Psych Patient Interview Template - PowerPoint by qqv16211

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									Gender Roles and Non-Verbal
      Communication
           Gender Roles
I. Gender role stereotypes
   A. Bem & Bem: The power of a non-conscious ideology
   B. Goldberg: Gender and the perceived quality of work
   C. Broverman: Mental health stereotypes of women
   D. Brown & Geis--Assertiveness in women devalued

II. Gender roles and self-presentation
   A. Zanna & Pack--Gender roles learned; modifiable

III. Bem: Gender-stereotyped behavior/Androgeny
           Gender Roles
I. Gender role stereotypes
   A. Bem & Bem: The power of a non-conscious ideology
   B. Goldberg: Gender and the perceived quality of work
   C. Broverman: Mental health stereotypes of women
   D. Brown & Geis--Assertiveness in women devalued

II. Gender roles and self-presentation
   A. Zanna & Pack--Gender roles learned; modifiable

III. Bem: Gender-stereotyped behavior/Androgeny
Continuing Gender Stereotypes




         Boston Globe 3/21/97
Boston Globe,
March 23, 2000
           Gender Roles
I. Gender role stereotypes
   A. Bem & Bem: The power of a non-conscious ideology
   B. Goldberg: Gender and the perceived quality of work
   C. Broverman: Mental health stereotypes of women
   D. Brown & Geis--Assertiveness in women devalued

II. Gender roles and self-presentation
   A. Zanna & Pack--Gender roles learned; modifiable

III. Bem: Gender-stereotyped behavior/Androgeny
         Goldberg (1968)
• An article was given to subjects to evaluate
• Topics included both stereotypically male
  professions (architecture/law) and stereotypically
  female professions (dietetics)
• IV: articles were attributed (authored by)
   – John McKay
   – Joan McKay
• Professional quality judged lower (regardless of sex
  of rater or job content) if subjects thought a female
  wrote it
           Gender Roles
I. Gender role stereotypes
   A. Bem & Bem: The power of a non-conscious ideology
   B. Goldberg: Gender and the perceived quality of work
   C. Broverman: Mental health stereotypes of women
   D. Brown & Geis--Assertiveness in women devalued

II. Gender roles and self-presentation
   A. Zanna & Pack--Gender roles learned; modifiable

III. Bem: Gender-stereotyped behavior/Androgeny
               Broverman (1970)
• Women perceived as healthier if:
   –   more submissive
   –   less independent, less adventurous
   –   more easily influenced
   –   less aggressive, less competitive
   –   more excitable in minor crises
   –   more susceptible to hurt feelings; less objective
• Same description used to classify unhealthy man
  or immature adult
           Gender Roles
I. Gender role stereotypes
   A. Bem & Bem: The power of a non-conscious ideology
   B. Goldberg: Gender and the perceived quality of work
   C. Broverman: Mental health stereotypes of women
   D. Brown & Geis--Assertiveness in women devalued

II. Gender roles and self-presentation
   A. Zanna & Pack--Gender roles learned; modifiable

III. Bem: Gender-stereotyped behavior/Androgeny
        Brown & Geis (1984)
• 5 Graduate students in group discussion
• Leader appointed by professor
• I.V.s:
  – Authority legitimated (Prof. expressed
    confidence or not)
  – Group non-verbal approval
  – Gender of leader
• D.V.: raters’ evaluations of leaders
         Brown & Geis (1984)
• Results:
• Woman leader seen as cold, insensitive,
  dominating
• Script had equal male/female contributions;
  nevertheless, subjects judged male group leaders
  as more valuable
• NVB: non-verbal support/disapproval
  significantly affected ratings of leadership value
           Gender Roles
I. Gender role stereotypes
   A. Bem & Bem: The power of a non-conscious ideology
   B. Goldberg: Gender and the perceived quality of work
   C. Broverman: Mental health stereotypes of women
   D. Brown & Geis--Assertiveness in women devalued

