       2. Understand pouring practices in the aluminium foundries.
       3. Get acquainted with the melting process of copper alloys and their melt control.
       4. Get familiarized with moulding, and pouring practice for copper alloys.
       5. Understand the melting, moulding, pouring practices and melt control in
          magnesium alloy foundries.




                                               21
Learning Structure:




Application    To study the production aspects of non-ferrous alloys such as
               aluminium, copper and magnesium alloys.




               Analysis of various     Analysis of various     Analysis of various
               moulding and            moulding and            moulding and
Procedure      melting practices on    melting practices on    melting practices on
               the basis of their      the basis of their      the basis of their
               merits and              merits and              merits and
               limitations.            limitations.            limitations.




              Nucleation and grain     Nucleation and          Nucleation and
              growth, modification,    grain growth,           grain growth,
Principles    eutectic                 principles of           principles of
              solidification,          combustion and          combustion
              principles of comb-      electromagnetic
              ustion                   induction




              Melting,                Melting, green sand       Melting, grain
              modification,           moulding, shell           refinement, ladling,
              degassing,              moulding, and             permanent mould
Concepts
              moulding and die -      plaster moulding,         casting, and die-
              casting, investment-    die-casting               casting
              casting process




              Aluminum alloy           Copper alloy              Magnesium alloy
Facts         casting production       casting production        casting
                                                                 Production




                                         22
Contents: Theory
 Chapter                       Name of the topic                        Hours   Marks
            Melting of Aluminium and its Alloys
           1.1    Direct fuel fired and indirect fuel fired furnaces.
           1.2    Electric furnaces – merits and limitations.
           1.3    Selection by comparison with typical
                  applications
           1.4    Furnace lining practice – related materials and
                  accessories.
           1.5    Charging practice and composition control.
           1.6    Charge calculation.
           1.7    Grading and segregation of scrap for composition
                  control.
    1      1.8    Study of related phase diagrams with respect to        10      16
                  melting.
           1.9    Characteristics of molten aluminium.
           1.10 Control of typical impurities such as iron, oxides.
           1.11 Hydrogen degassing.
           1.12 Control of sludge.
           1.13 Temperature control.
           1.14 Grain size control and grain refining through
                  modification.
           1.15 Transfer and handling of molten aluminium.
           1.16 Heat treatment of aluminium alloys.

             Pouring Practice for Aluminium Alloys
             2.1   Green and dry sand moulds.
             2.2   Coring practice.
             2.3   Filtration of molten aluminium and its’ alloys.
             2.4   Filtration theories and methods of filtration.
             2.5   Types of filters used and their characteristics.
             2.6   Shell moulding practice.
             2.7   Typical alloys cast.
             2.8   Wall thickness.
             2.9   Investment casting mould materials.
    2                                                                    10      16
             2.10 Dewaxing and firing.
             2.11 Gating and feeding.
             2.12 Permanent mould casting.
             2.13 Manufacturing of pistons.
             2.14 Die-casting and die tolerances.
             2.15 Selection of casting method by comparison.
             2.16 Straightening, weld repairs, sealing procedures.
             2.17 Casting defect analysis related to aluminum
                   alloy castings.

             Melting of Copper Alloys
             3.1   Crucible furnaces.
    3                                                                    10      16
             3.2   Induction furnaces.
             3.3   Indirect arc furnaces.



                                             23
Chapter                      Name of the topic                    Hours   Marks
          3.4    Merits and limitations of various furnaces
          3.5    Selection of furnace by comparison.
          3.6    Furnace lining and crucible materials.
          3.7    Control of temperature.
          3.8    Study of related Phase Diagrams.
          3.9    Melting losses.
          3.10   Charge calculations.
          3.11   Control of hydrogen absorption and pinhole
                 porosity.
          3.12   Purging by chlorine.
          3.13   Effect of pouring temperature on properties of
                 cast copper alloys.
          3.14   Heat treatment of copper alloys.

