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Public Relations Service Contract


Public Relations Service Contract document sample

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									Labor Relations

      Lecture 11 –
      Processes in
  Public Sector Labor Relations
 Unions are groups of employees who create a
  formal organization (the union) to represent their
  interests before management.
 Labor relations is the term for all of the
  interactions between the union leaders
  (representing the employees) and management
  (representing the corporation or jurisdiction).
  Public Sector Labor Relations
 Reasonable people might be both optimistic and
  pessimistic about the role of public employee
   – Pessimistic because of the skill of public employee
     unions to get crippling pay raises without tradeoff
     increases in productivity.
   – Optimistic because unions offer hope of replacing
     civil service commissions as an instrument for reform
     of merit and source of leadership in the fight for
     increased productivity.
 Public Sector Labor Relations
 Why have the unions been so successful?
 They have been better politicians than
  elected political executives.
  – Acceptance of a militant postures arose
    directly out of civil rights movements and civil
            The AFL-CIO
 The American Federation of Labor –
  Congress of Industrial Organizations is a
  voluntary federation of over a hundred
  national and international labor unions.
  – A union of unions.
 Created by merger of AFL and CIO in
           The AFL-CIO
 Each member union remains autonomous,
  conducting its own affairs in the manner
  determined by its own members.
 Although voluntary, AFL-CIO plays a role
  in establishing overall labor policy.
      Administrative Agencies
 In the context of labor relations, an
  administrative agency is any impartial private or
  government organization that oversees or
  facilitates the labor relations process.
 Generally headed by a board of three to five
 Boards make rulings on unfair labor practices,
  the appropriateness of bargaining units, the
  proper interpretation of a contract, or the
  legitimacy of the scope of bargaining.
     Administrative Agencies
 Administrative agencies also oversee
  authorization elections and certify the
  winners as the exclusive bargaining agents
  for all of the employees in a bargaining
 Private sector – National Labor Relations
  Board (1935).
     Administrative Agencies
 Federal government – Federal Labor
  Relations Authority (1978).
 State government – Public Employment
  Relations Boards.
 In the public sector, binding arbitration
  more likely to be used than strikes.
       Collective Bargaining
 Collective bargaining is bargaining on
  behalf of a group of employees as opposed
  to individual bargaining where each
  worker only represents him- or herself.
 Term covers the negotiating process that
  leads to a contract as well as the
  subsequent administration and
  interpretation of the contract.
       Collective Bargaining
 Four basic stages to collective bargaining.
  – The establishment of organizations for
  – The formulation of demands;
  – The negotiation of demands; and
  – The administration of the labor agreement.
      Collective Bargaining
 The predominant public sector labor
  relations model comes from the private
 But the fit far from perfect.
 The process uses the adversarial model,
  which assumes that someone must win and
  someone lose.
        Collective Bargaining
 Operates on the assumption that the outcome of
  bargaining will reflect the relative bargaining
  strength of the two parties.
 Rules established and enforced by NLRB.
 Workers retain the right to strike and to bargain
  as equals with management.
 Assumes that the free market imposes ultimate
  harmony of interest. Neither party wants the
  demise of the employer.
       Collective Bargaining
 Model problematic for public sector.
  – Unions not the equal of governments.
  – Public sector negotiations must restrict the
    scope of bargaining.
  – Outcomes not based on relative strengths.
  – Strikes occur for largely political reasons.
  – Public sector fragmented with regard to
    models of collective bargaining.
        Impasse Resolution
 An impasse is a condition that exists
  during labor-management negotiations
  when either party feels that no further
  progress can be made toward a settlement.
         Impasse Resolution
 The most techniques for breaking the
  impasse are mediation, fact-finding, and
 Mediation or conciliation is any attempt by
  an impartial third party to help settle
  – Mediator has no power but persuasion.
    Conciliation is more passive, mediation more
         Impasse Resolution
 Fact-finding is an impartial review of the
  issues in a labor dispute by a specially
  appointed third party, whether a single
  individual, panel, or board.
  – Fact finder holds formal or informal hearings
    and submits a report, which may contain
           Impasse Resolution
 Arbitration –method of dispute settlement by
  having an impartial third party (arbitrator) hold a
  formal hearing and render a decision that may or
  may not binding on both parties.
   – Arbitrator may be an individual or uneven numbered
     board. May contain representatives of disputants.
   – Compulsory arbitration is arbitration under a legal
   – Final or last offer arbitration.
   – Binding arbitration frequently used in public sector
     collective bargaining in place of a strike, but can
     create problems.
 A strike is a mutual agreement among
  workers to a temporary work stoppage to
  obtain – or to resist – a change in their
  working conditions.
 Considered an essential element in the
  collective bargaining process.
 The use of strikes has declined. Concerns
  about impact on unstable economy.
          Why Strikes Occur
 Workers will not work after a contract has
 Union leader is often in a complicated political
  position. Expectation gap.
 A strike may be used as a political weapon
  against public officials.
 Management’s efforts to provoke strikes at a time
  when unions are relatively weak.
 Economic positions of the two sides.
    Two Famous Public Strikes
 Boston police strike of 1919. Higher wages and
  right to form a union affiliated with AFL. Public
  opposition to compromising public safety sank
  the strike and set back public sector unionization.
 Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization
  (1981). (95% went on strike). Cripple air travel.
  President Reagan fired all 11,000 controllers.
  Strike broken by only president who was a labor
  union leader.

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