II. Gender roles and self-presentation
   A. Zanna & Pack--Gender roles learned; modifiable

III. Bem: Gender-stereotyped behavior/Androgeny
        Zanna & Pack (1975)
• Self-presentational view:
• People conform to traditional sex-role
  stereotypes because attractive others
  approve of such conformity
• D.V.: female undergraduates describe
  themsleves on a questionnaire prior to
  meeting:
             Zanna & Pack
• I.V.s:
• Desirability of Male (highly desirable or
  less desirable)
• Attitude of Male (Traditional or Reverse)
• Results:
• Desirable partner: subjects’ presentation
  conformed to his ideal
• Less desirable: no effect
           Gender Roles
I. Gender role stereotypes
   A. Bem & Bem: The power of a non-conscious ideology
   B. Goldberg: Gender and the perceived quality of work
   C. Broverman: Mental health stereotypes of women
   D. Brown & Geis--Assertiveness in women devalued

II. Gender roles and self-presentation
   A. Zanna & Pack--Gender roles learned; modifiable

III. Bem: Consequences of strongly gender-stereotyped
identity vs.”androgeny”
                              Sandra Bem
        • Differentiated Sex-typed from Androgenous
          individuals with BSRI (Bem Sex Role
          Inventory)
        • Original experiment:
                          MALES                                 FEMALES
                      Sex-typed Androgenous                  Sex-typed Androgenous

       Playing                                Playing
       with kitten      Low      High         with kitten       Low       High
       (nurturance)                           (nurturance)
TASK
       Showing                                Showing           Low       High
                        High     High
       independence                           independence
   Bem Sex Role
• Androgenous individualsInventory
  – Higher marital and life satisfaction
  – More positive attitude toward sexuality than sex-typed
    individuals (Walfish & Myerson)
• Androgenous males
  – More likely to be complimentary than sex-typed males
    (Kelly et al, 1981)
• Androgenous females
  – Better at sayimg “no” to unreasonable requests (Kelly
    et al, 1981)
  – Report more orgasms than feminine women (Radlove,
    1983)
      Gender roles, abuse, and
perpetration (Lisak, Hopper & Song,
                1996)
 • Studied men who reported being physically
   or sexually abused as children
 • Some of these men became perpetrators
   themselves as adults; others did not
 • Those abused men who became perpetrators
   scored significantly lower in feminine
   characteristics on the BSRI than did men
   who did not become perpetrators
 Non-Verbal Communication
I. Spacial behavior
   A. Edward Hall--Proximics; The Hidden Dimension
       1. Levels of closeness: intimate, personal, social, public
   B. Robert Sommer--Personal Space
       1. Territoriality; boundary markers

II. Gender roles and non-verbal behavior
    A. Nancy Henley--Body Politics
    B. Abbey--Friendliness misperceived

III. Non-verbal behavior and the self-fulfilling prophecy
    A. Word, Zanna, & Cooper--effects of non-verbal
        stigmatizing and synchronicity
 Non-Verbal Communication
I. Spacial behavior
   A. Edward Hall--Proximics; The Hidden Dimension
       1. Levels of closeness: intimate, personal, social, public
   B. Robert Sommer--Personal Space
       1. Territoriality; boundary markers

II. Sex roles and non-verbal behavior
    A. Nancy Henley--Body Politics
    B. Abbey--Friendliness misperceived

III. Non-verbal behavior and the self-fulfilling prophecy
    A. Word, Zanna, & Cooper--effects of non-verbal
        stigmatizing and synchronicity
     Levels of Closeness (Hall)
• Different spacing between people
  appropriate in different situations; culturally
  defined
• Intimate: touching
• Personal: 1-2 feet
• Social: 3-7 feet
• Public: 8-25 feet or more
 Non-Verbal Communication
I. Spacial behavior
   A. Edward Hall--Proximics; The Hidden Dimension
       1. Levels of closeness: intimate, personal, social, public
   B. Robert Sommer--Personal Space
       1. Territoriality; boundary markers

