Engineering a Better Quality of Life

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					  Engineering a
 Better Quality of
       Life

 Shuk Han CHENG Ph.D.
Department of Biology and
       Chemistry
       Biomedical engineers
1. Design electrical circuits and computer
   software for medical instrumentation
2. Build artificial organs, make
   biocompatible and durable body parts
3. Develop wireless technology to allow
   patient-doctors communications
4. Make rehabilitation devices
      Medical instrumentation

• Engineers design electrical circuits and
  computer software
• Instruments range from
  – large imaging systems: X-ray, computerised
    tomography (a sort of computer-enhanced 3-
    D X-ray), magnetic resonance imaging
  – Small implantable devices: pacemakers,
    cochlear implants and drug infusion pumps
       Biomedical engineers
1. Design electrical circuits and computer
   software for medical instrumentation
2. Build artificial organs, make
   biocompatible and durable body parts
3. Develop wireless technology to allow
   patient-doctors communications
4. Make rehabilitation devices
   Artificial organs
•http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/eheart/manma
de.html
Artificial Heart
How does our heart work?
 1. AbioCor Total Artificial Heart

• AbioCor is primarily made of titanium and
  Angioflex®
• Angioflex® is polyether based polyurethane
  plastic. It is flexible and durable. The moving
  parts such as valves and ventricular membranes
  made of Angioflex®
• AbioCor is designed to fit inside the body and
  without skin penetration to an external device, so
  that a patient can remain movement
Ventricles removed
An internal thoracic unit,
which has two artificial
ventricles with valves and a
motor driven hydraulic
pumping system.
TET (transcutaneous energy            An internal rechargeable
transmitter) device: transmits        battery: kept charged by
energy through the skin               the external battery. It has
achieves power transfer               the capacity of 6-8 hours.




internal electronics package:
monitors and controls the
                                 An external battery: is fixed on
system performance
                                 the belt. Both external and
including the pumping
                                 internal batteries are lithium-
speed of the heart based on
                                 ion batteries
the physiological demand of
the patient.
2. CardioWest Total Artificial Heart

                  • the console is external
                  • the prosthetic ventricles are
                    made of polyurethane and
                    Medtronic-Hall mechanical
                    valves that provide
                    unidirectional flow
                  • blood and air are separated
                    by a four layer, segmented
                    polyurethane diaphragm
                  • provide flows up to 10 L/min
Incision of ventricles excision




                                  forward by compressed air
                                  propelling blood out of the
                                  prosthetic ventricle
     How do we hear sound?
• http://highered.mcgraw-
  hill.com/olc/dl/120108/bio_e.swf
                   Artificial ear
Two main components:

• The external Speech Processor
  The speech processor consists of a control unit, a
  battery pack and the coil for the wireless transmission of
  signals to the implant
• The Implant
  The Implant is surgically placed under the skin. It
  consists of a housing for the electronics, an antenna for
  receiving signals from the sound processor, an electrode
  array, and a reference electrode.
1. Sounds are picked up by the
   microphone of the speech
   processor.
2. The      speech      processor
   analyses and codes sounds
   into a special pattern of
   electrical pulses.
3. These pulses are sent to the
   coil and are transmitted
   across the intact skin (via
   radio wave) to the implant.
• The implant sends the
  pulses to the electrodes
  in the cochlea.

• The electrodes stimulate
  the cochlea at very high
  rates.
• The auditory nerve picks
  up the signal and sends it
  to the auditory centre in
  the brain. The brain
  recognizes these signals
  as sound.
                  Artificial leg

                                    The motor center of your
                                    brain sends impulses to
This system has sensors             the muscles in your leg.
(nerve cells, muscle                The appropriate muscles
spindles), actuators               contract in the appropriate
                                       sequence to move
(muscles) and a controller
(brain/spinal cord).
  Nerve cells in the skin
  sense the impulse and
 feed back information to
   the brain to move the
appropriate muscle groups




     Once it receives the
      signal, it sends the
     appropriate signal to
      complete the task
                       Currently…
• Claudia Mitchell, a former Marine and
  amputee, has tested a prosthetic arm
  developed by Dr. Todd Kuiken at the
  Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. A
  plastic surgeon, Dr. Gregory Dumainian
  at Northwestern Memorial Hospital in
  Chicago re-directed the nerves that
  control her missing arm to her chest.
  The nerves re-grew close to the skin of
  her chest. Tiny electrodes on her skin
  pick up the electrical activity of these
  nerves and send signals to the motors
  in the arm. She is able to control the
  arm's movements by thinking about it.
  As of now, the prosthetic arm is not
  truly biomechatronic in that signals only
  go one way, from Claudia to the arm. Dr.
  Kuiken is working on the next step of
  having the arm provide feedback to her,
  including sensations such as pain and
  pressure.
• The Berkeley Lower Extremity
  Exoskeleton (BLEEX) uses
  metal leg braces that powered
  by motors to make it easier for
  the wearer to walk. Sensors
  and actuators in the device
  provide feedback information
  to adjust the movements and
  the load while walking. The
  device's controller and engine
  are located in avest attached
  to a backpack frame. While the
  device itself weighs 100
  pounds, it enables a person to
  haul a 70-pound backpack,
  while feeling as if he/she is
  merely carrying 5 pounds.
SA node     Bundle of His

