Make money. Have fun. Be ethical. These are the three
keys to a successful business career, given to me years
ago by my boss. I’ve repeated them to everybody I’ve
ever hired. Sometimes an eyebrow will go up. Ethics?
Some people don’t think of that as a necessary part of a
first-day briefing. It’s not in their frame of reference.
And that’s exactly what the problem is.
~ Don Peppers
1. What is Ethics?
A. Set of values
B. Study of the general
nature of morals and
specific moral choices
C. Strict adherence to a
code of behavior
It’s important that people know what you stand
for. It’s equally important that they know what
you won’t stand for.
2. What is Social Responsibility?
A. Make choices and
decisions that are
helpful to society
B. Accountable for
There’s only one standard. Once you’re stuck on the
flypaper, you’re stuck. If you don’t set a high
standard you can’t expect your people to act right.
~Donald M. Kendall
3. How Do You Set Ethical Standards?
A. Value system to guide the organization
B. Variety of methods to assist in evaluating
C-1. Provide legal limits to govern situations
C-2. Personal integrity and moral sensitivity
C-3. Being genuinely concerned for others
D-1. Policies that require and prohibit specific practices
D-2. Everyone else does it this way
We need to stress that personal integrity is as important as
executive skill in business dealings…. Setting an example from
the top has a ripple effect throughout a business school or a
corporation…. I have learned that the standards set at the top
filter throughout a company….
~Russell E. Palmer
4. How Do You Solve Ethical Situations?
A. Conflicts in values
B. Guidelines are available
C. Three-step ethics check
A company that fails to take steps to produce a climate conducive to
positive work-related ethical attitudes may create a vacuum in
which employees so predisposed may foster a frontier-style,
everyone for themselves mentality.
~Professor Thomas Dunfee
of the Wharton School
5. How Can Organizations and Leaders Improve
A. Use of unethical
B. Providing written
C. Highest ranked
The Man In The Glass
When you get what you want in your struggle
for self and the world makes you king for a
day, go to the mirror and look at yourself
and see what that man has to say.
For it isn’t your father or mother or wife
whose judgment upon you must past; the
fellow whose verdict counts most in life is
the one staring back from the glass.
Some people may think you are a straight-
shooting chum and call you a wonderful
guy, but the man in the glass says you’re
only a bum if you can’t look him straight in
He’s the fellow to please, never mind the rest,
for he’s with you clear up to the end. And
you’ve passed your most dangerous,
difficult test if the man in the glass is your
You may fool the whole world down the
pathway of life and get pats on the back as
you pass, but your final reward will be
heartaches and tears if you have cheated the
man in the glass.
MEANING TO THE
Eye Contact – conveys willingness to
engage in communication and the level of
intimacy, sympathy, and empathy.
Tie-Sign – a gaze that implies connection
between the sender and the receiver.
Smile – passivity, affection, happiness,
Frown – introspection, sadness, etc.
PROXEMIC BEHAVIOR – MANAGING THE
SPACE BETWEEN OTHERS TO CONVEY A
MESSAGE TO THE OTHER.
Four Zones of Proxemic Behavior
Public – 12 to 25 foot zone
Social – 4 to 12 foot zone
Personal – 18 inch to 4 foot zone
Intimate – inside 18 inches
1. Personal space – elliptical aura surrounding the
2. Stall – a space generally occupied by only one
3. Use – space that not in use, but still claimed for
4. Sheath – objects that are in contact with the
5. Turn – a space that symbolic represents the
6. Eye contact – a gaze that conveys a desire to
Brainstorming – A process designed to
stimulate divergent thinking.
Divergent thinking calls for increased
originality, cognitive flexibility, and associative
Brainstorming sound very easy, but requires
practice and commitment to be successful.
The Rules of Brainstorming
Brainstorming is actually a two phase process.
Three rules are associated with phase one.
Expressive Rule – Every member of the group must
commit themselves to expressing ANY idea that comes
to mind. No matter how bizarre or weird.
No Evaluation Rule – There is no evaluation of ideas as
the ideas are being expressed. There should be no
verbal comment, no facial expressions, and no body
language that is evaluative. Criticism is not tolerated!
Quantity Rule – The goal of phase one is to maximize
the number of ideas expressed. The greater the number
of ideas the better the brainstorming session.
Brainstorming Phase Two
Building Rule – The only rule in phase two
Group members are encouraged to
modify, extend, or combine ideas listed in
any creative way possible.
Participants should draw from one
another's ideas as much as possible.
Nominal Group Technique
NGT is a technique designed to allow each
member of the group develop their own
line of reasoning, without input or
constraint from others.
NGT is a four phase process that involves
creating individual ideas and then
combining those ideas to generate group
The Idea Phase – After introducing and
explaining the specifics of the problem each
group member silently generates ideas.
Each member work independently using a
separate sheet of paper to list as many ideas as
The idea phase lasts between 10 and 30
Round-robin Phase – In phase two each
member reads his/her list using a
shortened phase (three word max).
The ideas are listed so that the entire
group can see each idea.