II. Sex roles and non-verbal behavior
    A. Nancy Henley--Body Politics
    B. Abbey--Friendliness misperceived

III. Non-verbal behavior and the self-fulfilling prophecy
    A. Word, Zanna, & Cooper--effects of non-verbal
        stigmatizing and synchronicity
     Territoriality




Control Table   Experimental Table
                 Added boundary marker
                 at one chair
     Territoriality




Control Table   Experimental Table
                                 Added boundary marker
                                 at one chair
            Territoriality




      Control Table             Experimental Table

RESULTS: in 41 sessions, control table occupied first;
in only 3 sessions was experimental chair occupied at all
 Non-Verbal Communication
I. Spacial behavior
   A. Edward Hall--Proximics; The Hidden Dimension
       1. Levels of closeness: intimate, personal, social, public
   B. Robert Sommer--Personal Space
       1. Territoriality; boundary markers

II. Sex roles and non-verbal behavior
    A. Nancy Henley--Body Politics
    B. Abbey--Friendliness misperceived

III. Non-verbal behavior and the self-fulfilling prophecy
    A. Word, Zanna, & Cooper--effects of non-verbal
        stigmatizing and synchronicity
         Henley--Body Politics
• Gender differences in non-verbal behavior (e.g.,
  male bosses touch female secretaries more than
  vice-versa)
• Is it because male? or because the boss?
• Must examine other sources of power, e.g.,
  teacher/student; master/servant; doctor/patient;
  foreman/worker
• In each case, higher power person touches more
  than lower power person
                 Henley
• Same effects found in other non-verbal
  areas:
• Use of space
• Amount of speaking
• Eye contact
 Non-Verbal Communication
I. Spacial behavior
   A. Edward Hall--Proximics; The Hidden Dimension
       1. Levels of closeness: intimate, personal, social, public
   B. Robert Sommer--Personal Space
       1. Territoriality; boundary markers

II. Sex roles and non-verbal behavior
    A. Nancy Henley--Body Politics
    B. Abbey--Friendliness misperceived

III. Non-verbal behavior and the self-fulfilling prophecy
    A. Word, Zanna, & Cooper--effects of non-verbal
        stigmatizing and synchronicity
            Abbey (1982)
• Gender differences in perceptions of female
  friendliness
• A male and a female student interacted for 5
  minutes
• Hidden male and female observers watched
  interaction
• RESULTS: male actor and observer rated female
  actor significantly higher on traits of seductive and
  promiscuous than did either female observer or
  actor
 Non-Verbal Communication
I. Spacial behavior
   A. Edward Hall--Proximics; The Hidden Dimension
       1. Levels of closeness: intimate, personal, social, public
   B. Robert Sommer--Personal Space
       1. Territoriality; boundary markers

II. Sex roles and non-verbal behavior
    A. Nancy Henley--Body Politics
    B. Abbey--Friendliness misperceived

III. Non-verbal behavior and the self-fulfilling prophecy
    A. Word, Zanna, & Cooper--effects of non-verbal
        stigmatizing and synchronicity
      Word, Zanna, and Cooper--
            Experiment 1
• Subjects: white males serving as interviewers
• IV: Black or white male (conf) being interviewed
• DV: Non-verbal behavior
   – Distance of chair
   – Ended interview sooner
   – Lower “immediacy” (forward lean, eye contact,
     shoulder orientation, fewer speech errors)
 Word, Zanna, and Cooper--
       Experiment 2
• Subjects: white males, applicants
• IV: interviewers trained to perform either
   – Low immediacy or high immediacy behaviors
• DV: subjects’ reactions
   – Reciprocated degree of immediacy
• Observers rated subjects’ performance (filmed)
   – Low immediacy subjects seen as showing:
      • less adequate performance
      • less composure
              Conclusions
• Goffman’s work: people manage self-presentation
  according to roles
• Example of gender roles: expectations of
  submissiveness and low quality performance
• Gender role self-presentation managed
• Non-verbal channel plays role in maintaining or
  exhibiting power
• Expectations expressed non-verbally can play an
  important role in creating self-fulfilling prophecy

								
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