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					                 Leadership
Make money. Have fun. Be ethical. These are the three
 keys to a successful business career, given to me years
 ago by my boss. I’ve repeated them to everybody I’ve
ever hired. Sometimes an eyebrow will go up. Ethics?
Some people don’t think of that as a necessary part of a
 first-day briefing. It’s not in their frame of reference.
         And that’s exactly what the problem is.
                     ~ Don Peppers

                     Ethics
                     Lesson Ten
           1. What is Ethics?

A. Set of values
 established
B. Study of the general
 nature of morals and
 specific moral choices
C. Strict adherence to a
 code of behavior
It’s important that people know what you stand
 for. It’s equally important that they know what
                you won’t stand for.
                 ~Mary Waldrop
2. What is Social Responsibility?

                A. Make choices and
                  decisions that are
                  helpful to society
                B. Accountable for
                  their actions
There’s only one standard. Once you’re stuck on the
    flypaper, you’re stuck. If you don’t set a high
  standard you can’t expect your people to act right.
                  ~Donald M. Kendall
   3. How Do You Set Ethical Standards?

A. Value system to guide the organization
B. Variety of methods to assist in evaluating
C-1. Provide legal limits to govern situations
C-2. Personal integrity and moral sensitivity
C-3. Being genuinely concerned for others
D-1. Policies that require and prohibit specific practices
D-2. Everyone else does it this way
 We need to stress that personal integrity is as important as
executive skill in business dealings…. Setting an example from
 the top has a ripple effect throughout a business school or a
corporation…. I have learned that the standards set at the top
                  filter throughout a company….
                     ~Russell E. Palmer
4. How Do You Solve Ethical Situations?

     A. Conflicts in values
     B. Guidelines are available
     C. Three-step ethics check
A company that fails to take steps to produce a climate conducive to
    positive work-related ethical attitudes may create a vacuum in
     which employees so predisposed may foster a frontier-style,
                  everyone for themselves mentality.
                      ~Professor Thomas Dunfee
                        of the Wharton School
5. How Can Organizations and Leaders Improve
               Their Ethics?

A. Use of unethical
 business practices
B. Providing written
 guidelines
C. Highest ranked
 leader
           The Man In The Glass

When you get what you want in your struggle
  for self and the world makes you king for a
  day, go to the mirror and look at yourself
  and see what that man has to say.
For it isn’t your father or mother or wife
  whose judgment upon you must past; the
  fellow whose verdict counts most in life is
  the one staring back from the glass.
Some people may think you are a straight-
  shooting chum and call you a wonderful
  guy, but the man in the glass says you’re
  only a bum if you can’t look him straight in
  the eye.
He’s the fellow to please, never mind the rest,
  for he’s with you clear up to the end. And
  you’ve passed your most dangerous,
  difficult test if the man in the glass is your
  friend.
You may fool the whole world down the
 pathway of life and get pats on the back as
 you pass, but your final reward will be
 heartaches and tears if you have cheated the
 man in the glass.
 MEANING TO THE
               OTHER.

   Eye Contact – conveys willingness to
    engage in communication and the level of
    intimacy, sympathy, and empathy.
   Tie-Sign – a gaze that implies connection
    between the sender and the receiver.
   Smile – passivity, affection, happiness,
    unease, etc.
   Frown – introspection, sadness, etc.
    PROXEMIC BEHAVIOR – MANAGING THE
    SPACE BETWEEN OTHERS TO CONVEY A
          MESSAGE TO THE OTHER.
   Edward Hall
       Four Zones of Proxemic Behavior
          Public – 12 to 25 foot zone
          Social – 4 to 12 foot zone

