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									  What Happens Next?
  Adjusting to College

Advice from Crosby, Stills,
Nash & sometimes Young

Linda Locher, Ph.D., Director, Psychological Services
“You, who are on the road…”
Parents & Students share the same road
  (college) but it looks very different from one
  generation to the next.

Who are they “who are on the road” and what
 are they facing?
Beloit College’s “Mindset List”
  For the class of 2011:
   What Berlin wall?
   Humvees have always been available to the public.
   They have grown up with bottled water.
   Nelson Mandela has always been free and a force in South Africa.
   Rap music has always been mainstream.
   The NBA season has always gone on and on and on and on.
   Classmates could include Bart Simpson.
   Eastern Airlines never “earned their wings” in their lifetime.
   Wal-Mart has always been a larger retailer than Sears.
   Stadiums and rock tours have always had corporate names.
   Fox has always been a network.
   MTV has never featured music videos.
   Avatars have nothing to do with Hindu deities.
   Chavez has nothing to do with iceberg lettuce and everything to do with
Beloit College’s “Mindset List”
  For the class of 2012:
   Harry Potter is old enough to be a classmate.
   GPS satellite navigation systems have always been available.
   Coke and Pepsi have always used recycled plastic bottles.
   Clarence Thomas has always sat on the Supreme Court.
   IBM has never made typewriters.
   There has always been Pearl Jam.
   The Tonight Show has always been hosted by Jay Leno.
   Lenin’s name has never been part of the name of a major city in
     Russia. The Soviet Union has never existed.
   Caller ID has always been available on phones.
   Club Med resorts have always been places to take the whole family.
   There have always been charter schools.
   They have really known only two Presidents of the United States.
   Iran & Iraq have never been at war with each other.
   “Whatever” is not part of a question.
              The “Generational” differences:
                      A Comparison of Generations
                            Baby Boomer           Generation X             Millennial
                             (1943-1960)          (1961-1981)             (1982-2002)
Overall mood                 Passionate              Cynical                Practical

View of authority             Attacked               Ignored                Trusted

Academic standards             Easing                  Lax                 Tightening

Parental role                 Receding               Distant                Intruding

Violence & risk-taking         Rising                 High                Conventional

Pop culture                 Controversial           Alienated                Bland

Racial/ethnic                 Asserted              Accepted              Questioned
Cutting-edge fields       Arts & humanities    Business & high tech     Politics & social
Community service              Falling                 Low                   Rising

Main arguments           About war & country   About race & gender    About class & culture

The “big” question       What does it mean?       Does it work?       How do we build it?
  Generation Myths
 Baby boomers - Generation of protest, activism,

      1969. Less than 1/3 of all undergraduates (28%) had
       participated in a demonstration.
      1970. During the week following the shooting of
       students at Kent and Jackson state universities, 43%
       of the nation’s college and universities were entirely
      1969. Only 33% of undergraduates described
       themselves as liberal or left of center.
      1969. Fifty-nine percent of students came to college to
       get training and skills for an occupation. Forty-nine
       percent saw the chief benefit of a college education as
       increasing their earning power.
                  Levine & Cureton1998
“You, who are on the road…”

1. Name one thing that you think is easier, and
  one thing that you think is harder, for college
  students today as compared with college
  students and the world a generation ago.
“Must have a code that you can
live by…”
Measure twice, cut once.
You only live once.
Golden rule.
Platinum rule.

Wisdom from both sides:
     Despite “whatever”, they listen. (Values)
     Pencils & erasers. (Perfection isn’t enough)
     Dyslexic faculty    (Failure is part of growing)
“Must have a code that you can
live by…”

2. Identify one value, belief or principle that has
   guided you in times of difficulty or doubt.
“Become yourself…”

 Theory and Research regarding college student
 Challenges across the years.
Social-Emotional Development
College Students                  Parents
Identity development - Fidelity   Generativity - Care