          Pouring Practice of Copper Alloys
          4.1   Pouring temperature control and pouring
                practice.
          4.2   Solidification characteristics.
          4.3   Solidification shrinkage.
          4.4   Dimensional accuracy.
          4.5   Sand moulding.
          4.6   Casting and feeding systems with possible
   4            improvements.                                      08      16
          4.7   Shell moulding.
          4.8   Plaster mould casting.
          4.9   Die casting.
          4.10 Cost consideration.
          4.11 Selection of method by comparison.
          4.12 Casting defect analysis related to copper alloy
                castings.


          Magnesium Alloy Casting
          5.1  Furnaces and other equipments for melting.
          5.2  Melting practice.
          5.3  Study of related Phase Diagrams.
          5.4  Grain refinement.
          5.5  Ladling.
          5.6  Safety precautions.
   5      5.7  Sand castings.                                      10      16
          5.8  Inhibitors.
          5.9  Moulding sands.
          5.10 Surface treatments of moulds and cores.
          5.11 Gating system (for low density melt).
          5.12 Use of chills.
          5.13 Cleaning methods.
          5.14 Dimensional accuracy.
          5.15 Permanent mould casting – mould temperature.



                                          24
 Chapter                           Name of the topic                  Hours     Marks
              5.16     Ejection mechanism.
              5.17     Die casting – design limits.
              5.18     Control of composition.
              5.19     Selection of methods by comparison.

                                                             Total      48        80

Practical:

Skills to be developed:

Intellectual Skills:

   1. Understand the correlation of microstructures of various aluminium and copper alloys
      with their mechanical properties.
   2. Understand the relevance of fluxes, degassing compounds, mould washes and
      coatings for nonferrous alloy foundry.
   3. Understand the co-relation of micro porosity and intergranular shrinkage style in
      aluminium alloys with the mechanical properties.
   4. Understand the importance of modification and grain refinement of Al – alloys.
   5. Understand the gating and risering practice and the concept of directional
      solidification in the context aluminium casting.
   6. Get acquainted with the masters alloys used in nonferrous foundry practice.
   7. Understand the relevance of coring of copper base alloys.

Motor Skills:

   1. Use microscope for the study of microstructures of various aluminium and copper
      base alloys.
   2. Exercise gating and risering design for simple aluminium casting.
   3. Exercise sample charge calculation for aluminium and copper alloys.


List of Practicals:

   1. Study of microstructures of typical aluminium and copper alloys.
   2. Study of fluxes, degassing compounds, mould washes and coatings for nonferrous
       alloy foundry.
   3. Study of micro porosity and intergranular shrinkage style in aluminium alloys.
   4. Study of modification and grain refinement of Al – alloys.
   5. Exercise of charge calculation for any one aluminium alloy.
   6. Methoding of Aluminium alloy – a case study.
   7. Study of master alloys used in nonferrous foundry.
   8. Fuel fired melting – Heat cycle study.
   9. Induction furnace melting – Heat cycle study.
   10. Study of coring of copper base alloys. (Tin Bronze).
   11. Exercise of sample charge calculation for any one Cu –alloy.
   12. Methoding of copper alloy casting – a case study.



                                              25
Learning Resources:

Books:

                                                     Year of
   Author               Title             Edition                      Publisher
                                                    Publication
R. W. Heine,
               Principles of Metal        Indian                  Tata McGraw Hill,
C. R. Loper,                                           1989
               Casting.                   Edition                 Delhi.
P. Rosenthal
                                                                  American society for
ASM            Foundry and Forging              -      1967
                                                                  metals, USA.
                                                                  American Society for
ASM            Castings, Vol.15                 -      1996
                                                                  Metal, USA.
T. V.          Metal Casting                                      New age International
                                            1st        1996
Ramana Rao     Principles and Practice.                           Pvt.Ltd, Delhi.




                                           26
Course Name : Post Diploma in Foundry Technology
Course Code : FD
Semester        : Second
Subject Title : Computer Applications
Subject Code : --

Teaching and Examination Scheme:

  Teaching Scheme                                  Examination Scheme
                              PAPER
 TH        TU       PR                  TH         TEST    PR      OR       TW     TOTAL
                               HRS
  --       --       04         --        --          --     --      --     25@        25


RATIONALE:
       This subject will help the students to comprehend the fundamentals of various

computer skills with respect to foundry technology, application software essential in foundry.

The subject will also familiarize the students with various soft skills with the recent and

innovative computer applications.