          Personal – 18 inch to 4 foot zone

          Intimate – inside 18 inches
               PROXEMIC BEHAVIOR

   Erving Goffman
    1.   Personal space – elliptical aura surrounding the
         self
    2.   Stall – a space generally occupied by only one
         person
    3.   Use – space that not in use, but still claimed for
         future use
    4.   Sheath – objects that are in contact with the
         body
    5.   Turn – a space that symbolic represents the
         person
    6.   Eye contact – a gaze that conveys a desire to
         move closer.
    Communication Improvement
          Techniques
   Brainstorming – A process designed to
    stimulate divergent thinking.
       Divergent thinking calls for increased
        originality, cognitive flexibility, and associative
        thinking skills.
       Brainstorming sound very easy, but requires
        practice and commitment to be successful.
           The Rules of Brainstorming
   Brainstorming is actually a two phase process.
    Three rules are associated with phase one.
       Expressive Rule – Every member of the group must
        commit themselves to expressing ANY idea that comes
        to mind. No matter how bizarre or weird.
       No Evaluation Rule – There is no evaluation of ideas as
        the ideas are being expressed. There should be no
        verbal comment, no facial expressions, and no body
        language that is evaluative. Criticism is not tolerated!
       Quantity Rule – The goal of phase one is to maximize
        the number of ideas expressed. The greater the number
        of ideas the better the brainstorming session.
      Brainstorming Phase Two
   Building Rule – The only rule in phase two
    is building.
   Group members are encouraged to
    modify, extend, or combine ideas listed in
    any creative way possible.
   Participants should draw from one
    another's ideas as much as possible.
      Nominal Group Technique
   NGT is a technique designed to allow each
    member of the group develop their own
    line of reasoning, without input or
    constraint from others.
   NGT is a four phase process that involves
    creating individual ideas and then
    combining those ideas to generate group
    consensus.
                  Phase One
   The Idea Phase – After introducing and
    explaining the specifics of the problem each
    group member silently generates ideas.
   Each member work independently using a
    separate sheet of paper to list as many ideas as
    possible.
   The idea phase lasts between 10 and 30
    minutes.
               Phase Two
   Round-robin Phase – In phase two each
    member reads his/her list using a
    shortened phase (three word max).
   The ideas are listed so that the entire
    group can see each idea.
   There is no explanation given during the
    round-robin, and no comments from other
    group members.
                 Phase Three
   Discussion Phase – Once all ideas have been
    listed, the group begins a no holds barred dialog
    regarding each idea.
   Criticisms, modifications, disagreements are all
    part of phase three. Any changes in the listed
    ideas suggested must receive group support.
   The goal of phase three is to openly discuss
    each idea using as much time as necessary.
                 Phase Four
   Voting Phase – The final phase is a voting
    process.
   Each group member selects the top three or five
    ideas that best resolve the problem.
   The votes are tallied using a pre-specified
    summing method (1st place vote worth 3 points,
    2d worth 2, 3rd worth 1).
   The top ideas are then combined into a solution
    strategy that the group implements.
             Delphi Technique
   Delphi technique is designed to be used in
    situations where group members can not be in
    the same place at the same time.
   The technique uses computers to develop
    consensus.
   The technique uses the questionnaire to conduct
    the problem solving effort, therefore the
    facilitator should be skilled at questionnaire
    development.
               First Iteration
   First the facilitator sends out an open
    ended question to all member of the
    group.
   The question should be very broad, but
    still encompass the heart of the problem.
   How can we improve group efficiency?
              Second Iteration
   Based on each response to the first iteration a
    new questionnaire is created.
   Each response from each group member is used
    to construct an exhaustive questionnaire that
    explores as many solutions possible.
   Solutions might be: more pay, better
    supervision, better benefits, etc., etc., …
                Third Iteration
   Based on the responses to the second iteration,
    a new shorter questionnaire is developed.
   The third iteration uses only the most highly
    received ideas from the second iteration.
   The questionnaires of continuously revised until
    one (or a few) idea emerges as a solution
    strategy.
                   Synetics Theory
   Designed to be an improvement over the basic flaws of
    brainstorming.
   Synetics uses the same rules as brainstorming, but adds four
    features.
   Spectrum Analysis – a commitment to examine each idea from all
    sides of the issue.
   Wishing – group members are asked to express ideas as wishes
    rather than statements. Wishing reduces the apprehension over
    evaluation.
   Excursions – Whenever ideas begin to run dry the group takes a
    break from the process. The goal is: a) get closer to problem, or b)
    give the mind rest.
   Direct Analogy – members are encouraged to use analogies to
    expand their perspective on the idea and the problem.
       Leadership
A Process that Involves: Being an
 Influencer and Being Influenced
       Leadership as Process
   A process where one individual is
    permitted to influence and motivate
    others in order to accomplish group
    goals.
    Leadership: a two sided coin
   Relationship Leadership
       Good leaders must address the feelings,
        attitudes, and satisfaction needs of the
        members.
       Even if the group exists solely to complete a
        task the good leader must take steps to meet
        members’ personal needs.
           Leadership: Side Two
   Task Leadership
       Good leaders must guide the group to
        establish communication networks, coordinate
        member actions, solve problems, and
        providing feedback.
           Types of Leadership
   Leadership involves: guidance of others in their
    pursuits, often by organizing, directing,
    coordinating, supporting, and motivating their
    efforts.
      Reciprocal