                              The human heart
                             • Sinoatrial node (SA
                               node) is a group of cells
                               positioned on the wall
                               of right atrium
                             • Atrioventricular node
                               (AV node) located
                               between atrium and
                               ventricle within atrial
                               septum
                             • Pacemaker cells
                               generate rhythmic
           Purkinje Fibers     impulses & control the
 AV node
                               heart rate
 The heart pacemaker sets the pace of heart
 beat by electrical signals


• Electric impulse spreads from
  SA node across right & left
  atrium  atria contract
• Electric signals from atria pass
  through AV node via Bundle of
  His
• Bundle of His branches and
  spreads through both ventricles
  via Purkinje fibers  ventricles
  contract
  Small implantable devices: pacemakers
• The natural pacemaker may be defective,
  causing the heartbeat to be too fast, too slow or
  irregular. The heart's electrical pathways also
  may be blocked
• An "artificial pacemaker" is a small, battery-
  operated device that helps the heart beat in a
  regular rhythm. Some are permanent (internal)
  and some are temporary (external). They can
  replace a defective natural pacemaker or
  blocked pathway
Pacemakers are smart engineering
• A pacemaker uses batteries to send electrical
  impulses to the heart to help it pump properly.
  An electrode is placed next to the heart wall and
  small electrical charges travel through the wire
  to the heart.
• Most pacemakers are demand
  pacemakers. They have a sensing device. It
  turns the signal off when the heartbeat is above
  a certain level. It turns the signal back on when
  the heartbeat is too slow
       Biomedical engineers
1. Design electrical circuits and computer
   software for medical instrumentation
2. Build artificial organs, make
   biocompatible and durable body parts
3. Develop wireless technology to allow
   patient-doctors communications
4. Make rehabilitation devices
           wireless technology
• The pulse of healthcare is wireless
• allow patient-doctors communications
• The benefits of the wireless technology can be illustrated
  in a number of different examples
• Patient information can be obtained by health care
  professionals from any given location because they can
  be connected wirelessly to the institution’s information
  system.
• Physicians’ access to patient histories, lab results,
  pharmaceutical information, insurance information and
  medical resources would be enhanced immeasurably,
  thus drastically improving the quality of patient care.
• Handheld devices can also be used in home healthcare,
  for example, to fight diabetes through effective
  monitoring
Mobile and wireless technology in hospitals
• combining the WIFI network with health care
• Mobile medical technology improves both the quality of
  physicians' work as well as the efficiency in handling
  administrative overhead.
• When integrated with the healthcare enterprise IT
  infrastructure, these technologies support medical
  professionals by enabling them refer to vast stores of
  relevant information, make more informed decisions and
  act on them by conducting transactions right from the
  device.
• top innovations include interactive self-assessment tools,
  education Web sites, and devices that let X-rays and
  other medical images be viewed from anywhere
• allow patient-doctors communications
           Scope of patient misidentification
•   Many hospitals worldwide still don’t
    have ‘proper’ patient identification
    systems in place.
•   Most hospitals have adopted patient
    identification methods.
•   Common adopted methods in
    hospitals:
       •   Verbal and visual identification
       •   Chart-based identification.
       •   Hand-written wristband and chart-based.
       •   Barcode identification.
       •   Advanced identification technologies
           (biometric, RFID).
•   Patient misidentification may be
    approached using non-technical
    methods, technical solutions, or
    both.
    Positive Patient Identification using RFID
             and Wireless Networks
• A prototype
• Handheld prototype based on
  the PocketPC
• Wireless connectivity
• RFID reader attached (in-build)
• Software interface for reading
  RFID wristbands.
• Web interface to hospital
  information system
• Biometric authentication
Using the Patient Identification
          Prototype
   Monitoring patients at home
• A Professor of
  Electrical and
  Computer
  Engineering is
  studying
  electrocardiogram
  data to help detect
  patterns that may
  assist doctors in
  monitoring patients
  in their homes.
       Biomedical engineers
1. Design electrical circuits and computer
   software for medical instrumentation
2. Build artificial organs, make
   biocompatible and durable body parts
3. Develop wireless technology to allow
   patient-doctors communications
4. Make rehabilitation devices
        rehabilitation devices
• A prototype of an off-
  road wheelchair
• Designed by students
  from both Mechanical
  & Aeronautical
  Engineering and
  Electrical & Computer
  Engineering
            Robotics in rehabilitation


• Rehabilitation engineering is the systematic
  application of technologies, engineering
  methodologies, or scientific principles to meet
  the need of and address the barriers confronted
  by people with disabilities in areas which include
  education, rehabilitation, employment,
  transportation, independent living, and
  recreation.
• Subsequent powerpoints adapted from Bath
  University
Some rehab robots
Early work
Assistive robots-workstations
Orthotics and prosthetics
exoskeleton
therapy
    Ideas borrowed from nature
• www.biomimeticsregistry.net
• http://www.kompetenznetze.de
                      microhairs
• self-adhesive material
• inspired by the surface
  structure of beetles’ feet
• Microhairs ending in a swollen
  tip enable the material to
  adhere to smooth walls without
  the use of adhesive
• Potential applications range
  from reusable packing tape to
  shoe soles for climbing robots
Plants are good sources of ideas
            Technical Plant stem
• a tubular spacer fabric
• creates a high bending stability
• creates a high vibration
  damping and a benign fracture
  behavior
• Possible applications are
  aeronautics and space
  technology, car construction,
  prosthetics, and sports
  equipment.
        self-repairing coatings
• Fissure repair in
  plants as concept
  generator for self-
  repairing materials
 liquid-conducting technical textiles
• Analyses of plant
  vessels
• apply the principles
  of water transport in
  plants

				
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posted:7/21/2011
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