Intimacy - Love                   Integrity - Wisdom

           The Age of:                        The Age of:
Identity                          Letting go
Instability                       Defining and assessing personal
Self-focus                          fulfillment in life
Feeling in between                Caring for aging parents - role
Possibilities                       reversals
                                  Trusting, Faith & Hope
             Students                               Parents
   Develop skills of independent         Develop skills of involvement
    practice                               “scaffolding” vs. intrusion
   Overcome anxiety and develop          Develop skills of shared
    social comfort                         expectations and shared
   Manage emotions                        responsibility
   Develop confidence over               Develop trust and compromise
    narcissism                            Differentiate between one’s own
   Develop skills of assertiveness,       expectations and necessities in
    confrontation and negotiation          life
Challenges across the years
First Year          Students                      Parents
                    Transition                   Transition
             Doubt - “Did I make the     Empty nest - Loss and
             right choice?”              Freedom
             “Will I succeed?”
                                         Letting go
             Separation anxiety -
             homesickness, loss of
                                         Loss of parental identity
             childhood security, not
             being part of the family
             Excitement of freedom
             and Experimentation         Loss of control
             Competence &
             Negotiating living with a
Change in First-Year Students’ Self-Concept
    Hurtado, S., Sax, L.J., Saenz, V., Harper, C.E., Oseguera, L., Curley, J., Lopez,
     L., Wolf, D., Arellano. L. (2007). Findings from the 2005 administration of
     Your First College Year (YFCY): National Aggregates. Los Angeles: Higher
     Education Research Institute.

Percent rating themselves “above                       At             At the        Change
average” or “highest 10%” relative to                  college        end of
their peers on the following measures                  entry          the 1st
of self-concept:                                                      college
Self-understanding                                         52.3          56.7           +4.4

Spirituality                                               37.4          41.1           +3.7

Writing ability                                            50.8          54.1           +3.3

Forgiveness                                                56.6          59.8           +3.2

Cooperativeness                                            70.4          73.3           +2.9

Emotional health                                           51.6          53.9           +2.3

Artistic ability                                           30.6          32.1           +1.5
 Change in First-Year Students’ Self-Concept

Percent rating themselves “above        At        At the    Change
average” or “highest 10%” relative to   college   end of
their peers on the following measures   entry     the 1st
of self-concept:                                  college
Physical health                           51.4      50.8      -0.6

Intellectual self-confidence              59.2      58.5      -0.7

Mathematical ability                      48.2      44.9      -3.3

Drive to achieve                          76.1      71.3      -4.8

Academic ability                          76.5      68.4      -8.1
Change in Student Behaviors Over One Year

Percent indicating that they…     At        At end of     Change
“Frequently” or “occasionally”:   college   1st college
                                  entry     year

Drink Beer                          41.6       54.5        +12.9

Drink wine or liquor                50.4       62.0        +11.6

Participate in organized            45.1       39.0        -6.1
Attend a religious service          81.2       56.4        -24.8

Perform volunteer work              87.3       61.5        -25.8
 Change in Student Behaviors Over One Year

Percent indicating that they…     At        At end of     Change
“Frequently”:                     college   1st college
                                  entry     year
Feel overwhelmed                    29.7       39.9        +10.2

Feel depressed                       7.3       12.4        +5.1

Smoke cigarettes                     4.1        6.6        +2.5

Discuss politics                    28.2       20.7        -7.5

Socialize with someone of other     69.9       57.2        -12.7
ethnic group
Challenges across the years
                   Students                    Parents
            Allegiances & Decisions    Allegiances & Decisions

            Hall-mates new and old    How do I divide time
                                      among other children, job,
            Fraternity & Sorority     new interests & my college
            membership                student?
                                      Rejection - Do I convert
            What does “Home”          his/her room? Why doesn’t
            mean?                     she/he want to come?
                                      Elder parent care
            Decisions about majors
                                      How much to I give advice,
            Has the relationship      money, problem-solve and
            lasted?                   how much do I let my
                                      son/daughter take
                                      responsibility and
Challenges across the years
                Students                   Parents

         Stretching & Resilience    Stretching & Resilience

         In-depth involvement in   How do I parent an adult
         major and sport           child?
         Assuming leadership       How do I welcome a
         roles                     possible future
         Decisions about           son/daughter-in-law?
         studying abroad &
         Culture shock             What expectations do I
         adjustments               have for my son/daughter
                                   to contribute to the
         Relationships             family?
         intensifying -
         commitment questions      How do I let my
                                   son/daughter help me?
Challenges across the years
                Students                      Parents

                Transition                   Transition

         Self-reliance & Intimacy    Pride & Anxiety

         Good-byes                   Good-byes

         Excitement and anxiety      New life goals & roles for
         about possibilities         personal fulfillment

         Commitments - to job,       Am I ready for becoming
         relationships,              a grandparent?
         contributions to society,
  “Become yourself…”

3. Name one thing that makes you different
     from your son or daughter (answered by parents)
     from your mother or father (answered by students)
   Name one thing that makes your similar...
“And you, of tender years,
Can’t know the fears
That your elders grew by…”

 Helicopter parents?
 Taking on the responsibilities as an adult child -
                       “Helicopter” Parents?
      Lafayette College’s First-year Parents’ & Students’
                         Survey (1999)

 How close are you to your child entering college?
    Not close        Somewhat close            Close              Very close
        .5%                7.4%                28.0%                64.0%