      Transactional

      Transformational

      Cooperative

      Adaptive
           Reciprocal Leaders
   The leader does not just influence the
    followers, rather the relations are mutual
   The leader learns skills and qualities from
    the followers
   The followers learn skills and qualities
    from the leader
   Leadership cannot be understood
    independently of the followers
        Transactional Leaders
   Leader and followers work together
   Exchange transaction of time, energy, and
    skill
   Each benefits by heightened rewards
      Transformational Leaders
   Leader increase followers motivation
   Increases confidence
   Increases satisfaction by uniting members
   The followers beliefs, values and norms
    are changed to better fit the situation
          Cooperative Leaders
   A process of legitimate influence rather
    than sheer power
   Usually the most influential person
    becomes the group leader
   The group sets the goal and the leader
    sets the example
             Adaptive Leader
   Leader assumes responsibility for
    organizing individual efforts to accomplish
    goals
   Leader becomes the coordination point for
    effort
   Leader is responsible for changing tactics
    and strategies for achieving goals
                 Who Will Lead?
   Demographic background of leaders
      Height, weight, and age

      Ethnicity

      Sex: Bias against women (even though women
       possess more of the skills needed to be a successful
       leader).
          Expectation States Theory: members general
           beliefs about the qualities of leaders
          Eagly’s Social Role Theory: followers intuitive
           expectations about sex roles are not consistent
           with leadership expectations: “think leader, think
           male”
       Why Do Some Leaders
      Succeed and Others Fail?
   Fiedler's Contingency Model: Effectiveness
    depends on the leaders' motivational style and
    the favorability of the situation.
      Motivation style: task motivated or
       relationship motivated.
      Situational favorability is determined by
       leader-member relations, the task structure,
       and the leader's power
    Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale
   The LPC is a questionnaire that helps
    establish your leadership style
   “Think of the worker you have had the
    most difficulty working with in the past.”
   Rate that person on each attribute:
       7     6    5    4    3     2    1
       Pleasant……………………………………Unpleasant
        7      6   5  4  3  2   1
       Friendly…………………………………….Unfriendly
   High scores are relationship leaders
              Situational Control
   If the leader has situational control they
    can be certain that decisions, actions, and
    suggestions will be carried out
   Three factor determine the level of SC
       Leader member relations – cohesiveness
        equals good relations
       Task structure – if the task is simple and
        results can be measure the structure is high
       Position power – If leader can control salary,
        rewards, punishments then power is high
                Prediction
   Task-motivated (low-LPC) leaders are most
    effective in situations that are either
    extremely unfavorable or extremely favorable
   Relationship motivated leaders are most
    effective in situations in the middle of the
    continuum
                Conclusions
   No one style or form of leadership is best
   A style that worked in one situation may
    be totally ineffective in another
   No one is a good leader in all situations
   Rather a “good” leader is someone who
    has the ability to change their leadership
    style to “fit” the group and situation
Interpersonal Conflict
             What is Conflict?
   Conflict – is the tension that results from
    incompatible values or norms.
   Conflict doesn’t mean just me fighting. It
    means a tension or struggle between
    people
   The sequence of conflict generally flows
    through five stages
   Not all conflict follows these stages in the
    same way, because conflict can be cut
    short at any point
             Types of Conflict
   Personal Conflict – interpersonal discord
    that occurs when group members dislike
    each other.
   Substantive Conflict – disagreements over
    issues that are relevant to the group’s real
    goals.
   Procedural Conflict – Disagreements over
    the methods the group should use to
    complete a basic task.
                Social Dilemmas
   Social dilemmas refer to personal situations where
    the person is forced to choose between maximizing
    personal outcomes and maximizing the group’s
    outcomes.
      Equality norms
         Rules for dividing rewards (or costs) equally to
          all members of the group.
      Equity norms
         Rules for dividing rewards (or costs) to
          members in proportion to their individual
          inputs.
      Social traps
         Situations that tempt an individual to act in a
          way that benefits them, but is detrimental to
          the group and the person in the long run.
            Conflict and
     Relationship Satisfaction

Partners who use an intimate, nonaggressive,
yet confrontational method of conflict
resolution report highest levels of relationship
satisfaction
     The Five Stages of Conflict
1.   Disagreement
2.   Confrontation
3.   Escalation
4.   De-escalation
5.   Resolution
Disagreement – During the first stage of conflict members
recognize that a difference in values or norms exists.

Generally, there is only a difference, not an incompatibility.

Many times the initial conflicts can be revealed through discussion
as False Conflict or Contingent Conflict.


 •False  Conflict is where the conflict is merely a
 misunderstanding (miscommunication/defensive
 communication). If there is a lack of communication a false
 conflict can become real.

 •Contingent    conflict is a type that arises over issues that
 are
 easily resolved without increased tension. Many disputes
 are dependent on some minor feature of the situation.
Confrontation - Confrontation exists when the values or
norms of one group member are incompatible with
another group member.