There is no explanation given during the
round-robin, and no comments from other
Discussion Phase – Once all ideas have been
listed, the group begins a no holds barred dialog
regarding each idea.
Criticisms, modifications, disagreements are all
part of phase three. Any changes in the listed
ideas suggested must receive group support.
The goal of phase three is to openly discuss
each idea using as much time as necessary.
Voting Phase – The final phase is a voting
Each group member selects the top three or five
ideas that best resolve the problem.
The votes are tallied using a pre-specified
summing method (1st place vote worth 3 points,
2d worth 2, 3rd worth 1).
The top ideas are then combined into a solution
strategy that the group implements.
Delphi technique is designed to be used in
situations where group members can not be in
the same place at the same time.
The technique uses computers to develop
The technique uses the questionnaire to conduct
the problem solving effort, therefore the
facilitator should be skilled at questionnaire
First the facilitator sends out an open
ended question to all member of the
The question should be very broad, but
still encompass the heart of the problem.
How can we improve group efficiency?
Based on each response to the first iteration a
new questionnaire is created.
Each response from each group member is used
to construct an exhaustive questionnaire that
explores as many solutions possible.
Solutions might be: more pay, better
supervision, better benefits, etc., etc., …
Based on the responses to the second iteration,
a new shorter questionnaire is developed.
The third iteration uses only the most highly
received ideas from the second iteration.
The questionnaires of continuously revised until
one (or a few) idea emerges as a solution
Designed to be an improvement over the basic flaws of
Synetics uses the same rules as brainstorming, but adds four
Spectrum Analysis – a commitment to examine each idea from all
sides of the issue.
Wishing – group members are asked to express ideas as wishes
rather than statements. Wishing reduces the apprehension over
Excursions – Whenever ideas begin to run dry the group takes a
break from the process. The goal is: a) get closer to problem, or b)
give the mind rest.
Direct Analogy – members are encouraged to use analogies to
expand their perspective on the idea and the problem.
A Process that Involves: Being an
Influencer and Being Influenced
Leadership as Process
A process where one individual is
permitted to influence and motivate
others in order to accomplish group
Leadership: a two sided coin
Good leaders must address the feelings,
attitudes, and satisfaction needs of the
Even if the group exists solely to complete a
task the good leader must take steps to meet
members’ personal needs.
Leadership: Side Two
Good leaders must guide the group to
establish communication networks, coordinate
member actions, solve problems, and
Types of Leadership
Leadership involves: guidance of others in their
pursuits, often by organizing, directing,
coordinating, supporting, and motivating their
The leader does not just influence the
followers, rather the relations are mutual
The leader learns skills and qualities from
The followers learn skills and qualities
from the leader
Leadership cannot be understood
independently of the followers
Leader and followers work together
Exchange transaction of time, energy, and
Each benefits by heightened rewards
Leader increase followers motivation
Increases satisfaction by uniting members
The followers beliefs, values and norms
are changed to better fit the situation
A process of legitimate influence rather
than sheer power
Usually the most influential person
becomes the group leader
The group sets the goal and the leader
sets the example
Leader assumes responsibility for
organizing individual efforts to accomplish
Leader becomes the coordination point for
Leader is responsible for changing tactics
and strategies for achieving goals
Who Will Lead?
Demographic background of leaders
Height, weight, and age
Sex: Bias against women (even though women
possess more of the skills needed to be a successful
Expectation States Theory: members general
beliefs about the qualities of leaders
Eagly’s Social Role Theory: followers intuitive
expectations about sex roles are not consistent
with leadership expectations: “think leader, think
Why Do Some Leaders
Succeed and Others Fail?
Fiedler's Contingency Model: Effectiveness
depends on the leaders' motivational style and
the favorability of the situation.
Motivation style: task motivated or
Situational favorability is determined by
leader-member relations, the task structure,
and the leader's power
Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale
The LPC is a questionnaire that helps
establish your leadership style
“Think of the worker you have had the
most difficulty working with in the past.”
Rate that person on each attribute:
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
High scores are relationship leaders
If the leader has situational control they
can be certain that decisions, actions, and
suggestions will be carried out
Three factor determine the level of SC
Leader member relations – cohesiveness
equals good relations
Task structure – if the task is simple and
results can be measure the structure is high
Position power – If leader can control salary,
rewards, punishments then power is high
Task-motivated (low-LPC) leaders are most
effective in situations that are either
extremely unfavorable or extremely favorable
Relationship motivated leaders are most
effective in situations in the middle of the
No one style or form of leadership is best
A style that worked in one situation may
be totally ineffective in another
No one is a good leader in all situations
Rather a “good” leader is someone who
has the ability to change their leadership
style to “fit” the group and situation
What is Conflict?
Conflict – is the tension that results from
incompatible values or norms.
Conflict doesn’t mean just me fighting. It
means a tension or struggle between
The sequence of conflict generally flows
through five stages
Not all conflict follows these stages in the
same way, because conflict can be cut
short at any point
Types of Conflict
Personal Conflict – interpersonal discord
that occurs when group members dislike
Substantive Conflict – disagreements over
issues that are relevant to the group’s real
Procedural Conflict – Disagreements over
the methods the group should use to
complete a basic task.