During the college years, I expect to be involved in the decisions
my son or daughter makes about:
  (Parents’ responses are in green, Students’ responses in red)
              Item                Disagree     Somewhat Somewhat         Agree
                                                Disagree  Agree
Choosing a career                  9.0   7.1   14.3 29.5   49.2 34.9    27.5 18.5
Choosing a boyfriend/girlfriend   48.9 61.6    31.9 33.6   18.6   3.4     .5   1.4
Having sexual relationships       39.4 65.5    33.0 26.8   22.3   4.9    5.3   2.8
Drinking alcohol                  21.8 50.7    29.3 22.9   30.3 17.4    18.6   9.0
Choosing classes each sem.         5.8 14.4    19.6 26.7   52.4 39.7    22.2 19.2
                        “Helicopter” Parents?
      Lafayette College’s First-year Parents’ & Students’
                         Survey (1999)

I expect to be notified by the college when…

  (Parents’ responses are in green, Students’ responses in red)

              Item                Disagree     Somewhat Somewhat         Agree
                                                Disagree  Agree
My student is missing a class      6.8   9.7    4.7 15.2   13.2 32.4    75.3 42.8
My student is found guilty of a   11.1 22.1    19.5 26.5   22.6 28.3    46.8 22.8
minor disciplinary violation
My student is found guilty of a    5.3   4.1   0.0   1.4   3.2   20.7   91.6 73.8
major disciplinary violation
My student is doing poorly         4.7 4.8     2.6   8.3   8.9   33.1   83.7 53.8
My student is having a conflict   13.2 20.7    24.3 42.8   32.3 28.3    30.2 14.5
with a roommate
“And you, of tender years,
Can’t know the fears
That your elders grew by…”

4. Identify one challenge you expect to face this
   year. How could your parents/son or daughter
   help you with this challenge?
“ Feed them on your dreams…”
 Taking on the responsibilities as an adult
      Dialogue - Initiative - “nature abhors a vacuum”
      Negotiate - Give and take
      Empathic perspective - Recognize flaws in
       parents & self
      Talking about My Generation’s Goals
      The Pew Research Center for The People & The Press. (2007). How young people view their
      lives, futures and politics: A portrait of “Generation Next”, Washington: Pew Research

                                                          Gen Next              Gen X
      Your generation’s most important                     (18-25)             (26-40)
      goals in life?                                         %                   %
      To get rich                                             81                  62

      To be famous                                            51                  29

      To help people who need help                            30                  36

      To be leaders in their community                        22                  33

      To become more spiritual                                10                  31

      None of these                                           2                    2

      Don’t know                                              1                    1

Source: 2006 Gen Next Survey. Respondents were asked to
choose the most important and next most important goals
from these five options.
2007 College Senior Survey Institutional Profile –
          17,156 respondents from Private 4yr. colleges
Student objectives noted as “essential” or “very important”
                            Item                           %
Becoming accomplished in one of the performing arts       17.8
Becoming an authority in my field                         63.2
Obtaining recognition from my colleagues…                 56.4
Influencing political structure                           26.5
Influencing social values                                 52.7
Being very well off financially                           59.3
Helping others who are in difficulty                      77.7
Becoming involved in programs to clean up the             30.4
Developing a meaningful philosophy of life                58.2
Participating in a community action program               37.3
Improving my understanding of other countries and         60.6
Helping to promote racial understanding                   39.9
“ Feed them on your dreams…”
5. Identify one thing you’d like your parents/son
  or daughter to appreciate about you.

6. Name one dream that you haven’t previously
  shared with your parents/son or daughter.
“ And know they love you…”
Poll: Young people's heroes are parents
 By Alan Fram and Trevor Tompson, Associated Press Writers | August 20,
 WASHINGTON --When it comes to those they most admire, young people do
  not look chiefly to the worlds of music, today's wars or history. Instead, they
  turn to their own families.
 Asked to name their heroes, young Americans surveyed by The Associated
  Press and MTV make their parents the collective top pick. Twenty-nine
  percent choose their mothers, 21 percent name their fathers and 16 percent
  pick their parents without specifying which one. Allowed to choose as many
  heroes as they'd like, nearly half mention at least one of their folks.
 Jacquelynne Eccles, a University of Michigan psychology professor who has
  studied young people, says surveys she has helped conduct since 1980 have
  consistently found that parents are youths' most oft-named heroes.
    The AP-MTV poll was conducted by Knowledge Networks Inc. from April 16 to 23, and involved
    online interviews with 1,280 people aged 13 to 24. It had a margin of sampling error of plus or
    minus 3 percentage points.
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p6pphVs8b

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XKySbfgvy

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