•   During confrontation three different social-psychological
    processes are set into motion.
•   1. Commitment intensification
•   2. Tension building
•   3. Coalition forming
     Commitment Intensification
   Being made to listen to the argument of
    someone else intensifies your commitment to
    your position.
   When you actually begin actions against the
    argument, your commitment is further
    intensified through “self perception.”
   Two other processes that are involved are
    rationalization and reactance (established
    freedom).
Tension Building - The tension that
exists becomes the dominant feature of the
conflict.

   Tension building is characterized by an inability
    to discuss or think about the topic or problem.
   Tension becomes involved in every aspect of life
    with the other.
   Some people feel like they’re “walking on
    eggshells.”
   Avoidance is the rule.
              Coalition Formation
•As conflict continues the individuals seek to form subgroups for
needed social support.

• The person retreats to some circle of
friends/relatives for comfort and support.

• The group supports and reifies the persons
definition of the situation.
    Escalation – the incompatibilities have become
    greater, and the people are father apart than at
    the beginning of the conflict.
   Conflict that now begins to spiral and take-
    up on new and as yet undiscovered issues.
   Conflict leads to more conflict leading to
    more conflict.
   Persuasion is replaced by coercion.
   Coercion is replaced by threats.
   Threats are replaced by aggression.
   Aggression is replaced by violence.
                     Escalation
   Misunderstanding and distrust are present
   The people move away from cooperative
    responses and become opponents, which
    increases the escalation.
   Two important social psychological processes
    play a role in the increasing conflict; Frustration
    aggression theory and the norm of reciprocity.
                      Escalation
    Frustration aggression theory.
    1.   Every frustration produces an aggressive
         behavior.
    2.   Three hypotheses have been supported by
         research.
              The greater the frustration, the greater the
               aggressive response.
              The shorter the time between the frustration and
               the aggressive response, the greater the
               aggressive response.
              The more similar the object of aggression is to
               the object of frustration, the greater the
               aggression displayed.
                        Escalation
   The norm of reciprocity - do unto others
    as they do unto you.
   Norms of reciprocity encourage the
    escalation of conflict.
   Generally norms of reciprocity lead to a
    behavioral assimilation, where members
    match the behavior displayed by those
    they are interacting with.
          Negative reciprocity vs. Positive reciprocity.
De-escalation is reversing the direction of
the spiral of conflict.

•   There are two basic approaches to de-escalating
    conflict:

                    1. Negotiation
                    2. Intervention
                      Negotiation
   Negotiation is effective when opposing people
    believe each would benefit from a solution.
   The goal of negotiation is to focus the dialogue
    on the specific issues of conflict.
       In negotiation there are integrative issues and
        distributive issues.
       Integrative refers to issues that benefit all parties.
       Distributive refers to issues where one party will
        benefit if the other makes a concession.
                      Intervention
•   The process of bringing in a third, neutral party, to the
    conflict.
•   Outside parties help clarify the root of the problem.
•   The intervener divides issues into integrative and
    distributive.
•   Discussion is directed first toward the integrative issues.
•   Integrative issues build trust and trust help resolve distributive
    issues.
•   Intervention allows conflicting parties to make concessions
    without embarrassment.
                 Resolution
1. One party can withdraw their
   demand.
2. One party can impose its views.
3. Both parties can compromise.
4. One party can convince the other of
   Rightness.
5. The group can dissolve.
     None represent true resolution and only
      contribute to accumulation of conflict.
          Conflict is Inherent and
        Inevitable in Relationships
   We all have unique perception of the world.
   Yet we all share a world in common.
   One person’s perceptions about things are
    sometimes very much different from others
    perceptions.
   Discussing issues which are most important, are
    the most difficult.
       1. Love.
       2. Death.
       3. Perceptions are idiosyncratic.
        Accumulation of Conflict
   Conflict that is not resolved accumulates
    over time.
   As the conflict over important matters (that
    we can’t talk about) accumulates, conflict
    about trivial matters (that we can talk
    about) increases.
   Over time so much conflict can accumulate
    that resolving each issue causes emotional
    damage.
      Dialectics of Interpersonal Conflict
                  Resolution
   Dialectics is one of the oldest forms of logic.
   For every idea (thesis) there is a counter
    idea (antithesis).
   If the thesis and antithesis compete, there
    is never true resolution and conflict can go
    on indefinitely.
    Using the Dialectical Conflict
        Resolution Method
   Cooperation is the key to dialectical
    conflict resolution.
   The thesis and antithesis must cooperate
    to develop a new idea (synthesis).
     Four Steps To Resolve Conflict
1.   Admit the tension.

2. Ask your partner for help.

3. Assume conflict accumulation.

4. Cooperate in planning a solution strategy.
     Feelings vs. Judgments
•   Communication of judgment leads to
    defensiveness and escalation
•   A judgment is a feeling that is inadequately
    understood or inadequately expressed
•   Friends or intimate partners want to know
    our feelings

				
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