OBJECTIVE: -

Student should be able to –
       1. Understand the fundamentals and use of AUTOCAD package.
       2. Conceptualize drafting and modeling in AUTOCAD.
       3. Reading and interpreting a wide variety of production drawings.
       4. To develop the step by step process drawings on AUTOCAD.
       5. To plot the drawing in a desired size.
       6. To develop the 3D solid model from the 2D drawing.




                                              27
Learning Structure:



               Understanding and getting acquainted with the various facts of computer
               applications in foundry so as to acquire a strong foundation to apply these
Application    principles and methods in advanced technology area of computing.




                                    Analysis of making of the
                                    component, Pline, Pedit,
Procedure                           extrusion, chamfer, fillet,
                                    managing three views on paper,
                                    dimensioning, volume, weight
                                    calculation, etc.




                                    Principles of AUTOCAD,
                                    Orthographic views from
Principles                          Isometric views, Blocks,
                                    attributes,




                                    Paper Space, Model Space, Scale,
                                    Limits, Fits, Tolerances, Solid
Concepts                            Boolean algebra,




                Three Dimensioned Drawing, Electronic Drawing Sheet, 3D solid
Facts
                modeling by using AUTOCAD SOFTWARES




                                           28
Contents: Theory

Chapter                          Name of the topic           Hours
          Introduction to AUTOCAD
          1.1   Starting AUTOCAD.
          1.2   Open Drawing.
          1.3   Create Drawing.
          1.4   AUTOCAD screen Components.
          1.5   Invoking Commands in AUTOCAD.
          1.6   Coordinate Systems in AUTOCAD.
          1.7   Erasing objects.
   1      1.8   Canceling and Undoing a Command.              02
          1.9   Object Selection Methods.
          1.10 Saving the Drawing.
          1.11 Closing a Drawing.
          1.12 Quitting AUTOCAD.
          1.13 Basic Display commands such as ZOOM and PAN
          1.14 Setting Units.
          1.15 LIMITS command.
          1.16 Plotting Drawing.
          Draw and Edit Commands
          2.1   Drawing Lines.
          2.2   Drawing Circles.
          2.3   Drawing Arcs.
          2.4   Drawing Ellipse and Elliptical Arcs.
          2.5   Drawing Regular Polygons.
          2.6   Drawing Polylines.
          2.7   Drawing Donuts.
          2.8   Drawing Points.
          2.9   Drawing Infinite lines.
          2.10 MOVE command.
          2.11 COPY command.
          2.12 OFFSET command.
   2                                                          12
          2.13 ROTATE command.
          2.14 SCALE command.
          2.15 FILLET command.
          2.16 CHAMFER command.
          2.17 TRIM command.
          2.18 EXTEND command.
          2.19 STRECH command.
          2.20 LENGTHEN command.
          2.21 ARRAY command.
          2.22 MIRROR command.
          2.23 BREAK command.
          2.24 MEASURE command.

          Drawing Aids
   3      3.1   Layers                                        04
          3.2   Layer Properties Manager Dialog Box.


                                          29
    3.3    LINETYPE command.
    3.4    LWEIGHT command.
    3.5    Drafting Setting Dialog Box.
    3.6    Setting Ortho Mode.
    3.7    Object Snaps.

    Dimensioning and Hatching and Creating Text
    4.1   Dimensioning in AUTOCAD.
    4.2   Fundamental Dimensioning Terms.
    4.3   Associative Dimensioning.
    4.4   Selecting Dimensioning Commands.
    4.5   Quick Dimensioning.
    4.6   Linear Dimensioning.
    4.7   Aligned dimensioning.
    4.8   Rotated Dimensioning.
    4.9   Baseline Dimensioning.
    4.10 Continuous Dimensioning.
    4.11 Angular Dimensioning.
    4.12 Diameter Dimensioning.
    4.13 Radius Dimensioning.
    4.14 Drawing Leaders.
4                                                               08
    4.15 Dimension Styles.
    4.16 Introduction to hatch command
    4.17 Boundary hatch options
    4.18 Ray Casting Options.
    4.19 BHATCH command.
    4.20 Hatching around Text, Traces, Attributes, Shapes and
          Solids.
    4.21 Editing Hatch Pattern.
    4.22 Editing Hatch Boundary.
    4.23 Pattern Alignment during Hatching.
    4.24 Creating a Single Line Text.
    4.25 Drawing Special Characters.
    4.26 Creating Paragraph Text.
    4.27 Editing Text.