Social dilemmas refer to personal situations where
the person is forced to choose between maximizing
personal outcomes and maximizing the group’s
Rules for dividing rewards (or costs) equally to
all members of the group.
Rules for dividing rewards (or costs) to
members in proportion to their individual
Situations that tempt an individual to act in a
way that benefits them, but is detrimental to
the group and the person in the long run.
Partners who use an intimate, nonaggressive,
yet confrontational method of conflict
resolution report highest levels of relationship
The Five Stages of Conflict
Disagreement – During the first stage of conflict members
recognize that a difference in values or norms exists.
Generally, there is only a difference, not an incompatibility.
Many times the initial conflicts can be revealed through discussion
as False Conflict or Contingent Conflict.
•False Conflict is where the conflict is merely a
communication). If there is a lack of communication a false
conflict can become real.
•Contingent conflict is a type that arises over issues that
easily resolved without increased tension. Many disputes
are dependent on some minor feature of the situation.
Confrontation - Confrontation exists when the values or
norms of one group member are incompatible with
another group member.
• During confrontation three different social-psychological
processes are set into motion.
• 1. Commitment intensification
• 2. Tension building
• 3. Coalition forming
Being made to listen to the argument of
someone else intensifies your commitment to
When you actually begin actions against the
argument, your commitment is further
intensified through “self perception.”
Two other processes that are involved are
rationalization and reactance (established
Tension Building - The tension that
exists becomes the dominant feature of the
Tension building is characterized by an inability
to discuss or think about the topic or problem.
Tension becomes involved in every aspect of life
with the other.
Some people feel like they’re “walking on
Avoidance is the rule.
•As conflict continues the individuals seek to form subgroups for
needed social support.
• The person retreats to some circle of
friends/relatives for comfort and support.
• The group supports and reifies the persons
definition of the situation.
Escalation – the incompatibilities have become
greater, and the people are father apart than at
the beginning of the conflict.
Conflict that now begins to spiral and take-
up on new and as yet undiscovered issues.
Conflict leads to more conflict leading to
Persuasion is replaced by coercion.
Coercion is replaced by threats.
Threats are replaced by aggression.
Aggression is replaced by violence.
Misunderstanding and distrust are present
The people move away from cooperative
responses and become opponents, which
increases the escalation.
Two important social psychological processes
play a role in the increasing conflict; Frustration
aggression theory and the norm of reciprocity.
Frustration aggression theory.
1. Every frustration produces an aggressive
2. Three hypotheses have been supported by
The greater the frustration, the greater the
The shorter the time between the frustration and
the aggressive response, the greater the
The more similar the object of aggression is to
the object of frustration, the greater the
The norm of reciprocity - do unto others
as they do unto you.
Norms of reciprocity encourage the
escalation of conflict.
Generally norms of reciprocity lead to a
behavioral assimilation, where members
match the behavior displayed by those
they are interacting with.
Negative reciprocity vs. Positive reciprocity.
De-escalation is reversing the direction of
the spiral of conflict.
• There are two basic approaches to de-escalating
Negotiation is effective when opposing people
believe each would benefit from a solution.
The goal of negotiation is to focus the dialogue
on the specific issues of conflict.
In negotiation there are integrative issues and
Integrative refers to issues that benefit all parties.
Distributive refers to issues where one party will
benefit if the other makes a concession.
• The process of bringing in a third, neutral party, to the
• Outside parties help clarify the root of the problem.
• The intervener divides issues into integrative and
• Discussion is directed first toward the integrative issues.
• Integrative issues build trust and trust help resolve distributive
• Intervention allows conflicting parties to make concessions
1. One party can withdraw their
2. One party can impose its views.
3. Both parties can compromise.
4. One party can convince the other of
5. The group can dissolve.
None represent true resolution and only
contribute to accumulation of conflict.
Conflict is Inherent and
Inevitable in Relationships
We all have unique perception of the world.
Yet we all share a world in common.
One person’s perceptions about things are
sometimes very much different from others
Discussing issues which are most important, are
the most difficult.
3. Perceptions are idiosyncratic.
Accumulation of Conflict
Conflict that is not resolved accumulates
As the conflict over important matters (that
we can’t talk about) accumulates, conflict
about trivial matters (that we can talk
Over time so much conflict can accumulate
that resolving each issue causes emotional
Dialectics of Interpersonal Conflict
Dialectics is one of the oldest forms of logic.
For every idea (thesis) there is a counter
If the thesis and antithesis compete, there
is never true resolution and conflict can go
Using the Dialectical Conflict
Cooperation is the key to dialectical
The thesis and antithesis must cooperate
to develop a new idea (synthesis).
Four Steps To Resolve Conflict
1. Admit the tension.
2. Ask your partner for help.
3. Assume conflict accumulation.
4. Cooperate in planning a solution strategy.
Feelings vs. Judgments
• Communication of judgment leads to
defensiveness and escalation
• A judgment is a feeling that is inadequately
understood or inadequately expressed
• Friends or intimate partners want to know