    Blocks And Attributes
    5.1   The concept of blocks.
    5.2   Formation of blocks.
    5.3   Converting objects into blocks
    5.4   Block command
                                                                06
    5.5   Inserting a block
5   5.6   Inserting base point
    5.7    Insert block by using design center
    5.8   Minsert block command.
    5.9   Layer, colors, line types, line weights for blocks.
    5.10   Nesting of blocks.
    5.11 Editing block command .breaking of block, renaming
          block, deleting blocks.



                                    30
    5.12   The concept of Attributes.
    5.13   Defining Attributes
    5.14   Editing Attribute Definitions.
    5.15   Inserting Blocks with Attributes.
    5.16   Editing Block Attributes.

    AUTOCAD 3D
    6.1  Use of 3D drawing.
    6.2  Types of 3D models.
    6.3  Conventions in AUTOCAD.
    6.4  The world Coordinate System (WCS).
    6.5  The User Coordinate System.
    6.6  View Toolbar.
    6.7  3D coordinate System.
    6.8  3D Wire frame Model.
    6.9  Converting Wire frame Model in to Surface Models.
    6.10 Suppressing the Hidden Edges.
    6.11 Setting thickness and elevation for the new objects.
    6.12 Directly creating the surface models by RULSURF,
         TABSURF, REVSURF and EDGESURF commands.
    6.13 3D Solid Models.
    6.14 Predefined Solid Primitives.
    6.15 REGION command.
    6.16 Boolean Operations.
6                                                                   32
    6.17 EXTRUDE command.
    6.18 REVOLVE command.
    6.19 Filleting the Solid Models.
    6.20 Chamfering the Solid Models.
    6.21 3D operations like Rotate, Mirror, Array, Align, Slicing
         the Solids.
    6.22 SECTION command.
    6.23 Generating the Drawing Views of a solid Model.
    6.24 Calculating the mass properties of a Solid Model.
    6.25 3D Orbit command.
    6.26 Elementary and Advanced Rendering.
    6.27 Introduction to 3D Modeling software
         Simple wire frame and solid 3D model generation by using
         3D Modeling software like Inventor, Pro-E, Catia,
         Unigraphics etc.
         Giving mass properties and calculating the weight of the
         object.

                                                            Total   64




                                     31
PRACTICAL:

Skills to be developed:

Intellectual Skills:

   1. Able to interpret various industrial drawings.
   2. Learn to use various AUTOCAD commands effectively to draw the 2D and 3D
       drawings with great ease and minimum possible time.


Motor Skills:
   1. Able to draw various industrial drawings on AUTOCAD software.
   2. Able to generate a 3D Model on AUTOCAD software.
   3. Able to render the 3D Model as per the requirement.
   4. Able to show the model from different viewpoints and by using the shading and orbit
       modes.
   5. Able to generate 2D views from a 3D model.
   6. Able to plot the drawing file on AUTOCAD software.

List of Practicals:
   1. Complete drawing of a common object in foundry
   2. Dimensioning of the object with various dimensioning features.
   3. Solid object creation from 2D drawing.
   4. Various commands to modify like extrude, chamfer, trim, fillet, etc.
   5. Solid Boolean algebra like Add, subtract, etc,
   6. Revolve, slice, commands
   7. Deriving 2D views
   8. Dimensioning the views
   9. Placing orthographic and 3D views in one file
   10. Adding a template to the file
   11. Printing the complete drawing with dimensions.
   12. One visit should be arranged to demonstrate the Heat Simulation Software for the
        Risering.

Learning Resources:
Books:

                                                        Year of
       Author                      Title                                   Publisher
                                                       Publication
 George Omura          Mastering AutoCAD-2005            2005         BPB Publications
 Sachin Raje           Thinking in AutoCAD Rel 12         1995        Wheeler Publishing
 Sham Tikku            AutoCAD 2002                      2002         Tata McGraw Hill




                                             32

				
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